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Sample records for ethyl esters faee

  1. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair: a promising way for retrospective detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Yegles, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The retrospective detection of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important part of the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. A promising way to solve this problem can be the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) or/and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair of the mothers. In this article, the present state in analytical determination and interpretation of FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair are reviewed. Both FAEE and EtG are minor metabolites of ethanol and as direct alcohol markers very specific for alcohol. They are durably deposited in hair, which enables taking advantage of the long diagnostic time window of this sample material. In the last years, specific and sensitive methods for determination of both alcohol markers in hair were developed. Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy after hair extraction with an n-heptane/dimethylsulfoxide mixture proved to be a favorable technique for determination of four characteristic FAEE (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate). EtG is extracted from hair by water and analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with negative chemical ionization after cleanup with solid phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride or by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. The detection limits of the single FAEE as well as of EtG are in the range of 1 to 10 pg/mg. FAEE as well as EtG were determined in a larger number of hair samples of teetotalers, social drinkers, patients in alcohol withdrawal treatment, and death cases with previous known heavy drinking. From the results, the following criteria were derived: strict abstinence is excluded or improbable at C FAEE >0.2 ng/mg or C EtG >7 pg/mg. Moderate social drinkers should have C FAEE alcohol abuse is probable. Until now, there has been no evaluation in context of FAS diagnosis; however, a successful application for this purpose

  3. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  4. Experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for ternary and quaternary mixtures of fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters (FAME/FAEE) from soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneti, Stéphani C.; Lanza, Marcelo; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Kunita, Marcos Hiroiuqui; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative technique for quantification of compounds involved in the biodiesel production. • Easy and quick determination from NIR combined with multivariate calibration. • Reliable LLE correlation and predictions can be attained from the technique. -- Abstract: This work is aimed at providing an easy and quick determination of the biodiesel products using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) by combination with the multivariate calibration in the analysis of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary and quaternary mixtures containing soybean fatty acid methyl (FAME) and ethyl (FAEE) esters, glycerol, ethanol, methanol and water, at various temperatures. The mass balance for the compositions obtained for each phase was carried out so as to demonstrate the reliability of the models generated by the multivariate calibration. Two distinct phases are observed, a glycerol-rich and the other ester-rich, while ethanol is dissolved among the phases hence reducing the partial mutual miscibility between glycerol and ester. Through (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) results, systems containing FAEE at T = 318.15 K and 303.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), a good agreement is verified among the values determined using conventional and NIR technique for alcoholic phase (AP) or aqueous phase (WP) and biodiesel phase (BP). Likewise in the systems containing FAME at 318.15 K, 303.15 K and 333.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), the LLE results were reproduced at the upper and lower temperature to the tests of the reproducibility of the models generated by the multivariate calibration

  5. Development and validation of a Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model based on the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladio, E; Giacomelli, L; Biosa, G; Corcia, D Di; Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Vincenti, M

    2018-01-01

    The chronic intake of an excessive amount of alcohol is currently ascertained by determining the concentration of direct alcohol metabolites in the hair samples of the alleged abusers, including ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and, less frequently, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Indirect blood biomarkers of alcohol abuse are still determined to support hair EtG results and diagnose a consequent liver impairment. In the present study, the supporting role of hair FAEEs is compared with indirect blood biomarkers with respect to the contexts in which hair EtG interpretation is uncertain. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated much stronger correlation of EtG results with FAEEs than with any single indirect biomarker or their combinations. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) models based on hair EtG and FAEEs were developed to maximize the biomarkers information content on a multivariate background. The final PLS-DA model yielded 100% correct classification on a training/evaluation dataset of 155 subjects, including both chronic alcohol abusers and social drinkers. Then, the PLS-DA model was validated on an external dataset of 81 individual providing optimal discrimination ability between chronic alcohol abusers and social drinkers, in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The PLS-DA scores obtained for each subject, with respect to the PLS-DA model threshold that separates the probabilistic distributions for the two classes, furnished a likelihood ratio value, which in turn conveys the strength of the experimental data support to the classification decision, within a Bayesian logic. Typical boundary real cases from daily work are discussed, too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  7. Performance of an enzymatic packed bed reactor running on babassu oil to yield fatty ethyl esters (FAEE in a solvent-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Simões

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reaction of babassu oil with ethanol mediated by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA composite was assessed in a packed bed reactor running in the continuous mode. Experiments were performed in a solvent-free system at 50 °C. The performance of the reactor (14 mm ×210 mm was evaluated using babassu oil and ethanol at two molar ratios of 1:7 and 1:12, respectively, and operational limits in terms of substrate flow rate were determined. The system’s performance was quantified for different flow rates corresponding to space times between 7 and 13 h. Under each condition, the impact of the space time on the ethyl esters formation, the transesterification yield and productivity were determined. The oil to ethanol molar ratio was found as a critical parameter in the conversion of babassu oil into the correspondent ethyl esters. The highest transesterification yield of 96.0 ± 0.9% and productivity of 41.1 ± 1.6 mgester gcatalyst-1h-1 were achieved at the oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:12 and for space times equal or higher than 11 h. Moreover, the immobilized lipase was found stable with respect to its catalytic characteristics, exhibiting a half-life of 32 d.

  8. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  9. The total body mass of fatty acid ethyl esters in skeletal muscles following ethanol exposure greatly exceeds that found in the liver and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Raneem O; Laposata, Michael; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Preedy, Victor R

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle appears to be susceptible to chronic and acute excess alcohol intake, giving rise to alcoholic myopathy, a common disease among alcoholics. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been shown to be toxic to cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that accumulation of FAEE in skeletal muscle could contribute to the development of alcoholic myopathy. Male wistar rats were treated either with 75 mmol ethanol/kg body weight or saline, in the fed state or starved for 1 or 2 days before administration. Rats were thus divided into the following groups: fed-saline (n = 8); fed-ethanol (n = 8); starved 1 day, saline (n = 8); starved 1 day, ethanol (n = 9); starved 2 days, saline (n = 7); and starved 2 days, ethanol (n = 8). At the end of the incubation, skeletal muscles (abdominal and gastrocnemius), liver, and heart were isolated and processed for FAEE isolation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total mass of FAEE in the muscles was much greater than that found in the liver and the heart. In general, the animals that were fasted for 1 day and received ethanol had the highest FAEE levels among the three groups of animals. The major ethyl ester species in all cases were ethyl 16:0, ethyl 18:0, ethyl 18:1 n-9, and ethyl 18:2 n-6. Ethyl 20:4 n-6 and ethyl 22:6 n-3 were also present, except in the fasted 1-day group, where ethyl 22:6 disappeared, though it reappeared in the fasted 2-day group. These findings demonstrate that skeletal muscles contain high levels of FAEE that are synthesized in the body after ethanol exposure. The concentration of FAEE in skeletal muscle in this study was very similar to FAEE concentration in the liver. This differs from previous studies suggesting a low concentration of skeletal muscle FAEE with ethanol exposure.

  10. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  11. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  12. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  13. FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTERS FROM MICROALGAE OF Scenedesmus ecornis BY ENZYMATIC AND ACID CATALYSIS

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    Gabryelle F. de Almeida

    Full Text Available Microalgae are an indispensable food source for the various growth stages of mollusks, crustaceans, and several fish species. Using a microalgae biomass present in the Amazonian ecosystem (Macapá-AP, we study extraction methods for fatty acid such as solvent extraction (magnetic stirring and/or Soxhlet and/or hydrolysis (acid and/or enzymatic catalysis followed by esterification and/or direct transesterification. Extraction of crude triacylglycerides by mechanical stirring at room temperature was more efficient than continuous reflux (Soxhlet. Subsequently, the lipid extract was subject to transesterification with ethanol and CAL-B as a biocatalyst, leading to production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE. Additionally, FAEEs were prepared by hydrolysis of crude triacylglycerides followed by acid-mediated esterification or enzymatic catalysis (lipase. In this case, the type of catalyst did not significantly influence FAEE yields. In the lipid extract, we identified palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids with palmitic acid being the most abundant. Our results suggest that enzymatic catalysis is a viable method for the extraction of lipids in the microalga, Scenedesmus ecornis.

  14. Encapsulation of ferulic acid ethyl ester in caseinate to suppress off-flavor formation in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds can principally suppress the off-flavor development in ultrahigh temperature (UHT) treated milk, but little has been studied for lipophilic phenolic compounds that are to be encapsulated for even distribution in milk. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical properties of ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) encapsulated in sodium caseinate and the inhibition of volatile formation after UHT processing. The capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 246.2±10.9nm, a polydispersity index of 0.26±0.01, and a zeta-potential of -31.72±0.74mV. The capsules and the encapsulated FAEE were stable after heating at 138°C for 16min and UV radiation at 365nm for 32h. The encapsulated FAEE at a level of 0.18-1.42mg/mL suppressed the formation of 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline in model UHT milk by 32.8-63.2% after 30-day storage at 30°C. Therefore, FAEE encapsulated in caseinate can be potentially used to improve the quality of UHT milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochar as porous media for thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification to synthesize fatty acid ethyl esters from coconut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Choi, Dongho; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production using renewable resources. • Thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification. • Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters without conventional catalysts. • Using biochar as porous medium in the non-catalytic transesterification. - Abstract: This study put great emphasis on evaluating biochar as porous media for the thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification reaction to synthesize fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from coconut oil. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of coconut oil experimentally justified that the bond dissociation of fatty acid from the backbone of triglycerides (TGs) could be achieved, which finding could be applied to the non-catalytic transesterification reaction. To use biochar as porous medium, the surficial morphology of maize residue biochar (MRB) was characterized, revealing that biochar possessed the wider pore size distribution ranging from meso- to macro-pores than SiO 2 . The highest yield of FAEE from non-catalytic transesterification of coconut oil in the presence of MRB was 87% at 380 °C. To further enhance the FAEE yield, further studies associated with the production of FAEE with biochar made from different biomasses and various pyrolytic conditions should be performed.

  16. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  17. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  18. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  19. Continuous production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil at supercritical conditions - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in one-step reaction and experimentally simulating two reactors, one operated in series and the other a recycle reactor. The reaction products were analyzed for their content of residual triglycerides, glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters and decomposition. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to their fatty acid ethyl esters derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (< 5.0 wt%.

  20. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noelia; Fernández, Luís; Ortega, Juan; Toledo, Francisco J.; Wisniak, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for h E result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties V m E and H m E , have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity M E contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the H m E yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  1. Synthesis of FAEEs from glycerol in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae using endogenously produced ethanol by heterologous expression of an unspecific bacterial acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Jung, Ju; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chul Hwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2012-01-01

    The high price of petroleum-based diesel fuel has led to the development of alternative fuels, such as ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered to utilize glycerol as a substrate for ethanol production. For the synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by engineered S. cerevisiae that utilize glycerol as substrate, heterologous expression of an unspecific acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi with glycerol utilizing genes was established. As a result, the engineered YPH499 (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas) strain produced 0.24 g/L FAEEs using endogenous ethanol produced from glycerol. And this study also demonstrated the possibility of increasing FAEE production by enhancing ethanol production by minimizing the synthesis of glycerol. The overall FAEE production in strain YPH499 fps1Δ gpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas) was 2.1-fold more than in YPH499 (pGcyaDak, pGupWs-DgaTCas), with approximately 0.52 g/L FAEEs produced, while nearly 17 g/L of glycerol was consumed. These results clearly indicated that FAEEs were synthesized in engineered S. cerevisiae by esterifying exogenous fatty acids with endogenously produced ethanol from glycerol. This microbial system acts as a platform in applying metabolic engineering that allows the production of FAEEs from cheap and abundant substrates specifically glycerol through the use of endogenous bioethanol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  3. Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Buasri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available : The continuous production of ethyl ester was studied by using a steady-state fixed bed reactor (FBR. Transesterification of palm stearin (PS and waste cooking palm oil (WCPO with ethanol in the presence of calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC solid catalyst was investigated. This work was determined the optimum conditions for the production of ethyl ester from PS and WCPO in order to obtain fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE with the highest yield. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, ethanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst bed height and reusability of catalyst in a reactor system on the yield of biodiesel were considered. The optimum conditions were the residence time 2-3 h, ethanol/oil molar ratio 16-20, reaction temperature at 800C, and catalyst bed height 300 mm which yielded 89.46% and 83.32% of the PS and WCPO conversion, respectively. CaO/PSAC could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. It has potential for industrial application in the transesterification of triglyceride (TG. The fuel properties of biodiesel were determined. Keywords: biodiesel, calcium oxide, ethyl ester, fixed bed reactor, palm shell activated carbon

  4. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Giulietti, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  5. Synthesis of new radiotracers based of Ethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, Donia

    2008-01-01

    The in vivo study of a biochemical or physiological process requires the synthesis of specific radiotracers but also the targeting of these compounds so that they can reach their target tissue. Methodologies original synthesis associated with radioisotopes used, the quantities and chemical forms often have to be available developed. The chemistry of metal complexes booming, we were able to use the ethyl ester combined with technetium, forming a stable radiotracer. Finally, a counting of radioactivity in different rat's organs completed our study. (Author)

  6. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  7. Assessment of process variables on the use of macauba pulp oil as feedstock for the continuous production of ethyl esters under pressurized conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. da S. Colonelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the potential of macauba pulp oil (MPO as a feedstock for continuous ester production using ethanol under pressurized conditions. Experiments were performed in order to obtain data for the effect of process variables on ethyl ester (FAEE and free fatty acid (FFA conversion in a catalyst-free process. From the results, it appears that the MPO to ethanol mass ratio and the pressure were the variables with more favorable effect on the evaluated response variables. The addition of n-hexane caused an increase in the production of esters; however, this had a negative effect on FFA conversion. The addition of water was unfavorable for oil processing with high acidity. In this process, esterification and transesterification occur simultaneously, and the high FFA content in MPO provides high yields (85 wt% of esters; 93% FFA conversion at low temperature, since the esterification reaction rate is higher than the transesterification. The decomposition of fatty acids was evaluated and levels <5% were observed under the evaluated experimental conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  9. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  10. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  11. The synthesis of 5-[1-11C]ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of [ 11 C]phenobarbital, [ 11 C]pentobarbital and[ 11 C]amobarbital labelled in the 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO 2 Et) 2 [R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with [1- 11 C]ethyl iodide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-[1- 11 C]ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from [ 11 C] carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author)

  12. Alcohol consumption and synthesis of ethyl esters of fatty acids in adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björntorp, P; Depergola, G; Sjöberg, C; Pettersson-Kymmer, U.; Hallgren, P; Boström, K; Helander, K G; Seidell, J

    1990-01-01

    Ethyl esters of fatty acids (EEFA) have been found to be formed during ethanol metabolism. Human adipose tissue contains high concentrations of free fatty acids, the substrate for EEFA synthesis, and might therefore be a tissue with great potential for EEFA formation. In order to explore their

  13. Optimisation of the enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester using ChiroCLEC-CR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-04

    Full Text Available In a biocatalytic reaction the immobilized lipase ChiroCLEC-CR enantioselectively hydrolysed a naproxen ethyl ester racemate, yielding (S)-naproxen with an enantiomeric excess of more than 98%, an enantiomeric ratio (E) of more than 100...

  14. ENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF ETHYL OLEATE ESTER USING A LIPASE FROM CANDIDA ANTARCTICA B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sampaio Neta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are biocatalysts of great importance in different areas, being able to catalyze reactions in aqueous or organic media. Furthermore, these enzymes are capable of using several substrates being stable in a wide range of pH and temperatures. Lipases promote the esterification between fatty acids and ethanol producing oleate esters. The aim of this work is to produce ethyl oleate ester by enzymatic esterification of oleic acid with ethanol. A lipase from Candida antarctica type B was used at a temperature of 55 °C. The reaction was conducted using oleic acid, sodium sulfate anhydrous, lipase and ethanol, with a ratio of oleic acid (0.03 mol or 10 ml, lipase (0.1 mol or 0.01 g, sodium sulfate anhydrous (5 g and ethanol 99 % (100 ml. Several reaction times were studied, namely 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C and Infrared spectra confirmed the production of ethyl oleate ester for the studied conditions. The highest ethyl oleate production yield was obtained for 96 hours reaction time. Ethyl oleate esters have been reported to possess interesting applications in several industrial fields, such as food, aromatics, cosmetics, detergents, flavors and pharmaceuticals.

  15. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  16. Conducting polymers of octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Pinar; Cirpan, Ali; Toppare, Levent

    2005-01-01

    Octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester was synthesized via the reaction of 3-thiophene ethanol with octanoyl chloride. The resulting monomer was electrochemically homopolymerized in the presence of tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate as the supporting electrolyte, in the acetonitrile/borontrifluoride ethyl ether solvent system. The resulting polymer was characterized using various experimental techniques. Spectroelectrochemistry analysis of the homopolymer reflects electronic transitions at 434, ∼800 and ∼1100 nm, revealing π-π* transition, polaron and bipolaron band formation, respectively, leading to esthetically pleasing color changes between transmissive yellow and blue, with reasonable switching times

  17. Determination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid chromatography for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis -4,7,10,13,16,19- docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  18. Deptermination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeiHUANG; XianDaWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid shromatogrphy for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosa-hexaenoic acid(DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15K,323.15K,333.15K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  19. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of so...

  20. Synthesis, Structural and Antioxidant Studies of Some Novel N-Ethyl Phthalimide Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Tan, Weng Kang; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity. PMID:25742494

  1. Study of the Transformation of the Oil of Used Soya in Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sarracent-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of vegetable oils in food processing brings harmful health effects and on the other hand needs a complex treatment to discard without affecting the environment. Transformed into methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin by transesterification with the corresponding alcohol, can be a suitable method for treatment. It was investigated residual soybean oil from a producer of fried foods and ethanol. It is known that with this spirit the transformation process presents difficulties not listed with methanol, but at the same time does not bring the drawbacks of the latter, for toxicity and acquisition, and that since it is a derivative of the domestic sugar industry does not constitute a raw material import. We experimented with ethanol 80 %, 85 % and 90 % purity and worked 35 ºC and 50 ºC. Final yields of ethyl esters, are low compared with those obtained for similar processes with methanol, 85 % being the highest yield obtained under the conditions of the process. An assessment of costs was conducted to produce 1L of ethyl esters in the laboratory, the expenses of 0,56 pesos/L.

  2. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  3. Multicomponent Synthesis of a N-Protected Alpha-Amino Ester: Ethyl 2-((4-Methoxyphenyl)Amino)-3-Phenylpropanoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Erwan; Pignon, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment describes the preparation of a N-protected phenylalanine ethyl ester by a zinc-mediated Mannich-like multicomponent reaction between benzyl bromide, "p"-anisidine, and ethyl glyoxylate. The one-step reaction involves the in situ metallation of benzyl bromide into a benzylzinc reagent and its addition onto imine (Barbier…

  4. Amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as new crystallization reagents for lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, amino acids and amino-acid derivatives have been applied in various fields of protein chemistry. The potential use of amino acids and their derivatives as new precipitating agents is described. Several amino acids and their derivatives are prominent additives in the field of protein chemistry. This study reports the use of charged amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as precipitants in protein crystallization, using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model. A discussion of the crystallization of HEWL using these reagents as precipitating agents is given

  5. Possible Using of Tetra Bromo Phenolphthalein Ethyl Ester as a Liquid Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, A.M.; Faheem, E.; Moniem, Sh.A.; El Ahdal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous Solution of pH indicator Tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE) containing of chloral hydrate was studied for using as a liquid dosimeter. The useful measuring range was found to be of (0.5-2 kGy) depending on concentration of both dye and chloral hydrate added. The dosimeter has good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions. Comparison study between direct irradiation of TBPE containing chloral hydrate and back titration of TBPE through irradiation of chloral hydrate was investigated.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the system ethyl alcohol + ester; Equilibrio liquido-vapor para o sistema alcool etilico+ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto Neves Maia de; Nascimento, Yuri Corsino do; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work consists of the experimental determination of a series of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, for mixtures of ethyl alcohol + ester (ethyl acetate), prepared synthetically, that may be present in the production of biodiesel. The separation of the ethyl alcohol from esters by distillation is an important stage of this process, and therefore it demands accurate data for an appropriate modelling, and later optimization via simulators. FISCHER'S ebulliometer, with digital control (Model 602), was used for measurement of VLE data for the system ethyl alcohol + ester. It consists of a recirculation cell of the both vapor and liquid phases, providing complete data, i.e., pressure, temperature and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases that were obtained by gaseous chromatography (PTxy). This apparatus is coupled to a thermostatic bath with cooling (TE-184 TECNAL) that aims to condense the coming steams of the ebullition in order to return to the mixture camera. The VLE data obtained experimentally were submitted to the test of thermodynamic consistence of the deviations, where the equation of Gibbs-Duhem is used, through the model UNIQUAC. The parameters obtained from the experimental data can be applied in the simulators of processes with the purpose of optimizing the separation of the ethyl alcohol of Ester. (author)

  7. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Heat release and engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Andre Valente; Velasquez, Jose Antonio; Milanez, Luiz Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The engine performance impact of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel was analyzed employing heat release analysis, in-cylinder exergy balances and dynamometric tests. Blends with concentrations of up to 30% of soybean oil ethyl ester in volume were used in steady-state experiments conducted in a high speed turbocharged direct injection engine. Modifications in fuel heat value, fuel-air equivalence ratio and combustion temperature were found to govern the impact resulting from the addition of biodiesel on engine performance. For the analyzed fuels, the 20% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake thermal efficiency, while the 10% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake power and sfc (specific fuel consumption). In relation to mineral diesel and in full load conditions, an average increase of 4.16% was observed in brake thermal efficiency with B20 blend. In the same conditions, an average gain of 1.15% in brake power and a reduction of 1.73% in sfc was observed with B10 blend.

  9. Rapid screening of fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oils by time domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Ragni, Luigi; Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Conte, Lanfranco; Guarnieri, Adriano; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-11-20

    The main aim of the present research is to assess the possibility of quickly screening fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) in olive oils using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen virgin olive oil samples with fatty acid alkyl ester contents and fatty acid ethyl ester/methyl ester ratios (FAEE/FAME) ranging from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and from 0.3 to 2.6, respectively, were submitted to tests with time domain resolution of 1 ps. The results obtained in test set validation demonstrated that this new and fast analytical approach is able to predict FAME, FAEE, and FAME + FAEE contents with R(2) values of 0.905, 0.923, and 0.927, respectively. Further measurements on mixtures between olive oil and FAAE standards confirmed that the prediction is based on a direct influence of fatty acid alkyl esters on the TDR signal. The suggested technique appeared potentially suitable for monitoring one of the most important quality attribute of the olive oil in the extraction process.

  10. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae);Feoforbideo (etoxi-purpurina-18) isolado de Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim, E-mail: taniasarmento@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2010-07-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  11. Synthesis of the Commercial Fragrance Compound Ethyl 6-Acetoxyhexanoate: A Multistep Ester Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James V.; Hirakis, Sophia P.

    2017-01-01

    This synthesis of ethyl 6-acetoxyhexanoate (Berryflor) is designed as an experiment for use in a second-year organic chemistry course focusing on the synthesis and reaction of esters. The compound is described as having a raspberry-like odor with jasmine and anise aspects. A two-step procedure for its synthesis beginning with inexpensive…

  12. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  13. 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as potent anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-01-19

    Based on the structure of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which exhibits selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line, (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-yl)-methanone (18m) was designed and synthesized as a biologically stable derivative containing no ester group. Although the potency of 18m was almost the same as our initial hit compound 1, 18m is expected to last longer in the human body as an anticancer agent.

  14. Synthesis, Purification, and Quantification of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters After trans-Esterification of Large Batches of Tobacco Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de la présente étude était de quantifier les esters éthyliques d'acides gras (FAEE produits à partir de deux grands lots d'huile de graines de tabac soumis à une transéstérification éthanolique en présence d'un catalyseur d'acide sulfurique. La purification des produits combinés de la réaction des esters éthyliques visait la suppression, autant que faire se peut, de la couleur et de l'odeur du produit final et fut accomplie via une chromatographie sur colonne conventionnelle avec silice sublimée et une élution en tandem de l'hexane, dans un premier temps et de l'alcool éthylique, dans un deuxième temps, en guise de phase mobile. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse fut utilisée afin de quantifier les esters éthyliques des acides gras spécifiques dans la matière purifiée. Le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°1 s'éleva à près de 87% tandis que le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°2 fut supérieur à 89% avec des rendements à la préparation supérieurs à 400 g d'esters éthyliques par essai d'estérification. Les esters éthyliques d'acides gras ne possédaient pas d'arome détectable et ne présentaient qu'une légère coloration jaune à l'issue de ce traitement chromatographique. Pour caractériser la pureté de chaque lot d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras produits, une chromatographie en phase supercritique dont la phase mobile était un fluide composé de dioxyde de carbone modifié au méthanol/acétonitrile et une phase fixe composée d'une silice greffée avec groupement fonctionnel octadécyle furent utilisées. Aucune impureté liée au glycérol ou à des acides gras libres ne fut détectée dans le produit transestérifié purifié. Notre article est le premier rapport décrivant la transestérification optimisée de l'huile de graines de tabac à une échelle relativement grande, ladite transest

  15. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  16. Antiviral and Virucidal Activities of N-Cocoyl-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Yamasaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various amino acid-derived compounds, for example, Nα-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (CAE, alkyloxyhydroxylpropylarginine, arginine cocoate, and cocoyl glycine potassium salt (Amilite, were examined for their virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, influenza A virus (IAV, and poliovirus type 1 (PV-1 in comparison to benzalkonium chloride (BKC and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS as a cationic and anionic control detergent and also to other commercially available disinfectants. While these amino acid-derived compounds were all effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, CAE and Amilite were the most effective. These two compounds were, however, not as effective against IAV, another enveloped virus, as against HSV. Cytotoxicity of CAE was weak; at 0.012%, only 5% of the cells were killed under the conditions, in which 100% cells were killed by either SDS or BKC. In addition to these direct virucidal effects, CAE inhibited the virus growth in the HSV-1- or PV-1-infected cells even at 0.01%. These results suggest a potential application of CAE as a therapeutic or preventive medicine against HSV superficial infection at body surface.

  17. Evaluation of cysteine ethyl ester as efficient inducer for glutathione overproduction in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eric; Schmacht, Maximilian; Senz, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Economical yeast based glutathione (GSH) production is a process that is influenced by several factors like raw material and production costs, biomass production and efficient biotransformation of adequate precursors into the final product GSH. Nowadays the usage of cysteine for the microbial conversion into GSH is industrial state of practice. In the following study, the potential of different inducers to increase the GSH content was evaluated by means of design of experiments methodology. Investigations were executed in three natural Saccharomyces strains, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and S. boulardii, in a well suited 50ml shake tube system. Results of shake tube experiments were confirmed in traditional baffled shake flasks and finally via batch cultivation in lab-scale bioreactors under controlled conditions. Comprehensive studies showed that the usage of cysteine ethyl ester (CEE) for the batch-wise biotransformation into GSH led up to a more than 2.2 times higher yield compared to cysteine as inducer. Additionally, the intracellular GSH content could be significantly increased for all strains in terms of 2.29±0.29% for cysteine to 3.65±0.23% for CEE, respectively, in bioreactors. Thus, the usage of CEE provides a highly attractive inducing strategy for the GSH overproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracellular thiol levels and radioresistance: Studies with glutathione and glutathione mono ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, M.B.; Meister, A.; Anderson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular thiols such as glutathione (GSH) protect cells against free radicals formed during oxidative metabolism or from exposure to drugs or ionizing radiation. The role of intracellular GSH in the repair of radiation induced free radical damage was studied using GSH or its analog glutathione mono ethyl ester (GEE), which readily penetrates into the cell. Chinese hamster V79 cells with normal GSH levels were afforded equal protection under aerated and hypoxic conditions (DMF = 1.2 OER = 3.7) by both 10 mM GSH and GEE although GEE had raised interacellular GSH levels three-fold. Growth of V79 cells in cysteine free media resulted in undetectable levels of GSH and OER of 2.2 with no change in aerated survival. Restoration of intracellular GSH by 10 mM GEE resulted in an increase of the OER from 2.2. to 3.8 (DMF = 1.7). Only 14% of the intracellular GSH needs to be repleted to give an OER of 3.0. These experiments provide evidence that thiols do play a role in the oxygen effect and are present at levels in excess of what is necessary for maximal radioprotection

  19. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C₁₄-C₂₄ saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also α-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Antiarrhythmogenic effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in a patient treated with Omacor after a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ardashev

    2014-02-01

    The patient agreed to add omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation (1 g/day to his treatment regimen. Pacemaker analyses 3 months later demonstrated no NSVT and only 215 PVBs daily. In more than 1 year of follow-up, the patient has remained well and has had no further ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation may be beneficial in post-MI patients with pacemakers who develop ventricular arrhythmias.

  1. Production of ethyl ester from crude palm oil by two-step reaction using continuous microwave system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukritthira Ratanawilai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA in vegetable oils with alcohol using an acid catalyst is a promising methodto convert FFA into valuable ester and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In thiswork, the direct esterification reaction of FFA in crude palm oil to ethyl ester by continuous microwave was studied and theeffects of the main variables involved in the process, amount of catalyst, reaction time and the molar ratio oil/ alcohol, wereanalyzed. The optimum condition for the continuous esterification process was carried out with a molar ratio of oil to ethanol1:6, using 1.25%wt of H2SO4/oil as a catalyst, microwave power of 78 W and a reaction time 90 min. This esterification processshows that the amount of FFA was reduced from 7.5%wt to values around 1.4 %wt. Similar results were obtained followingconventional heating at 70°C, but only after a reaction time of 240 min. The esterified crude palm oil is suitable to perform thetransesterification process. Transesterification of the esterified palm oil has been accomplished with a molar ratio of oil toethanol of 1:8.5, 2.5%wt of KOH as a catalyst, a microwave power of 78 W, and a reaction time of 7 min. In addition, theproblem of glycerin separation was solved by mixing 10%wt of pure glycerin into the ethyl ester to induce the glycerin fromthe reaction to separated. This two-step esterification and transesterification process provided a yield of 78%wt with anester content of 97.4%wt. The final ethyl ester product met with the specifications stipulated by ASTM D6751-02.

  2. Synthesis of fatty trichloromethyl-{beta}-diketones and new 1H-Pyrazoles as unusual FAMEs and FAEEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Alex F.C.; Souto, Alynne A.; Malavolta, Juliana L.; Flores, Darlene C., E-mail: alex.fcf@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Blanco, Rogerio F. [Uniao de Ensino do Sudoeste do Parana (UNISEP), Dois Vizinhos, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2013-12-01

    The efficient synthesis of new fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones [Cl{sub 3}CC(O)C(R{sup 2})=C(R{sup 1})OMe, where R{sup 1} = n-hexyl, heptyl, nonyl, undecyl, tridecyl and R{sup 2} = H] and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones [Cl{sub 3}CC(O)CHR{sup 2}C(O)R{sup 1}, where R{sup 1} = n-pentyl and R{sup 2} = Me, R{sup 1} = Et and R{sup 2} = n-butyl, R{sup 1} = n-butyl and R{sup 2} = n-propyl] in good yields (85-95%) from acetal acylation with trichloroacetyl chloride is reported. The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones were reacted with hydrazine hydrochloride, leading to respective {sup 1}H-pyrazole-5-carboxylates, unusual class of fatty acid methyl (FAMEs) and ethyl (FAEEs) esters. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and {sup 1}H-pyrazole derivatives are new oleochemicals with potentially interesting and differential properties. (author)

  3. Synthesis of fatty trichloromethyl-β-diketones and new 1H-Pyrazoles as unusual FAMEs and FAEEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Alex F.C.; Souto, Alynne A.; Malavolta, Juliana L.; Flores, Darlene C.; Blanco, Rogerio F.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient synthesis of new fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones [Cl 3 CC(O)C(R 2 )=C(R 1 )OMe, where R 1 = n-hexyl, heptyl, nonyl, undecyl, tridecyl and R 2 = H] and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones [Cl 3 CC(O)CHR 2 C(O)R 1 , where R 1 = n-pentyl and R 2 = Me, R 1 = Et and R 2 = n-butyl, R 1 = n-butyl and R 2 = n-propyl] in good yields (85-95%) from acetal acylation with trichloroacetyl chloride is reported. The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones were reacted with hydrazine hydrochloride, leading to respective 1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxylates, unusual class of fatty acid methyl (FAMEs) and ethyl (FAEEs) esters. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis and 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and 1 H-pyrazole derivatives are new oleochemicals with potentially interesting and differential properties. (author)

  4. Understanding hypertriglyceridemia in women: clinical impact and management with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Dayspring

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas D DayspringNorth Jersey Institute of Menopausal Lipidology, Wayne, NJ, USABackground: Elevated triglycerides (TGs are a common lipid disorder in the US and are associated with comorbidities such as pancreatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. TGs are generally elevated in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. Meta-analysis has shown that elevated TGs are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD.Objective: This article provides a general overview of TG metabolism and reviews data on the epidemiology and risk of elevated TGs in women, as pregnancy and menopause, in particular, have been associated with unfavorable changes in the lipoprotein profile, including elevations in TGs. In addition, this review seeks to explain the recommended TG goals and treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia with an emphasis on severe hypertriglyceridemia (TGs ≥ 500 mg/dL and its respective treatment with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3.Methods: MedLine was searched for articles published through August 2009 using the terms “hypertriglyceridemia” and “dyslipidemia”, with subheadings for “prevalence”, “women”, “treatment”, “guidelines”, “risk”, and “omega-3 fatty acids”. Publications discussing the epidemiology of hypertriglyceridemia, CHD risk, treatment guidelines for lipid management, or clinical trials involving P-OM3 were selected for review. The reference lists of relevant articles were also examined for additional citations.Results: Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased CHD risk. Women, especially those with polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, or who are postmenopausal, should be monitored regularly for the impact of hypertriglyceridemia on their lipid profile. Cardiovascular risk of TGs can be indirectly assessed by monitoring non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C levels. There are multiple sets of guidelines

  5. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  6. Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Damstrup, Marianne L.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain...... length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE...

  7. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  8. Safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered as DHA ethyl ester in a 9-month toxicity study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Irina; Beilstein, Paul; Bonnette, Kimberly; Salem, Norman

    2016-06-01

    DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) is a 90% concentrated ethyl ester of docosahexaenoic acid manufactured from the microalgal oil. The objective of the 9-month study was to evaluate safety of DHA-EE administered to beagle dogs at dose levels 150, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage and to determine reversibility of any findings after a 2-month recovery period. DHA-EE was well tolerated at all doses. There were observations of dry flaky skin with occasional reddened areas at doses ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day. These findings lacked any microscopic correlate and were no longer present after the recovery period. There were no toxicologically relevant findings in body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, and ECG measurements. Test article-related changes in hematology parameters were limited to decreases in reticulocyte count in the high-dose males and considered non-adverse. In clinical chemistry parameters, dose-related decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed at all doses in males and females and attributed to the known lipid-lowering effects of DHA. There were no effects on other clinical chemistry, urinalysis or coagulation parameters. There were no abnormal histopathology findings attributed to test article. The No-Observable-Adverse-Effect Level of DHA-EE was established at 2000 mg/kg bw/day for both genders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  10. Preparation and characterization of the graft copolymer of chitosan with poly[rosin-(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl ester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wengui; Chen, Chunhong; Jiang, Linbin; Li, Guang Hua

    2008-09-05

    Graft copolymerization of rosin-(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl ester (RAEE) onto chitosan (Cts) was carried out under microwave irradiation using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structures, morphology, and thermal properties of the Cts graft copolymer (Cts-g-PRAEE) were characterized by means of FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TG. Also, Cts and Cts-g-PRAEE copolymer were used as carriers of fenoprofen calcium (FC), and their controlled release behavior in artificial intestinal juice were studied. The results show that the rate of release of fenoprofen calcium from the carrier of Cts-g-PRAEE copolymer becomes very slower than that of Cts in artificial intestinal juice. Copyright © 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Mucor circinelloides whole-cells as a biocatalyst for the production of ethyl esters based on babassu oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Grazielle S S; Carvalho, Ana K F; Romero, Cintia M; Oliveira, Pedro C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2014-12-01

    The intracellular lipase production by Mucor circinelloides URM 4182 was investigated through a step-by-step strategy to attain immobilized whole-cells with high lipase activity. Physicochemical parameters, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum size and aeration, were studied to determine the optimum conditions for both lipase production and immobilization in polyurethane support. Olive oil and soybean peptone were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, to enhance the intracellular lipase activity. Low inoculum level and poor aeration rate also provided suitable conditions to attain high lipase activity (64.8 ± 0.8 U g(-1)). The transesterification activity of the immobilized whole- cells was assayed and optimal reaction conditions for the ethanolysis of babassu oil were determined by experimental design. Statistical analysis showed that M. circinelloides whole-cells were able to produce ethyl esters at all tested conditions, with the highest yield attained (98.1 %) at 35 °C using an 1:6 oil-to-ethanol molar ratio. The biocatalyst operational stability was also assayed in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) charged with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Aliquat-treated cells revealing half-life of 43.0 ± 0.5 and 20.0 ± 0.8 days, respectively. These results indicate the potential of immobilized M. circinelloides URM 4182 whole-cells as a low-cost alternative to conventional biocatalysts in the production of ethyl esters from babassu oil.

  12. Feoforbídeo (etoxi-purpurina-18 isolado de Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae Ethyl ester putpurin-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Sarmento Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurin-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miklasińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB. EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin.

  14. Production of Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) and its Performance test on four stroke single cylinder VCR engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Kittur, Prasanna; Parmar, Fulchand; Batakatti, Sachin; Kulkarni, Prasad; Kallannavar, Vinayak

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a substitute for gasoline that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has gained popularity due to depleting fossil fuel resources, its renewable character and comparable combustion properties to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is formed from non-edible oils, edible oils, tallow, animal fats and waste cooked oils. Biodiesels are monoalkyl esters of elongated chain fatty acids. Biodiesel can be a viable choice for satisfying long term energy requirements if they are managed proficiently. The method of the transesterification shows how the reaction occurs and advances. In this study, biodiesel is produced from Madhuca indica seeds commonly known as Mahua by using transesterification process using a low capacity pressure reactor and by-product of transesterification is glycerol, which is used in preparation of soaps. Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) was produced from the Mahua oil and is mixed with diesel to get different ratios of blends. MOEE was tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder VCR diesel engine. The study was extended to understand the effect of biodiesel blend magnitude on the performance of engine parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, brake power and fuel properties like flash point, cloud point, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane number and density were studied.

  15. Biocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA Ethyl Ester with a Newly Isolated Sphingomonas aquatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaozhou; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Guojun

    2018-02-01

    1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity. Fourteen of which worked effectively for the asymmetric synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester. The strain CY-2, identified as Sphingomonas aquatilis, which showed the highest stability and enantioselectivity was selected as whole cell biocatalyst for further study. A systematic study of all factors influencing the enzymatic hydrolysis was performed. Under optimized conditions, resolution of rac-vinyl-ACCA to (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester with 88.2% ee and 62.4% conversion (E = 9) was achieved. Besides, S. aquatilis was also used to transform other 10 different substrates. Notably, it was found that 7 of them could be stereoselectively hydrolyzed, especially for (1R,2S)-1-amino-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester hydrochloride (99.6% ee, E>200). Our investigations provide a new efficient whole cell biocatalyst for resolution of ACCA and might be developed for industry application.

  16. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Mehl, Marco; Lokachari, Nitin; Nilsson, Elna J.K.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Wagnon, Scott W.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  17. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  18. The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of oleic acid ethyl ester catalyzed by crude rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase in a modified fed-batch system: problem and its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE using rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid at 2.05: 1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, and then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. Meanwhile, the production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend to the trend of ester production. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters in the last 6 h of the reaction. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powders (25 and 50 mg/ml were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7% (1.17 – 1.24 times. The addition also proved a hypothesis that the water was involved in reducing the ester conversion in the last 6 h of the reaction. Thus, the combination was effective to produce the high final ester conversion.

  20. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120...... subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28 % in the AG-PUFA group and 22 % in the EE...

  1. A library synthesis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-09-06

    As a result of a hit-to-lead program using a technique of solution-phase parallel synthesis, a highly potent (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-[6-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl]methanone (15b) was synthesized as an optimized derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which was discovered as a screening hit from small-molecule libraries and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line.

  2. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  3. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles.

  4. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  5. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John W; Pedersen, Theresa L; Brandenburg, Verdayne R; Harris, William S; Shearer, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI|) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, plipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  6. Ethyl Ferulate, a Component with Anti-Inflammatory Properties for Emulsion-Based Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Nazaré

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl ferulate (FAEE has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA, as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin.

  7. Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F

    2014-06-17

    Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin.

  8. Sensing application of an optical fiber dip coated with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride capped ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaray Madhulita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber in conjunction with ZnTe quantum dots (QDs is investigated for sensing application. ZnTe QDs, are synthesized by a simple chemical bottom up approach. Quantum dots are capped with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride (LEEH, to increase their stability. Then LEEH capped ZnTe QDs, whose size is estimated as 2.29 nm by effective mass approximation (EMA, are dip-coated on a cladding removed optical fiber. Different concentrations of alcohol and ammonia are used to investigate the sensing behavior. It is found that sensitivity of the sensor increases with the use of QDs for both alcohol and ammonia.

  9. Ethylic or methylic route to soybean biodiesel? Tracking environmental answers through life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejos Altamirano, Carlos Alberto; Yokoyama, Lídia; Medeiros, José Luiz de; Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle of biodiesel using alternative transesterification routes is analyzed. • Bioethanol can potentially decrease CO_2 emissions of methanol biodiesel. • Contrarily, equivalent CO_2 emissions are retained and renewability is reduced. • Water footprint increases from 37.12 (methanol) to 44.88 m"3/GJ biodiesel (ethanol). • Energy efficiency is reduced from 79.37% (methanol) to 75.19 (ethanol %). - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by transesterification of triacylglicerides (TAG) contained in vegetable oils and animal fats, to yield alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. Methanol is the main transesterification agent employed resulting in FAME (fatty acid methyl esters), which is primarily obtained from natural gas reforming (fossil source). Substitution of methanol by ethanol produces FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) and has the potential to render biodiesel a fully renewable fuel. Although renewability is a significant driving force for the proposed alcohol replacement, environmental performance of the alternative transesterification is questioned. The answer is herein sought through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the two production chains. The study tracks CO_2 emissions, energy efficiency, water and resources consumption, and environmental impacts (Acidification Potential – AP, Global Warming Potential – GWP, Eutrophication Potential – EP, and Human Toxicity Potential – TP). The boundaries of the biodiesel production chains extend from the extraction of raw-materials to its final use as transportation fuel in buses, applied to the Brazilian scenario. Results show that substitution of the methylic route with the ethylic route does not attribute significant environmental benefits. Furthermore, the ethylic route presents competitive advantages only in the category of GWP, and exhibits inferior performance in the remaining evaluated impact categories. Finally, a greater consumption of water and energy

  10. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain...

  11. 78 FR 53051 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...-decadienoate (pear ester) is a naturally occurring, volatile substance emitted from mature, ripening fruit, that is attractive to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, a major agricultural pest of pome fruit...

  12. Morphology and performance of poly(2-methoxy-5-(20-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) : (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) based polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.J.; Bavel, van S.S.; Wen, S.P.; Yang, X.N.; Loos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were fabricated based on composite films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV):fullerene derivative (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with weight blend ratio of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5, spin-coated from chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene

  13. Phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of methyl and ethyl esters of carboxylic acids. 1. Methyl n-butanoate and ethyl propanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, Luba E.; Varushchenko, Raisa M.; Druzhinina, Anna I.; Polyakova, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heat capacities, fusion properties of CH 3 OC(O)C 3 H 7 measured by adiabatic calorimetry. ► The temperature dependence of vapour pressure determined by comparative ebulliometry. ► The thermodynamic functions derived from experiment and calculated by DFT method. ► Extending vapour pressure of moderate interval to entire region of liquid. ► An increment of the entropy of carbonyl group was defined from experimental data. - Abstract: The heat capacity of methyl n-butanoate in crystalline and liquid states was measured by vacuum adiabatic calorimetry over the temperature range from (8 to 372) K. The triple point temperature, the enthalpy and entropy of fusion, and the purity of the sample were determined. The saturated vapour pressure and the boiling temperatures were determined by comparative ebulliometry in the “atmospheric” pressure range 10.8 ⩽ (p/kPa) ⩽ 99.6. The normal boiling temperature, T n.b , and the enthalpy of vaporization at T = 298.15 K and T n.b were derived. The thermodynamic functions (absolute entropy and changes of the enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy) were derived for the solid and liquid states in the temperature range studied and for the ideal gas state at T = 298.15 K. The ideal gas heat capacities and the absolute entropies of methyl n-butanoate (MeBu) and ethyl propanoate (EtPr) were calculated by statistical thermodynamics on the basis of the molecular constants determined by the use of density functional theory on the B3LYP level. The experimental vapour pressure of MeBu and EtPr of moderate temperature intervals, Δ exp T = (59/65) K, were extended to the entire range of the liquids, Δ liq T = (364.7/345.7) K by the methods of the corresponding states law and simultaneous treatment of the pT-parameters and low-temperature heat capacities of the ideal gas and liquid, respectively. An additive contribution of the carbonyl group CO–(C, O) connected with C and O atoms was determined for calculation of the

  14. Nitrido-technetium(V) complexes with amino acids: Preparation and X-ray crystal structure of the L-cysteinate ethyl ester technetium(V) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchi, A.; Rossi, R.; Marvelli, L.; Bertolasi, V.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the radionuclide of choice in diagnostic nuclear medicine due to its ideal photon energy of 140 keV and half-life of 6 h. Neutral, stable, and lipophilic technetium complexes with diamino dithiol ligands (DADT) have been widely studied as potential brain perfusion agents and a 99m Tc complex of N,N'-1,2-ethylenediylbis(L-cysteine diethyl ester) (L,L-ECD) has been proposed as a marker of regional cerebral blood flow. It crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) and is retained in the brain owing to enzymatic hydrolysis of one ester group yielding to a more polar species. More recently, 99m Tc-cysteine complex has been evaluated in animal distribution studies for tumor diagnosis, but its chemical structure has not been determined. A large number of transition metal complexes with amino acids and peptides have been synthesized and structurally characterized to understand their interactions with proteins and antibodies, as well as biocatalytic processes, but only a limited number of rhenium and technetium compounds have been reported. Up to now, the only technetium complex to be characterized by X-ray analysis that contains amino acids as ligand is [TcO(L,L-ECD)]. The author's interest in the nitrido-technetium chemistry is due to the discovery of a new method for preparing radiopharmaceuticals containing the [ 99m Tc triple-bond N] 2+ core. In this communication the authors report the synthesis and characterization of nitrido-technetium complexes with L-cysteine ethyl ester (CYS-OEt), L-cysteine (CYS) and cysteamine (CSA) and the first X-ray crystal structure of a [TcN] 2+ -amino acid complex

  15. Phase diagram measurements by Heat-flux DSC and thermodynamic calculations of the mixture of the Esters Ethyl undecanoate (C13H26O2) and Ethyl tridecanoate (C15H30O2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaftenaar, H.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report a phase diagram is determined by heat flux DSC of the binary mixture Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate. Our hypothesis for equilibrium phase behaviour is that the components Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate do have the same crystal form and they have restricted

  16. Adsorptive removal of phthalate ester (Di-ethyl phthalate) from aqueous phase by activated carbon: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Shailaja, S; Rama Krishna, M; Sarma, P N

    2007-07-19

    Adsorptive studies were carried out on Di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) removal from aqueous phase onto activated carbon. Batch sorption studies were performed and the results revealed that activated carbon demonstrated ability to adsorb DEP. Influence of varying experimental conditions such as DEP concentration, pH of aqueous solution, and dosage of adsorbent were investigated on the adsorption process. Sorption interaction of DEP onto activated carbon obeyed the pseudo second order rate equation. Experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. DEP sorption was found to be dependent on the aqueous phase pH and the uptake was observed to be greater at acidic pH.

  17. Quantitation using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and thresholds of taste-active pyroglutamyl decapeptide ethyl esters (PGDPEs) in sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Katsumi; Ito, Toshiko; Igarashi, Shinya

    2017-03-01

    A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for two taste-active pyroglutamyl decapeptide ethyl esters (PGDPE1; (pGlu)LFGPNVNPWCOOC 2 H 5 , PGDPE2; (pGlu)LFNPSTNPWCOOC 2 H 5 ) in sake was developed using deuterated isotopes and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Recognition thresholds of PGDPEs in sake were estimated as 3.8 μg/L for PGDPE1 and 8.1 μg/L for PGDPE2, evaluated using 11 student panelists aged in their twenties. Quantitated concentrations in 18 commercial sake samples ranged from 0 to 27 μg/L for PGDPE1 and from 0 to 202 μg/L for PGDPE2. The maximum levels of PGDPE1 and PGDPE2 in the sake samples were approximately 8 and 25 times higher than the estimated recognition thresholds, respectively. The results indicated that PGDPEs may play significant sensory roles in the sake. The level of PGDPEs in unpasteurized sake samples decreased during storage for 50 days at 6 °C, suggesting PGDPEs may be enzymatically decomposed.

  18. Volumetric, viscometric, spectral studies and viscosity modelling of binary mixtures of esters and alcohols (diethyl succinate, or ethyl octanoate + isobutanol, or isopentanol) at varying temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorović, Divna M.; Živković, Emila M.; Matija, Lidija R.; Kijevčanin, Mirjana Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densitis and viscosities of four ester + alcohol binary mixtures were measured. • Excess and deviation functions were calculated. • Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was conducted. • Molecular interactions present in the mixture were analyzed. • Viscosity modelling was performed. - Abstract: Density, viscosity and refractive index of four binary mixtures consisting of diethyl succinate or ethyl octanoate + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 3-methyl-1-butanol have been measured at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range from 288.15 K to 323.15 K. Excess and deviation functions have been calculated from these data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of excess molar volume and deviation functions, with FT-IR study, were further used in the analysis of molecular interactions present in the mixture as well as the temperature influence on them. Molar excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow were additionally calculated from measured density and viscosity data for better understanding of present molecular interactions. Viscosity modelling was done with two approaches, predictive by group contribution models (UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG-VISCO), and correlative by one to three-parameter models (Teja-Rice, Grunberg–Nissan, McAlister, Eyring-UNIQUAC and Eyring-NRTL). The obtained results were compared with experimental data and conclusions about applied approaches and models were made.

  19. Effect of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate addition to produce reactive PLA/PCL bio-polyester blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Annamaria; Nocita, Davide; Giamporcaro, Alberto; Ronca, Sara; Forte, Giuseppe; Pistone, Alessandro; Espro, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper the effects of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate (LTI) on the physical-mechanical properties of Poly(lactide)/Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLA/PCL) polyesters blends. The PLA/PCL ratios considered were 20/80, 50/50 and 80/20 (wt/wt %) and LTI was added in amounts of 0.0-0.5-1.0 phr. PLA and PCL reacted with LTI during processing in a Brabender twin screw internal mixer to produce block copolymers in-situ. The resulting blends have been characterized by torque measurements, uniaxial tensile tests, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, contact angle measurements with a Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution, ATR analysis and morphological SEM observations. Experimental results highlighted how LTI enhanced interaction and dispersion of the two components, resulting into a synergic effect in mechanical properties. Mechanical and physical properties can be tailored by changing the blend composition. The most noticeable trend was an increase in ductility of the mixed polymers. Besides, LTI decreased blend's wet ability in PBS and lowered the starting of crystalline phase formation for both polymers, confirming an interaction among them. These reactive blends could find use as biomedical materials, e.g. absorbable suture threads or scaffolds for cellular growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of anthranilic acid-labelled oligosaccharides with a 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-labelled dextran hydrolysate internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David C A; Alonzi, Dominic S; Butters, Terry D

    2012-04-13

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides is used in many laboratories to analyse complex oligosaccharide mixtures. Separations are routinely performed using a TSK gel-Amide 80 HPLC column, and retention times of different oligosaccharide species are converted to glucose unit (GU) values that are determined with reference to an external standard. However, if retention times were to be compared with an internal standard, consistent and more accurate GU values would be obtained. We present a method to perform internal standard-calibrated HILIC of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides. The method relies on co-injection of 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-ABEE)-labelled internal standard and detection by UV absorption, with 2-AA (2-aminobenzoic acid)-labelled oligosaccharides. 4-ABEE is a UV chromophore and a fluorophore, but there is no overlap of the fluorescent spectrum of 4-ABEE with the commonly used fluorescent reagents. The dual nature of 4-ABEE allows for accurate calculation of the delay between UV and fluorescent signals when determining the GU values of individual oligosaccharides. The GU values obtained are inherently more accurate as slight differences in gradients that can influence retention are negated by use of an internal standard. Therefore, this paper provides the first method for determination of HPLC-derived GU values of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides using an internal calibrant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission Studies in CI Engine using LPG and Palm Kernel Methyl Ester as Fuels and Di-ethyl Ether as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Nagaraju; Jothi, T. J. Sarvoththama

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of using di-ethyl ether (DEE) as the fuel additive in engine performance and emissions. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Two different fuels namely liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) are used as primary fuels with DEE as the fuel additive. LPG flow rates of 0.6 and 0.8 kg/h are considered, and flow rate of DEE is varied to maintain the constant engine speed. In case of PKME fuel, it is blended with diesel in the latter to the former ratio of 80:20, and DEE is varied in the volumetric proportion of 1 and 2%. Results indicate that for the engine operating in LPG-DEE mode at 0.6 kg/h of LPG, the brake thermal efficiency is lowered by 26%; however, NOx is subsequently reduced by around 30% compared to the engine running with only diesel fuel at 70% load. Similarly, results of PKME blended fuel showed a drastic reduction in the NOx and CO emissions. In these two modes of operation, DEE is observed to be significant fuel additive regarding emissions reduction.

  2. Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Variable Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Jatropha curcas Ethyl Ester Blends at Different Compression Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performance and emission characteristics of unmodified biodiesel fueled diesel engines are highly influenced by their ignition and combustion behavior. In this study, emission and combustion characteristics were studied when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B40 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 17.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The change of compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1 resulted in 27.1%, 27.29%, 26.38%, 28.48%, and 34.68% increase in cylinder pressure for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions. Higher peak heat release rate increased by 23.19%, 14.03%, 26.32%, 21.87%, and 25.53% for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The delay period decreased by 21.26%, CO emission reduced by 14.28%, and NOx emission increased by 22.84% for B40 blends at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. It is concluded that Jatropha oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  3. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioanalytical method for quantification of ethyl esters of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sekarbabu; Verma, P R P; Ganesan, Muniyandithevar; Manivannan, Jeganathan

    2017-07-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development. Here, we have developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring method along with optimized parameters for quantification of EPA and DHA as ethyl esters. Additionally, we attempted to validate the bio-analytical method by conducting the sensitivity, selectivity, precision accuracy batch, carryover test and matrix stability experiments. Furthermore, we also implemented our validated method for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of omega fatty acid ethyl ester formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  5. Minimal food effect for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bioavailability from omega-3-acid ethyl esters with an Advanced Lipid TechnologiesTM (ALT®)-based formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Toledano, Miguel A; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed A; Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption. The aim of the article was to assess the effect of food on the bioavailability of DHA and EPA after a single oral dose of 1530 mg omega-3 fatty acids EE (SC401) in 24 healthy subjects under fasted and low-fat (9% of total calories from fat) and high-fat (50% of total calories from fat) meal conditions. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were taken at predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours postdose. To assess the safety of the intervention, active monitoring of adverse events, physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory assessments (chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis), and 12-lead electrocardiograms were conducted. SC401 showed high bioavailability of both EPA and DHA in fasted, low-fat meal, and high-fat meal conditions. No differences were found in SC401 DHA AUC 0-t (t = 24 hours) among the 3 conditions (91.69% high-fat/fasted, 97.12% low-fat/fasted, and 105.92% low-fat/high-fat; P > .05 in all cases). In contrast, SC401 EPA AUC 0-t was affected by food intake (179.06% high-fat/fasted, P food effect for DHA and partially ameliorated it for EPA. SC401 represents a convenient option for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia, especially for patients under a restricted intake of dietary fat. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid

  6. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the Organoleptic Properties of a Craft Mezcal Beverage by Increasing Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Contents through ATF1 Expression in an Engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Jesús; Vargas, Alejandra; Farías-Rosales, Lorena; Miranda, Ana L; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L

    2018-05-02

    Mezcal, a traditional beverage that originated in Mexico, is produced from species of the Agavaceae family. The esters associated with the yeasts utilized during fermentation are important for improving the organoleptic properties of the beverage. We improved the ester contents in a mezcal beverage by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which was engineered with the ATF1 gene. ATF1 expression in the recombinant yeast significantly increased compared with that in the parental yeast, but its fermentative parameters were unchanged. Volatile-organic-compound-content analysis showed that esters had significantly increased in the mezcal produced with the engineered yeast. In a sensory-panel test, 48% of the panelists preferred the mezcal produced from the engineered yeast, 30% preferred the mezcal produced from the wild type, and 15 and 7% preferred the two mezcal types produced following the routine procedure. Correlation analysis showed that the fruitiness/sweetness description of the mezcal produced using the ATF1-engineered K. marxianus yeast correlated with the content of the esters, whose presence improved the organoleptic properties of the craft mezcal beverage.

  8. Batch production of FAEE-biodiesel using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per Munk

    2014-01-01

    % was achieved by combining a 50% stoichiometric excess of ethanol (1.5 equivalents) with 20% (w/w) water relative to the oil. The rate of reaction was directly proportional to the amount of lipase added in this system (500-2000 LU per gram oil). Addition of glycerol to the initial reaction mixture reduced...... the initial reaction rate, but also improved the final yield of biodiesel by suppressing hydrolysis. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V....... competitive option for the conversion of oils and fats to biodiesel. This study investigates the impact of several process parameters on the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from rapeseed oil in a pure batch process on the liquid lipase formulation Callera™ Trans L. Oil conversion in excess of 98...

  9. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Molle, Inge; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°

  10. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Molle, Inge, E-mail: ivmolle@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°.

  11. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  12. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2018-01-03

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  14. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng; Zhu, Chen; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  15. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  16. Two Players Make a Formidable Combination: In Situ Generated Poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) Cross-Linking Gel Polymer Electrolyte toward 5 V High-Voltage Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Ma, Jun; Chai, Jingchao; Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Guoliang; Xu, Gaojie; Liu, Haisheng; Chen, Bingbing; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2. A poly(acrylic anhydride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based system is very promising as electrolyte materials for lithium-ion batteries, in which the anhydride and acrylate groups can provide high voltage resistance and fast ionic conductivity, respectively. As a result, the cross-linking PAMM-based electrolyte possesses a significant comprehensive enhancement, including electrochemical stability window exceeding 5 V vs Li + /Li, an ionic conductivity of 6.79 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature, high mechanical strength (27.5 MPa), good flame resistance, and excellent interface compatibility with Li metal. It is also demonstrated that this gel polymer electrolyte suppresses the negative effect resulting from dissolution of Mn 2+ ions at 25 and 55 °C. Thus, the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li and LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells using the optimized in situ polymerized cross-linking PAMM-based gel polymer electrolyte deliver stable charging/discharging profiles and excellent rate performance at room temperature and even at 55 °C. These findings suggest that the cross-linking PAMM is an intriguing candidate for 5 V class high-voltage gel polymer electrolyte toward high-energy lithium-on batteries.

  17. Determination of 13C isotopic enrichment of valine and threonine by GC-C-IRMS after formation of the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives of the amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Magali; Breuille, Denis; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2007-06-01

    We describe a new method of assessing, in a single run, (13)C isotopic enrichment of both Val and Thr by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). This method characterised by a rapid one-step derivatisation procedure performed at room temperature to form the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives, and a polar column for GC. The suitability of this method for Val and Thr in in-vivo samples (mucosal hydrolysate) was demonstrated by studying protein metabolism with two tracers ((13)C-valine or (13)C-threonine). The intra-day and inter-day repeatability were both assessed either with standards or with in-vivo samples at natural abundance and at low (13)C isotopic enrichment. For inter-day repeatability CVs were between 0.8 and 1.5% at natural abundance and lower than 5.5% at 0.112 and 0.190 atom% enrichment for Val and Thr, respectively. Overall isotopic precision was studied for eleven standard amino acid derivatives (those of Val, Ala, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Asp, Thr, Ser, Met, and Phe) and was assessed at 0.32 per thousand. The (13)C isotopic measurement was then extended to the other amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Thr, and Phe) at natural abundance for in-vivo samples. The isotopic precision was better than 0.002 atom% per amino acid (for n = 4 rats). This analytical method was finally applied to an animal study to measure Thr utilization in protein synthesis.

  18. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Energy is an indispensable and significant issue of world concern. ... both metal parts of diesel engine whereas biodiesel from other ... study reported on the blend characterization and ... weighing balance was used to measure the weight of.

  19. Ethyl diazoacetate synthesis in flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle M. E. Delville

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl diazoacetate is a versatile compound in organic chemistry and frequently used on lab scale. Its highly explosive nature, however, severely limits its use in industrial processes. The in-line coupling of microreactor synthesis and separation technology enables the synthesis of this compound in an inherently safe manner, thereby making it available on demand in sufficient quantities. Ethyl diazoacetate was prepared in a biphasic mixture comprising an aqueous solution of glycine ethyl ester, sodium nitrite and dichloromethane. Optimization of the reaction was focused on decreasing the residence time with the smallest amount of sodium nitrite possible. With these boundary conditions, a production yield of 20 g EDA day−1 was achieved using a microreactor with an internal volume of 100 μL. Straightforward scale-up or scale-out of microreactor technology renders this method viable for industrial application.

  20. X-ray crystallographic study of 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester and its application in the solvent assisted naked eye sensing of Hg(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, K. K.; Upadhyay, Shalini; Kumar, Kamlesh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2009-06-01

    The 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester (OSPBE) was studied through single crystal structure analysis revealing some interesting supramolecular architectural patterns. The N(3)-N(4) bond length of OSPBE was found to be 1.36 Å matching well with reported N-N bond length in the literature and hence clearly proved that it is the keto form of OSPBE which is stable. Full structural optimization of OSPBE using density functional theory (DFT) at the HCTH407/6-31G ∗∗ level also proved that the keto form of OSPBE is stable. The UV-Vis absorption peaks for OSPBE predicted by the time dependent DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ∗∗ level matched quite well with the experimentally observed UV-Vis bands for OSPBE. The OSPBE was successfully tested as the naked eye sensor for Hg(II) as its chloride salt at the millimolar level in dimethylsulfoxide. A color change from red orange to olive green was observed on addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to the 1.0 × 10 -3 M DMSO solution of the chemosensor. The role of DMSO in the sensing process appears to be the crucial one because the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band of OSPBE in DMSO observed at 489 nm did not appear in the UV-Vis spectrum of OSPBE in nujol. The UV-Vis and 1H NMR titrations revealed that formation of six membered 1:1 chelate between OSPBE and Hg(II) along with reversible supramolecular association of DMSO with NH at N-2 position in OSPBE may be responsible for its Hg(II) sensing. No sensing for other d 10 metal ions like Zn(II) and Cd(II) were observed with OSPBE under similar conditions. Besides DMSO, some other polar aprotic solvents like DMF and acetone having X dbnd O (where X = C) also produced similar type of color change on the addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to their respective 1.0 × 10 -3 M OSPBE solutions. Nevertheless, polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile not having X dbnd O or non-polar aprotic solvent like chloroform no color change was observed under

  1. A novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation significantly improves the fasting absorption of EPA and DHA from a single dose of an omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Nyheim, Hilde; Haram, Else Marie; Moritz, Joseph M; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf

    2017-10-16

    Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption. Two separate single dose, crossover studies were conducted to determine the relative bioavailability of omega-3-acid EE concentrate, either as a novel SMEDS formulation (PRF-021) or as control, in healthy fasted male and female adults at two dose levels (Study 1 "low dose": 630 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 840 mg EPA + DHA in control; Study 2 "high dose": 1680 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 3360 mg EPA + DHA in control). Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at defined time intervals for 48 h. Plasma concentration of total EPA and DHA were determined for pharmacokinetic analysis, area under the curve (AUC) and maximum observed concentration (C max ) was determined. Total EPA plus DHA absorption from SMEDS formulation PRF-021 were 6.4 and 11.5 times higher compared to control in low- and high-dose studies respectively, determined as the ratio of baseline corrected, dose normalized AUC 0-24h of PRF-021 over that of control. EPA and DHA individually showed differing levels of enhancement: the AUC 0-24h ratio for EPA was 23.8 and 25.7 in low and high dose studies, respectively, and the AUC 0-24h ratio for DHA was 3.6 and 5.6 in low and high dose studies

  2. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  3. A Simple, Safe Method for Preparation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Mahin S.; Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Alwis, Rasika M.; Duenas, Josue A.; Serafino, Jessica O.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment suitable for organic chemistry students is described. Biodiesel, a "green" fuel, consists of methyl or ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids called FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) or FAEES (fatty acid ethyl esters). A quick way to make FAMES is a base-catalyzed transesterification of oils or fats derived from plants or from animal…

  4. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported WMe5

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima; Callens, Emmanuel; Talbi, Karima; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) by silica supported multifunctional W-based catalyst is disclosed. This transformation represents a novel route towards unsaturated di-esters. Especially, the self-metathesis of ethyl undecylenate

  5. Production of FAME and FAEE via Alcoholysis of Sunflower Oil by Eversa Lipases Immobilized on Hydrophobic Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remonatto, Daniela; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Manuel Guisan, J; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2018-01-03

    The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst. The final reaction mixture contained traces of monoacylglycerols but was completely free of diacylglycerols. After four reaction cycles, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved 75% of activity. Both lipases immobilized in Sepabeads C-18 were very active with ethanol and methanol as acceptors, but they were much more stable in the presence of ethanol.

  6. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  7. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Howard, Mí cheá l Sé amus; Zhang, Yingjia; Djebbi, Khalil; Capriolo, Gianluca; Farooq, Aamir; Curran, Henry J.; Dooley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  8. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer

    2018-04-04

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  9. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Anticholinesterase activity of fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.Ya.; Brel, V.K. Martynov, I.V.

    1984-11-01

    Results are presented from pharmacologic and biochemical experiments leading to the conclusion that fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters have anticholinesterase activity. Since the esters caused muscular weakness in mice, experiments were performed on isolated tissue preparation. The biochemical experiments consisted of finding the biomolecular constants of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the esters, using acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, as well as horse serum cholinesterase. The ethyl and n-propyl esters of halogen nitroacetic acid were used in all experiments. It was found that the propyl ester caused an increase in the force of individual contractions in the isolated muscle specimens, plus an inability of the muscle to retain tetanus. The substances were determined to have an anticholinesterase effect. The mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition is not yet known. It is probable that the substances acylate the serine hydroxyl of the esterase center of the cholinestersase. 7 references, 1 figure.

  11. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-01-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  12. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  13. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  14. Characterisation of the ester-substituted products of the reaction of p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate using LC-UV-MS and LC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gillian; Wall, Rachel; Nolan, Kieran; Diamond, Dermot

    2002-07-19

    A series of derivatisation reactions between p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate were carried out in order to prepare 1,3 diester substituted calix[4]arene. Mass spectral data, obtained from direct injection of samples, indicated that the reactions were rich in the desired product. Since the ultra violet (UV) spectra of the desired product and possible impurities are very similar, liquid chromatography (LC) chromatographic data seemed to corroborate these results. However, when on-line LC-UV-MS was carried out and each LC peak subjected to MS analysis as it eluted, a very different picture emerged. It was found that many of these reactions actually contained high levels of the monoester product which, having less affinity for sodium in the MS, is therefore seriously underestimated in any direct injection assay. LC-diode array detection (DAD) methods were also used to help successfully identify and characterise the compounds being formed in these complex reactions. The overall results obtained in this paper allowed the optimal reaction conditions to be determined for this reaction. LC-MS analysis of the chromatographic peaks also identified the presence of two isomers of the diester substituted calix[4]arene (1,3 and 1,2 diesters). The combination of LC and UV/MS detection is required for accurate analysis of the products of such reactions.

  15. Influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend ratio on the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginting, Riski Titian; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-01-01

    The influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) weight ratio on the photovoltaic performance of inverted type organic solar cell based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods has been investigated. Experimental results showed that the photovoltaic performance improved with weight ratio of MEH-PPV:PCBM from 1:1 to 1:3 due to better percolation pathway for electron transport and enhanced infiltration of polymer blend into interspace of Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods. However, the overall performance started to decrease at weight ratio of 1:4 due to the aggregation of PCBM clusters which results in poor polymer blend infiltration. The optimum device at weight ratio of 1:3 exhibited short circuit current density of 3.95 ± 0.10 mA cm −2 , open circuit voltage of 0.53 ± 0.03 V, fill factor of 0.50 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency of 1.02 ± 0.07 %. - Highlights: • The device performance increased with donor:acceptor weight ratio up to 1:3. • Aggregation of fullerene-derivative led to poor infiltration at weight ratio of 1:4. • The optimum weight ratio was different from that of conventional device

  16. Influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend ratio on the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginting, Riski Titian [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin, E-mail: ccyap@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    The influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) weight ratio on the photovoltaic performance of inverted type organic solar cell based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods has been investigated. Experimental results showed that the photovoltaic performance improved with weight ratio of MEH-PPV:PCBM from 1:1 to 1:3 due to better percolation pathway for electron transport and enhanced infiltration of polymer blend into interspace of Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods. However, the overall performance started to decrease at weight ratio of 1:4 due to the aggregation of PCBM clusters which results in poor polymer blend infiltration. The optimum device at weight ratio of 1:3 exhibited short circuit current density of 3.95 ± 0.10 mA cm{sup −2}, open circuit voltage of 0.53 ± 0.03 V, fill factor of 0.50 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency of 1.02 ± 0.07 %. - Highlights: • The device performance increased with donor:acceptor weight ratio up to 1:3. • Aggregation of fullerene-derivative led to poor infiltration at weight ratio of 1:4. • The optimum weight ratio was different from that of conventional device.

  17. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  18. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  20. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults.

  1. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  2. Pheophorbide b ethyl ester from a chlorella vulgaris dietary supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C37H38N4O6, four five-membered nitrogen-bearing rings are nearly coplanar. Two N atoms in two these five-membered rings have attached H atoms, which contribute to the formation of intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds [N...N = 2.713 (5–3.033 (6 Å].

  3. N-Butoxycarbonyl-5-oxo-l-proline ethyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajalakshmi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the title compound, C12H19NO5, may be visualized as made up of two nearly perpendicular planes [dihedral angle = 87.39 (12°] and its crystal structure is a good example of C—H...O interactions assuming significance in optimizing supramolecular aggregation in crystals in a molecule which is severely imbalanced in terms of donors to acceptor atoms. The pyrrolidine ring adopts a (3T2 twist conformation with puckering parameters Q = 0.2630 (4 Å and ϕ = 59 (9°. The crystal structure features R24(10 and R34(26 ring motifs formed by four weak C—H...O interactions, leading to supramolecular sheets lying parallel to the bc plane.

  4. Critical aggregates concentration of fatty esters present in biodiesel determined by turbidity and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Dombroski, Luiz Fernando; Gracioto, Maria Paula

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel for combustible engine is available as mixture of fossil diesel and fatty esters obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils. The use of biodiesel reduces the amount of SO x , mainly. However, it was already observed that biodiesel has a different behavior in environment in cases of accidental spill and groundwater contamination. It was noticed that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons (cyclic and aliphatic) in the presence of biodiesel are speeded, although the mechanism is still unclear. Considering the chemical structure of fatty esters, it was investigated the formation of aggregates in water solution by fatty esters present in commercial biodiesel. In Brazil, biodiesel is composed by 95% of fossil diesel and 5% of fatty esters mixture. In this work, fatty esters were treated as neutral surfactant, i.e., it was treated as a molecule with polar and non-polar part. Turbidity and fluorescence were used to determine the critical aggregates concentration (CAC). Water solutions containing fatty esters were examined exploiting changes in turbidity and fluorescence intensity of pyrene. Abrupt changes were attributed to aggregates formation, following the same behavior of traditional amphiphilic compounds. It was determined the CAC for ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl linoleate. The values of CAC for fatty esters varied from 1.91 to 4.27 μmol/L, while CAC for the mixture of esters (biodiesel) was 2.01 for methyl esters and 1.19 for ethyl esters, both prepared using soybean oil. The aggregates formation was also determined by fluorescence measurements considering the changes in intensity of peaks I and III of pyrene. Pyrene senses the changes in environment polarity. The values found of CAC by fluorescence for individual ethyl esters varied from 1.85 to 3.21 μmol/L, while mixtures of ethyl esters was 2.23 and 2.07 μmol/L for mixture of methyl esters. The results clearly showed that fatty esters form aggregates and might be

  5. N-[11C]methylpiperidine esters as acetylcholinesterase substrates: an in vivo structure-reactivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Snyder, Scott E.; Sherman, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    A series of simple esters incorporating the N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidine structure were examined as in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase in mouse brain. 4-N-[ 11 C]Methylpiperidinyl esters, including the acetate, propionate and isobutyrate esters, are good in vivo substrates for mammalian cholinesterases. Introduction of a methyl group at the 4-position of the 4-piperidinol esters, to form the ester of a teritary alcohol, effectively blocks enzymatic action. Methylation of 4- N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidinyl propionate at the 3-position gives a derivative with increased in vivo reactivity toward acetylcholinesterase. Esters of piperidinecarboxylic acids (nipecotic, isonipecotic and pipecolinic acid ethyl esters) are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase in vivo, nor do they act as in vivo inhibitors of the enzyme. This study has identified simple methods to both increase and decrease the in vivo reactivity of piperidinyl esters toward acetylcholinesterase

  6. Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate on bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Industrial Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate (dodecanoic acid ethyl ester) as a representative model compound of vegetable oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite support material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, NiW, PtNiW) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the metal loading and reducibility influence product selectivity as well as deactivation behavior of catalyst samples. (orig.)

  7. Ethyl 4-chloro-2′-fluoro-3-hydroxy-5-methylbiphenyl-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adeel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14ClFO3, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 71.50 (5°. Due to an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group and the carbonyl O atom of the ethyl ester group, the ethyl ester group lies within the ring plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  8. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for castor oil biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent castor oil FAME and FAEE castor oil. ► Tie-lines and solubility curves (binodal) by cloud-point method for FAME and FAEE systems. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports new liquid–liquid solubility values (binodal curves) as well as (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for, ternary and quaternary systems containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from castor oil, water, glycerol, methanol and anhydrous ethanol at T = (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Solubility curves (binodal) were also obtained by the cloud-point method for binary systems containing FAME, FAEE, water, or glycerol. All results obtained can be considered of good quality. The experimental values were correlated using the UNIQUAC model, whose results presented good performance and satisfactory fitting of equilibrium values

  9. Conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters: correlation of resonance Raman spectra with structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Angus, R.H.; Storer, A.C.; Varughese, K.I.; Carey, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    The conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters, involving rotational isomers about the RC(=O)NH-CH(CH 3 ) and NHCH(CH 3 )-C(=S) bonds, are defined and compared to those of N-acylglycine dithio esters. The structure of N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester has been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis; it is a B-type conformer with the amide N atom cis to the thiol sulfur. Raman and resonance Raman (RR) measurements on this compound and for the B conformers of solid N-benzoyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and N-(β-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and its NHCH(CD 3 )C(=S) and NHCH(CH 3 ) 13 C(=S) analogues are used to set up a library of RR data for alanine-based dithio esters in a B-conformer state. RR data for this solid material in its isotopically unsubstituted and CH(C-D 3 )C(=S) and CH(CH 3 ) 13 C(=S) forms provide information on the RR signatures of alanine dithio esters in A-like conformations. RR spectra are compared for the solid compounds, for N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine, N-(β-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine, and (methyloxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester, and for several 13 C=S- and CD 3 -substituted analogues in CCl 4 or aqueous solutions. The RR data demonstrate that the alanine-based dithio esters take up A, B, and C 5 conformations in solution. The RR spectra of these conformers are clearly distinguishable from those for the same conformers of N-acylglycine dithio esters. However, the crystallographic and spectroscopic results show that the results show that the conformational properties of N-acylglycine and N-acylalanine dithio esters are very similar

  10. Triphenyltin derivatives of sulfanylcarboxylic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Perez-Estévez, Antonio; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H 2 xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh 3 L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh 3 (pspme)], [SnPh 3 (fspme)] and [SnPh 3 (fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, Resistant P. aeruginosa (a strain resistant to 'carbapenem'), and C. albicans was tested and the in vitro cytotoxic activity against the HeLa-229, A2780 and A2780cis cell lines was determined for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  12. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200 Section 584.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  14. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; Kalpoe, Vijay; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from Jatropha curcas L. oil was studied in a batch reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium ethoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like rotational speed, temperature, catalyst

  15. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  16. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  17. Study of Substituted Ester Formation in Red Wine by the Development of a New Method for Quantitative Determination and Enantiomeric Separation of Their Corresponding Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Franc, Celine; Cameleyre, Margaux; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-21

    A new method was developed for quantifying substituted acids including, where applicable, their various unexplored enantiomeric forms. A new step was added to acids' usual quantification methods, consisting of extraction, derivatization to methyl esters, and gas chromatography analysis: preliminary extraction was performed at basic pH to eliminate ethyl esters, thus avoiding their transesterification during derivatization. Quantitation and enantiomeric distribution of some substituted esters and their corresponding acids were established in 31 commercial Bordeaux red wines from 0 to 20 years old. A strong positive correlation was observed between the age of wine and levels of ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl (3R)-3-hydroxybutanoate, both enantiomeric forms of ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl (2S)-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, but not ethyl (3S)-3-hydroxybutanoate. However, the standard deviations of average concentrations for the corresponding substituted acids were so large that only few correlations between concentrations and age were observed. Concentrations of (2S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid and (2S)-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid increased slightly over time, while (2R)-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid levels decreased slightly with the age. Variations in the ratio of substituted ethyl esters to their corresponding acids over time detected thanks to these analytical advances suggested that, in general, acids were continuously esterified during aging.

  18. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Guiding optimal biofuels :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  20. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: Low-pressure vapor + liquid equilibrium of methyl/ethyl soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneral, Josamaique G.; Junior, Dirceu L.R.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Silva, Edson A.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Boiling point temperatures for soybean FAME and FAEE measured in the pressure range of (6.7 to 66.7) kPa. • Investigated systems presented a non-ideal behavior, with positive deviations from Raoult’s law. • Experimental data satisfactorily represented by the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: In this work, experimental boiling point temperatures for pseudo-binaries (methyl/ethyl biodiesel + methanol/ethanol) and pseudo-ternaries (methyl/ethyl biodiesel + methanol/ethanol + glycerol/water) systems were measured at several pressures ranging from (6.7 to 66.7) kPa using an Othmer-type ebulliometer. The systems investigated show a non-ideal behavior, with positive deviations from Raoult’s law. It was observed that the addition of up to 10 wt% of alcohol (methanol or ethanol) led to a significant decrease in the boiling point temperature of the systems. The UNIQUAC model was successfully used to represent the experimental results, with an overall average deviation between experimental and calculated boiling temperature values of 0.004%

  1. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.......Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells....

  2. ESR study of electron reactions with esters and triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Morehouse, K.M.; Swarts, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions which occurred after electron attachment at 77K to a number of small carboxylic acid esters and triglycerides in an aqueous glass are reported. Most ester anions are found to decay on warming to form alkyl radicals by β scission: RC(O - )OR' → RCO 2 - + R'.. The alkyl radical (R'.) produced by annealing is found to abstract hydrogen from the parent ester at an α-carbon site, R'.+ R''CH 2 CO 2 R' → R''CHCO 2 R', or in the case of ethyl formate from the formate hydrogen, CH 3 CH 2 .+ HCO 2 C 2 H 5 → C 2 H 6 +.CO 2 C 2 H 5 . Results found for the methyl formate anion suggest hydrogen abstraction by the anion itself may compete with alkyl radical formation. The anion of the triglyceride triacetin is found to undergo an analogous mechanism to the ester anions producing the propane diol diester radical, .CH 2 CH(Ac)CH 2 (Ac), Ac = acetate. This species subsequently abstracts hydrogen from the parent compound to produce the α-carbon radical, .CH 2 CO 2 R. Results found after annealing the tripropionin radical anion give evidence for abstraction from the α carbon in the propionate side groups producing CH 3 CHCO 2 R. Studies of a γ-irradiated ester (ethyl myristate) and two triglycerides (tripalmitin and tristearin) yield results which suggest that the mechanism of ester anion decay found in aqueous glasses applies to γ-irradiated neat long-chain esters and triglycerides. Results found in this work are compared to the results of product analysis

  3. Ester Tuiksoo / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Juhan Partsi valitsuse (05.04.2004-13.04.2005) ja Andrus Ansipi valitsuse (13.04.2005-) põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo oma lapsepõlvest ja elukutsevalikust, poliitilise karjääri algusest ja erakonna valikust, ministritöö kogemustest, naistest poliitikas

  4. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  5. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  6. Carboxylesterase activities toward pesticide esters in crops and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershater, Markus; Sharples, Kate; Edwards, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Proteins were extracted from maize, rice, sorghum, soybean, flax and lucerne; the weeds Abutilon theophrasti, Echinochloa crus-galli, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria faberii, Setaria viridis, Sorghum halepense and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and assayed for carboxylesterase activity toward a range of xenobiotics. These included the pro-herbicidal esters clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fenthioprop-ethyl, methyl-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d-methyl), bromoxynil-octanoate, the herbicide-safener cloquintocet-mexyl and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. Highest activities were recorded with alpha-naphthyl acetate and methylumbelliferyl acetate. Esters of p-nitrophenol were also readily hydrolysed, with turnover declining as the chain length of the acyl component increased. Activities determined with model substrates were much higher than those observed with pesticide esters and were of limited value in predicting the relative rates of hydrolysis of the crop protection agents. Substrate preferences with the herbicides were typically 2,4-d-methyl>clodinafop-propargyl>fenthioprop-ethyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl and bromoxynil-octanoate. Isoelectric focussing in conjunction with staining for esterase activity using alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate confirmed the presence of multiple carboxylesterase isoenzymes in each plant, with major qualitative differences observed between species. The presence of serine hydrolases among the resolved isoenzymes was confirmed through their selective inhibition by the organophosphate insecticide paraoxon. Our studies identify potentially exploitable differences between crops and weeds in their ability to bioactivate herbicides by enzymic hydrolysis and also highlight the usefulness of Arabidopsis as a plant model to study xenobiotic biotransformation.

  7. Stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters with micro green algae, Chlorella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, K; Yamaguchi, H; Adachi, N; Hamada, H; Nakajima, N

    2000-10-01

    The stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters using micro green algae was accomplished by a combination of the cultivation method and the introduction of an additive. The reduction of ethyl pyruvate and ethyl benzoylformate by the photoautotrophically cultivated Chlorella sorokiniana gave the corresponding alcohol in high e.e. (>99% e.e. (S) and >99% e.e. (R), respectively). In the presence of glucose as an additive, the reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate by the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana afforded the corresponding (R)-alcohol. On the other hand, the reduction in the presence of ethyl propionate gave the (S)-alcohol. Ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate was reduced in the presence of glycerol by the photoautotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana or the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana to the corresponding syn-(2R,3S)-hydroxy ester with high diastereo- and enantiomeric excess (e.e.). Some additives altered the stereochemical course in the reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters.

  8. Convenient synthesis of 6-nor-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, A M; Grubb, R; Bachmann, K A; Rawat, A K

    1981-12-01

    6-Nor-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (IV) was prepared by demethylation of 9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (II) with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate, followed by reduction of the intermediate carbamate (III) with zinc in acetic acid. The 6-ethyl-V and 6-n-propyl-VI derivatives were prepared by alkylation of IV with the appropriate halide. All of the ergoline derivatives were evaluated for stereotyped behavior in rats, with 6-nor-6-ethyl-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (V) being active but much less potent than apomorphine. Compound VI was evaluated for its effect on blood pressure; at a dose of 30 mg/kg ip, it significantly lowered, diastolic pressure in normotensive rats.

  9. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  10. Optimization of the fermentation conditions and substrate specifity of mycelium-bound ester hydrolases of Aspergillus oryzae Cs007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hong Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve mycelium-bound ester hydrolases activities of Aspergillus oryzae Cs007, the main production conditions were investigated. The ester hydrolases activities were simultaneously determined by titration assay and spectrophotometric assay methods, using olive oil and p-nitrophenyl esters as substrates, respectively. The optimum carbon source and nitrogen source were olive oil and peptone, with the concentrations of 1% and 2.2%, respectively. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source and their concentrations on the production of enzymes were identical when the enzymes activities were assayed by the two methods. The mycelium-bound enzymes showed hydrolytic activity toward all the tested p-nitrophenyl esters, triglycerides and fatty acid ethyl esters. But it showed greater preference for long-chain triglycerides and short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters.

  11. Fatty-acid alkyl esters in table olives in relation to abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, B.; Serio, M.G. di; Giacinto, L. di

    2016-07-01

    There are several methods to prepare table olives, and each of the steps and conditions during this processing can affect the composition and nutritional value of the product. The influence of abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments was examined here in terms of the lipid fraction of table olives. In ‘Greek style’ olives, a low concentration of brine can allow the growth of spontaneous microflora and consequent organoleptic defects (‘putrid/butyric fermentation’, ‘winey-vinegary’). Here, the ‘Kalamata’ and ‘Moresca’ cultivars can produce methyl esters (methyl oleate/ linoleate: 553 and 450 mg·kg−1 oil, respectively) and ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ inoleate: 4764 and 4195; palmitate: 617 and 886 mg·kg −1 oil, respectively). In ‘Sevillan style’ olives, a high NaOH concentration influences the fatty-acid composition less, but is difficult to eliminate, for a ‘soapy’ defect. The ‘Giarraffa’ and ‘Nocellara del Belice’ cultivars produce only ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ linoleate: 222 and 289 mg·kg−1 oil, respectively). With this production of ethyl and methyl esters from the principal fatty acids in the lipid fractions of table olives, methods that provide only biological treatments (i.e., Greek style) pose more risk than methods that provide only chemical treatments (i.e., Sevillan style). (Author)

  12. Alcohol and Acetaldehyde in Public Health: From Marvel to Menace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  13. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in public health: from marvel to menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  14. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  15. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  16. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  17. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  18. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  19. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of

  20. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  1. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported WMe5

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima

    2015-11-14

    Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) by silica supported multifunctional W-based catalyst is disclosed. This transformation represents a novel route towards unsaturated di-esters. Especially, the self-metathesis of ethyl undecylenate results almost exclusively on the homo-coupling product whereas with such catalyst, 1-decene gives ISOMET (isomerization and metathesis olefin) products. The olefin metathesis in the presence of esters is very selective without any secondary cross-metathesis products demonstrating that a high selective olefin metathesis could operate at 150 °C. Additionally, a cross-metathesis of unsaturated FAEs and α-olefins allowed the synthesis of the corresponding ester with longer hydrocarbon skeleton without isomerisation.

  2. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Giri, Binod; Szőri, Milá n; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  3. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2016-09-20

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  4. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  5. Effects of Different Lipophilized Ferulate Esters in Fish Oil-Enriched Milk: Partitioning, Interaction, Protein, and Lipid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ferulic acid and lipophilized ferulate esters were investigated in fish oil-enriched milk. Methyl ferulate (C1) and ethyl ferulate (C2) more efficiently prevented lipid oxidation than dodecyl ferulate (C12) did, followed by ferulic acid (C0). The combination of C1 or C2 wit...

  6. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  7. Adsorption of acetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. II. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl on saturated Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W P; Fang, Z; Liu, H J; Yang, W C

    2001-04-01

    Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of the herbicide diethatyl-ethyl [N-chloroacetyl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)glycine ethyl ester] on homoionic Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite clays were investigated in water solution. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient, Ki, got from isotherms on clay followed the order of Na+ approximately K+ > Mg2+ approximately Ca2+. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of diethatyl-ethyl adsorbed on clay suggests probable bonding at the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups of the herbicide. The rate of herbicide hydrolysis in homoionic clay suspensions followed the same order as that for adsorption, indicating that adsorption may have preceded and thus caused hydrolysis. Preliminary product identification showed that hydrolysis occurred via nucleophilic substitution at the carboxyl carbon, causing the cleavage of the ester bond and formation of diethatyl and its dechlorinated derivative, and at the amide carbon, yielding an ethyl ester derivative and its acid. These pathways also suggest that hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl was catalyzed by adsorption on the clay surface.

  8. Apomorphine and its esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine......, monolauroyl apomorphine (MLA) and dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) were subjected to apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The stability of these compounds was also assessed by incubation at intestinal pH and physiological pH with and without Caco-2...

  9. Esters with water esters 2-c to 6-c

    CERN Document Server

    Getzen, F W; Hefter, G T; Maczynski, Andrzej

    1992-01-01

    This volume is the first of two devoted to esters and water. It includes solubility data for binary systems containing an ester and water up to the end of 1988. The critical evaluations were all prepared by one author and an introductory section has been included to elaborate the philosophy and methodology followed in the evaluations.

  10. Novel fatty acid methyl esters from the actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Hilke; Riclea, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Summary The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in diverse structural variants: Unbranched, α-branched, γ-branched, (ω−1)-branched, (ω−2)-branched, α- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−2)-branched, and γ- and (ω−3)-branched FAMEs. FAMEs of the last three types have not been described from natural sources before. The structures for all FAMEs have been suggested based on their mass spectra and on a retention index increment system and verified by the synthesis of key reference compounds. In addition, the structures of two FAMEs, methyl 4,8-dimethyldodecanoate and the ethyl-branched compound methyl 8-ethyl-4-methyldodecanoate were deduced from their mass spectra. Feeding experiments with isotopically labelled [2H10]leucine, [2H10]isoleucine, [2H8]valine, [2H5]sodium propionate, and [methyl-2H3]methionine demonstrated that the responsible fatty acid synthase (FAS) can use different branched and unbranched starter units and is able to incorporate methylmalonyl-CoA elongation units for internal methyl branches in various chain positions, while the methyl ester function is derived from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). PMID:22238549

  11. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 2-(Aminoacid ester)-3-(6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-11-06

    Nov 6, 2008 ... synthesized new 6-membered heterocycles in which aminoacid esters are linked to the phosphorus .... analysis run in a 3:7 mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane and the average Rf value observed was 0.75. ..... 7 K.G. Devine, C. McGuigan, T.J. O'Connor, S.R. Nicholis and. D. Kinchington, AIDS, 1990, 4, ...

  13. Screening of adjunct cultures and their application in ester formation in Camembert-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Q; Liu, X M; Hang, F; Zhao, J X; Zhang, H; Chen, W

    2018-04-01

    The ethanol content and esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activities are the limiting factors in the synthesis of ethyl esters in Camembert-type cheeses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alcohol, esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activities on ethyl ester formation in Camembert-type cheeses. Five experimental cheeses were prepared with three adjunct cultures with different enzyme activities and two levels of ethanol content (400 or 800 μg/g). The cheeses were aged for 4 weeks and analysed weekly for basic physicochemical, textural, volatile and sensory properties. The results showed that both the enzyme activity and ethanol content were limiting factors in the synthesis of ethyl esters in the Camembert-type cheeses. Variation in the esterase synthesis activity was observed among lactic acid bacteria, and the starter culture Lactococcus lactis MA 14 LYO distinguished itself through its high acidifying and esterase hydrolysis abilities. The addition of CCFM 12, a lactic acid bacteria strain with high esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activity, along with 400 or 800 μg/g of ethanol, notably enhanced the generation of ethyl esters and the corresponding fruity flavour, without causing dramatic changes in the basic physicochemical indices and microbial profile. In addition, cohesiveness was influenced by the addition of 400 and 800 μg/g of ethanol, and more resilience with 800 μg/g of ethanol had been found. The results showed that the addition of CCFM12 with 400 and 800 μg/g of ethanol may be applied in the production of Camembert cheese to enhance its fruity flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  15. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscolo Maurício

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaça, were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC. The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a. and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a. in cachaças, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachaças (6 mg/100 mL a.a. is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachaças have been observed.

  16. Synthesis of New Functionalized Indoles Based on Ethyl Indol-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. A. Boraei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful alkylations of the nitrogen of ethyl indol-2-carboxylate were carried out using aq. KOH in acetone. The respective N-alkylated acids could be obtained without separating the N-alkylated esters by increasing the amount of KOH and water. The use of NaOMe in methanol led to transesterification instead of the alkylation, while the use of NaOEt led to low yields of the N-alkylated acids. Hydrazinolysis of the ester gave indol-2-carbohydrazide which then was allowed to react with different aromatic aldehydes and ketones in ethanol catalyzed by acetic acid. Indol-2-thiosemicarbazide was used in a heterocyclization reaction to form thiazoles. The new structures were confirmed using NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray single crystal analysis.

  17. Lipid Effects of Icosapent Ethyl in Women with Diabetes Mellitus and Persistent High Triglycerides on Statin Treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Mosca, Lori

    2018-03-27

    High triglycerides (TG) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are stronger predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men, but few randomized, controlled clinical trials have investigated lipid-lowering interventions in women and none have reported results specifically in women with high TG and DM2. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) is pure prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at 4 g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG ≥500 mg/dL. The 12-week ANCHOR trial randomized 702 statin-treated patients (73% with DM; 39% women) at increased CVD risk with TG 200-499 mg/dL despite controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 40-99 mg/dL) to receive icosapent ethyl 2 g/day, 4 g/day, or placebo. This post hoc analysis included 146 women with DM2 (97% white, mean age 62 years) randomized to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (n = 74) or placebo (n = 72). Icosapent ethyl significantly reduced TG (-21.5%; p women with DM2 at high CVD risk with persistently high TG on statins, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day reduced potentially atherogenic parameters with safety and tolerability comparable to placebo. Potential CVD benefits of icosapent ethyl are being tested in ∼8000 men and women at high CVD risk with high TG on statins in the ongoing Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Data from mass spectrometry, NMR spectra, GC–MS of fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Uranga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described herein is related to the article with the title “Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings” C.C. Uranga, J. Beld, A. Mrse, I. Cordova-Guerrero, M.D. Burkart, R. Hernandez-Martinez (2016 [1]. Data includes nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC–MS data used for the identification and characterization of fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. GC–MS traces are also shown for incubations in defined substrate, consisting in Vogel׳s salts supplemented with either 5% grapeseed oil or 5% glucose, the two combined, or 5% fructose. Traces for incubations in the combination of 5% grapeseed oil and 5% glucose for different fungal species are also included. Images of mycelium morphology when grown in 5% glucose with or without 5% grapeseed oil are shown due to the stark difference in mycelial pigmentation in the presence of triglycerides. High concentration gradient data for the plant model Nicotiana tabacum germinated in ethyl stearate (SAEE and ethyl linoleate (LAEE is included to show the transition between growth inhibition and growth induction in N. tabacum by these compounds. Keywords: NMR, GC–MS, Fatty acid esters, Ethyl stearate, Ethyl linoleate, Growth inhibition, Growth induction

  20. A new, direct analytical method using LC-MS/MS for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Ogiso, M; Isagawa, S; Urushiyama, T; Ukena, T; Kibune, N

    2013-01-01

    A new, direct analytical method for the determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD esters) was developed. The targeted 3-MCPD esters included five types of monoester and 25 [corrected] types of diester. Samples (oils and fats) were dissolved in a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and ethyl acetate (4:1), purified using two solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (C(18) and silica), then analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Five monoesters and five diesters with the same fatty acid group could be separated and quantified. Pairs of 3-MCPD diesters carrying the same two different fatty acid groups, but at reversed positions (sn-1 and sn-2), could not be separated and so were expressed as a sum of both compounds. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be between 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg(-1), depending on the types of 3-MCPD ester. Repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD(r)%) varied from 5.5% to 25.5%. The new method was shown to be applicable to various commercial edible oils and showed levels of 3-MCPD esters varying from 0.58 to 25.35 mg kg(-1). The levels of mono- and diesters ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 mg kg(-1) and from 0.06 to 16 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  1. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Chemical group 1 (CG 1) consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic...

  3. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Fares,1 Carl J Lavie,2,3 James J DiNicolantonio,4 James H O'Keefe,5 Richard V Milani2 1Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 4Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO, 5Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA Abstract: Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL, and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. Keywords: triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  4. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  5. Imprinting of Phenylalanine ethyl ester in cyclodextrin polymers in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detcheva, Anna Hr.; Yu, Donghong; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    During the last decades there has been a wide interest of developing molecularly imprinted polymers, which selectively can recognize small molecules. Cyclodextrins offer relatively strong binding site of a wide range of small molecules in water and molecular imprinted polymers of these have...... previously been produced with some success. Nevertheless most molecules of interest for molecular imprinting are too samll to accommodate more than one cyclodextrin per molecule and thus limited selectivity may be expected. In order to improve the selectivity of cyclodextrin based molecular imprinted polymer...

  6. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical... accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739... current version of ASTM F1383 “Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to...

  8. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  9. Esters of ricebran oil with short chain alcohols as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Zaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of ricebran oil as a feedstock for the production of a fuel for diesel engines alternative to regular diesel fuel has been assessed. Esterification rate of crude ricebran oil with methyl alcohol was studied using different volumetric ratios of alcohol to oil, different catalyst loads and catalyst types. Catalysts used were sulfuric acid at a concentration of 2% of the oil/alcohol mixture in addition to hydrochloric acid and Amberlite IR-120 cation exchange resin at the same molar concentration of H+ as in case of sulfuric acid. The reaction was fastest using sulfuric acid which has been then used to prepare esters of ricebran oil with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. The four products have been evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines according to their fuel properties compared to regular diesel fuel. These properties include the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane number, sulfur content and ASTM distillation characteristics. The results have shown that the methyl as well as the ethyl esters have the closest properties to those of regular diesel fuel. Diesel engine performance using blends of regular diesel fuel with methyl and ethyl esters of ricebran oil have been tested and compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the engine performance using a blend of 50% regular diesel fuel and 50% methyl esters of ricebran oil is better than that using regular diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency at full load was 30.2% using the fuel blend compared to 27.5% in case of regular fuel.

  10. Evaluation of the influence of base and alkyl bromide on synthesis of pyrazinoic acid esters through factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Paulo dos Santos; Felli, Veni Maria Andres

    2009-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid esters have been synthesized as prodrugs of pyrazinoic acid. In the literature, its preparation is reported through the reaction of pyrazinoyl chloride with alcohols and the reaction with DCC/DMAP. In this work, it is reported a 22 factorial design to evaluate the preparation of these esters through the substitution of alkyl bromides with carboxylate anion. The controlled factors were alkyl chain length of bromides (ethyl and hexyl) and the used base (triethylamine and DBU). Results revealed that the used base used has significant effect on yield, and alkyl bromide used has neither significant influence, nor its interaction effect with base. (author)

  11. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena E. Díaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE. The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis.

  12. Synthesis of ethyl [14CH3]methylmalonyl thioglycolate as a possible substrate analogue of [14CH3]methylmalonyl coenzyme-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.; Kovacs, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl methylmalonyl thioglycolate is a potential substrate analogue of methylmalonyl-coenzyme-A (methylmalonyl-CoA) in the investigation of propionic acid metabolism. To prove this hypothesis, the tracer ethyl [ 14 CH 3 ] methylmalonyl thioglycolate was synthesized via methyl-Meldrum's acid to carry out the biochemical examinations. The method described can also be used to synthesize [ 14 CH 3 ] methylmalonyl-CoA by transesterification of active labelled methylmalonyl thiophenyl ester. This latter intermediate is chemically stable when stored at room temperature, and the unstable [ 14 CH 3 ]methylmalonyl-CoA can be prepared in one step just preceeding the biochemical experiments. (author)

  13. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  14. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed...

  15. Stimulation of {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine uptake in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by tyrosine esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)], E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.jp; Ogura, Masato; Sagara, Jun-ichi; Nakajima, Syuichi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Iwamura, Yukio; Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: Transport of the amino acid analog {sup 123}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine, which is used in clinical SPECT imaging, occurs mainly via L-type amino acid transporter type 1 (LAT1; an amino acid exchanger). As LAT1 is highly expressed in actively proliferating tumors, we made a preliminary investigation of the effects of amino acid esters on enhancement of {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) uptake via LAT1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Methods: Because the sequence of the CHO-K1 LAT1 gene is not available, we confirmed LAT1 expression through IMT (18.5 kBq) uptake mechanisms using specific inhibitors. L-Gly, L-Ser, L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Met, L-Tyr, D-Tyr, L-Val and L-Lys ethyl/methyl esters were tested in combination with IMT. Time-course studies over a 3-h period were conducted, and the concentration dependence of L-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters (0.001 to 10 mM) in combination with IMT was also examined. For a proof of de-esterification of L- and D-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters in the cells (by enzymatic attack or other cause), the concentration of L- and D-Tyr was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography of the esters in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and cell homogenates at 37 deg. C or under ice-cold conditions. Results: Inhibition tests suggested that LAT1 is involved in IMT uptake by CHO-K1 cells. Co-administration of 1 mM of L-Tyr ethyl or methyl ester with IMT produced the greatest enhancement. The de-esterification reaction was stereo selective and temperature dependent in the homogenate. De-esterification kinetics were very fast in the homogenate and very slow in the phosphate buffer. Conclusions: The L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters were the most effective enhancers of IMT uptake into CHO-K1 cells and acted by trans-stimulation of the amino acid exchange function of LAT1. This result suggests that de-esterification in the cells may be caused by enzymatic attack. We will use IMT and L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters to examine

  16. Aspergillus niger whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Govindaraju; Morya, Vivek Kumar; Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of caffeic acid ester essentially requires an efficient esterification process to produce various kinds of medicinally important ester derivatives. In the present study, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of whole-cell catalyzed caffeic acid esters production in ionic liquids (ILs) media was performed. Olive oil induced mycelial mass of halotolerant Aspergillus niger (A.niger) EXF 4321 was freeze dried and used as a catalyst. To ensure maximum solubilization of caffeic acid for highest substrate loading several ILs were screened and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf 2 N]) was found to have the maximum solubility and favoured for enzymatic activity of freeze dried mycelia. The whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) conditions were optimized and bioconversion up to 84% was achieved at a substrate molar ratio of 1:20 (caffeic acid:2-phenyl ethanol), 30°C for 12h. Results obtained during this study were encouraging and helpful to design a bioreactor system to produce caffeic acid derived esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  18. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Oxidation of Four Small Alkyl Esters in Laminar Premixed Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Westmoreland, P R; Dryer, F L; Chaos, M; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K; Cool, T A; Wang, J; Yang, B; Hansen, N; Kasper, T

    2008-02-08

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism has been developed for a group of four small alkyl ester fuels, consisting of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate. This mechanism is validated by comparisons between computed results and recently measured intermediate species mole fractions in fuel-rich, low pressure, premixed laminar flames. The model development employs a principle of similarity of functional groups in constraining the H atom abstraction and unimolecular decomposition reactions in each of these fuels. As a result, the reaction mechanism and formalism for mechanism development are suitable for extension to larger oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, together with an improved kinetic understanding of the structure and chemical kinetics of alkyl ester fuels that can be extended to biodiesel fuels. Variations in concentrations of intermediate species levels in these flames are traced to differences in the molecular structure of the fuel molecules.

  19. Vasodilatory effects and underlying mechanisms of the ethyl acetate extracts from Gastrodia elata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rong; Wang, Ting; Si, Xiaoqin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Yan; Lin, Qing; Yang, Cui

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ethyl acetate extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. GEB was extracted with 95% EtOH followed by a further extraction with ethyl acetate. The effects of GEB and its ingredients on the isometric tensions of the aortic rings from rats were measured. The ethyl acetate extract of GEB induced a vasodilatory effect on rat aorta, which was partially dependent on endothelium. Four chemical compounds isolated from GEB were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DB), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HB), 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (MA), and 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane (DM), respectively. All of these compounds induced vasodilatations, which were dependent on the endothelium to different degrees. After pretreatment with N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, or methylene blue, the vasodilatations induced by DB, HB, and MA were significantly decreased. In addition, the contractions of the rat aortic rings due to Ca 2+ influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release were also inhibited by DM. Furthermore, the administration of DB significantly enhanced the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of the endothelial NO synthase in aorta and in endothelial cells. Thus, GEB may play an important role in the amelioration of hypertension by modulating vascular tones.

  20. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  1. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  3. EXPERIMENTAL DATA, THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR THE PURIFICATION STEPS OF ETHYL BIODIESEL FROM FODDER RADISH OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Basso

    Full Text Available Abstract The goals of this work were to present original liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the system containing glycerol + ethanol + ethyl biodiesel from fodder radish oil, including the individual distribution of each ethyl ester; to adjust binary parameters of the NRTL; to compare NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund in the LLE representation of the system containing glycerol; to simulate different mixer/settler flowsheets for biodiesel purification, evaluating the ratio water/biodiesel used. In thermodynamic modeling, the deviations between experimental data and calculated values were 0.97% and 3.6%, respectively, using NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund. After transesterification, with 3 moles of excess ethanol, removal of this component until a content equal to 0.08 before an ideal settling step allows a glycerol content lower than 0.02% in the ester-rich phase. Removal of ethanol, glycerol and water from biodiesel can be performed with countercurrent mixer/settler, using 0.27% of water in relation to the ester amount in the feed stream.

  4. De novo biosynthesis of biodiesel by Escherichia coli in optimized fed-batch cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkai Duan

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel fuel that can contribute to carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy supply. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters, including fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and is currently produced through the transesterification reaction of methanol (or ethanol and triacylglycerols (TAGs. TAGs are mainly obtained from oilseed plants and microalgae. A sustainable supply of TAGs is a major bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here we report the de novo biosynthesis of FAEEs from glucose, which can be derived from lignocellulosic biomass, in genetically engineered Escherichia coli by introduction of the ethanol-producing pathway from Zymomonas mobilis, genetic manipulation to increase the pool of fatty acyl-CoA, and heterologous expression of acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi. An optimized fed-batch microbial fermentation of the modified E. coli strain yielded a titer of 922 mg L(-1 FAEEs that consisted primarily of ethyl palmitate, -oleate, -myristate and -palmitoleate.

  5. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  6. Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Methacrylate ester monomers are used in as artificial nail builders in nail enhancement products. They undergo rapid polymerization to form a hard material on the nail that is then shaped. While Ethyl Methacrylate is the primary monomer used in nail enhancement products, other methacrylate esters are also used. This safety assessment addresses 22 other methacrylate esters reported by industry to be present in small percentages as artificial nail builders in cosmetic products. They function to speed up polymerization and/or form cross-links. Only Tetrahydrofurfuryl Methacrylate was reported to the FDA to be in current use. The polymerization rates of these methacrylate esters are within the same range as Ethyl Methacrylate. While data are not available on all of these methacrylate esters, the available data demonstrated little acute oral, dermal, or i.p. toxicity. In a 28-day inhalation study on rats, Butyl Methacrylate caused upper airway irritation; the NOAEL was 1801 mg/m3. In a 28-day oral toxicity study on rats, t-Butyl Methacrylate had a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg/day. Beagle dogs dosed with 0.2 to 2.0 g/kg/day of C12 to C18 methacrylate monomers for 13 weeks exhibited effects only in the highest dose group: weight loss, emesis, diarrhea, mucoid feces, or salivation were observed. Butyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) and Isobutyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) are mildly irritating to the rabbit eye. HEMA is corrosive when instilled in the rabbit eye, while PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are minimally irritating to the eye. Dermal irritation caused by methacrylates is documented in guinea pigs and rabbits. In guinea pigs, HEMA, Isopropylidenediphenyl Bisglycidyl Methacrylate, Lauryl Methacrylate, and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are strong sensitizers; Butyl Methacrylate, Cyclohexyl Methacrylate, Hexyl Methacrylate, and Urethane Methacrylate are moderate sensitizers; Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate is a weak sensitizer; and PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and

  7. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  8. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for Jatropha curcas biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Juliana R.F.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent Jatropha curcas FAME and FAEE. ► Tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) with low deviations from mass balance. ► Experimental data correlated with the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: Reported in this study are (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for binary, ternary, and quaternary systems formed by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) of Jatropha curcas oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. In general, all the systems investigated resulted in good agreement between phase compositions of crunodes of tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) and overall compositions, hence indicating low deviations from mass balance. Experimental results were correlated with the UNIQUAC model, showing low deviations among experimental and calculated values

  9. Thermal Properties of Methyl Ester-Containing Poly(2-oxazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra J. M. Bouten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and thermal properties in solution and bulk of poly(2-alkyl-oxazolines (PAOx containing a methyl ester side chain. Homopolymers of 2-methoxycarbonylethyl-2-oxazoline (MestOx and 2-methoxycarbonylpropyl-2-oxazoline (C3MestOx, as well as copolymers with 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline (nPropOx, with systematic variations in composition were prepared. The investigation of the solution properties of these polymers revealed that the cloud point temperatures (TCPs could be tuned in between 24 °C and 108 °C by variation of the PAOx composition. To the best of our knowledge, the TCPs of PMestOx and PC3MestOx are reported for the first time and they closely resemble the TCPs of PEtOx and PnPropOx, respectively, indicating similar hydrophilicity of the methyl ester and alkyl side chains. Furthermore, the thermal transitions and thermal stability of these polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA measurements, respectively, revealing amorphous polymers with glass transition temperatures between -1 °C and 54 °C that are thermally stable up to >300 °C.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  11. Highly selective synthesis of conjugated dienoic and trienoic esters via alkyne elementometalation–Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangwei; Mohan, Swathi; Negishi, Ei-ichi

    2011-01-01

    All four stereoisomers (7–10) of ethyl undeca-2,4-dienoate were prepared in ≥98% isomeric purity by Pd-catalyzed alkenylation (Negishi coupling) using ethyl (E)- and (Z)-β-bromoacrylates. Although the stereoisomeric purity of the 2Z,4E-isomer (8) prepared by Suzuki coupling using conventional alkoxide and carbonate bases was ≤ 95%, as reported earlier, the use of CsF or nBu4NF as a promoter base has now been found to give all of 7–10 in ≥98% selectivity. Other widely known methods reveal considerable limitations. Heck alkenylation was satisfactory for the syntheses of the 2E,4E and 2E,4Z isomers of ≥98% purity, but the purity of the 2Z,4E isomer was ≤ 95%. Mutually complementary Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons and Still–Gennari (SG) olefinations are also of considerably limited scopes. Neither 2E,4Z nor 2Z,4Z isomer is readily prepared in ≥90% selectivity. In addition to (2Z,4E)-dienoic esters, some (2Z,4E,6E)- and (2Z,4E,6Z)-trienoic esters have been prepared in ≥98% selectivity by a newly devised Pd-catalyzed alkenylation–SG olefination tandem process. As models for conjugated higher oligoenoic esters, all eight stereoisomers for ethyl trideca-2,4,6-trienoate (23–30) have been prepared in ≥98% overall selectivity. PMID:21709262

  12. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  14. Structure-Activity Relationship Study on the Ethyl p-Methoxycinnamate as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismiarni Komala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC (1 has been isolated as a major compound from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga together with the other compound ethyl cinnamate (2. As reported in the literature, EPMC (1 exhibited a significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. In this research, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1 and 2 by using anti-denaturation of heat bovine serum albumin (BSA method. In order to analyze active sites that are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, therefore, it is necessary to conduct structural modification of EPMC (1. The structural modification was performed through re-esterification reaction by using conventional and assistance of the unmodified microwave oven. Evaluation of the results of the bioassay indicated that the ester and methoxy functional groups of EPMC (1 play an important role for the anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Rational selection of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for mixed starters based on ester formation and enological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Fernando; Gil, José V; Genovés, Salvador; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight yeast strains belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Torulaspora and Zygosaccharomyces were screened for ester formation on synthetic microbiological medium. The genera Hanseniaspora and Pichia stood out as the best acetate ester producers. Based on the ester profile Hanseniaspora guilliermondii 11027 and 11102, Hanseniaspora osmophila 1471 and Pichia membranifaciens 10113 and 10550 were selected for further characterization of enological traits. When growing on must H. osmophila 1471, which displayed a glucophilic nature and was able to consume more than 90% of initial must sugars, produced levels of acetic acid, medium chain fatty acids and ethyl acetate, within the ranges described for wine. On the other hand, it was found to be a strong producer of 2-phenylethyl acetate. Our data suggest that H. osmophila 1471 is a good candidate for mixed starters, although the possible interactions with S. cerevisiae deserve further research.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  17. Toxicity of phosphor esters: Willy Lange (1900-1976) and Gerda von Krueger (1907-after 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, G A

    2010-10-01

    In 1851 Williamson serendipitously discovered a new and efficient way to produce ethers using ethyl iodide and potassium salts. Based on this new synthetic approach, the Frenchman Philippe de Clermont and the Muscovite Wladimir Moschnin, both élèves of Adolphe Wurtz in his Paris School of Chemistry, achieved the synthesis of the first ester of pyrophosphoric acid (TEPP). de Clermont "tasted" the new compound and although TEPP is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor he failed to recognize its toxicity. Almost a century later, in 1932, Willy Lange (1900-1976) and his graduate student Gerda v. Krueger (1907-after 1970) described the toxicity of organophosphonates. While the classic paper of the two "Uber Ester der Monofluorphosphorsäure." is cited by almost everybody working in the field, little is known about Lange and almost nothing about v. Krueger. This brief communication attempts to shed some light on the life of both.

  18. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  19. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  20. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment...... at 28degreesC with a commercial lipase was studied as a way to enhance PAE removal. Pretreatment at 70degreesC of the sludge containing PAE negatively influenced the anaerobic biodegradability of phthalate esters at 37degreesC. The observed reduction of PAE biodegradation rates after the thermal...... pretreatment was found to be proportional to the PAE solubility in water: the higher the solubility, the higher the percentage of the reduction (DEP > DBP > DEHP). PAE were slowly degraded during the pretreatment at 70degreesC, yet this was probably due to physicochemical reactions than to microbial...

  1. The ability of fruit and vegetable enzyme system to hydrolyse ester bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus and apples (Malus silvestris can hydrolyse totally, or almost totally, ester bonds in phenyl, α- and β-naphthyl, benzyl and cinnamyl acetates. In methyl 4-acetoxy-3-metoxybenzoate and methyl 2,5-diacetoxybenzoate as well as testosterone propionate and 16,17-acetonide of 21-acetoxy-6-fluoro-16α,17β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, the hydrolysis is selective towards the substrate and the bioreagent. In contrast, ethyl benzoate and cinnamate are resistant to hydrolysis.

  2. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax ester synthases (WSs can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. Results Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. Conclusions Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.

  3. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging triterpenoid esters in evening primrose seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Janine; Potterat, Olivier; Plescher, Andreas; Honermeier, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-09-06

    Lipophilic triterpenoidal esters with radical scavenging and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties were recently found in cold-pressed, nonraffinated evening primrose oil (EPO). A quantitative assay for the analysis of 3-O-trans-caffeoyl derivatives of betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acid in evening primrose seeds was developed and validated. Extraction efficiency >99% was achieved by means of pressurized liquid extraction with two extraction cycles and 80% (v/v) ethanol at 120 degrees C. Analysis of esters was by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Diol column and hexane/ethyl acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid) (65:35) as the eluent. The analytes were determined without further prepurification. Seeds from defined cultures of Oenothera biennis, Oenothera lamarckiana, and Oenothera ammophila, grown under identical conditions, were analyzed. The cultures originated from seeds from eight collections in the wild and from selections from five cultivars. The content of total triterpenoidal esters in seeds varied between 1.34 and 2.78 mg/g. Three types of qualitative patterns were observed for the triterpenoidal esters. The influence of different harvest times and plant treatments was studied with the cultivar Anothera. Variations between 1.5 and 2.3 mg/g were found.

  4. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  5. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  6. Direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Harvind K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Patil, Prafulla D. [American Refining Group, Inc., Bradford, PA (United States); Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cooke, Peter [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Core University Research Resource Lab.; Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Bio Security and Food Safety Center; Deng, Shuguang [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-08-06

    This paper presents a single-step, environmentally friendly approach for the direct conversion of wet algae to crude biodiesel under supercritical ethanol conditions. Ethanol was used for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of lipids in algae to produce fatty acid ethyl esters at supercritical conditions. In this work the effects of process parameters dry algae to ethanol (wt./vol.) ratio (1:6-1:15), reaction temperature (245-270 C), and reaction time (2-30 min.) on the yield of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were studied. 67% conversion was achieved at 265 C and 20 min of reaction time. The calorific value of a purified biodiesel sample produced at optimum conditions was measured to be 43 MJ/kg, which is higher than that of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the same biomass. The purified fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed using GC-MS and FTIR. TGA analysis of algal biomass and purified FAEE was presented along with TEM images of the biomass captured before and after supercritical ethanol transesterification. This green conversion process has the potential to provide an energy-efficient and economical route for the production of renewable biodiesel production.

  7. Ester Tuiksoo. Proua Suhkru kibedad päevad / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellel peagi täitub ministri ametis aasta Euroopa Liidu suhkrutrahvist, maaettevõtlusest, põllumajandusest, Euroopa Liidu toetustest, ministri elu- ja teenistuskäigust. Lisa: Ester Tuiksoo

  8. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  9. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2014-10-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study on chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Baosong; Li, Shuai

    2011-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques, and their structures were identified by physical characters and spectroscopic analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of the 95% ethanolic extract of Myricaria bracteata, and identified as myricarin (1), myricarin B (2), 3alpha-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (3), myricadiol (4), trans-ferulic acid 22-hydroxydocosanoic acid ester (5), docosyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate (6), dillenetin (7), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (8), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7, 3'-dimethoxyflavone (9), methyl 3, 5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acid (11), sinapaldehyde (12), vanillin (13), syringaldehyde (14), 3, 3', 4'-trimethoxyellagic acid (15), methyl p-hyroxybenzoate (16). Compounds 5, 6, 12-16 were isolated from the genus Myricaria for the fist time, all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the fist time, except for 8 and 9.

  11. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, D.F.; Hanson, R.K.; Westbrook, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  13. Effect of alcohol on skin permeation and metabolism of an ester-type prodrug in Yucatan micropig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Makiko; Ohara, Rieko; Matsumi, Azusa; Ohura, Kayoko; Koizumi, Naoya; Imai, Teruko; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2017-11-15

    We studied the effect that three alcohols, ethanol (EA), propanol (PA), and isopropanol (IPA), have on the skin permeation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (HBM), a model ester-type prodrug. HBM was applied to Yucatan micropig skin in a saturated phosphate buffered solution with or without 10% alcohol, and HBM and related materials in receptor fluid and skin were determined with HPLC. In the absence of alcohol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid (HBA), a metabolite of HBM, permeated the skin the most. The three alcohols enhanced the penetration of HBM at almost the same extent. The addition of 10% EA or PA to the HBM solution led to trans-esterification into the ethyl ester or propyl ester of HBA, and these esters permeated skin as well as HBA and HBM did. In contrast, the addition of 10% IPA promoted very little trans-esterification. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification in the skin S9 fraction were inhibited by BNPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase (CES). Western blot and native PAGE showed the abundant expression of CES in micropig skin. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification was simultaneously catalyzed by CES during skin permeation. Our data indicate that the alcohol used in dermal drug preparations should be selected not only for its ability to enhance the solubility and permeation of the drug, but also for the effect on metabolism of the drug in the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Intravenous ethyl alcohol in metabolic resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolini, G; Lipartiti, T; Zaffiri, O; Musso, L; Belloni, G P

    1980-11-01

    Intravenously administered ethyl alcohol may be effective as analgesic and hypotensive peripheric vasoactive drug. In the Intensive Care Departments parenteral ethanol administration is infrequent because no "sure dosage" can be suggested in adults and children. Liver, kidney and C.N.S. diseases can worsen; foetopathy can follow. Drug-ethanol interaction may be particularly important for some patients admitted in Intensive Care Departments. Often the potential caloric support cannot be fully utilized ("empty" calories) and seldom hyperventilation, hyperlactacidemia and impaired protein synthesis can follow.

  15. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  16. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  17. Reaction of (CP(2)asterisk-lnH)(2) (ln=Y, La) and CP(2)asterisk-Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) with esters and amides and molecular-structure of [CP(2)asterisk-Y(mu- ocme=chc(oet)o)](2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, B.J; Wierda, F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The activation of esters and amides by (Cp(2)*LnH)(2) [Ln = Y (1a), Ln = La (1b), Cp*=C(5)Me] and Cp(2)*Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) (2) is described. Compounds 1a and 1b react with ethyl acetate to form Cp(2)*YOEt (3a) and Cp(2)*LaOEt (30). With 1a and ethyl benzoate a 1:1 mixture of 3a and

  18. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  19. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number...

  20. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from...

  1. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  2. Ethyl Pyruvate Emerges as a Safe and Fast Acting Agent against Trypanosoma brucei by Targeting Pyruvate Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Worku

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT also called sleeping sickness is an infectious disease in humans caused by an extracellular protozoan parasite. The disease, if left untreated, results in 100% mortality. Currently available drugs are full of severe drawbacks and fail to escape the fast development of trypanosoma resistance. Due to similarities in cell metabolism between cancerous tumors and trypanosoma cells, some of the current registered drugs against HAT have also been tested in cancer chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the simple ester, ethyl pyruvate, comprises such properties.The current study covers the efficacy and corresponding target evaluation of ethyl pyruvate on T. brucei cell lines using a combination of biochemical techniques including cell proliferation assays, enzyme kinetics, phasecontrast microscopic video imaging and ex vivo toxicity tests. We have shown that ethyl pyruvate effectively kills trypanosomes most probably by net ATP depletion through inhibition of pyruvate kinase (Ki = 3.0±0.29 mM. The potential of ethyl pyruvate as a trypanocidal compound is also strengthened by its fast acting property, killing cells within three hours post exposure. This has been demonstrated using video imaging of live cells as well as concentration and time dependency experiments. Most importantly, ethyl pyruvate produces minimal side effects in human red cells and is known to easily cross the blood-brain-barrier. This makes it a promising candidate for effective treatment of the two clinical stages of sleeping sickness. Trypanosome drug-resistance tests indicate irreversible cell death and a low incidence of resistance development under experimental conditions.Our results present ethyl pyruvate as a safe and fast acting trypanocidal compound and show that it inhibits the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Competitive inhibition of this enzyme was found to cause ATP depletion and cell death. Due to its ability to easily cross

  3. Gamma radiolysis and vinyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, H.; Balic, R.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The principle behind γ relaxation of free-radical polymerizations is that the source of initiating radicals can be switched off 'instantaneously'. In the absence of initiating radicals the only kinetic events remaining are propagation, transfer and termination. For monomers whose propagation rate coefficients have been determined, relaxation behaviour can be interpreted to determine radical-loss rate coefficients and test models of loss mechanisms. This technique has been employed successfully on styrene and MMA emulsion polymerizations. In the present study, vinyl acetate and vinyl neo-decanoate (a ten-carbon-branched homologue of vinyl acetate) were studied, with the propagation rate coefficients for both monomers being established by pulsed-laser polymerization. Both were found to exhibit rapid γ relaxation rates in emulsion polymerization. This is a surprising result because mechanisms for rapid relaxation in emulsion polymerizations require that chain transfer to monomer (which is rapid for both monomers) is followed by exit from the particle into the aqueous phase with subsequent re-entry into a radical-containing particle leading to bimolecular termination. It is not unreasonable to suppose that this may be possible for vinyl acetate which is fairly water soluble (∼0.3 M). However, vinyl neo-decanoate is virtually insoluble (∼0.00004 M) and hence desorption is extremely unlikely. The most likely explanation for the observed rapid relaxations is that some of the radicals produced by γ radiolysis are slow to initiate vinyl esters and hence act as radical traps. As vinyl esters are known to be particularly unreactive monomers. it is feasible that this experimental artifact affects them to a much greater extent than some of the monomers studied successfully with this technique in the past

  4. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Esters of Quinoxaline 1,4-Di-N-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Palos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem in the world, and drug resistance has been a major obstacle in its treatment. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide has been proposed as a scaffold to design new drugs to combat this disease. To examine the efficacy of this compound, this study evaluates methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pansusceptible and monoresistant strains. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide on M. tuberculosis gyrase supercoiling was examined, and a stability analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was also carried out. Results showed that eight compounds (T-007, T-018, T-011, T-069, T-070, T-072, T-085 and T-088 had an activity similar to that of the reference drug isoniazid (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 0.12 µg/mL with an effect on nonreplicative cells and drug monoresistant strains. Structural activity relationship analysis showed that the steric effect of an ester group at 7-position is key to enhancing its biological effects. Additionally, T-069 showed a high stability after 24 h in human plasma at 37 °C.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in complex matrices by isothermal distillation of borate ester into curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Dash, K.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In situ distillation of borate ester into the curcumin solution has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of boron in a variety of complex matrixes. A polypropylene vessel containing the sample solution was placed inside a vessel (PP) containing 10 ml of curcumin solution and the distillation was carried out at room temperature/on a water bath. The borate ester collected in to the curcumin solution was evaporated to dryness on the water bath, taken in acetone and the absorbance was measured at 550 nm. In situ distillation of borate ester directly into the chromogenic reagent eliminates tedious sample treatment (before and/or after borate separation), use of methanol, complicated quartz set up, possible loss of boron and reduces the analysis time significantly. In situ dehydration of sample solution by ethanolic vapour in the absence of dehydrating acid prevents the formation of fluoborate and co-distillation of potential anionic interferents (nitrate and fluoride). This developed method has been applied for the determination of traces of boric acid in boron powder by the distillation of methyl borate at room temperature. For other matrixes (water, uranium oxide, uranyl nitrate, fluoride salt, etc.) distillation of ethyl borate was carried out on the water bath. LOD (3σ) was 5 ng g -1 for water and 30 ng g -1 for solid samples

  6. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  7. Cyclohexenones Through Addition of Ethyl Acetoacetate to 3-Aryl-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chalcone derivatives 3a–i containing a thiophene ring were prepared by the condensation of 1-(thiophen-3-yl)ethanone with aromatic aldehydes in excellent yields. The Michael addition of ethyl acetoacetate 4 to chalcone derivatives 3a–i resulted in the formation of nine novel ethyl 6-aryl ...

  8. Photoisomerization of ethyl ferulate: A solution phase transient absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbury, Michael D.; Baker, Lewis A.; Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Quan, Wen-Dong; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2017-04-01

    Ethyl ferulate (ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate) is currently used as a sunscreening agent in commercial sunscreen blends. Recent time-resolved gas-phase measurements have demonstrated that it possesses long-lived (>ns) electronic excited states, counterintuitive to what one might anticipate for an effective sunscreening agent. In the present work, the photodynamics of ethyl ferulate in cyclohexane, are explored using time-resolved transient electronic absorption spectroscopy, upon photoexcitation to the 11ππ∗ and 21ππ∗ states. We demonstrate that ethyl ferulate undergoes efficient non-radiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state, mediated by trans-cis isomerization. These results strongly suggest that even mild perturbations induced by a non-polar solvent, as may be found in a closer-to-market sunscreen blend, may contribute to our understanding of ethyl ferulate's role as a sunscreening agent.

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  10. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of ethyl ( sup 14 CH sub 3 )methylmalonyl thioglycolate as a possible substrate analogue of ( sup 14 CH sub 3 )methylmalonyl coenzyme-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, I. (BIOGAL Pharmaceutical Works, Debrecen (Hungary)); Kovacs, Z. (Inst. of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary))

    1991-11-01

    Ethyl methylmalonyl thioglycolate is a potential substrate analogue of methylmalonyl-coenzyme-A (methylmalonyl-CoA) in the investigation of propionic acid metabolism. To prove this hypothesis, the tracer ethyl ({sup 14}CH{sub 3}) methylmalonyl thioglycolate was synthesized via methyl-Meldrum's acid to carry out the biochemical examinations. The method described can also be used to synthesize ({sup 14}CH{sub 3}) methylmalonyl-CoA by transesterification of active labelled methylmalonyl thiophenyl ester. This latter intermediate is chemically stable when stored at room temperature, and the unstable ({sup 14}CH{sub 3})methylmalonyl-CoA can be prepared in one step just preceeding the biochemical experiments. (author).

  12. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  13. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  15. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration.

  17. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  18. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  19. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...... pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl...

  20. Influence of prohexadione-calcium, trinexapac-ethyl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl (TNE) and hexaconazole (HX) on lodging and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway of rice cultivar, Hwayeongbyeo. It was observed that these novel synthetic growth retardants suppressed lodging of rice under field conditions through ...

  1. Novel recombinant ethyl ferulate esterase from Burkholderia multivorans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates with specific ferulic acid (FA) esterase activity and cloning of a gene encoding activity. A micro-organism with ethyl ferulate hydrolysing (EFH) activity was isolated by culture enrichment...

  2. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Ultrasonic velocities, densities, and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide with methyl acrylate, or ethyl acrylate, or butyl acrylate, or 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate at T = 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondaiah, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sravana Kumar, D. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Degree College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sreekanth, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Krishna Rao, D., E-mail: krdhanekula@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Positive values of V{sub m}{sup E}, indicate dispersion forces between acrylic esters and DMF. > V{sub m}{sup E} values compared with Redlich-Kister polynomial. > Partial molar volumes data conclude that weak interactions exist in the systems. > Measured velocity values compared with theoretical values obtained by polynomials. - Abstract: Ultrasonic velocities, u, densities, {rho}, of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), butyl acrylate (BA), and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA), including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at T = 308.15 K. Using the experimental results, the excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, partial molar volumes, V-bar {sub m,1}, V-bar{sub m,2}, and excess partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub m,1}{sup E}, V-bar{sub m,2}{sup E} have been calculated. Molecular interactions in the systems have been studied in the light of variation of excess values of calculated properties. The excess properties have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. The positive values of V{sub m}{sup E} indicate the presence of dispersion forces between the DMF and acrylic ester molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental sound velocities to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied. Theoretical ultrasonic velocity data have been used to study molecular interactions in the binary systems investigated.

  4. Vasorelaxant Effect of a Newly Synthesized Dihydropyridine Ethyl Ester (DHPEE on Rat Thoracic Aorta: Dual Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Babaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DHPEE is a newly synthesized compound by merging the key structural elements in an angiotensin receptor blocker (Telmisartan with key structural elements in 1,4- dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (Nifedipine. In this study, we examined dual calcium channel blocking and AT1 antagonist activity for DHPEE. Methods: The functional inhibitory characteristics of DHPEE were studied in vitro in rat thoracic aorta preparations precontracted by phenylephrine (1µM or KCl (80µM or Ang II in normal or calcium-free solutions. Results: Concentration–dependent significant relaxation was observed in aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, KCl or Ang II. The tension increment produced by increasing external calcium was also reduced by DHPEE. DHPEE caused a marked decrease in the maximal contractile response of the vasoactive agents and shifted their concentration-response curves to the right. Conclusion: DHPEE possesses dual characteristics and cause vasorelaxation by blocking the L-type calcium channels and blocking Ang II receptors (AT1 in rat aortic smooth muscle.

  5. 75 FR 17769 - In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... respondents Bodyonics, Ltd. of Hicksville, New York (``Bodyonics''); EST Nutrition LLC d/b/a Engineered Sport... the imported articles. The Commission's orders were delivered to the President and the United States...

  6. L-Cysteine ethyl ester reverses the deleterious effects of morphine on, arterial blood-gas chemistry in tracheotomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, James; Passafaro, Rachael; Baby, Santhosh; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study determined whether the membrane-permeable ventilatory stimulant, L-cysteine ethylester (L-CYSee), reversed the deleterious actions of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Morphine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) elicited sustained decreases in arterial blood pH, pO₂ and sO₂, and increases in pCO₂ (all responses indicative of hypoventilation) and alveolar-arterial gradient (indicative of ventilation-perfusion mismatch). Injections of L-CYSee (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) reversed the effects of morphine in tracheotomized rats but were minimally active in non-tracheotomized rats. L-cysteine or L-serine ethylester (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) were without effect. It is evident that L-CYSee can reverse the negative effects of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry and alveolar-arterial gradient but that this positive activity is negated by increases in upper-airway resistance. Since L-cysteine and L-serine ethylester were ineffective, it is evident that cell penetrability and the sulfur moiety of L-CYSee are essential for activity. Due to its ready penetrability into the lungs, chest wall muscle and brain, the effects of L-CYSee on morphine-induced changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry are likely to involve both central and peripheral sites of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of cardiac connexin-43 by omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-ester supplementation demonstrated in spontaneously diabetic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radošinská, J.; Kurahara, L. H.; Hiraishi, K.; Viczenczová, C.; Egan Beňová, T.; Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Dosenko, V.; Navarová, J.; Obšitník, B.; Imanaga, I.; Soukup, Tomáš; Tribulová, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2015), s. 795-806 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : diabetes * omega-3 fatty acids * cardiac connexin-43 * PKC * ultrastructure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  8. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  9. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation for the estimation of the density of fatty acid esters fuels and its implications. A proposed Biodiesel Cetane Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, Magín; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Armas, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    Biodiesel fuels (methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetables oils and animal fats) are currently being used as a means to diminish the crude oil dependency and to limit the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector. However, their physical properties are different from traditional fossil fuels, this making uncertain their effect on new, electronically controlled vehicles. Density is one of those properties, and its implications go even further. First, because governments are expected to boost the use of high-biodiesel content blends, but biodiesel fuels are denser than fossil ones. In consequence, their blending proportion is indirectly restricted in order not to exceed the maximum density limit established in fuel quality standards. Second, because an accurate knowledge of biodiesel density permits the estimation of other properties such as the Cetane Number, whose direct measurement is complex and presents low repeatability and low reproducibility. In this study we compile densities of methyl and ethyl esters published in literature, and proposed equations to convert them to 15 degrees C and to predict the biodiesel density based on its chain length and unsaturation degree. Both expressions were validated for a wide range of commercial biodiesel fuels. Using the latter, we define a term called Biodiesel Cetane Index, which predicts with high accuracy the Biodiesel Cetane Number. Finally, simple calculations prove that the introduction of high-biodiesel content blends in the fuel market would force the refineries to reduce the density of their fossil fuels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a Δ11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine.

  12. The European source term code ESTER - basic ideas and tools for coupling of ATHLET and ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Schuch, A.; Hinkelmann, M.

    1993-04-01

    The French software house CISI and IKE of the University of Stuttgart have developed during 1990 and 1991 in the frame of the Shared Cost Action Reactor Safety the informatic structure of the European Source TERm Evaluation System (ESTER). Due to this work tools became available which allow to unify on an European basis both code development and code application in the area of severe core accident research. The behaviour of reactor cores is determined by thermal hydraulic conditions. Therefore for the development of ESTER it was important to investigate how to integrate thermal hydraulic code systems with ESTER applications. This report describes the basic ideas of ESTER and improvements of ESTER tools in view of a possible coupling of the thermal hydraulic code system ATHLET and ESTER. Due to the work performed during this project the ESTER tools became the most modern informatic tools presently available in the area of severe accident research. A sample application is given which demonstrates the use of the new tools. (orig.) [de

  13. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  14. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  15. Isolation and characterization of dipropyl-, S-propyl ester from Exiguobacterium mexicanum (MSSRFS9 against larvae of malaria and dengue vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Perumal Shanthakumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal property of the compound dipropyl-, S-propyl ester extracted from the Gram-positive rhizosphere bacterium against the fourth instars larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies and dengue vector, Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus. Methods: Bacteria were taxonomically identified as Exiguobacterium mexicanum (E. mexicanum and different crude solvent extracts were examined for its larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. The crude extract was eluted in silica gel column chromatography and the pure compound was identified. Results: The highest larvicidal activity against An. culicifacies was exhibited by ethyl acetate extract. The bacterium of E. mexicanum extract at 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 mg/L caused against both vector mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol and ethyl acetate caused moderate considerable mortality. The highest larval mortality was observed in ethyl acetate extract. Conclusions: The results of the bacterial extract of E. mexicanum are promising as potential larvicidal compound against the mosquito vectors (An. culicifacies and Ae. albopictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activity with dipropyl-, S-propyl ester compound from India.

  16. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available , was developed simultaneously by Hart- wig and Buchwald.5 Typically the tert-butyl ester of propionic acid is treated with an aryl halide (bromide or chloride) in the presence of a strong base, palladium and a bulky phosphine ligand or a bulky imidazolinium CO2t... novel palladium- catalysed conditions for the arylation of acetoacetate esters resulting in the formation of 2-arylacetic acid esters. When we attempted the arylation of tert-butyl aceto- acetate 1a with bromobenzene 2a using mild reaction conditions (K3...

  17. Segmented poly(ether ester)s and poly(ether ester amide)s for use in tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the studies described in this thesis is to investigate the applicability of these slowly degradable thermoplastic elastomers as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on their phase separation and degradation properties. A second thermoplastic elastomer in which the terephthalic moieties have been replaced by ester-amide segments, is also investigated for use in scaffolding.

  18. Ethyl 3-[(3,5-dimethylphenylaminocarbonyl]propanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-H atoms in the title compound, C14H19NO3, lie on a mirror plane. The amide O and ester carbonyl O atoms are trans to each other. Furthermore, the C=O and O—CH2 bonds of the ester group are syn with respect to each other. In the crystal, molecules are packed into centrosymmetric dimers through intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Study on emission of decomposed chemicals of esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Satoko; Ataka, Yuji [R and D Center, Yoshino Gypsum Co., Ltd., 2-1-1 Kohoku, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-0872 (Japan); Kato, Shinsuke; Seo, Janghoo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) is sometimes detected in indoor air at relatively high concentrations. The emission mechanism for 2E1H is considered to be that moisture with a high pH in concrete slabs and self-leveling sub-flooring material reacts with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring and compounds containing the 2-ethyl-1-hexyl group in the adhesive. 2E1H is considered to be one of the causes of odor in indoor air and sick building syndrome, so it is important to clarify the 2E1H emission mechanism for IAQ. However, there are few reports on any experimentation into 2E1H emission by chemical reaction involving building materials. In this study, PVC floorings are attached using various adhesives to a self-leveling sub-flooring material that contains water, and their 2E1H emission rates are measured. Furthermore, the components of the adhesives are determined using chemical analysis. It is found that 2E1H emission rates from the floor are affected by the type of adhesive used. On the other hand, some components in the adhesives may suppress the hydrolysis of esters. The hydrolysis of polymers and residual monomers in the adhesive causes 2E1H emission from the adhesive. (author)

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  1. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Stephan, M.; Safarov, J.; Kul, I.; Nocke, J.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Hassel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Viscosity of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Thermodynamic properties of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Equation of state of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. - Abstract: Density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] have been measured over the temperature range from (283.15 to 413.15) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa and in the temperature range from (283.15 to 373.15) K at 0.1 MPa, respectively. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be (0.01 to 0.08)%, 0.1%, 15 mK, and 0.35%, respectively. The measurements were carried out with an Anton–Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton–Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using various reference fluids, double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empiric equation of state for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] has been developed using the measured (p, ρ, T) data. This equation was used to calculate the various thermodynamic properties of the IL and for compare with measured properties (speed of sound and enthalpy). Theoretically based Arrhenius–Andrade and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher type equations were use to describe of the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. All measured properties were detailed compared with the reported data by other author.

  2. Kinetics of exchange between zero-, one-, and two-hydrogen-bonded states of methyl and ethyl acetate in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntonov, Lev; Pazos, Ileana M; Ma, Jianqiang; Gai, Feng

    2015-03-26

    It has recently been shown that the ester carbonyl stretching vibration can be used as a sensitive probe of local electrostatic field in molecular systems. To further characterize this vibrational probe and extend its potential applications, we studied the kinetics of chemical exchange between differently hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) ester carbonyl groups of methyl acetate (MA) and ethyl acetate (EA) in methanol. We found that, while both MA and EA can form zero, one, or two H-bonds with the solvent, the population of the 2hb state in MA is significantly smaller than that in EA. Using a combination of linear and nonlinear infrared measurements and numerical simulations, we further determined the rate constants for the exchange between these differently H-bonded states. We found that for MA the chemical exchange reaction between the two dominant states (i.e., 0hb and 1hb states) has a relaxation rate constant of 0.14 ps(-1), whereas for EA the three-state chemical exchange reaction occurs in a predominantly sequential manner with the following relaxation rate constants: 0.11 ps(-1) for exchange between 0hb and 1hb states and 0.12 ps(-1) for exchange between 1hb and 2hb states.

  3. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerafi, Rania; Swanepoel, Andri; Crampon, Christelle; Kalombo, Lonji; Labuschagne, Philip; Badens, Elisabeth; Masmoudi, Yasmine

    2017-05-01

    Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were used as solvents for both drug and polymeric excipient. When ethyl acetate was used, rifampicin was crystallized separately without being embedded within the ethyl cellulose matrix while by using the ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture, reduced crystallinity of the active ingredient was observed and a simultaneous precipitation of ethyl cellulose and drug was achieved. The effect of solvent/CO 2 molar ratio and polymer/drug mass ratio on the co-precipitates morphology and drug loading was investigated. Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose/rifampicin ratio. Results show that the solvent nature and the initial drug concentrations affect morphology and drug precipitation yield of the formulations. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that the release profile of rifampicin was sustained when co-precipitation was carried out with the solvent mixture. It was demonstrated that the drug to polymer ratio influenced amorphous content of the SAS co-precipitates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and infrared spectra revealed that there is neither interaction between rifampicin and the polymer nor degradation of rifampicin during co-precipitation. In addition, stability stress tests on SAS co-precipitates were carried out at 75% relative humidity and room temperature in order to evaluate their physical stability. SAS co-precipitates were X-ray amorphous and remained stable after 6months of storage. The SAS co-precipitation process using a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide demonstrates that this strategy can

  4. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  5. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhixian; Jiang, Haiming; Li, Ling; Wang, Hongxing; Qiu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  6. Ester Tuiksoo - Eesti esimene naissoost põllumajandusminister / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ametist lahkuv põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo räägib saadud juhtimiskogemusest, Euroopa Liidu ühise põllumajanduspoliitika juurutamisest, rahvuskala valimisest, Rahvaliidu käekäigust parlamendivalimistel

  7. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  8. Technetium and rhenium tracers with metabolizable ester functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Schneider, F.; Pietzsch, H.J.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

    1993-01-01

    Re-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) ester complexes were prepored by ligand exchange reactions. To determine whether the ester band in Re-DMSA ester complexes is susceptible to cleavage by esterases, incubation experiments with tissue homogenates and plasma were carried out. (BBR)

  9. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  10. Celorbicol, isocelorbicol, and their esters: new sesquiterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL); Miller, R.W.; Weisleder, D.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-10-01

    Esters of two new sesquiterpenoid polyalcohols - celorbicol and isocelorbicol - have been isolated from Celastrus orbiculatus. Structures of the parent alcohols have been established by x-ray crystallography, and those of the derived esters have been assigned by NMR spectroscopy. These compounds are structurally related to other polyesters and ester alkaloids from the Celastraceae, all of which are based on the dihydroagarofuran ring system.

  11. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  12. Radiation sensitivity and EPR dosimetric potential of gallic acid and its esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuner, Hasan; Oktay Bal, M.; Polat, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In the preset work the radiation sensitivities of Gallic Acid anhydrous and monohydrate, Octyl, Lauryl, and Ethyl Gallate (GA, GAm, OG, LG, and EG) were investigated in the intermediate (0.5–20 kGy) and low radiation (<10 Gy) dose range using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. While OG, LG, and EG are presented a singlet EPR spectra, their radiation sensitivity found to be very different in the intermediate dose range. At low radiation dose range (<10 Gy) only LG is found to be present a signal that easily distinguished from the noise signals. The intermediate and low dose range radiation sensitivities are compared using well known EPR dosimeter alanine. The radiation yields (G) of the interested material were found to be 1.34×10 −2 , 1.48×10 −2 , 4.14×10 −2 , and 6.03×10 −2 , 9.44×10 −2 for EG, GA, GAm, OG, and LG, respectively at the intermediate dose range. It is found that the simple EPR spectra and the noticeable EPR signal of LG make it a promising dosimetric material to be used below 10 Gy of radiation dose. - Highlights: • Radiation sensitivity of gallic acid and its esters were studied in intermediate and low radiation dose range using EPR. • While the irradiated samples of GA were presented complex EPR spectra the esters presented singlet ESR spectra. • Samples were compared to alanine in terms of the dosimetric point of view. • The radiation sensitivities of the investigated materials were very low at intermediate doses. • Lauryl ester of gallic acid was found to present a good sensitivity below 10 Gy

  13. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  14. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of mixed nanoferrites submitted to transesterification and esterification reaction using methyl and ethyl route for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Joelda; Leal, Elvia; Mapossa, Antonio Benjamim; Silva, Adriano Sant'Ana; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo

    2016-01-01

    The mixed nanoferrites of Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 and Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 were synthesized by combustion reaction using urea as fuel and a conical reactor as heating source in batches of 10 g, and then tested as heterogeneous nanocatalysts in the transesterification and esterification reaction of soya bean oil using the methyl and ethyl routes to biodiesel production. During the synthesis the time and temperature of the reactions were measured, and the evolved gases and the color of the emitted flames were observed. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET and gas chromatography. The reaction tests were carried out with 10 g of oil for 1 h, oil:alcohol molar ratio of 1:12, 2 % (w/w) of catalyst, and conducted at 180 °C. The XRD patterns and the FTIR spectra revealed the presence of the inverse spinel phase type B(AB)_2O_4. The morphology showed the formation of agglomerates with fragile morphology and high surface area. The chromatographic analysis produced excellent results in the esterification reactions for both samples in the tested conditions, with special emphasis on Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4, whose conversions were of 91.4 % in methyl esters and of 77.8 % in ethyl esters, while the Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample showed conversion of 75.1 and 65.1 %, respectively. The conversions in the methyl and ethyl transesterification were of 14 and 2 % of the Ni_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample, and of 11 and 3 % for the Ni_0_._2Cu_0_._3Zn_0_._5Fe_2O_4 sample. (author)

  16. Synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers containing a tetrahydropyran ring derived from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Yohko; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Kasashima, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy acids, 3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-enoic acid (1) and 3-hydroxy-2,2,3,7-tetramethyloct-6-enoic acid (2), were prepared from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and they were subsequently used to prepare (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)acetic acid (3) and 2-methyl-2-(2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)propanoic acid (4), respectively, via cyclization with an acidic catalyst such as boron trifluoride diethyl etherate or iodine. The reaction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 with alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol, produced the corresponding methyl, ethyl, and propyl esters, which all contained a tetrahydropyran ring. Reduction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 afforded the corresponding alcohols. Subsequent reactions of these alcohols with several acyl chlorides produced novel esters. The alcohols also reacted with methyl iodide and sodium hydride to provide novel ethers. A one-pot cyclization-esterification of 1 to produce esters containing a tetrahydropyran ring, using iodine as a catalyst, was also investigated.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of the ethyl radical-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Finney, Brian A; Laufer, Allan H; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2016-10-14

    An ab initio investigation has been employed to determine the structural and spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, vertical excitation energies, and the stability of the ethyl-water complex. The ethyl-water complex has a binding energy of 1.15 kcal⋅mol -1 . The interaction takes place between the hydrogen of water and the unpaired electron of the radical. This interaction is found to produce a red shift in the OH stretching bands of water of ca. 84 cm -1 , and a shift of all UV absorption bands to higher energies.

  18. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ALGUNOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS DEL EXTRACTO EN ACETATO DE ETILO DE Muricea sp.I IDENTIFICATION OF SOME SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM THE ETHYL- ACETATE-EXTRACT OF THE OCTOCORAL, Muricea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Camacho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Some chromatographic fractions obtained from the ethyl-acetate-extract of the unidentified octocoral species of the genus, Muricea , showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli , Salmonella enteritidis , Citrobacter freundii , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtlis , which indicates the presence of bioactive compounds in it. The GC/MS analysis of some fractions obtained by continuous chromatographic separation, allowed identification of metabolites, such that: ( Z -9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 1-methyl-4-ethoxy-δ(3-pyrrolin-2-one, endo-1-bourbonanol, dibutylphtalate, 4,5-epoxy-1-isopropyl-4-methyl- 1-cyclohexene, 1,3,3-trimethyl-7-oxabcyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, 2,6-dimethyl-2-trans- 6-octadiene, farnesol, 3β-cholesta-5,22-dien-3-ol, cholesterol, (3β,22 E ,24S-ergosta-5,22-dien-3-ol, (3β,5α-2- methylenecholestan-3-ol, 3-hidroxylongifolol, by comparison with the WILEY and NIST databases and the study of the fragmentation patterns of their mass spectra.

  19. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  20. OxymaPure/DIC: An Efficient Reagent for the Synthesis of a Novel Series of 4-[2-(2-Acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino] Benzoyl Amino Acid Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-Faham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OxymaPure (ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyiminoacetate was tested as an additive for use in the carbodiimide (DIC approach for the synthesis of a novel series of α-ketoamide derivatives (4-[2-(2-acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino]benzoyl amino acid ester derivatives. OxymaPure showed clear superiority to HOBt/DIC or carbodiimide alone in terms of purity and yield. The title compounds were synthesized via the ring opening of N-acylisatin. First, N-acetylisatin was reacted with 4-aminobenzoic acid under conventional heating as well as microwave irradiation to afford 4-(2-(2-acetamidophenyl-2-oxoacetamidobenzoic acid. This α-ketoamide was coupled to different amino acid esters using OxymaPure/DIC as a coupling reagent to afford 4-[2-(2-acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino]benzoyl amino acid ester derivatives in excellent yield and purity. The synthesized compounds were characterized using FT-IR, NMR, and elemental analysis.

  1. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  2. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Cavalli, F

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  3. Cytosolic cholesterol ester hydrolase in adrenal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tocher, Douglas R.

    1983-01-01

    Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) in adrenocortical cytosol was known to be phosphorylated and activated, in response to ACTH in a cAMPdependent protein kinase mediated process. The purification of CEH from bovine adrenocortical cytosol was attempted. The use of detergents to solubilise the enzyme from lipid-rich aggregates was investigated and sodium cholate was found to be effective. A purification procedure using cholate solubilised enzyme was developed. The detergent int...

  4. Synthetic Methods for Ester Bond Formation and Conformational Analysis of Ester-Containing Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbusch, Sven

    This dissertation encompasses work related to synthetic methods for the formation of ester linkages in organic compounds, as well as the investigation of the conformational influence of the ester functional group on the flexibility of inter-saccharide linkages, specifically, and the solution phase structure of ester-containing carbohydrate derivatives, in general. Stereoselective reactions are an important part of the field of asymmetric synthesis and an understanding of their underlying mechanistic principles is essential for rational method development. Here, the exploration of a diastereoselective O-acylation reaction on a trans-2-substituted cyclohexanol scaffold is presented, along with possible reasons for the observed reversal of stereoselectivity dependent on the presence or absence of an achiral amine catalyst. In particular, this work establishes a structure-activity relationship with regard to the trans-2-substituent and its role as a chiral auxiliary in the reversal of diastereoselectivity. In the second part, the synthesis of various ester-linked carbohydrate derivatives, and their conformational analysis is presented. Using multidimensional NMR experiments and computational methods, the compounds' solution-phase structures were established and the effect of the ester functional group on the molecules' flexibility and three-dimensional (3D) structure was investigated and compared to ether or glycosidic linkages. To aid in this, a novel Karplus equation for the C(sp2)OCH angle in ester-linked carbohydrates was developed on the basis of a model ester-linked carbohydrate. This equation describes the sinusoidal relationship between the C(sp2)OCH dihedral angle and the corresponding 3JCH coupling constant that can be determined from a J-HMBC NMR experiment. The insights from this research will be useful in describing the 3D structure of naturally occurring and lab-made ester-linked derivatives of carbohydrates, as well as guiding the de novo-design of

  5. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tant to the biting midges Culicoides pulicaris that 8% ethyl acetate was attractant to the Linn. and Culicoides puncticoUis Becker (Cera- vinegar fly...Drosoph- finding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae): a review. ila melanogaster Meigen to the products of ferment - Bull. Entomol. Res. 70:525-532. ing banana

  6. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djerafi, R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230 nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose...

  7. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  8. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  9. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  10. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  11. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod; Alabbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored

  12. short communication reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    starting materials. Thus, we describe in this paper a facile procedure for the synthesis of 9- phenyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-ones involving the reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and chalcones derived from the condensation of salicylaldehyde and acetophenone derivatives. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. The conditions for the ...

  13. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  14. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    In this study, the role of the ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) in the induction of apoptosis in ... closely related to the induction of apoptosis via the downregulation of IAP family members such as IAP-. 1, IAP-2 ... induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through ... Total cell extracts were prepared using PRO-.

  15. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  16. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 5th People's Hospital of Ji'nan, Ji'nan ... Purpose: To investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate (ETF) on naso-pharyngeal ... malignant solid tumors of head and neck which ... Excess irradiation could result in severe side .... protein bands were probed with corresponding.

  17. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  18. Effects of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos Ethyl) on the fingerlings of catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos ethyl on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated to determine its effect on the survival, body morphology and the lethal concentration (LC50). Following a preliminary bioassay in mg/l concentration which showed 100% mortality, fish were ...

  19. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Huiwen, E-mail: hwzhang@iae.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Esterase SulE was entrapped in a three-dimensional network of CPE. • CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability. • CPE-SulE displayed obviously enhanced efficiency in degrading chlorimuron-ethyl. • The three-dimensional network and kinetic parameters of CPE-SulE were analysed. • CPE-SulE possesses the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated in situ. - Abstract: Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  20. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Esterase SulE was entrapped in a three-dimensional network of CPE. • CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability. • CPE-SulE displayed obviously enhanced efficiency in degrading chlorimuron-ethyl. • The three-dimensional network and kinetic parameters of CPE-SulE were analysed. • CPE-SulE possesses the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated in situ. - Abstract: Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ

  1. Synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester as a synthetic base oil for drilling fluids using chemical transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib, N. S.H.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the synthesis of a palm based ethylhexyl ester was examined through a transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME with 2-ethylhexanol (EH. A sodium methoxide in methanol solution was used as a catalyst. The reaction was carried out at a fixed pressure of 1.5 mbar by varying the temperature (80–140 °C, POME/2EH molar ratio (1:1.5–1:2.2, reaction time (0.5–4 h and catalyst concentration (1–2% w/w. The reaction with 2-ethylhexanol involved a single step reversible reaction, thus, the reaction was completed in a very short time. The optimum conditions were obtained in less than 30 minutes with 1.5 mbar pressure, 70 °C, and 1:2 molar ratio of POME to 2EH. The analysis of the final product (ethylhexyl ester was performed using gas chromatography which exhibited 98% of ethyl hexyl ester yield. The gas chromatography analysis of ethyl hexyl ester revealed two major esters peaks i.e. ethyl hexyl palmitate and ethylhexyl oleate.En el presente estudio se analizó la síntesis de ésteres de acetato de hexilo de palma mediante reacción de transesterificación de los ésteres metílicos de aceite de palma (PME con 2-etilhexanol (EH. Como catalizador se utiliza una solución de metóxido de sodio en metanol. La reacción se lleva a cabo a presión fija de 1,5 mbar mediante la variación de temperatura (80–140 °C, relación molar POME/2EH (1:1.5–1:2.2, tiempo de reacción (0,5–4 h y concentración de catalizador (1–2% w / w. La reacción con 2-etilhexanol implica un solo paso de una reacción reversible, por lo tanto, ésta se completa en un tiempo muy corto. Las condiciones óptimas se obtuvieron en menos de 30 min a 1,5 mbar, 70 °C y una relación molar de 1:2 de POME al 2EH. El análisis del producto final se realizó usando cromatografía de gases que mostró un rendimiento del 98% del etilhexil éster. El análisis de la cromatografía de gases del etilhexil éster muestra dos grandes picos

  2. Understanding the hydrolysis mechanism of ethyl acetate catalyzed by an aqueous molybdocene: a computational chemistry investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tílvez, Elkin; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria I; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón

    2015-02-16

    A thoroughly mechanistic investigation on the [Cp2Mo(OH)(OH2)](+)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate has been performed using density functional theory methodology together with continuum and discrete-continuum solvation models. The use of explicit water molecules in the PCM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ-PP for Mo)//PCM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ (aug-cc-pVDZ-PP for Mo) computations is crucial to show that the intramolecular hydroxo ligand attack is the preferred mechanism in agreement with experimental suggestions. Besides, the most stable intermediate located along this mechanism is analogous to that experimentally reported for the norbornenyl acetate hydrolysis catalyzed by molybdocenes. The three most relevant steps are the formation and cleavage of the tetrahedral intermediate immediately formed after the hydroxo ligand attack and the acetic acid formation, with the second one being the rate-determining step with a Gibbs energy barrier of 36.7 kcal/mol. Among several functionals checked, B3LYP-D3 and M06 give the best agreement with experiment as the rate-determining Gibbs energy barrier obtained only differs 0.2 and 0.7 kcal/mol, respectively, from that derived from the experimental kinetic constant measured at 296.15 K. In both cases, the acetic acid elimination becomes now the rate-determining step of the overall process as it is 0.4 kcal/mol less stable than the tetrahedral intermediate cleavage. Apart from clarifying the identity of the cyclic intermediate and discarding the tetrahedral intermediate formation as the rate-determining step for the mechanism of the acetyl acetate hydrolysis catalyzed by molybdocenes, the small difference in the Gibbs energy barrier found between the acetic acid formation and the tetrahedral intermediate cleavage also uncovers that the rate-determining step could change when studying the reactivity of carboxylic esters other than ethyl acetate substrate specific toward molybdocenes or other transition metal complexes. Therefore

  3. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. 10.99 Section 10.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Provisions Ethyl Alcohol § 10.99 Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. (a) If claim is made...

  4. Kinetic Study of the Aroxyl-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Five Fatty Acid Esters and Six Carotenoids in Toluene Solution: Structure-Activity Relationship for the Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Maya; Ishikura, Masaharu; Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-17

    A kinetic study of the reaction between an aroxyl radical (ArO • ) and fatty acid esters (LHs 1-5, ethyl stearate 1, ethyl oleate 2, ethyl linoleate 3, ethyl linolenate 4, and ethyl arachidonate 5) has been undertaken. The second-order rate constants (k s ) for the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 in toluene at 25.0 °C have been determined spectrophotometrically. The k s values obtained increased in the order of LH 1 LHs 1-5. The k s value for LH 5 was 2.93 × 10 -3 M -1 s -1 . From the result, it has been clarified that the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 was explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. A similar kinetic study was performed for the reaction of ArO • with six carotenoids (Car-Hs 1-6, astaxanthin 1, β-carotene 2, lycopene 3, capsanthin 4, zeaxanthin 5, and lutein 6). The k s values obtained increased in the order of Car-H 1 LHs 1-5. The results of detailed analyses of the k s values for the above reaction indicated that the reaction was also explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship for the reaction was discussed by taking the result of density functional theory calculation reported by Martinez and Barbosa into account.

  5. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  6. Ethyl 27-oxo-15-oxa-2,20-diazahexacyclo[18.6.1.01,8.02,6.09,14.021,26]heptacosa-9,11,13,21,23,25-hexaene-7-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devadasan Velmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C27H30N2O4, the pyrrolidine ring adopts a twisted conformation. The indoline ring system is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, making a dihedral angle of 81.7 (8°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers with graph-set motif R22(16 via pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The terminal ethyl group of the ester group is disordered over two sets of sites, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.587 (11:0.413 (11.

  7. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  8. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  9. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  10. Estereótipos e mulheres na cultura marroquina

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiqi,Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos podem ser caracterizados como crenças culturais incompletas e inexatas mantidas por algumas pessoas e que se encontram inscritos em expressões lingüísticas ou em discursos subliminares. A cultura popular marroquina emprega representações poderosas para transmitir e sustentar tais estereótipos. Embora existam alguns estereótipos positivos, a maioria dos estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos é negativa e reflete ditames patriarcais subliminares qu...

  11. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  12. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. - Highlights: • Compton spectrum quenching technique applied to find micellar phase boundaries. • Toluenic Triton X-100 and Ultima Gold AB investigated. • Ethyl alcohol affects phase boundaries in Triton X-100, not in Ultima Gold AB. • Phase boundary observations discussed in terms of relevant molecular interactions.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH 3 CH 2 SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH 3 CH 2 SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH 3 SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL

  14. Contact dermatitis to ethyl-cyanoacrylate-containing glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, D V

    1987-10-01

    3 patients with contact dermatitis to an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue are presented. Although reactions to cyanoacrylate glues are considered rare, more widespread use of these products by nail salons is likely to be associated with an increased incidence of positive reactions. All 3 of our patients came into contact with the glue during "nail wrapping". In this process, ethyl cyanoacrylate or another "instant glue" is used to adhere glue-impregnated silk or linen to the nail plate which is then filed to shape the nail. This procedure creates fine acrylic-containing dust which may facilitate an allergic response. Fine particulate matter may be transferred to other distant cutaneous sites, such as the eyelids, resulting in more widespread cutaneous eruptions. Dermatologists in areas where nail wrapping is becoming more fashionable are advised to be alert to potential cyanoacrylate glue allergies which present as periungual eczema which may be associated with eyelid dermatitis and features of nummular dermatitis particularly over the dorsal hand.

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T., E-mail: lucie.kolesnikova@uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu, E-mail: shipman@ncf.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  16. Half esters and coating compositions comprising reactions products of half esters and polyepoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, R.; Mulder, W.J.; Koelewijn, R.; Boswinkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to half esters based on dicarboxylic acid derivatives and dimer fatty diols, wherein the dimer fatty dio ls are based on dimerised and/or trimerised and/or oligomerised unsaturated fatty acids. The present invention further relates to resin compositions based on the

  17. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg - 1 (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  18. 3-Chloro-2-ethyl-6-nitro-2H-indazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mokhtar Mohamed Abdelahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H8ClN3O2, the orientation of the ethyl substituent is partly determined by an intramolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bond. The indazole moiety is slightly folded with an angle of 0.70 (8° between the five- and six-membered rings. In the crystal, molecules pack in layers parallel to [100] through C—H...π(ring and N...;O...π(ring interactions.

  19. Chemical study of ethyl Acetate fraction of Picrasma Javanica Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hainil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-1 main compound from ethyl acetate fraction of kayu pahit bark (Picrasma Javanica B1 has been isolated and characterized with colom chromatography and continued with preparative chromatography. According to analized from spectrum data used ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, infra red (IR, 1H RMI (Resonansi Magnet Inti, 13 C RMI, Massa , COSY (Correlated Spectroscopy, HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation, HMBC ( Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation and literature study showed that the compound of isolation was javanicin A.

  20. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol from D-sorbitol and Cinnamic Acid Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Yoo, Dongwon; Seo, Hyung Min; Yi, Da-Hye; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Ju Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Kwang Jin; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the poor properties of solubility and stability of cinnamic acid, cinnamate derivatives with sugar alcohols were produced using the immobilized Candida antarctica lipase with vinyl cinnamate and D-sorbitol as substrate at 45 °C. Immobilized C. antarctica lipase was found to synthesize 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol and confirmed by HPLC and (1)H-NMR and had a preference for vinyl cinnamate over other esters such as allyl-, ethyl-, and isobutyl cinnamate as co-substrate with D-sorbitol. Contrary to D-sorbitol, vinyl cinnamate, and cinnamic acid, the final product 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol was found to have radical scavenging activity. This would be the first report on the biosynthesis of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol with immobilized enzyme from C. antarctica.

  1. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Calhoun, William J., E-mail: William.Calhoun@utmb.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  2. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  3. Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hai; Cai Ping; Clemens, Dahn L.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs

  4. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  5. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  6. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  8. Determination of Phthalate Esters in the Aquatic Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of solid phase extraction and capillary GLC provides the basis for selective determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the several solvent ratios (methanol in dichloromethane) that were tried for selective elution of phthalate esters from the C18 solid phase glass catridge, the ...

  9. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  10. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  11. 13-week oral toxicity study with stanol esters in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Whittaker, M.H.; Frankos, V.H.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, known as stanols, reduce serum cholesterol when consumed in amounts of approximately 2 g per day. Stanol fatty acid esters have been developed as a highly fat-soluble form that may lower cholesterol more effectively than stanols. Stanol esters occur

  12. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl

  13. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  14. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  15. Discrimination of processing grades of olive oil and other vegetable oils by monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jing; Oey, Sergio B.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the processing derived contaminants 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) were analysed in 84 oil samples by GC–MS/MS for the discrimination of processing grades of olive oils as a potential authentication tool. Concentrations of 2- and 3-MCPD

  16. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  17. Optimisation of flavour ester biosynthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil catalysed by lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-12-15

    Coconut cream and fusel oil, two low-cost natural substances, were used as starting materials for the biosynthesis of flavour-active octanoic acid esters (ethyl-, butyl-, isobutyl- and (iso)amyl octanoate) using lipase Palatase as the biocatalyst. The Taguchi design method was used for the first time to optimize the biosynthesis of esters by a lipase in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil. Temperature, time and enzyme amount were found to be statistically significant factors and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: temperature 30°C, fusel oil concentration 9% (v/w), reaction time 24h, pH 6.2 and enzyme amount 0.26 g. Under the optimised conditions, a yield of 14.25mg/g (based on cream weight) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 23.07 dB were obtained. The results indicate that the Taguchi design method was an efficient and systematic approach to the optimisation of lipase-catalysed biological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of some lanthanide(III nitrate complexes of ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEMPAKAM JANARDHANAN ATHIRA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate was synthesized by coupling diazotized ethyl 2-amino-4,5-dimethylthiophene-3-carboxylate with acetylacetone. Based on various spectral studies and elemental analysis, an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded azo-enol structural form was assigned for the ligand. This ligand is versatile in forming a series of lanthanide(III complexes, viz., lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III and gadolinium(III, which were characterized through various spectral studies, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as a neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through one of the azo nitrogen atoms, the ester carbonyl and the enolic oxygen of the acetylacetone moiety, without deprotonation. Molar conductance values adequately supported their non-electrolytic nature. The ligand and lanthanum(III complex were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies. In addition, the lanthanum(III complex underwent a facile transesterification reaction on refluxing with methanol for a long period. The thermal behaviour of the lanthanum(III complex was also examined

  19. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates hepatic injury following blunt chest trauma and hemorrhagic shock by reducing local inflammation, NF-kappaB activation and HMGB1 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nils; Dieteren, Scott; Franz, Niklas; Köhler, Kernt; Mörs, Katharina; Nicin, Luka; Schmidt, Julia; Perl, Mario; Marzi, Ingo; Relja, Borna

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of patients with multiple trauma including blunt chest/thoracic trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock (H) is still challenging. Numerous studies show detrimental consequences of TxT and HS resulting in strong inflammatory changes, organ injury and mortality. Additionally, the reperfusion (R) phase plays a key role in triggering inflammation and worsening outcome. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a stable lipophilic ester, has anti-inflammatory properties. Here, the influence of EP on the inflammatory reaction and liver injury in a double hit model of TxT and H/R in rats was explored. Female Lewis rats were subjected to TxT followed by hemorrhage/H (60 min, 35±3 mm Hg) and resuscitation/R (TxT+H/R). Reperfusion was performed by either Ringer`s lactated solution (RL) alone or RL supplemented with EP (50 mg/kg). Sham animals underwent all surgical procedures without TxT+H/R. After 2h, blood and liver tissue were collected for analyses, and survival was assessed after 24h. Resuscitation with EP significantly improved haemoglobin levels and base excess recovery compared with controls after TxT+H/R, respectively (ptrauma and hemorrhagic shock is associated with NF-κB. In particular, the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl pyruvate seem to be regulated by the HMGB1/NF-κB axis in the liver, thereby, restraining inflammatory responses and liver injury after double hit trauma in the rat.

  20. Stability of a metabolizable ester bond in radioimmunoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arano, Yasushi; Wakisaka, Kouji; Mukai, Takahiro; Uezono, Takashi; Motonari, Hiroshi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kairiyama, Claudia; Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Chiaki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Sakahara, Harumi; Konishi, Junji; Yokoyama, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Ester bonds have been used as metabolizable linkages to reduce radioactivity levels in non-target tissues following the administration of antibodies labeled with metallic radionuclides. In this radiochemical design of antibodies, while the ester bonds should be cleaved rapidly in non-target tissues, high stability of the ester bonds in plasma is also required to preserve target radioactivity levels. To assess the structural requirements to stabilize the ester bond, a new benzyl-EDTA-derived bifunctional chelating agent with an ester bond, (1-[4-[4-(2-maleimidoethoxy)succinamido]benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid; MESS-Bz-EDTA), was developed. MESS-Bz-EDTA was coupled with a thiolated monoclonal antibody (OST7, IgG 1 ) prepared by reducing its disulfide bonds to introduce the ester bond close and proximal to the antibody molecule. For comparison, 1-[4-(5-maleimidopentyl)aminobenzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EMCS-Bz-EDTA) and meleimidoethyl 3-[ 131 I]iodohippurate (MIH) was coupled to OST7 under the same conjunction chemistry. When incubated in 50% murine plasma or a buffered-solution of neutral pH, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In rapidly released the radioactivity, and more than 95% of the initial radioactivity was liberated after a 24 h incubation in both solutions, due to a cleavage of the ester bond. On the other hand, only about 20% of the radioactivity was released from OST7-MIH- 131 I in both solutions during the same incubation period. In mice biodistribution studies, while a slightly faster radioactivity clearance from the blood with less radioactivity levels in the liver and kidneys was observed with OST7-MIH- 131 I than with OST7-EMCS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In indicated radioactivity clearance from the blood much faster than and almost comparable to that of OST7-MIH- 131 I and succinamidobenzyl-EDTA- 111 In, respectively. These findings as well as previous findings on radiolabeled antibodies with ester bonds

  1. MMT promises: how the Ethyl Corporation beat the federal ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The manganese-based MMT has been blended in gasoline fuel sold in Canada for almost 20 years. Invoking environmental health and consumer protection grounds, the federal government moved to prohibit the importation and inter-provincial trade of MMT in June 1997. Ethyl Corporation of Richmond, Virginia, the sole producers of MMT, claimed discriminatory treatment under NAFTA and sought $ 250 million in damages as compensation for alleged 'expropriation' of the company's investment interests. A stunning reversal of the Canadian government's decision occurred one year later. Canada agreed to pay Ethyl Corporation $ 13 million (representing legal fees and lost profits) and agreed to rescind the legislation and admit publicly that the use of MMT poses no environmental risk. The reversal was the result of the little-known Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), a federal-provincial government agreement, intended to reduce 'non-tariff' barriers to inter-provincial trade and create greater economic union. The AIT is modelled on NAFTA and the Uruguay-round GATT, and treats relations between the Canadian provinces as if they were relations among sovereign states. In cases of conflict, provinces are entitled to seek resolution of complaints before dispute resolution panels. Some of the provinces voiced objection to the MMT legislation and Alberta, supported by three other provinces, filed an AIT complaint against the federal government for prohibiting the inter-provincial trade of MMT. The AIT dispute panel upheld Alberta's complaint. The decision was hailed as a 'triumph of principle over bad science'. It was an unmitigated success for Ethyl Corporation, and a humiliating defeat for the federal government. In this author's view, the MMT story is a clear example of yet another instrument by which corporate power can limit the capacity of democratically elected governments to act on behalf of the public good

  2. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  3. Degradation of ethyl alcohol on niobium hydraxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, M.A.; Maslova, E.S.; Artem'ev, Yu.M.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of niobium hydroxide were prepared from niobium(5) chloride solutions in anhydrous ethanol. Niobium hydroxide groups were applied on the surface of dispersed silica-airsilogel. Pulse microcatalytic method was used to reveal, that synthesized hydroxide catalysed ethanol decomposition at 573 K only along the direction of dehydration with formation of ethylene. Ethylene was also the main product of alcohol degradation on applied samples, and procedure of dehydration reactions was noticeable. Spectra of temperature programmed surface reactions demonstrate the similarity of acidic surface properties of these two types of samples. Hydroxide compounds of niobium and bismuth were tested for correlation. They were active during ethyl alcohol dehydrogenation

  4. Density, refraction index and vapor–liquid equilibria of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate plus (methyl acetate or ethyl acetate or propyl acetate) at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, V.H.; Mattedi, S.; Aznar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities, refraction indices and VLE were measured for ester + m-2-HEAB mixtures. ► V E , apparent molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. ► Peng–Robinson EoS + Wong–Sandler mixing rule + COSMO-SAC predicted the data. -- Abstract: This paper reports the densities, refraction indices, and vapor liquid equilibria for binary systems ester + N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m-2-HEAB): methyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2), ethyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB and propyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2). The excess molar volumes, deviations in the refraction index, apparent molar volumes, and thermal expansion coefficients for the binary systems were fitted to polynomial equations. The Peng–Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, is used to describe the experimental data. Since the predictive activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the vapor–liquid equilibria have a deviation lower than 1.0% and 1.1%, respectively

  5. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as safe in food or regulated for such use by an appropriate section in this part. Ethyl acetate or... fresh apples, avocados, bananas, banana plantains, limes, melons (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya...

  6. Rapid isolation and purification of phorbol esters from Jatropha curcas by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wan; Hu, Huiling; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin; Peng, Tong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-03-18

    In this work, a high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparation of phorbol esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1.5:1.2:0.5, v/v) was selected as the optimum two-phase solvent system to separate and purify jatropha factor C1 (JC1) with a purity of 85.2%, as determined by HPLC, and to obtain a mixture containing four or five PEs. Subsequently, continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify JC1 (99.8% as determined by HPLC). In addition, UPLC-PDA and UPLC-MS were established and successfully used to evaluate the isolated JC1 and PE-rich crude extract. The purity of JC1 was only 87.8% by UPLC-UV. A peak (a compound highly similar to JC1) was indentified as the isomer of JC1 by comparing the characteristic UV absorption and MS spectra. Meanwhile, this strategy was also applied to analyze the PE-rich crude extract from J. curcas. It is interesting that there may be more than 15 PEs according to the same quasi-molecular ion peaks, highly similar sequence-specific fragment ions, and similar UV absorption spectrum.

  7. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  8. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  9. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  10. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  11. Probing the effects of the ester functional group, alkyl side chain length and anions on the bulk nanostructure of ionic liquids: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mostafa; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-14

    The effects of ester addition on nanostructural properties of biodegradable ILs composed of 1-alkoxycarbonyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium cations ([C1COOCnC1im](+), n = 1, 2, 4) combined with [Br](-), [NO3](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [TfO](-), and [Tf2N](-) were explored by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis at 400 K. Various thermodynamic properties of these ILs were extensively computed in our earlier work (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2015, 54, 11678-11700). Nano-scale segregation analysis demonstrates the formation of a small spherical island-like hydrocarbon within the continuous ionic domain for ILs with short alkyl side chain ([C1COOC1C1im]), and a sponge-like nanostructure for the compound with long alkyl side chain ([C1COOC4C1im]). Ester-functionalized ILs with ethyl side chain ([C1COOC2C1im]) are the turning point between two different morphologies. Non-polar channels were observed for [C1COOC4C1im] ILs composed of smaller anions such as [Br] and [NO3], whereas clustering organization was found for the other anions. Formation of the spherical micelle-like nanostructure was seen for lengthened cations. Finally, the incorporation of an ester group into the alkyl side chain of the cation leads to stronger segregation between charged and uncharged networks, which consequently increased the possibility of self-assembly and micelle formation.

  12. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  14. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of allylic alcohols to methyl esters using gold nanoparticles supported on different metal oxide carriers has been performed successfully under mild conditions (room temperature, 0.1 MPa O2) without significant loss of catalytic activity. The effects of different reaction...... parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...... to synthesize methyl esters from allylic alcohols....

  15. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  16. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Mallika [Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Mishra, Rashmi; Agarwala, Paban K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Ojha, Himanshu, E-mail: himanshu.drdo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Bhawna [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Anju; Kukreti, Shrikant [Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • ITC study showed binding of ethyl pyruvate with BSA with high binding affinity. • Ethyl pyruvate binding caused conformation alteration of BSA. • Fluorescence quenching mechanism is static in nature. • Electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces involved in binding. • Docking confirmed role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential role of ethyl pyruvate. Bio-distribution of drugs is significantly influenced by the drug-serum protein binding. Therefore, the binding mechanism of the ethyl pyruvate with bovine serum albumin was investigated using UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking techniques. Absorption and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the binding of ethyl pyruvate with protein. Circular dichroism spectra of bovine serum albumin confirmed significant change in the conformation of protein upon binding. Thermodynamic data confirmed that ethyl pyruvate binds to bovine serum albumin at the two different sites with high affinity. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin involves hydrogen bonding, van der Waal and hydrophobic interactions. Further, docking studies indicated that ethyl pyruvate could bind significantly at the three binding sites. The results will definitely contribute to the development of ethyl pyruvate as drug.

  17. Ethyl (E-2-methoxyimino-2-(4-nitrobenzoylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Caracelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C12H12N2O6, features an E conformation about the oxime group. The methoxyimino and ester residues are effectively coplanar with each other (r.m.s. deviation for the nine non-H atoms = 0.127 Å and almost orthogonal [with dihedral angles of 99.44 (13 and −77.85 (13°, respectively] to the carbonyl and nitrophenyl groups which lie to either side of this central plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by C—H...O contacts.

  18. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  19. Complex formation of technetium with the methyl esters of MAG2 and MAG1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Grosse, B.; Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mercaptoacetylglycine methyl ester (MAG 2 ester) and mercaptoacetyldiglycine methyl ester (MAG 1 ester) were included to investigate complex formation of SH/amide ligands with technetium. The studies are aimed at finding out how blocking the carboxylic groups influences the complexation reaction, with a view to finding an approach to new lipophilic species. (orig./BBR)

  20. Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladio, Eugenio; Martyna, Agnieszka; Salomone, Alberto; Pirro, Valentina; Vincenti, Marco; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    The detection of direct ethanol metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), in scalp hair is considered the optimal strategy to effectively recognize chronic alcohol misuses by means of specific cut-offs suggested by the Society of Hair Testing. However, several factors (e.g. hair treatments) may alter the correlation between alcohol intake and biomarkers concentrations, possibly introducing bias in the interpretative process and conclusions. 125 subjects with various drinking habits were subjected to blood and hair sampling to determine indirect (e.g. CDT) and direct alcohol biomarkers. The overall data were investigated using several multivariate statistical methods. A likelihood ratio (LR) approach was used for the first time to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers. LR strategies provide a more robust outcome than the plain comparison with cut-off values, where tiny changes in the analytical results can lead to dramatic divergence in the way they are interpreted. An LR model combining EtG and FAEEs hair concentrations proved to discriminate non-chronic from chronic consumers with ideal correct classification rates, whereas the contribution of indirect biomarkers proved to be negligible. Optimal results were observed using a novel approach that associates LR methods with multivariate statistics. In particular, the combination of LR approach with either Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) proved successful in discriminating chronic from non-chronic alcohol drinkers. These LR models were subsequently tested on an independent dataset of 43 individuals, which confirmed their high efficiency. These models proved to be less prone to bias than EtG and FAEEs independently considered. In conclusion, LR models may represent an efficient strategy to sustain the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption

  1. Hydrolytic Stability of Boronate Ester-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huifang; Li, Haoyuan; Dai, Qingqing; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-01

    by reducing the energy barrier by a factor of 3. Importantly, the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds situated in a COF environment follows reaction pathways that are different and have increased energy barriers. These results point to an enhanced hydrolytic

  2. ESTER: a new approach in modelling severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.; Jones, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1993-01-01

    ESTER is a set of codes for calculating phenomena during severe accidents in thermal reactors. It makes use of software tools that allow the data to be defined as a tree-structured data base and this data to be stored and retrieved by the code modules. The tools include generalized input and output routines that are independent of the particular code being used. Severe accident research codes are in a continual state of development and the structure of ESTER is such that modifications can be introduced easily and safely. The ESTER framework also facilitates the coupling together of codes. A preliminary version of ESTER containing a complete set of tools and a limited number of applications has already been released. 9 refs., 5 figs

  3. Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface water of Ethiope ... Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) was used to ... with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals.

  4. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    scale industries and agricultural farms. Key words: Transestrification, energy conservation, anaerobic digestion, methane, biogas, methyl ester. INTRODUCTION. For advancement of civilization and socioeconomic developmental progress, the world is dependent on various energy resources like petrochemicals, coal,.

  5. α-Imino Esters in Organic Synthesis: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Zirak, Maryam

    2017-06-28

    α-Imino esters are useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of types of natural and unnatural α-amino acid derivatives, with a wide range of biological activities. Due to the adjacent ester group, α-imino esters are more reactive relative to other types of imines and undergo different kinds of reactions, including organometallics addition, metal catalyzed vinylation and alkynylation, aza-Henry, aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman, imino-ene, Mannich-type, and cycloaddition reactions, as well as hydrogenation and reduction. This review discusses the mechanism, scope, and applications of the reactions of α-imino esters and related compounds in organic synthesis, covering the literature from the last 12 years.

  6. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the ... Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals ... functional differences between wheat starches ..... esters cosurfactant microemulsion systems for.

  7. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the systems of biodiesel production. ► LLE data for multicomponent FAME and FAEE from (303.15 to 333.15) K. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the systems of interest in soybean biodiesel production. Numerical data for LLE were obtained for binary, ternary and quaternary systems comprising fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from soybean oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Quantification of compounds in equilibrium in both phases was determined by analytical methods whereas solubility curves (binodal) were obtained by the cloud-point method. For all systems investigated, good alignments were obtained between phase compositions and the initial as well as overall compositions hence indicating low deviations from the mass balance. Experimental results were correlated using the UNIQUAC model with satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory

  8. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U

    2016-04-07

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase, Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes.

  9. METODE ESTIMASI PROPERTI KRITIS UAP-CAIR KOMPONEN MURNI ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoni Hartantoa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel become eco-friendly renewable energy resources which is consisted of monoalkyl ester or long chain fatty acid from plants or animal. Biodiesel has more advantage than petrodiesel. Property of pure compound such as critical properties are the important thing to determine chemical mixtures behavior and also as base of equation of state. Joback method can show good results in estimating critical properties of monoalkyl ester.

  10. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  11. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  12. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil; Determinación rápida de ésteres alquílicos en aceite de oliva virgen para detección temprana de defectos sensoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [Spanish] La reglamentación de la Unión Europea para el aceite de oliva y el orujo de oliva ha establecido el límite de 35 mg·kg-1 al contenido de ésteres etílicos de ácidos grasos en los aceites de oliva virgen extra, para campañas de molienda posteriores a 2016. En este trabajo se han establecido modelos predictivos para medir los ésteres etílicos y metílicos de ácidos grasos y para la medida de los ésteres alquílicos de ácidos grasos totales basados en la espectroscopía de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) y utilizados con éxito para este propósito. Los coeficientes de correlación de los ejercicios de validación externa realizados con estos modelos predictivos oscilaron entre 0,84 y 0,91. Diferentes pruebas de clasificación utilizando los mismos modelos con respecto a los umbrales de 35 mg·kg-1 para ésteres etílicos y 75 mg·kg-1 para ésteres alquílicos, proporcionaron porcentajes de éxito del 75,0% al 95,2%.

  13. Ester Tuiksoo võitleb viina puhtuse eest / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo lubab Euroopa Liidu piiritusjookide määruse eelnõu arutusel kaitsta seisukohta, et viinaks tuleb pidada üksnes teraviljast või kartulist valmistatud piiritusjooki

  14. Request from the Phthalate Esters Panel of the American Chemistry Council for correction of EPA's Action Plan for Phthalate Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Phthalate Esters Panel (Panel) of the American Chemistry Council submits this Request for Correction to EPA under the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity, of Information Disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency

  15. Development of 68Ga ethyl cysteinate dimer for PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alireza Mirzaei; Jalilian, A.R.; Gholamali Shabani; Ashraf Fakhari; Mehdi Akhlaghi; Davood Beiki

    2016-01-01

    In this work development of 68 Ga-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 68 Ga-ECD) a 68 Ga tracer for possible cerebral blood flow based on 99m Tc ECD homolog is reported. 68 Ga-ECD was prepared using generator-based 68 GaCl 3 and ECD at optimized conditions. Quality control, stability, partition co-efficient and the biodistribution of the tracer (by tissue counting and PET/CT in rats) was studied. Significant metabolism of the lipophilic tracer into water soluble metabolite(s) led to urinary excretion of the tracer, un-comparable to that of homologous 99m Tc-compound. Cardiac uptake of the complex suggests formation of a possible lipophil cationic complex and/or metabolite. (author)

  16. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  17. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-03

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  18. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  19. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4(3H)-ones and evaluate them for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The compounds, 3-ethyl-2-substituted amino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones, were synthesized by reacting the amino group of 3-ethyl-2-hydrazino ...

  20. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  2. Simultaneous exposure to ethyl benzene and noise : synergistic effects on outer hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects on hearing of simultaneous exposure to the ototoxic organic solvent ethyl benzene and broad-band noise were evaluated in rats. The effects of three ethyl benzene concentrations (0, 300 or 400 ppm) and three noise levels (95 or 105 dBlin SPL or background noise at 65 dBlin SPL) and all

  3. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  5. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  6. Lubricating and Waxy Esters. VI. Effect of Symmetry about Ester on Crystallization of Linear Monoester Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziz Bouzidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure development of jojoba-like esters incorporating either 1-decenoic acid and/or 1-decenol, namely octadec-9-enyl dec-9-enoate (JLE-281, and its isomer dec-9-enyl oleate (JLE-282 was investigated to reveal the effect of symmetry about the ester group on crystallization of aliphatic fatty monoesters. The phase transformation path was investigated with temperature-time resolved X-ray diffraction during stepped isothermal crystallization, and while cooling from the melt at a fixed rate. Startling differences in phase behavior were uncovered between the isomers. When stepped isothermals were used, selective extinctions occurred at a transition temperature for JLE-281 but not for JLE-282. The extinctions, which are due to dramatic changes in the electronic density of certain families of planes, indicate a phase transition attributed to a brusque rearrangement of the oxygen atoms in the crystal subcell. The phase transition did not occur when the JLEs were cooled continuously. The crucial role played by the position of the alkyl chain and its orientation relative to the easy rotation site of the C–O bond in the phase trajectories of the JLEs was particularly highlighted.

  7. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+α,ω-alkyl dihalides) I: HmE and VmE for 25 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2C2H5+(1-x)α,ω-ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl}, where u=1 to 5, α=1 and v=ω=2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.; Marrero, E.; Toledo, F.J.; Espiau, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the experimental data of H m E and V m E , obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures composed of the first 5 ethyl alkanoates (methanoate to pentanoate) and five α,ω-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane). Quantitatively, and with only a few exceptions, small values are obtained for the excess properties and the results imply that specific interactions exist between both types of compounds, with exothermic process for most mixtures, but with the exception of some that contain ethyl methanoate and ethanoate. The change in enthalpies with increasing length of the dichloroalkane chain for the same ester is regular, and also the change in H m E with the acid portion of the ethyl ester. However, the change in excess volumes does not present such a regular variation. A behavioural structural model is established to explain the results of the excess properties. Experimental values of H m E and V m E were correlated, as a function of ester concentration, x with a new expression which uses the so-called active fraction as a variable and which, in turn, is a function of this concentration. The application of two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution models produces no good estimations of H m E .

  8. Light induced degradation of phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunping, Bu; Ha, Bui Thi Ngoc; Eunice, Yeo; Chueng, Lo Loong; Yan, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) is a tropical shrub that is gaining popularity as a biofuel feedstock plant. Phorbol esters (PEs) are tetracyclic tiglian diterpenoids that are present in Jatropha seeds and other parts of plant. Epidermal cell irritating and cancer promoting PEs not only reduce commercial values of Jatropha seed cake but also cause some safety and environment concerns on PE leaching to soil. A simple bioassay of PE toxicity was conducted by incubating 48 h old brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with Jatropha oil for 24 h. 1-4% of Jatropha oil (corresponding to PE concentration of 25-100 mg L(-1)) had mortality rate of 5-95%, with LC50 estimated to be 2.7% of oil or 67 mg L(-1) of PE. Jatropha oil was incubated with clay or black soil (autoclaved or non-autoclaved) in the darkness or under sunlight for different periods of time before oil was re-extracted and tested for PE content by HPLC and for remaining toxicity with the brine shrimp bioassay. Under sunlight, PE decreased to non-detectable level within six days. Toxicity reduced to less than 5% mortality rate that is comparable to rapeseed oil control within the same period. In contrast, PE level and toxicity remained little changed when Jatropha oil was incubated in the darkness. Such PE degradation/detoxification was also found independent of the presence of soil or soil microorganisms. We conclude that sunlight directly degrades and detoxifies PEs and this finding should alleviate the concern on long term environmental impact of PE leaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  10. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  11. 9-Hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl Lactone: A New Sesquiterpene Isolated from the Tropical Marine Sponge Dysidea arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karuso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene, 9-hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl lactone, has been isolated from a New Caledonian Dysidea arenaria, along with three known compounds. The possible incorporation of the ethyl ether from the extraction solvent is discussed.

  12. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.

    1986-01-01

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released [ 3 H]methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress

  13. Influence of ester-modified lipids on bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Diana Y; Lim, Joseph B; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2013-11-19

    Lipid membranes function as barriers for cells to prevent unwanted chemicals from entering the cell and wanted chemicals from leaving. Because of their hydrophobic interior, membranes do not allow water to penetrate beyond the headgroup region. We performed molecular simulations to examine the effects of ester-modified lipids, which contain ester groups along their hydrocarbon chains, on bilayer structure. We chose two lipids from those presented in Menger et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14034] with ester groups in (1) the upper half of the lipid chain (MEPC) and (2) the middle and end of the lipid chain (MGPC). MGPC (30%)/POPC bilayers formed stable water pores of diameter 5-7 Å, but MGPC (22%)/POPC and MEPC (30%)/POPC bilayers did not form these defects. These pores were similar to those formed during electroporation; i.e., the head groups lined the pore and allowed water and ions to transport across the bilayer. However, we found that lateral organization of the MGPC lipids into clusters, instead of an electric field or charge disparity as in electroporation, was essential for pore formation. On the basis of this, we propose an overall mechanism for pore formation. The similarities between the ester-modified lipids and byproducts of lipid peroxidation with multiple hydrophilic groups in the middle of the chain suggest that free radical reactions with unsaturated lipids and sterols result in fundamental changes that may be similar to what is seen in bilayers with ester-modified lipids.

  14. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  15. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  16. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect...... on the partitioning of CE between HDL and the water phase. However, BODIPY-CE was observed to diffuse more slowly and locate itself closer to the HDL-water interface than CE due to the BODIPY probe that is constrained to the surface region, and because the CE body in BODIPY-CE prefers to align itself away from...... the HDL surface. The implications as to the suitability of BODIPY to explore lipoprotein properties are discussed....

  17. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  18. Preparation and characterization of aliphatic diphenyl esters intended as precursors for polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.; Andruzzi, F.; Cerrai, P.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive number of aliphatic diphenyl esters, C6H5OOC(CH2)nCOOC6H5 (n = O,...,8,10,11,12,14), have been prepared in pure form. The crystalline melting points these esters exhibit an odd-even temperature behaviour, with the higher-melting even series (n even) displaying a minimum for n = 8 while...... based on similar data from phenyl esters, interpreted as the results of an apparent macrocyclic conformation of the larger diphenyl esters. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (s.e.c.) of diphenyl esters, phenyl esters, aromatic and linear hydrocarbons in tetrahydrofuran, toluene...

  19. Whole-cell bioreduction of aromatic α-keto esters using Candida tenuis xylose reductase and Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase co-expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egger Sigrid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole cell-catalyzed biotransformation is a clear process option for the production of chiral alcohols via enantioselective reduction of precursor ketones. A wide variety of synthetically useful reductases are expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli to a high level of activity. Therefore, this microbe has become a prime system for carrying out whole-cell bioreductions at different scales. The limited capacity of central metabolic pathways in E. coli usually requires that reductase coenzyme in the form of NADPH or NADH be regenerated through a suitable oxidation reaction catalyzed by a second NADP+ or NAD+ dependent dehydrogenase that is co-expressed. Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR was previously shown to promote NADH dependent reduction of aromatic α-keto esters with high Prelog-type stereoselectivity. We describe here the development of a new whole-cell biocatalyst that is based on an E. coli strain co-expressing CtXR and formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH. The bacterial system was evaluated for the synthesis of ethyl R-4-cyanomandelate under different process conditions and benchmarked against a previously described catalyst derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing CtXR. Results Gene co-expression from a pETDuet-1 vector yielded about 260 and 90 units of intracellular CtXR and CbFDH activity per gram of dry E. coli cell mass (gCDW. The maximum conversion rate (rS for ethyl 4-cyanobenzoylformate by intact or polymyxin B sulphate-permeabilized cells was similar (2 mmol/gCDWh, suggesting that the activity of CbFDH was partly rate-limiting overall. Uncatalyzed ester hydrolysis in substrate as well as inactivation of CtXR and CbFDH in the presence of the α-keto ester constituted major restrictions to the yield of alcohol product. Using optimized reaction conditions (100 mM substrate; 40 gCDW/L, we obtained ethyl R-4-cyanomandelate with an enantiomeric excess (e.e. of 97.2% in a yield of 82

  20. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.

  1. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  2. Three new fatty acid esters from the mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of a MeOH extract of the Korean wild mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus resulted in the identification of three new fatty acid esters, named calopusins A-C (1-3), along with two known fatty acid methyl esters (4-5). These new compounds are structurally unique fatty acid esters with a 2,3-butanediol moiety. Their structures were elucidated through 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data and GC-MS analysis as well as a modified Mosher's method. The new compounds 1-3 showed significant inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the tested cancer cell lines with IC(50) values in the range 2.77-12.51 μM.

  3. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well...... as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug...... degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol...

  4. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Saliva-catalyzed hydrolysis of a ketobemidone ester prodrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    Saliva enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of ester prodrugs or drugs containing sensitive ester groups may be a limiting factor for the buccal absorption of such compounds. Using the isopropyl carbonate ester of ketobemidone as a model substance of a hydrolysis-sensitive prodrug the esterase activity...... of human saliva has been characterized as a function of various factors. The esterase activity was found to decrease rapidly upon storage of the saliva at 37°C. The activity increased with increasing pH in the range 4.5-7.4 and with increasing salivation flow rate up to a rate of 0.9 ml min. Under resting...... conditions, the flow rate was about 0.2 ml min which implied a greatly decreased esterase activity. The activity was highest after fasting and decreased after intake of a meal. The intraindividual variation in the saliva esterase activity was small whereas a larger interindividual variation was found....

  6. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  7. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  8. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  9. Ethyl alcohol: high risk toxin for human healt socially accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Téllez Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most widely used drugs in World wide so it is in Colombia too. The United Nations Organization (UN report on substance abuse 2004, esteem that 2.6000 millions of persons used alcohol occasional, habitual, abuse or addictive way. In Colombia, RUMBOS, the presidential office for drugs addictions esteem that 89.7 % of the students in universities were habitual consumer of alcohol. Alcohol is the first psicoactivas substances use for people than after use illegal substances. When ethyl alcohol is used in permanent and frequent way produced acute and chronic adverses effect on the health. The long run alcohol abusers has adverse effect in the nutricions, neurological, hepatic and teratogenic. The neurological, gastrointestinal, endocrine and acid-base equilibrium area affected in acute ways principally. The social aspects in quite important too alcohol has been related to interfamiliar violence, traffic accidents and violence in general. The high incidence in use and consumption, its toxic effect over human health, its negative social effect and the fact that it´s a legal and social accept substance made alcohol and real public health problem. Its necessary to say "be careful with alcohol in general"

  10. Infrared laser transient absorption spectroscopy of the ethyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, T.J.; Johnson, P.M.; Jin, P.; Oatis, S.

    1996-01-01

    The observation and analysis of the high resolution spectrum of the CH 2 rocking fundamental of the ethyl radical, C 2 H 5 , at wavelengths close to 18.9 μm is reported. The band origin is found to be at 528.1 cm -1 . The spectrum shows evidence for a very low barrier to internal rotation, or torsion, in this species. A simple model Hamiltonian, based on an assumed structure with G 12 symmetry, qualitatively reproduces the observations and implies a torsional barrier of approximately 20 cm -1 in both the zero point and excited vibrational states. The Hamiltonian cannot reproduce the observations to the level of the experimental accuracy and the importance of several neglected terms is tested and discussed. The observed torsional splittings imply that, within the confines of the model, the a-inertial and internal rotation axes in the molecule are coincident to within 1 degree. In addition to their intrinsic interest, the spectra will be useful for future state resolved studies of the kinetics of chemical reactions involving the radical. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Membrane Separation of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Amine/1-Decene

    KAUST Repository

    Bawareth, Bander

    2012-12-01

    1-Decene is a valuable product in linear alpha olefins plants that is contaminated with 2-EHA (2-ethyl hexyl amine). Using organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for this separation is quite challengeable. A membrane has to be a chemically stable in this environment with reasonable and stable separation factor. This paper shows that Teflon AF 2400 and cellulose acetate produced interesting results in 1-decene/2-EHA separation. The separation factor of Teflon AF 2400 is 3 with a stable permeance of 1.1x10-2 L/(m2·h·bar). Likewise, cellulose acetate gave 2-EHA/1-decene separation factor of 2 with a lower permeance of 3.67x10-3 L/(m2·h·bar). A series of hydrophilic membranes were tested but they did not give any separation due to high degree of swelling of 2-EHA with these polymers. The large swelling causes the membrane to lose its diffusivity selectivity because of an increase in the polymer\\'s chain mobility.

  12. Molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeland, A.A. van; Aaron, C.S.; Mohn, G.R.; Hung, C.Y.; Brockman, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extending previous work with E. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were quantitatively compared in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. Concomitantly, the actual dose to DNA was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to DNA after treatment with tritium-labeled EMS. After exposure to EMS (2.5-50 mM), alkylation levels in N. crassa and S. cerevisiae were similar to those previously determined in E. coli and cultured mammalian cells. Consistently, there was a slightly less than proportional increase of the DNA alkylation level with the exposure concentration of the mutagen. Forward mutagenesis induced in yeast and N. crassa showed exponential kinetics with exponents of 1.5 and 2.6, respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported with E. coli, which differed from the results with cultured mammalian cells, where a linear dose-effect relationship between exposure and genetic effect was observed. These differences may reflect differences in the fate of EMS-induced adducts by cellular DNA repair systems, but are not due to initial differences in DNA alkylation levels. The fate and persistence of specific DNA adducts potentially responsible for pre-mutagenic changes are under investigation. (orig.)

  13. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Assessment of the skin sensitising potency of the lower alkyl methacrylate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Pemberton, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    There is continued interest in, and imperatives for, the classification of contact allergens according to their relative skin sensitising potency. However, achieving that end can prove problematic, not least when there is an apparent lack of concordance between experimental assessments of potency and the prevalence allergic contact dermatitis as judged by clinical experience. For the purpose of exploring this issue, and illustrating the important considerations that are required to reach sound judgements about potency categorisation, the lower alkyl methacrylate esters (LAM) have been employed here as a case study. Although the sensitising potential of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been reviewed previously, there is available new information that is relevant for assessment of skin sensitising potency. Moreover, for the purposes of this article, analyses have been extended to include also other LAM for which relevant data are available: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA), and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA). In addressing the skin sensitising activity of these chemicals and in drawing conclusions regarding relative potency, a number of sources of information has been considered, including estimates of potency derived from local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, the results of guinea pig assays, and data derived from in silico methods and from recently developed in vitro approaches. Moreover, clinical experience of skin sensitisation of humans by LAM has also been evaluated. The conclusion drawn is that MMA and other LAM are contact allergens, but that none of these chemicals has any more than weak skin sensitising potency. We have also explored here the possible bases for this modest sensitising activity. Finally, the nature of exposure to LAM has been reviewed briefly and on the basis of that information, together with an understanding of skin sensitising potency, a risk assessment has been prepared. Copyright © 2014

  15. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  16. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester v. oleic acid-rich safflower oil on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model rats with hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Asako; Ishimura, Noriko; Sakamoto, Sadaichi; Takishita, Eiko; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Okada, Kazuko; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test whether hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats can be improved by dietary supplementation with purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or oleic acid (OA). Male OLETF rats were fed powdered chow (510 g fat/kg) alone (n 8) or chow supplemented with 10 g EPA- (n 8) or OA- (n 8) rich oil/kg per d from 5 weeks until 30 weeks of age. An oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed at 25 and 30 weeks of age. EPA supplementation resulted in significantly (P<0.05) reduced plasma lipids, hepatic triacylglycerols, and abdominal fat deposits, and more efficient in vivo glucose disposal compared with OA supplementation and no supplementation. OA supplementation was associated with significantly increased insulin response to oral glucose compared with EPA supplementation and no supplementation. Inverse correlation was noted between glucose uptake and plasma triacylglycerol levels (r -086, P<0.001) and abdominal fat volume (r -0.80, P<0.001). The result of oral glucose tolerance test study showed that the rats fed EPA tended to improve glucose intolerance, although this was not statistically significant. Levels of plasma insulin at 60 min after glucose was significantly increased in rats fed OA compared with the other two groups. The results indicate that long-term feeding of EPA might be effective in preventing insulin resistance in diabetes-prone rats, at least in part, due to improving hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

  17. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80 (l) and (q). (iv) Release to water...)(4), if the waste stream containing the PMN substance will be treated using biological treatment (activated sludge or equivalent) plus clarification, then the amount of PMN substance reasonably likely to be...

  18. Functionalization of epoxy esters with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Dona; Modec, Barbara; Dolenc, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Glycidyl esters, frequently employed as reactive groups on polymeric supports, were functionalized with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents, yielding β-alkoxyalcohols. Among the solvents studied, best results were obtained in ethers in the presence of a strong proton acid as a catalyst. Alcohols include simple alkanols, diols, protected polyols, 3-butyn-1-ol 3-hydroxypropanenitrile and cholesterol. This protocol represents a convenient way for introduction of various functionalities onto epoxy-functionalized polymers. Under the reaction conditions, some side reactions take place, mostly due to the reactive ester group and water present in the reaction mixture.

  19. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.H.; Lawley, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp((Et) dT, was identified as a product from the reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by this carcinogen, and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. The results are related to steric factors, and the electrophilic character of each carcinogen. (author)

  20. An Improved Enzymatic Indirect Method for Simultaneous Determinations of 3-MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Fish Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kinuko; Koyama, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs. By using a Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and by removing sodium bromide from hydrolysis step and adding it after completion of the hydrolysis step, satisfactory recovery rates of 91-109% for 3-MCPD, and 91-110% for glycidol (Gly) were obtained from an EPA and DHA concentrated sardine oil, three DHA concentrated tuna oils, two fish oils, and five fish-oil based dietary supplements spiked with DHA-esters or oleic acid-esters of 3-MCPD and Gly at 20 mg/kg. Further, results from unspiked samples of seven fish oil based dietary supplements and five DHA concentrated tuna oils analyzed by the improved enzymatic indirect method were compared with the results analyzed by AOCS Cd 29a. For all 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and Gly, the 95% confidence intervals determined by the weighted Deming regression for slopes and intercepts contained the value of 1 and 0, respectively. It was therefore concluded that the results from the two methods were not statistically different. These results suggest that fish oils high in PUFAs may be included in the range of application for the improved enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-MCPD and Gly esters in fats and oils.

  1. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate with alcohols at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K. Vapour pressure and activity coefficients of the studied systems were calculated from experimental data. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL model (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental data, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.012 and 0.031, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy of the studied binary mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer.

  2. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  3. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  4. A Theoretical Analysis of the Reaction Between Ethyl and Molecular Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Robertson, Struan H

    2000-01-01

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, we have studied the kinetics of the reaction between ethyl...

  5. Solid–liquid phase equilibrium and dissolution properties of ethyl vanillin in pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Jingkang; Zhou, Yanan; Guo, Nannan; Liu, Qi; Zong, Shuyi; Bao, Ying; Hao, Hongxun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of ethyl vanillin in eight pure solvents were determined by a static analytical method. • The experimental solubility data of ethyl vanillin were correlated and analyzed by four thermodynamic models. • Dissolution thermodynamic properties of ethyl vanillin were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of ethyl vanillin (EVA) in eight pure solvents were determined in different temperature ranges from (273.15 to 318.15) K by a static analytical method. In the temperature ranges investigated, it was found that the solubility of EVA in all the selected solvents increased with the rising of temperature. Furthermore, four thermodynamic models were used to correlate the experimental solubility data and the calculation results showed that selected models can be used to correlate the solubility data with satisfactory accuracy. Finally, the dissolution thermodynamic properties, including dissolution Gibbs energy, dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy of EVA in the eight selected solvents were calculated.

  6. Diastereoselective synthesis of ethyl ( Z)-3-(8-methylimidazo-[1,2- a]pyrid-2-yl)-2-phenylthioacrylate. X-ray crystal structure and conformational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, A.; Roche, D.; Métin, J.; Carpy, A.; Madesclaire, M.

    1995-09-01

    The title compound 2, a gem vinyl sulfide ester, has been obtained diastereoselectively (de > 98%) by action of the ethyl thiophenoxyacetate carbanion on the imidazo[1,2- a]pyridinecarbaldehyde 1 in a basic medium, at low temperature. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 (C 19H 19N 2O 2S: Mr = 338.43, triclinic, P 1¯, a = 8.193(3) Å, b = 10.090(2) Å, c = 10.981(4) Å, α = 88.12(2)°, β = 78.66(4)°, γ = 78.53(2)°, V = 872.3(6) Å3, Z = 2, Dcalc = 1.29 g cm -3, λ( Mo Kα) = 0.71069 Å, μ = 0.189 mm -1, F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.043 for 3610 observed reflections) has been determined and confirmed the Z configuration. The molecule is almost planar except for the phenyl ring situated in an approximate perpendicular plane. Despite the presence of the conjugate double bonds of the vinyl ester group (acrylate), coplanar with the imidazopyridine heterocycle, there is no evidence of π-electron delocalization over the whole structure. The crystal cohesion is ensured by a dense network of van der Waals contacts. A conformational analysis of the Z and E isomers by means of a Monte Carlo search and a stochastic dynamics simulation in CHCl 3 has shown that according to the method the Z isomer is more stable than the E isomer by about 7 to 10 kJ mol -1.

  7. Characterization of [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c3 from Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Susana; Zapata, Manuel; Garrido, José L; Vaz, Belén

    2012-06-04

    We report herein the isolation and complete characterization of a member of the chlorophyll c family, designated as [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c(3) ([8-ethyl]-chl c(3)). Structural elucidation of this pigment rested on the analysis of mono- and bidimensional NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and ESI-MS data, and the configuration at the 13(2) position on chiral HPLC analysis.

  8. Biofiltration of high loads of ethyl acetate in the presence of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshusses, M; Johnson, C T; Leson, G

    1999-08-01

    To date, biofilters have been used primarily to control dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with relatively low volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations (elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically in the range of 200 g m-3 hr-1. Despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate. Several byproducts, particularly ethanol, were formed. Short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance.

  9. Fundamental Characterization of the Micellar Self-Assembly of Sophorolipid Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Amanda; Todd, Katherine; Sherbourne, Ezekiel; Gross, Richard A

    2017-06-13

    Surfactants are ubiquitous constituents of commercial and biological systems that function based on complex structure-dependent interactions. Sophorolipid (SL) n-alkyl esters (SL-esters) comprise a group of modified naturally derived glycolipids from Candida bombicola. Herein, micellar self-assembly behavior as a function of SL-ester chain length was studied. Surface tensions as low as 31.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) as low as 1.1 μM were attained for diacetylated SL-decyl ester (dASL-DE) and SL-octyl ester, respectively. For deacetylated SL-esters, CMC values reach a lower limit at SL-ester chains above n-butyl (SL-BE, 1-3 μM). This behavior of SL-esters with increasing hydrophobic tail length is unlike other known surfactants. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) and T 1 relaxation NMR experiments indicate this behavior is due to a change in intramolecular interactions, which impedes the self-assembly of SL-esters with chain lengths above SL-BE. This hypothesis is supported by micellar thermodynamics where a disruption in trends occurs at n-alkyl ester chain lengths above those of SL-BE and SL-hexyl ester (SL-HE). Diacetylated (dA) SL-esters exhibit an even more unusual trend in that CMC increases from 1.75 to 815 μM for SL-ester chain lengths of dASL-BE and dASL-DE, respectively. Foaming studies, performed to reveal the macroscopic implications of SL-ester micellar behavior, show that the observed instability in foams formed using SL-esters are due to coalescence, which highlights the importance of understanding intermicellar interactions. This work reveals that SL-esters are an important new family of green high-performing surfactants with unique structure-property relationships that can be tuned to optimize micellar characteristics.

  10. Ester-free Thiol-X Resins: New Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Behavior and Solvent Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Podgórski, Maciej; Becka, Eftalda; Chatani, Shunsuke; Claudino, Mauro; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    A series of thiol-Michael and radical thiol-ene network polymers were successfully prepared from ester-free as well as ester-containing monomer formulations. Polymerization reaction rates, dynamic mechanical analysis, and solvent resistance experiments were performed and compared between compositions with varied ester loading. The incorporation of ester-free alkyl thiol, vinyl sulfone and allylic monomers significantly improved the mechanical properties when compared with commercial, mercapto...

  11. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a thermo-sensitive poly( N-methyl acryloylglycine methyl ester) used as a drug release carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kui-Lin; Zhong, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Yi-Suo; Fan, Ting; Qiao, Xiao; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Ren, Xiao-Bo

    2010-06-01

    In this article, poly( N-methyl acryloylglycine methyl ester) (PNMAME) was prepared as a novel thermosensitive material with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at around 49.5°C. The chemical structures of the monomer NMAME and PNMAME were characterized by 1H NMR and IR measurements. The LCST was investigated systematically as a function of PNMAME concentration, inorganic salt solution and pH value. The results indicated that LCST of PNMAME was obviously dependent on PNMAME concentration and pH. The LCST was increased with a decrease in pH value and PNMAME concentration. To obtain a thermo-sensitive hydrogel with the phase transition temperature close to human body temperature, the copolymerization was conducted between NMAME and N-acryloylglycine ethyl ester (NAGEE). The release behavior of caffeine was evaluated at different temperatures and contents of cross-linkers ( N, N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (NMBA)). The increase of cross-linker content led to a decrease in the release rate of caffeine due to higher crossing density in the hydrogel network. In addition, a faster release of caffeine from the hydrogel with 3% NMBA at 37°C was found in contrast to that at 18°C.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 × 10 −3 min −1 . Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 × 10 −3 min −1 due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P–O–C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol–gel method. ► Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. ► Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. ► Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO 2 , acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  14. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR 1-ETHYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM n-ALKYL SULFATES: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF GROTTHUSS MECHANISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Garabal, S.; Vila, J.; Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Segade, L.; Tojo, E.; Verdía, P.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the temperature and the lengthening of the linear alkyl chain of the anion in the transport physical properties of the pure ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate (being n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8). Density, viscosity and electrical conductivities were measured at atmospheric pressure in a wide temperature range. In the bibliography, data existed for these magnitudes for all ionic liquids studied but none of these had information about the electrical conductivity of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulfate whith n = 0, 4, 6 and 8. The experimental results show clearly 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulphate cannot be considered part of the 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate family because of its hydrogen bonding ability. Results of density and viscosity behave as expected. However, in the case of the electrical conductivity due to the lack of alkyl chain in the hydrogen sulfate we expected to get extreme values but in practise, we obtained intermediate values between 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium butyl sulphate and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexyl sulphate. This suggests that a Grotthus mechanism exists as result of a protonic current in addition to ionic conductivity, being Waldeńs plot consistent with this idea.

  15. Behaviour of solid phase ethyl cyanide in simulated conditions of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, I.; Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.

    2018-01-01

    In order to simulate different altitudes in the atmosphere of Titan, we investigated using infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry the photochemistry of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) ices at different temperatures. Heating experiments of the solid phase until complete desorption showed up three phase transitions with a first one appearing to be approximately at the temperature of Titan's surface (94 K), measured by the Huygens probe. Ethyl cyanide, whose presence has been suggested in solid phase in Titan, can be considered as another nitrile for photochemical models of the Titan atmosphere after our first study (Toumi et al., 2016) concerning vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). The desorption energy of ethyl cyanide has been calculated to be 36.75 ( ± 0.55) kJ mol-1 using IRTF and mass spectroscopical techniques. High energetic photolysis (λ > 120 nm) have been performed and we identified ethyl isocyanide, vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, ethylene, acetylene, cyanhydric acid and a methylketenimine form as photoproducts from ethyl cyanide. The branching ratios of the primary products were determined at characteristic temperatures of Titan thanks to the value of the νCN stretching band strength of ethyl cyanide that has been calculated to be 4.12 × 10-18 cm molecule-1. We also report here for the first time the values of the photodissociation cross sections of C2H5CN for different temperatures.

  16. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M

    2006-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-06-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P-O-C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO{sub 2}, acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  18. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures

  19. In vitro pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.R. Litjens (Nicolle); E. van Strijen (Elizabeth); C. van Gulpen (Co); H. Mattie (Herman); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); H.B. Thio (Bing); P.H. Nibbering (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can be successfully treated with a mixture of fumaric acid esters (FAE) formulated as enteric-coated tablets for oral use. These tablets consist of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) and its main

  20. Evaluation of the Levels of phthalate Ester Plasticizers in Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass ... Key words: phthalates, acid esters, plasticizers, Ethiope River, surface water, pollution ... waste and emissions arising from burning of refuse ... deepest inland waterways in Africa, is known for its ..... carbon nitride nanocomposites for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate ...

  1. Controlled grafting of cellulose esters using SET-LRP process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Petr; Raus, Vladimír; Janata, Miroslav; Kříž, Jaroslav; Sikora, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2011), s. 164-173 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cellulose esters * copolymerization * graft copolymers Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.919, year: 2011

  2. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the modified starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The properties of wheat starch changed greatly by adding different sucrose esters to their ...

  3. Analysis of Adipate Ester Contents in PVC Plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    Plasticizers are needed in flexible PVC (PolyVinylChloride) products. There is serious concern that commonly used phthalate esters may harm life reproduction systems. To avoid the problems, instead adipate di-esters (AEs) of C8 to C10 alcohols are used as higher prized alternatives; e.g. di-2......-ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll® or di-octyl adipate, DOA, see Fig. 1. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence...... of phthalate esters in PVC can be rapidly analyzed by Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser. Here in this project we report a similar study. The aim was to find out whether FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of adipate esters (AEs) as plasticizers...

  4. Hydrolytic Stability of Boronate Ester-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huifang

    2018-01-30

    The stability of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is essential to their applications. However, the common boronate ester-linked COFs are susceptible to attack by nucleophiles (such as water molecules) at the electron-deficient boron sites. To provide an understanding of the hydrolytic stability of the representative boronate ester-linked COF-5 and of the associated hydrolysis mechanisms, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to characterize the hydrolysis reactions of the molecule formed by the condensation of 1,4-phenylenebis(boronic acid) (PBBA) and 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) monomers; two cases were considered, one dealing with the freestanding molecule and the other with the molecule interacting with COF layers. It was found that the boronate ester (B–O) bond dissociation, which requires one H2O molecule, has a relatively high energy barrier of 22.3 kcal mol−1. However, the presence of an additional H2O molecule significantly accelerates hydrolysis by reducing the energy barrier by a factor of 3. Importantly, the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds situated in a COF environment follows reaction pathways that are different and have increased energy barriers. These results point to an enhanced hydrolytic stability of COF-5 crystals.

  5. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    index (AAI) (ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol) were studied. ... ester; FFA, free falty acids; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; ..... and impaired catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles. The.

  6. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  7. Polysaccharide esters and their use as binders in coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, E.A.; Weijnen, J.; Haveren, van J.; Gillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a polyester obtainable by transesterification or interesterification of: (i) inulin of general formula G(F)n or an acyl ester thereof, wherein G represents a glucose moiety, F represents a fructose moiety, and n is at least 2, and(ii) a drying oil, a semi-drying oil or

  8. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details a dynamic evaluation of a procedure for extracting both, ester and biogas from seeds and waste of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) using simple and inexpensive technique. Results showed that A. mexicana seed contains 30% oil. Through the process of transestrification, oil extracted from seed, ...

  9. Preparation of Jojoba Oil Ester Derivatives for Biodiesel Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the increase in commodity vegetable oil prices, it is imperative that non-food oils should be considered as alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jojoba oil is unusual in that it is comprised of wax esters as opposed to the triglycerides found in typical vegetable oils. A...

  10. Poly(ether ester amide)s for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, A.A.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ether ester amide) (PEEA) copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), 1,4-butanediol and dimethyl-7,12-diaza-6,13-dione-1,18-octadecanedioate were evaluated as scaffold materials for tissue engineering. A PEEA copolymer based on PEG with a molecular weight of 300 g/mol and 25 wt% of soft

  11. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that...

  12. Presidendiauto jalakäijate teel / Ester Shank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šank, Ester, 1956-

    2003-01-01

    Presidendi pressinõunik Ester Shank selgitab, miks president Arnold Rüütel sõitis eskorauto saatel lauluväljakule Andrea Bocelli ja Annely Peebo kontserdile läbi Kadrioru pargi jalakäijate teed mööda

  13. New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts.

  14. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) (DBT) and diphenyltin(IV) (DPT) was investigated at 25 °C and 0.1 mol dm–3 ionic strength in water for dimethyltin(IV) and in 50 % dioxane–water mixture for dibutyltin(IV) and diphenyltin(IV). Methionine methyl ester forms1:1 and 1:2 ...

  15. FEL induced molecular operation on cultured fibroblast and cholesterol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Ogino, Seiji; Nishimura, Eiichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yasumoto, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    Free Electron Lasers can be used to molecular operation such as the delivery of a number of molecules into cells or the separation of cholesterol ester. First, cultured NIH3T3 cells are exposed to high-intensity short pulse Free Electron Laser (FEL). The FEL is tuned to an absorption maximum wavelength, 6.1 μm, which was measured by microscopic FTIR. A fluorescence dye in the cell suspension is more absorbed into the cell with the FEL exposure due to the FEL-induced mechanical stress to the cell membrane. A quantitative fluorescence microscopy is used to determine the efficiency of delivery. Second, as a compound in a lipid cell, cholesterol ester was exposed to 5.75 μm FEL. FTIR measurement was done to evaluate the modification of the cholesterol ester. The result showed that the fluorescence intensity of sample cells were higher than that of control cells, and there was significant difference between the control and the sample group. Blebbing and the colony formation of the cells were observed for cells with mechanical stress. As for the cholesterol ester, it can be modified by the FEL irradiation. These results showed that FEL can be used as a molecular operational tool by photo-chemical and photo-mechanical interaction. (author)

  16. PROCESS FOR HYDROGENOLYSIS OF ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS OR ACIDS USING A HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for hydrogenolysis of alpha-hydroxy esters or acids, comprising reacting the alpha-hydroxy ester or acid in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst. The present invention also relates to a method for producing propionic acid ester, and the use of any...

  17. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.640 Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. The food additive methyl esters of higher fatty acids may be safely used in animal feeds in accordance with the following...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  19. Variability of some diterpene esters in coffee beverages as influenced by brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Erny, Guillaume L; Alves, Arminda

    2016-11-01

    Several coffee brews, including classical and commercial beverages, were analyzed for their diterpene esters content (cafestol and kahweol linoleate, oleate, palmitate and stearate) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) combined with spectral deconvolution. Due to the coelution of cafestol and kahweol esters at 225 nm, HPLC-DAD did not give accurate quantification of cafestol esters. Accordingly, spectral deconvolution was used to deconvolve the co-migrating profiles. Total cafestol and kahweol esters content of classical coffee brews ranged from 5-232 to 2-1016 mg/L, respectively. Commercial blends contained 1-54 mg/L of total cafestol esters and 2-403 mg/L of total kahweol esters. Boiled coffee had the highest diterpene esters content, while filtered and instant brews showed the lowest concentrations. However, individual diterpene esters content was not affected by brewing procedure as in terms of kahweol esters, kahweol palmitate was the main compound in all samples, followed by kahweol linoleate, oleate and stearate. Higher amounts of cafestol palmitate and stearate were also observed compared to cafestol linoleate and cafestol oleate. The ratio of diterpene esters esterified with unsaturated fatty acids to total diterpene esters was considered as measure of their unsaturation in analyzed samples which varied from 47 to 52%. Providing new information regarding the diterpene esters content and their distribution in coffee brews will allow a better use of coffee as a functional beverage.

  20. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.