WorldWideScience

Sample records for ethnicity diagnostic period

  1. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify p......: There are significant ethnic disparities in the quality of diagnostic evaluations and outcome of dementia in the secondary healthcare sector....

  2. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify...... records were reviewed. An acceptable diagnostic workup was documented in only 23% of the patients. Dementia diagnosis was confirmed in 35%. Significant differences in the quality of the diagnostic evaluation were found between patients from ethnic minorities and the general population. Conclusion......: There are significant ethnic disparities in the quality of diagnostic evaluations and outcome of dementia in the secondary healthcare sector....

  3. Appendicitis in Postpartum Period: A Diagnostic Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhawan, Divya; Singhal, Seema; Sarda, Nivedtia; Arora, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Infections that occur in the postpartum period are assumed to be related to pregnancy or delivery; however other causes should also be considered. Appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring laparotomy during pregnancy, but very few cases of postpartum appendicitis have been reported. We report two such cases and the challenges faced by clinicians in diagnosis of immediate postpartum appendicitis. The first case was managed on lines of puerperal sepsis and the second one as en...

  4. Appendicitis in Postpartum Period: A Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Divya; Singhal, Seema; Sarda, Nivedtia; Arora, Renu

    2015-10-01

    Infections that occur in the postpartum period are assumed to be related to pregnancy or delivery; however other causes should also be considered. Appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring laparotomy during pregnancy, but very few cases of postpartum appendicitis have been reported. We report two such cases and the challenges faced by clinicians in diagnosis of immediate postpartum appendicitis. The first case was managed on lines of puerperal sepsis and the second one as enteric fever. Appendicular pathology was detected incidentally on laparotomy. In postpartum patients with no obvious focus of sepsis, appendicitis should be kept in mind. A team approach involving sensitized obstetricians and surgeons is likely to reduce serious morbidities.

  5. Periodic Thomson scattering diagnostic with 16 spatial channels on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Murmann, H.; Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H.S.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. v.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Klueber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lenoci, M.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H.M.; McCormick, K.; Mertens, V.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Roth, J.; Schneider, F.; Setzensack, C.; Siller, G.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.; Zasche, D.; Izvozchikov, A.; Ryter, F.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd-YAG Periodic Scattering System (PSS) was developped in teamwork with IPF of Stuttgart-University. At first a PSS with only one spatial channel was successfully tested in the ASDEX-Tokamak in 1982. Subsequently an upgraded system with 16 spatial channels was constructed. This new system is capable of measuring Te, Ne-profiles at 17 ms intervals during the entire ASDEX-Tokamak-discharge. The PSS has been working successfully for the last one and a half years as a standard diagnostic method in the ASDEX-Tokamak. This means, that the measurement is being automatically performed during all plasma-discharges. The Te- and Ne-values are stored in the ASDEX-computer and every user has the possibility to get the Te(r, t), Ne(r, t)-data for his own needs. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic criteria for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B.; Ozen, Seza; Tyrrell, Pascal N.; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lachmann, Helen; Blank, Norbert; Hoffman, Hal M.; Weissbarth-Riedel, Elisabeth; Hugle, Boris; Kallinich, Tilmann; Gattorno, Marco; Gul, Ahmet; Ter Haar, Nienke; Oswald, Marlen; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Cantarini, Luca; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, heterogeneous disease entity associated with NLRP3 gene mutations and increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of IL-1 inhibition prevent organ damage. The aim of the study was to develop and validate

  7. Ethnic Identities and Christianities between Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Pohl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to re-read Roman-Barbarian ethnicity as a cultural construct not least based on Biblical models viewed and interpreted as founded as well as authoritative instruments of self-definition. The study intends to overturn the traditional historiographical paradigm, according to which ethnicity emerges as a purely “Barbaric” construction in opposition to the Christian-Roman universalism. Starting from such a model, European history was often represented as a conflict between universalistic and nationalistic issues. According to A.’s analysis, the political role of ethnicity in Latin Europe doesn’t emerge, at least partially, as a Barbarian “import”. Far from representing an antithesis to the Universal Church, ethnicity assumes its politic role through Christianity and, more specifically, on the basis of exegesis as well as of re-adaptation of ethnic self-definitions well attested in Biblical texts.

  8. Transcription factor 7-like 2 as type-2 diabetes mellitus diagnostic marker in ethnic Minangkabau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsurizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been increasing rapidly in developed and developing countries. Many new loci associated with T2DM have been uncovered by genetic and genome-wide association studies, eg. the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variant rs7895340 has been associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this research was to find an association between polymorphisms of TCF7L2 gene variant rs7895340 with T2DM in ethnic Minangkabau. METHODS This was a case-control study using a consecutive sampling technique among ethnic Minangkabau patients who came for treatment to the Metabolic Endocrinology Polyclinic at Dr. M. Jamil Hospital. Analysis was performed on 132 subjects (66 T2DM patients and 66 controls. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and amplified using the amplification refractory mutation system - polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR method to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 gene variant rs7895340. To determine the significance of association of SNPs of rs7895340 with T2DM in ethnic Minangkabau, data analysis was performed using chi-square test. RESULTS The ARMS - PCR for TCF7L2 gene variant rs7895340 found polymorphisms in 28 (42.42% subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in 15 (22.72% non-diabetic subjects.There was a significant association between rs7895340 SNPs with the probability of T2DM in ethnic Minangkabau (OR=2.505, p=0.026. CONCLUSIONS Single nucleotide polymorphism rs7895340 of TCF7L2 gene can be used as genetic marker of type-2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic Minangkabau.

  9. Cavitation bubble oscillation period as a process diagnostic during the laser shock peening process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glaser, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Materials Science & Processing, vol. 123(9): DOI 10.1007/s00339-017-1209-6 Cavitation bubble oscillation period as a process diagnostic during the laser shock peening process Glaser, D Polese, C ABSTRACT: Laser shock peening (LSP) technology...

  10. Migration and Ethnic Themes – Bibliometric Analysis of the Journal for the Period 1985‒2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Jokić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes during the last three decades of its publishing. The research sample consists of all the published issues of the journal from 1985 to 2013, which gives a total number of 497 papers which were subjected to bibliometric analysis. The analyzed papers were divided into the following categories: original scientific paper, preliminary report, scientific review paper, and conference paper and professional paper. The bibliographic description components that were considered relevant for the bibliometric analysis were the type of the paper, year of publication, volume/number, author, number of authors, institutions, number of pages and language of paper. Special attention was given to the analysis of the references cited in the papers. This citation analysis provided the information on the type of cited publications, the amount of cited publications, authors, year of publication of the cited publication, the name of the journal and whether it was a domestic or foreign publication. The analysis was performed on samples from three types of cited publications: books, collection of papers and journals. In order to gain insight into the reception of the research results published in Migration and Ethnic Themes, a citation analysis through the journals indexed in Web of Science and Scopus citation databases was provided. The results of this study could serve as guidelines for the future development of the journal.

  11. Diagnostic gap in Bovine viral diarrhea virus serology during the periparturient period in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Bollinger, Barbara; Peterhans, Ernst; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Detection of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in serum and milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a crucial part of all ongoing national schemes to eradicate this important cattle pathogen. Serum and milk are regarded as equally suited for antibody measurement. However, when retesting a seropositive cow 1 day after calving, the serum was negative in 6 out of 9 different ELISAs. To further investigate this diagnostic gap around parturition, pre- and postcalving serum and milk samples of 5 cows were analyzed by BVDV antibody ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). By ELISA, 3 out of the 5 animals showed a diagnostic gap in the serum for up to 12 days around calving but all animals remained positive in SNT. In milk, the ELISA was strongly positive after birth but antibody levels decreased considerably within the next few days. Because of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)1-specific transport of serum antibodies into the mammary gland for colostrum production, the IgG subclass specificity of the total and the BVDV-specific antibodies were determined. Although all 5 animals showed a clear decrease in the total and BVDV-specific IgG1 antibody levels at parturition, the precalving IgG1-to-IgG2 ratios of the BVDV-specific antibodies were considerably lower in animals that showed the diagnostic gap. Results showed that BVDV seropositive cows may become "false" negative in several ELISAs in the periparturient period and suggest that the occurrence of this diagnostic gap is influenced by the BVDV-specific IgG subclass response of the individual animal.

  12. Widening inequalities in MMR vaccine uptake rates among ethnic groups in an urban area of the UK during a period of vaccine controversy (1994-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Jeremy I; Olowokure, Babatunde; Wood, Annette L; Wilson, Richard C; Johnson, Richard

    2007-10-23

    We examined MMR vaccine uptake among ethnic groups in Birmingham, UK between 1994 and 2000, a period incorporating adverse MMR vaccine publicity. From 1994 to 2000 overall uptake: (1) fell significantly from 91.1% in 1994 to 89.8% (chi(2) for trend pvaccine uptake and differential response to adverse vaccine publicity.

  13. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to support the operation of ITER and the planned experimental programme an extensive set of plasma and first wall measurements will be required. The number and type of required measurements will be similar to those made on the present-day large tokamaks while the specification...... of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  14. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of an inexpensive rapid on site malaria diagnostic test (ParaHIT f) among ethnic tribal population in areas of high, low and no transmission in central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, AK; Shukla, MM; Chand, SK; Bharti, Praveen Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Rapid detection of the malaria parasite and early treatment of infection still remain the most important goals of disease management. Therefore, performance characteristics of the new indigenous ParaHIT f test (Span diagnostic Ltd, Surat, India) was determined among ethnic tribal population in four districts of different transmission potential in central India to assess whether this rapid diagnostic test (RDT) could be widely applied as a diagnostic tool to control malaria. Beyond diagnosis, the logical utilization of RDTs is to monitor treatment outcome. Methods A finger prick blood sample was collected from each clinically suspected case of malaria to prepare blood smear and for testing with the RDT after taking informed consent. The blood smears were read by an experienced technician blinded to the RDT results and clinical status of the subjects. The figures for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results The prevalence of malaria infection estimated by RDT in parallel with microscopy provide evidence of the type of high, low or no transmission in the study area. Analysis revealed (pooled data of all four epidemiological settings) that overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the RDT were >90% in areas of different endemicity. While, RDT is useful to confirm the diagnosis of new symptomatic cases of suspected P. falciparum infection, the persistence of parasite antigen leading to false positives even after clearance of asexual parasitaemia has limited its utility as a prognostic tool. Conclusion The study showed that the ParaHIT f test was easy to use, reliable and cheap. Thus this RDT is an appropriate test for the use in the field by paramedical staff when laboratory facilities are not available and thus likely to contribute greatly to an effective control of malaria in resource poor countries. PMID

  16. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  17. Histopathological periodic acid-schiff stains of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Eliza; Izhak, Ofer Ben; Bergman, Reuven

    2012-05-01

    The diagnosis of onychomycosis, using direct microscopy and fungal cultures, is often negative despite the presence of disease. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of nail clippings, using histopathological processing, may be positive in these cases. It is not always clear, however, whether the fungal elements detected by PAS staining are pathogenic fungi or some are saprophytes. We aimed to study the efficacy of histopathological PAS staining of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis. The study included 100 consecutive cases in which direct microscopy and fungal cultures from suspected onychomycosis were negative on one occasion or more. The obtained nail clippings were processed for routine histology, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS, and examined microscopically. Of the 100 cases, 38 (38%) showed positive fungal elements. As a result, 9 patients had sought and received oral antifungal therapy and all achieved complete clinical cure. The histological examination also revealed parakeratosis and globules of plasma, which were statistically significantly more common in the fungal infected nail samples. This may indicate an ongoing inflammatory process associated with onychomycosis. Neutrophils and bacteria were not statistically and significantly more common in the fungal infected nails. We conclude that as a second-line diagnostic tool, PAS stain of nail clippings increases markedly the diagnostic yield of onychomycosis and, consequently, the outcome of therapy.

  18. Noninvasive Tests for the Diagnostic Evaluation of Dyspnea Among Outpatients: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Lima, Joao AC; Kawut, Steven M; Burkart, Kristin M; Enright, Paul L; Ahmed, Firas S; Barr, R Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Dyspnea on exertion is a common and debilitating complaint, yet evidence for the relative value of cardiac and pulmonary tests for the evaluation of chronic dyspnea among adults without known cardiac or pulmonary disease is limited. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants ages 45-84 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease from six communities; participants with clinical pulmonary disease were excluded from this report. Dyspnea on exertion was assessed via structured interview. Tests included electrocardiograms, cardiac computed tomography (CT) for coronary artery calcium, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, percent emphysema (percent of lung regions dyspnea after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, anxiety, and leg pain. Results Among 1,969 participants without known cardiopulmonary disease, 9% had dyspnea. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (p dyspnea. Associations with the FEV1 were stronger among smokers and participants with other recent respiratory symptoms or seasonal allergies; associations with NT-proBNP were present only among participants with coexisting symptoms of lower extremity edema. Only the FEV1 provided a significant improvement in the receiver operating curve. Conclusions Among adults without known cardiac or pulmonary disease reporting dyspnea on exertion, spirometry, NT-proBNP, and CT imaging for pulmonary parenchymal disease were the most informative tests. PMID:25447621

  19. Minimal Residual Disease Diagnostics and Chimerism in the Post-Transplant Period in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the selection of poor-risk patients for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is associated with rather high post-transplant relapse rates. As immunotherapeutic intervention is considered to be more effective before the cytomorphologic manifestation of relapse, post-transplant monitoring gains increasing attention in stem cell recipients with a previous diagnosis of AML. Different methods for detection of chimerism (e.g., microsatellite analysis or quantitative real-time PCR are available to quantify the ratio of donor and recipient cells in the post-transplant period. Various studies demonstrated the potential use of mixed chimerism kinetics to predict relapse of the AML. CD34+-specific chimerism is associated with a higher specificity of chimerism analysis. Nevertheless, a decrease of donor cells can have other causes as well. Therefore, efforts continue to introduce minimal residual disease (MRD monitoring based on molecular mutations in the post-transplant period. The NPM1 (nucleophosmin mutations can be monitored by sensitive quantitative real-time PCR in subsets of stem cell recipients with AML, but for approximately 20% of patients, suitable molecular mutations for post-transplant MRD monitoring are not available so far. This emphasizes the need for an expansion of the panel of MRD markers in the transplant setting.

  20. Diagnostics of Cognitive Function in Women of Menopausal Period at Level of Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zhilgeldina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the medical community, there is no consensus on whether or not climacteric changes are pathologic and require treatment. One of the main problems related to menopause is misperception of menopause; consequently, there is no consensus on treatments for psychological dysfunction and cognitive deficits in menopausal women. Timely diagnosis and adequate treatment of psychological disorders and cognitive dysfunction are imperative and complicated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physician perceptions of cognitive and psychological deficits in menopausal women in outpatient settings.Methods. 215 obstetricians-gynecologists working in out-patient services were surveyed using a multiple choice questionnaire assessing perceptions and knowledge of menopausal transition.Results. Of total respondents, 42.0% ± 2.5 of physicians found it hard to define menopausal period, and 67.5% ± 3.2 could not give a clear definition of hormone replacement therapy. On the question “cognitive function includes…,” 62.5% ± 2.1 of physicians selected “memory,” 32.3% ± 1.8 selected attention, 77.5% ± 3.2 selected mood and/or imagination, 37.4% selected intellect, 36.3% ± 3.1 of respondents selected character traits, and 6.2% ± 1.7 selected speech. Regarding the question “how do you study memory status function?” it was estimated that 71.2% ± 2.5 of study participants have studied the memory only on the basis of subjective complaints, and none of the respondents (100% have ever used neuropsychological tests.Conclusion. The survey allows us to ascertain that primary medical care services lack the ability to appropriately recognize and diagnose cognitive deficits in women of menopausal age. Based on these data, we can assume that proper mental care is not provided. Thus, the study indicates a need to create training programs for general practitioners and other specialists (cardiologists, neurologists, and endocrinologists to fulfill

  1. Comparative analysis of diagnostic significance of biomarkers’ panels in cardiac recipients in the long term period after transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A and ST2 in recipients with cardiac rejection in different periods after transplantation. Materials and methods. The study included 144 cardiac recipients aged from 12 to 71 (mean age 44 ± 14 years old, among those 112 were men. Venous blood plasma taken on the same day with endomyocardial biopsy was used for the study. The concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB were measured using xMAP technology. The concentrations of ST2 were measured by ELISA. Results. Men had significantly higher levels of ST2 and VEGF-A compared to women (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between the levels of biomarkers (sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, ST2 and age, diagnosis before transplantation, presence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Comparative analysis of the biomarkers’ levels didn’t show significant difference between patients with heart transplant rejection and without it in the first month and in the first year after transplantation. The ST2 level was significantly higher in patients with heart rejection (p = 0.01 in the long term period (1–5 years after transplantation compared to patients without rejection. Relative risk of cardiac transplant rejection was significantly higher in patients with high (>22.8 ng/ml ST2 level (RR = 2.59 ± 0.33; Se – 35%, Sp – 93%. However, its combination with other biomarkers improved their diagnostic value. Relative risk for panel including ST2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB 3.47 ± 0.55, Se – 57%, Sp – 91%; relative risk for panel including ST2, sCD40L and PDGF-BB was 3.75 ± 0.59, Se – 50%, Sp – 92%. The highest diagnostic efficacy for the heart transplant rejection was reached by a panel of biomarkers that included ST2 and PDGF-BB (RR = 5.0 ± 0.56 [95% CI 1.68–14.92], Se – 63%, Sp – 94%. Conclusion. ST2 had the biggest

  2. Trends of radiation dose to the Slovak population from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations during the period from 1985 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Ragan, P.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical formalism was used to evaluate the radiation dose to population from radiodiagnostic procedures. Data for the calculation were obtained from questionnaires sent to the 12 Slovak hospitals which involve nuclear medicine departments. The mean effective dose for a procedure was determined by multiplying the administered radioactivity by the effective dose per unit of applied radiopharmaceutical activity; the latter value was taken from the literature. The values of the collective effective dose, total number of examinations, mean effective dose per examination and per capita and the number of examinations in 1000 inhabitants are tabulated for the 1985-1995 period. A favorable decreasing trend in the mean effective dose per examination after 1991 was observed. This was mainly due to the replacement of 131 I labelled compounds by 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals. An overview of nuclear medicine diagnostic practice for pediatric and adult patients is also presented. The number of diagnostic procedures per 1000 inhabitants is significantly lower than in the most developed countries, and this unfavorable trend is continuing so far. (P.A.)

  3. Diagnostic Markers of Primary Infertility in Women of Reproductive Age with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in the Pubertal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zhukovets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess fertility in women of reproductive age with hypothalamic dysfunction (HD in the pubertal period and to determine the diagnostic significance of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and NF-kB activity in the diagnosis of primary infertility in these women. Materials and Methods: Fertility was assessed in 86 women of reproductive age with HD in the pubertal period. A comparative characteristic of fertile women (Group 1, n=46 and primary infertility women (Group 2, n=21 with HD in the pubertal period was performed. FPG and FPI were determined after 8 to 12 hours of fasting. Serum IRI concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in the venous blood serum after a 12-hour fasting, as well as in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using ELISA kits. The activity of NF-kB was determined in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: BMI in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2: 22.63±2.68 kg/m2 versus 27.05±4.03kg/m2 (p=0.000. WC in women of Group 1 was 66.11±5.66cm versus 78.52±10.54cm in Group 2 (p = 0.000; WC >80cm was found in 2(4.4% and 14(66.7% women, respectively (p = 0.000. The average levels of FPG and FPI were significantly higher in Group 2. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in Group 2 were significantly higher than in Group 1. The serum level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly lower in Group 2; accordingly, the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in Group 2 was 1.8 times higher than in Group 1. The IL-1β level in UA (P=0.000 and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio (P=0.02 were significantly higher in women of Group 2 than Group 1, which indicated the pronounced inflammatory effects of TNF-α in the endometrium. Imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors indicated the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the

  4. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities: Technical progress report for the period January, February, March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Mississippi State University is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Additionally, technical support of the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided

  5. Women in post-trafficking services in Moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Prince, Martin J; Zimmerman, Cathy; Hotineanu, Mihai A; Gorceag, Lilia T; Gorceag, Viorel I; Flach, Clare; Abas, Melanie A

    2011-04-14

    Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months) were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return) and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return). We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table). 120/176 (68%) eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone (16%); co-morbid PTSD (20%); other anxiety or mood disorder (18%). 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women found to have co-morbid PTSD or other forms of anxiety and

  6. Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorceag Lilia T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return. We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table. Results 120/176 (68% eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD alone (16%; co-morbid PTSD (20%; other anxiety or mood disorder (18%. 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF DIAGNOSTICS OF PERINATAL DAMAGE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN INFANTS IN THE NEONATAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shalkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of relevance and timeliness of diagnostics of perinatal disturbances of the central nervous system in newborns are considered in the article. Research objective was to determine the reliable recognition of the development of newborn encephalopathy at the age of the first two weeks of life according to neurological examination and neurosonography parameters with Doppler study of cerebral vessels. Features of the neurology status and data of ultrasonic examination of brain with Doppler study of cerebral vessels in 58 newborns with pathology of the nervous system and 23 healthy newborns are investigated. 10 sings of the neurological status and 10 parameters of ultrasonic examination are analyzed. By results of the obtained findings, prognostic rule is developed, governed by application of discriminant analysis of the studied signs, allowing to diagnose encephalopathy in newborn with sensitivity and specificity of 95% in the first week of life. Its application promotes timely identification and the beginning of therapy at infants from risk group of development of severe neurological dysfunction and preventing the growth of disability among infants.

  8. The Coexistence of Croats and Serbs in the Pre-War and Post-War Period – An Implicite Critique of the War in Croatia as an Ethnic Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the forms of coexistence between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war, war and post-war periods. The struggle for recognizing the right to self-determination of the republics of former Yugoslavia as well as denials of this right, which led to the attack by the Yugoslav army on Slovenia and Croatia, mainly destroyed the net of primary social relations in local communities affected by the war. However, even in war conditions, some segments of the neighbourhood and friendship networks remained intact on the local level. Some Croats and Serbs protected one another during the war. Pre-war coexistence and developed forms of social interaction and communication between Croats and Serbs as well as the preserved segments of micro-social ethnic networks during the war and the revival of coexistence between Croats and Serbs in the post-war period, indicate the strength and resistance of primary structures in local communities. This puts in doubt the interpretation of the war in Croatia as an ethnic conflict, and affirms the thesis that it was above all a political-state conflict. Events in former war areas in Croatia (in official terminology: areas of special state concern, together with the gradual, slow but nevertheless upward trend in the revival of coexistence, reveals the reasons/motives of the conflict. The conflicts were not the result of age-old hatreds, intolerance and long-standing local conflicts, but rather the consequence of opposed political projects advocated by the representatives of Croats and Serbs in Croatia. This is also the main argument for defining the political/military conflict in Croatia as above all a political/state conflict and not an ethnic one.

  9. Family Ethnic Socialization and Ethnic Identity: A Family-Driven, Youth-Driven, or Reciprocal Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths’ ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a two year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family-driven: Youths’ perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths’ ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths’ future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths’ ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths’ ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females. PMID:23421841

  10. Diagnostic and interventional radiology in the post-operative period and follow-up of patients after rectal resection with coloanal anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severini, A.; Civelli, E.M.; Uslenghi, E.; Cozzi, G.; Salvetti, M.; Milella, M. [Department of Radiology, National Cancer Institute of Milan, via Venezian 1, I-23100 Milan (Italy); Gallino, G.; Bonfanti, G.; Belli, F.; Leo, E. [Department of Surgery, National Cancer Institute of Milan, via Venezian 1, I-23100 Milan (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Surgical treatment of carcinoma of the distal third of the rectum with anal sphincter preservation is increasingly used in accredited cancer centers. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of radiological investigations in the management of patients who had undergone resection with coloanal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum, in the immediate post-operative period, during closure of the protective colostomy and in the follow-up of symptomatic recanalized patients. A total of 175 patients who had undergone total rectal resection with end-to-side anastomosis for carcinoma of the distal third of the rectal ampulla, most of whom had received postoperative radiotherapy, were evaluated radiologically. In the postoperative period radiological investigation was ordered only for symptomatic patients to detect pathology of the anastomosis and the pouch sutures and was used direct film abdominal radiography and contrast-enhanced radiography of the rectal stump with a water-soluble radio-opaque agent. Before closure of the colostomy, 2 months after rectal excision or approximately 4 months after if postoperative radiotherapy was given, the anastomosis and pouch of all patients, even asymptomatic ones, were studied with water-soluble contrast enema to check for normal canalization. In the follow-up after recanalization radiological examinations were done to complete the study of the large intestine if the endoscopist was not able to examine it up to the cecum. Of the 175 patients examined radiologically during the postoperative period and/or subsequent follow-up, 95 showed no pathological findings. Seventy-nine patients had fistulas of the coloanal anastomosis or the pouch, 23 of which supplied a presacral collection. In the absence of severe sepsis, the only therapeutic measures were systemic antibiotics and washing of the surgical catheters to maintain efficient operation. In 2 patients in whom transanal drainage was performed radiologically the fistula

  11. Diagnostic and interventional radiology in the post-operative period and follow-up of patients after rectal resection with coloanal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, A.; Civelli, E.M.; Uslenghi, E.; Cozzi, G.; Salvetti, M.; Milella, M.; Gallino, G.; Bonfanti, G.; Belli, F.; Leo, E.

    2000-01-01

    Surgical treatment of carcinoma of the distal third of the rectum with anal sphincter preservation is increasingly used in accredited cancer centers. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of radiological investigations in the management of patients who had undergone resection with coloanal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum, in the immediate post-operative period, during closure of the protective colostomy and in the follow-up of symptomatic recanalized patients. A total of 175 patients who had undergone total rectal resection with end-to-side anastomosis for carcinoma of the distal third of the rectal ampulla, most of whom had received postoperative radiotherapy, were evaluated radiologically. In the postoperative period radiological investigation was ordered only for symptomatic patients to detect pathology of the anastomosis and the pouch sutures and was used direct film abdominal radiography and contrast-enhanced radiography of the rectal stump with a water-soluble radio-opaque agent. Before closure of the colostomy, 2 months after rectal excision or approximately 4 months after if postoperative radiotherapy was given, the anastomosis and pouch of all patients, even asymptomatic ones, were studied with water-soluble contrast enema to check for normal canalization. In the follow-up after recanalization radiological examinations were done to complete the study of the large intestine if the endoscopist was not able to examine it up to the cecum. Of the 175 patients examined radiologically during the postoperative period and/or subsequent follow-up, 95 showed no pathological findings. Seventy-nine patients had fistulas of the coloanal anastomosis or the pouch, 23 of which supplied a presacral collection. In the absence of severe sepsis, the only therapeutic measures were systemic antibiotics and washing of the surgical catheters to maintain efficient operation. In 2 patients in whom transanal drainage was performed radiologically the fistula

  12. Beta-thalassemia- institution based analysis of ethnic and geographic distribution, effect of consanguinity and safety of chorionic villus sampling as a diagnostic, tool for pre-natal diagnosis in selected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, K.N.; Liaqat, J.; Azim, W.

    2011-01-01

    To study the ethnic and geographic distribution of Beta-thalassemia amongst the patients included and to study the effect of consanguinity in promoting this disease. Also, to establish the safety of CVS when used as a pre-natal diagnostic tool in aiding the early diagnosis of Beta-thalassemia in selected patients. Study Design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration of Study: PNS Shifa Karachi, from Jan 2008 to Dec 2008. Patients and Methods: A total of 223 women out of 240 that were referred from all over Sindh to PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi for susceptible gene mutations participated in the study. The standard procedure that was used in this study was trans-abdominal aspiration of chorionic villi through suction needle. The samples were then sent for further analysis to the Pathology Department at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi. Results: In our study population Beta-thalassemia was most prevalent in Sindhi 107 (48%) followed by Punjabi 46 (21%), 27 (12%) Pathan, and 43 (19%) Balochi. Out of 223 women, 95 were of thalassemia trait, while 85 were of thalassemia major. Fifty five percent of thalassemia trait and 56% of thalassemia major fetus parents were first cousins. The rate of pregnancy loss after performing CVS was 2.0% with no complications reported. Conclusion: It is concluded that highest percentage of thalassemia is in first cousins and sindhi origin families are mostly affected. However CVS is a safe and effective tool for prenatal diagnosis and subsequent counselling in selected couples. (author)

  13. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R.

    2018-01-01

    Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569). Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L) and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L). Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status. PMID:29329201

  14. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  15. Ethnic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, R

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the main facial plastic procedures performed worldwide. Ethnic patients today are mainly mixed-race patients. Diagnosis is based on anatomical findings and surgery should be planned based on patients' needs and what they define as beautiful. Different surgical techniques are presented where a structural approach to rhinoplasty is explained. Very little tissue is resected and support structures of the nose are strengthened with sutures and grafts. A gradual approach to the nasal tip is also presented progressing from simple predictable techniques to more complex unpredictable ones. The final result should be noses with greater definition and refinement that are harmonious and blend in with patients' faces.

  16. Inter-Ethnic Relations in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demjaha Agon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the state of inter-ethnic relations in Kosovo between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs, with special focus on the period after unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo in 2008. Inter-ethnic conflict in Kosovo has exclusively been over its territory since both Serbs and Albanians have made claims about history and ethno-demography to justify their alleged exclusive right to this ethnically mixed region. Consequently, inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have been rather problematic throughout the most of the 20th century. During this period Albanians in Kosovo have been subjected to discrimination, intimidation and even mass expulsion by Yugoslav/Serb authorities. In late 1990s, these relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have progressively worsened and finally escalated in an armed warfare in 1999.

  17. Trends in ethnic disparities in stroke incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, during 1981 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kristie; Anderson, Craig; Hacket, Maree; Feigin, Valery; Barber, P Alan; Broad, Joanna B; Bonita, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Although geographical variations in stroke rates are well documented, limited data exist on temporal trends in ethnic-specific stroke incidence. We assessed trends in ethnic-specific stroke rates using standard diagnostic criteria and community-wide surveillance procedures in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) in 1981 to 1982, 1991 to 1992, and 2002 to 2003. Indirect and direct methods were used to adjust first-ever (incident) and total (attack) rates for changes in the structure of the population and reported with 95% CIs. Ethnicity was self-defined and categorized as "NZ/European," "Maori," "Pacific peoples," and "Asian and other." Stroke attack (19%; 95% CI, 11% to 26%) and incidence rates (19%; 95% CI, 12% to 24%) declined significantly in NZ/Europeans from 1981 to 1982 to 2002 to 2003. These rates remained high or increased in other ethnic groups, particularly for Pacific peoples in whom stroke attack rates increased by 66% (95% CI; 11% to 225%) over the periods. Some favorable downward trends in vascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, were counterbalanced by increasing age, body mass index, and diabetes in certain ethnic groups. Divergent trends in ethnic-specific stroke incidence and attack rates, and of associated risk factors, have occurred in Auckland over recent decades. The findings provide mixed views as to the future burden of stroke in populations undergoing similar lifestyle and structural changes.

  18. Features of the response to inflammatory process in children with high and low intensity of free radical oxidations in lymphocytes during the acute period of the disease in various ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute phase response represents a constellation of local and systemic reactions of the organism to the tissue damage caused by various reasons – infection, trauma, inflammation, tumor growth. So-called proteins of acute phase have a special value among the factors causing some changes in the case of inflammation. In the article the features of acute phase response to the inflammation and regulating role of adaptation hormones in the case of acute respiratory infection complicated by pneumonia in children living in the conditions of Far North (Yakutia among the native population and the arrived one werer characterized. 112 children with acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia and 42 practically healthy ones have been examined in the conditions of Far North. Both Russian and local population is forced to fight with pneumonia by the activation of free radical oxidation, i.e. usage of «respiratory explosion» reactions to get protected against inflammatory processes. The intensity difference in the biochemical response among the members of the two ethnic groups of patients is identified. Some considerable changes in С-reactive protein level, especially among Russians in the group with a high level of free radical oxidation (10 times above normal level are noted. Higher level of α-2-macroglobulin among children with a low level of free radical oxidation is also observed in the group of Russian children. The levels of transferrin and prealbumin are characterized by a valid increase only during the period of reconvalescence, after their synthesis activation by glucocorticoids the level of which is already increased during the acute period. The conducted research has confirmed valid shifts of adaptation hormone level, acute phase proteins and free radical oxidation processes in blood of children with cute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia in the conditions of Far North. More expressed

  19. Bilingual Education among Ethnic Koreans in China: Ethnic Language Maintenance and Upward Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority education is a challenge for developing countries and a matter of international urgency. This paper imputes bilingual policy for ethnic Koreans as an example for exploring the implementation of bilingual education during China's reform period. Drawn from an ethnographic research study at a bilingual Korean school in northeast…

  20. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...

  1. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    knowledge about the similarities and differences in outdoor recreation pattern of ethnic Danish and ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation pattern which can be used in policy making, as well as planning and management of green spaces and other natural areas, to provide the best possibilities for outdoor......The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation...

  2. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  3. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through...

  4. Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect indicator of the prospects of traditional “primordial” ethnic identities in different ethnic groups. Special attention is paid to new trends — an increase in the number of people refraining from answering the question about their ethnic identity or giving an unclear answer. Alongside serious census errors, this phenomenon can be a result of growing complexity of the ethnic identity structures and the processes of modernization, which occur at different rates in Russian and national regions. Based on the 2010 census data, the article analyses the differences in polyethnicity between the rural and urban population, which are accounted for by the historical background, particularities of regional development, settlement features, and migration processes of the past two decades.

  5. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO and colleges (HBO in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study breaks down wage differentials into two components: a component which can be explained by the observed characteristics and an unexplained component. The analysis provides new evidence for the magnitude and the origin of ethnic wage differentials by gender. In general, ethnic wage gap is larger for migrant women than migrant men and larger for Western and Caribbean migrants than for Mediterranean migrants. Ethnic minority workers appear to have larger wage surpluses which is almost entirely explained by their observed favourable characteristics. Most notably, Mediterranean female graduates have significantly positive wage discrimination, while Western female graduates seem to face a small wage penalty.

  6. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  7. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  8. Study of First-Term Attrition Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espiritu, Emilson

    1997-01-01

    .... These people are tracked over a 48-month period to determine rates of first-term attrition. Cross-tabulation and frequency analysis are used to examine attrition rates by race, racial/ethnic group, and ethnicity...

  9. World on Fire? Democracy, Globalization and Ethnic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bezemer, Dirk J; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that democracy and globalization lead to ethnic hatred and violence in countries with a rich ethnic minority. We examine the thesis by Chua (2003) that democratization and globalization lead to ethnic violence in the presence of a market-dominant minority. We use different data sets to measure market dominant minorities and employ panel fixed effects regressions for a sample of 107 countries over the period 1984-2003. Our model contains two-way and three-way interaction...

  10. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  11. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  12. Ethnic Maps: Between Reality and Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Klemenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic maps provide insight into the ethnically complex populations of certain areas. They are a cartographic way of portraying a part of geographic reality. Southeastern Europe appears as an ideal area for ethnic maps drawers: there is a variety of different ethnic groups living in a relatively small area. Moreover, political boundaries often do not correspond with so-called ethnic borders, i.e. divisions between majority areas of different nations and/or ethnic groups. The history of South-Eastern Europe offers a number of examples of ethnic maps drawing and their use in political context. The paper focused on ethnic maps drawn and published in the context of the break-up of Yugoslav federation during the first half of the 1990’s. The maps were produced mainly by scientific institutions or under the supervision of such institutions or experts, but always with the specific goal to back and justify political standpoints of their respective country's governments during a turbulent period of geopolitical change and transition. Generally, figures and statistics were presented professionally and correctly. Map authors and compilers did not try to falsify figures. The degree of intent in mapmaking is registered primarily through the choice of cartographic technique, including certain elements of the map design (choice of colours. In that regard, one can identify a technique favoured by Croatian sources (pie charts and another one often used by Serbian mapmakers (choropleth maps. Maps were understood to be powerful media tools and influential visual images that could be used to create a particular perception.

  13. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  14. Ethnic disparities in the graduate labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of students enrolled in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study decomposes wage differentials into two components: a component which can be

  15. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO) and colleges (HBO) in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study

  16. Understanding Race and Ethnicity in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    1996-01-01

    American Indian reservations, Mexican American colonias, and African American communities in the rural South are located in close proximity to historic institutions established for their exploitation, and represent a legacy from which much can be learned. Reviews studies of race and ethnicity in rural areas during three periods in the development…

  17. A Five-miRNA Panel Identified From a Multicentric Case–control Study Serves as a Novel Diagnostic Tool for Ethnically Diverse Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs are promising biomarkers for cancer detection. However, multiethnic and multicentric studies of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC are lacking. We recruited 221 NSCLC patients, 161 controls and 56 benign nodules from both China and America. Initial miRNA screening was performed using the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by confirming individually by RT-qPCR in Chinese cohorts. Finally, we performed a blind trial from an American cohort to validate our findings. RT-qPCR confirmed that miR-483-5p, miR-193a-3p, miR-25, miR-214 and miR-7 were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the ROC curve of this five-serum miRNA panel were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.939–1.0; P < 0.0001 and 0.823 (95% CI, 0.75–0.896; P < 0.0001 for the two confirmation sets, respectively. In the blind trial, the panel correctly classified 95% NSCLC cases and 84% controls from the American cohort. Most importantly, the panel was capable of distinguishing NSCLC from benign nodules with an AUC of 0.979 (95% CI, 0.959–1.0 in the American cohort and allowed correct prediction of 86% and 95% stage I–II tumors in the Chinese and American cohorts, respectively. This serum miRNA panel holds the potential for diagnosing ethnically diverse NSCLC patients.

  18. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G; Orozco, R; Rafful, C; Miller, E; Breslau, J

    2012-06-01

    Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the USA. Suicide rates vary across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the USA in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The aim of this report was to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the USA. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for lifetime suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15 180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (CPES), a group of cross-sectional surveys. Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%) and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US born, but equalized over time after migration. Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are explained partly by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the USA. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases.

  19. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  20. When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Olsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the change of articulation of ethnic boundaries on the coastline and the fjord areas in Finnmark, Northern Norway in the post-World War II period. From being a ‘social stigma’ in the 1950s a Sámi identity is today something that can be expressed in certain cultural constructed spaces. This change can be described as a result of socio-economic changes in the region, the populations’ firmer integration in a Norwegian culture and the ethno-political struggle of some Sámi that corresponded with a general development in the view on indigenous people in the Western world. Even if great changes have occurred there are still some resemblances with ethnic processes 50 years ago. A spatial ordering of ethnic boundaries and pragmatic assumption of Norwegian culture being neutral norm are among those features perpetuated until today.

  1. When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Olsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the change of articulation of ethnic boundaries on the coastline and the fjord areas in Finnmark, Northern Norway in the post-World War II period. From being a ‘social stigma’ in the 1950s a Sámi identity is today something that can be expressed in certain cultural constructed spaces. This change can be described as a result of socio-economic changes in the region, the populations’ firmer integration in a Norwegian culture and the ethno-political struggle of some Sámi that corresponded with a general development in the view on indigenous people in the Western world. Even if great changes have occurred there are still some resemblances with ethnic processes 50 years ago. A spatial ordering of ethnic boundaries and pragmatic assumption of Norwegian culture being neutral norm are among those features perpetuated until today.

  2. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  3. Use of Inpatient Mental Health Services by Members of Ethnic Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Cheung, Freda K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the ethnic-related differences in mental hospitalization admittance rates, diagnoses, and length of treatment. Explores reasons other than ethnic origin that may account for these differences, including socioeconomic standing, access to alternative services, bias in practitioners' assignment of diagnostic labels, and differential stigma…

  4. Ethnic and religious structure of Tutin municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Emilija Đ.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tutin municipality is settled in southwest Serbia. It is one of Serbian municipality with one dominancy one ethnic group over another - Muslim group in this case. Muslims were dominated over Serbian in Tutin even before The Second World War, but these differences became more distinctly by the end of XX century. The reasons for such situation are numerous: population increase which is bigger among Muslim than among Serbian population, high migration saldo (for the period 1961-1981, emigration processes from villages to only town centre in municipality - Tutin. Ethnic structure on the settlement level is, more or less, the same as on the level of municipality. There are only five out of 93 settlement in the municipality with dominant Serbian population. The other 88 settlement are with absolute dominancy of Muslims. Religious structure follows the course of ethnic structure in Tutin municipality. Muslims are absolutely dominant religious group with 95% of Tutin population, and only 4,31% of population are orthodox Christians. If all these processes continue in the future, there will be absolute dominancy of only one ethnic group by the end of the next decade. On the other side, the area of Raška region is one of the most important geostrategic area in Serbia, and for that reason it would be good to pay more attention to building spirit of tolerance between different ethnic and religious groups.

  5. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  6. Doing race and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...

  7. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Ethnic cartography and politics in Vienna, 1918-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Petra

    2018-03-01

    In Vienna, the close of the First World War and the period of the peace negotiations in Paris saw an enormous boom of ethnic-geographic research approaches and ethnic map-making. This process continued with the appointment of the Viennese geographer Hugo Hassinger (1877-1952) to the chair of human geography at the University of Vienna in 1931 and intensified with the establishment of the South East German Research Association and the National Socialist takeover in March 1938. But did the initiatives to create ethnic maps originate with politicians and authorities, or did they come from the scientists themselves? This article argues that scientists embarked upon ethnic geographies on their own initiative. Although political institutions used scientists and their resources for their own, political ends (ethnographic maps served as an important source for the National Socialists in their operations for ethnic consolidation), scientists also mobilized resources from the political sphere for career and disciplinary purposes.

  9. Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands : the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Poortman, A.-R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use. Design. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged

  10. Ethnic Harassment, Ethnic Identity Centrality, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.

  11. The role of ethnic identity and perceived ethnic norms in the purchase of ethnical food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrus, Giuseppe; Nenci, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Pierluigi

    2009-02-01

    The role of group and individual variables in the purchasing of ethnical food products was tested through an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model. A total of 100 Indian female immigrants, living in Rome, Italy, were administered a self-reported questionnaire measuring the classical TPB variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions and self-reported behaviors) plus 3 additional variables: identification with the Indian ethnic group, perceived norms of the Indian ethnic group, and past behavior. Results confirmed that the new variables introduced are distinct from the original TPB components. As expected, variables at both the individual and group level play a role in predicting purchasing of ethnical foods products. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that past behavior, ethnical identification, and perceived group norms explain an additional proportion of variance in intentions and self-reported behaviors, independently of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control. A significant 2-way interaction between ethnical identification and perceived group norms was also detected: as predicted, the highest levels of ethnical food purchasing behavior were reported by high ethnical identifiers with stronger ethnical group norms, while the lowest levels were reported by low ethnical identifiers with weaker ethnical group norms. Theoretical and practical implications of results are discussed.

  12. Diagnostic laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cavity. These complications could lead to immediate open surgery ( laparotomy ). Diagnostic laparoscopy may not be possible if you have a swollen bowel, fluid in the abdomen (ascites), or you have had a past surgery.

  13. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    . Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...... of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently...

  14. Spatial distribution and ethnic homogenization of population in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Raduški Nada

    2011-01-01

    In the article is going to presented the ethnic picture of the population of the Serbia and the ethnodemographic changes in period 1991-2002, caused by migration, natural movement, changed declaration on national affiliation, as well as some political and socio-economic factors. Ethnocentric migrations (voluntary and forced) primarily influenced on the change of ethnic structure of the Serbia, in the sense of creating nationally more homogeneous region, having in mind the national struc...

  15. Culture in Diagnostics of Refugees : The Cultural Formulation of Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohlof, Hans; Knipscheer, J.W.; Kleber, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The Cultural Formulation of Diagnosis (CFD) is a qualitative instrument in DSM-IV to describe the influence of culture on diagnostics. In ethnic minorities and refugees it is important to use this instrument in order to enhance diagnostic validity, communication and

  16. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introduc......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic...... created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving...

  17. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  18. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Period Cramps KidsHealth / For Kids / Period Cramps Print en español ... a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or during ...

  19. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    In recent decades, so-called universal welfare states have experienced considerable immigration from non-Western countries and, accordingly, rising levels of ethnic diversity. On that basis, scholars have debated how ethnic diversity affects public opinion in recipient societies. The debate...... that ethnicization is at once more limited (in that it is unlikely for the most widely discussed issue, welfare) and more pervasive (in that it can arise from local contexts as well as from media). Ethnicization of attitudes is one way in which immigration can influence political life, even when the political agenda...

  20. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  1. Fungal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.

  2. Disordered gambling among racial and ethnic groups in the US: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, A A; Petry, N M; Hasin, D S; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2009-03-01

    Prior research suggests that racial minority groups in the United States are more vulnerable to develop a gambling disorder than whites. However, no national survey on gambling disorders exists that has focused on ethnic differences. Analyses of this study were based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large (N=43,093) nationally representative survey of the adult (> or =18 years of age) population residing in households during 2001-2002 period. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision diagnoses of pathological gambling, mood, anxiety, drug use, and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Prevalence rates of disordered gambling among blacks (2.2%) and Native/Asian Americans (2.3%) were higher than that of whites (1.2%). Demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity differed among Hispanic, black, and white disordered gamblers. However, all racial and ethnic groups evidenced similarities with respect to symptom patterns, time course, and treatment seeking for pathological gambling. The prevalence of disordered gambling, but not its onset or course of symptoms, varies by racial and ethnic group. These varying prevalence rates may reflect, at least in part, cultural differences in gambling and its acceptability and accessibility. These data may inform the need for targeted prevention strategies for high-risk racial and ethnic groups.

  3. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    Spatial concentrations of ethnic minorities might in principle be created and maintained by four different kinds of moving behaviour stemming from special housing preferences and options among either ethnic minorities or the native population. Inclination among natives to move away from neighbour......Spatial concentrations of ethnic minorities might in principle be created and maintained by four different kinds of moving behaviour stemming from special housing preferences and options among either ethnic minorities or the native population. Inclination among natives to move away from...... called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  4. Nation-State Size, Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance in the Advanced Capitalist Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurkoa, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the proposition that the economic performance of advanced capitalist countries depends on their size and ethnic composition. As such it blends insights from two important literatures in comparative political economy. One is exemplified by the work of Peter Katzenstein, who wrote...... capitalist countries for the 1985 through 2007 period. Regression analysis confirms that ethnically homogenous countries tend to have stronger rates of economic growth during this period than ethnically heterogeneous countries but that neither the size of countries nor the interaction of size and ethnic...

  5. Disordered eating in ethnic minority adolescents with overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Watts, Allison W; Austin, S Bryn; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    High rates of disordered eating exist among adolescents with overweight and among ethnic/racial minority adolescents. Given the lack of research examining how eating disorder risk is moderated by both overweight and ethnicity/race, this study aimed to explore interactions between ethnicity/race and overweight status on disordered eating behaviors in a population-based adolescent sample. Cross-sectional data from adolescents (n = 2,271; 52% females) of White (23%), Black (34%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (23%; 82% Hmong) ethnicity/race participating in the EAT 2010 study were used to examine associations between overweight status and disordered eating behaviors across ethnic/racial groups. Disordered eating behaviors occurred more frequently among adolescents with overweight compared with those without overweight across all ethnic/racial groups. Although some differences in the prevalence of disordered eating were found by ethnicity/race, particularly in girls, no consistent patterns of interaction emerged. Overweight White and Hispanic girls reported the highest risk for dieting, while the highest risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors was among overweight Black girls, and for overeating among overweight White and Asian girls. Within a society in which thinness is highly valued and being overweight is stigmatized, across diverse cultural groups, adolescents with overweight are at risk for disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. On Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict Management in Nigeria by Rian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper it is attempted to discuss the concept of ethnic conflict by using Nigeria as a specific case study, while some ... Ethnicity, however, focuses more on sentiments of origin and decent, rather than the geographical considerations of a state ... When the struggle is over money, taxes, wage levels, business regulations ...

  7. From Immigrants to Ethnics: Toward a New Theory of "Ethnicization."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Jonathan D.

    1978-01-01

    The author contrasts the fragmented nature of immigrant groups upon their arrival in America with the social and cultural unities found among ethnic groups years later. He explains this change--the process of "ethnicization"--as a consequence of two factors: ascription and adversity. (Author)

  8. Ethnic stereotypes and the ideological manifestations of ethnicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is informed by a series of Internet texts that were collected in the months leading to the 2007 general elections in Kenya. It explores the ethnic stereotype, linking it to ideas of ethnicity and power, 'othering' and the constructed nature of stereotypes. It asks a number of questions, including: Is there signifi cance to ...

  9. Ethnic boundaries in national literary histories: Classification of ethnic minority fiction authors in American, Dutch and German anthologies and literary history books, 1978-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article compares the classification of ethnic minority fiction writers in American, Dutch and German literary anthologies and literary history books for the period of 1978-2006. Using content analyses, ethnic boundaries are much stronger in Dutch and German textbooks than in their

  10. Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity: Is There a Developmental Progression and Does Growth in Ethnic Identity Predict Growth in Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Guimond, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models…

  11. Diagnostic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruvilla, K.; Kuruvilla, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Writing a ?Diagnostic Formulation? is a skill expected of candidates in the post-graduate examinations in psychiatry in most universities in India. However there is ambiguity regarding what the term means and how it should be written. This article is an attempt to provide some guidelines on this topic.

  12. The Case Against Romantic Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    1974-01-01

    Characterizes the new ethnic movement as an upper-class intellectual romanticism, which has focused on an abstract craving for historical identity. Criticizes it for avoiding the principal problems of poverty and possivity of the poor, among whom the ethnics are so prominent. (EH)

  13. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living...... speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate....

  14. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  15. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  16. Ethnicity: Implications for Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Many recently-developed ethnic studies programs in public schools and colleges lack clear objectives. Also, they offer guidelines which do not reflect current research and learning theory. Reviews theories of acculturation and ethnic cultural components in terms of their relevance to program content and goals. (Author/AV)

  17. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...

  18. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...

  19. Ethnicity impacts the cystic fibrosis diagnosis: A note of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Barbara; Bilton, Diana; Sosnay, Patrick; Raraigh, Karen S; Mak, Denise Y F; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Gulmans, Vincent; Thomas, Muriel; Cuppens, Harry; Amaral, Margarida; De Boeck, Kris

    2017-07-01

    The diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is by consensus based on the same parameters in all patients, yet the influence of ethnicity has only scarcely been studied. We aimed at elucidating the impact of Asian descent on the diagnosis of CF. We performed a retrospective analysis of the CFTR2 and UK CF databases for clinical phenotype, sweat chloride values and CFTR mutations and compared the diagnostic characteristics of Asian to non-Asian patients with CF. Asian patients with CF do not have a worse clinical phenotype. The repeatedly reported lower FEV 1 of Asian patients with CF is attributable to the influence of ethnicity on lung function in general. However, pancreatic sufficiency is more common in Asian patients with CF. The diagnosis of CF in people with Asian ancestry is heterogeneous as mean sweat chloride values are lower (92±26 versus 99±22mmol/L in controls) and 14% have sweat chloride values below 60mmol/L (versus 6% in non-Asians). Also, CFTR mutations differ from those in Caucasians: 55% of British Asian patients with CF do not have one mutation included in the routine newborn screening panel. Bringing together the largest cohort of patients with CF and Asian ethnicity, we demonstrate that Asian roots impact on all three CF diagnostic pillars. These findings have implications for clinical practice in the increasingly ethnically diverse Western population. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photoprotection in ethnic skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, sun-induced aging, dyspigmentation, sunburns, and skin cancers are reported worldwide in all skin types and races. The severity of photodamage varies from individual to individual, and is predominantly based upon genetic differences altering the body's response or susceptibility to sun damage. In addition, non-Caucasian patients are less likely to perform skin self-examinations, attend dermatologic follow-ups, and seven times less likely to apply sunscreen than Caucasian patients. Therefore, the remainder of this article will discuss the categories of photoprotective agent [environmental, biologic, physical, and UV filters, i.e., sunscreens] as well as the topics of photoaging, dyspigmentation, photocarcinogenesis, and the controversy surrounding vitamin D deficiency from photoprotection in the context of ethnic skin.

  1. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyda...... these cultural fields play significant roles as social and cultural mediators in the production of locality.......This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...

  2. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  3. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Problem periods Getting enough sleep Looking and feeling your best Fighting germs Your sexuality What are STDs and STIs? Seeing the doctor Quizzes Links to more information on girls' bodies girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home ... Problem periods It’s common to have ...

  4. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  5. Historiske perioder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For at forstå fortiden og fortællingerne om den, må vi skabe en form for orden og systematik. Her spiller inddelingen af fortiden i historiske perioder en afgørende rolle – og historiske perioder er da også et kompetencemål efter 6. klasse. Videoen diskuterer forskellige principper...... for periodisering. Kronologi og sammenhænge hænger naturligt sammen med historiske perioder. Videoen handler også om forståelser og brug af synkrone og diakrone sammenhænge i faget....

  6. Periodontal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Periodontitis affects a subset of the population and our current thinking is that progression of periodontal disease may be either continuous or cyclical (burst hypothesis). These features make screening and diagnostic tools desirable in the management of this disease. Although many potential markers exist, several difficulties hamper our ability to declare them diagnostic tests with proven utility. The 'gold standard' for active periodontal disease is not available and inflammation due to gingivally confined lesions (gingivitis) and periodontal inflammation which results in attachment loss is a potential confounder of any test based on assessing the host response elements of the disease. The current absence of proof for the progression of periodontal disease i.e., whether or not the burst hypothesis is correct, is a further problem. Although much is written about the need for markers of current or future disease which will prevent us from overtreating pockets, the time, effort and cost involved in testing these sites has to be balanced against the relative ease and speed of routine therapy such as root planing. In addition, we are still some way from the development and validation of reliable host or microbial testing methods. In terms of screening tests for diseases such as the early-onset forms of periodontitis, the research and development on diagnostic tools involving genetic polymorphisms, specific genes, systemic antibodies or leucocyte cell surface markers of the patients, may become a clinical reality in time. One could envisage chairside tests using blood from thumb pricks being capable of determining a young individual's risk of developing disease at a later age, and thus the need for a timely prevention programme. Before applying any test we should reconsider what treatment planning effects a positive or negative result will have, and any test which does not influence the treatment plan is redundant. Whether periodontal diagnostic tests will be

  7. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Snijder, Marieke B.; de Wit, Matty A. S.; Schene, Aart H.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic

  8. Induction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Tokunaga, M.

    1984-01-01

    Induction period is the temporal aspect of the excess cancer risk that follows an exposure to ionizing radiation. Operationally, it can be thought of as the time from an exposure of brief duration to the diagnosis of any resultant cancer. Whereas the magnitude of excess risk can be described by a single number, such as the average yearly excess risk over some fixed time interval after exposure, the temporal distribution requires a histogram or a curve, that is, an array or continuum of numbers. The study of induction period involves a search for a simple way of describing the temporal distribution of risk, that is, a way of describing a continuum by using only one or two numbers. In other words, the goal is to describe induction period probabilistically, using a parametric model with a few parameters

  9. Ethnicity Reporting Practices for Empirical Research in Three Autism-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Nigel P.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sorrells, Audrey M.; Fragale, Christina L.; White, Pamela J.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Cole, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines ethnicity reporting in three autism-related journals ("Autism," "Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities," and "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders") over a 6-year period. A comprehensive multistep search of articles is used to identify ethnicity as a demographic variable in…

  10. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  11. Periodical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the first overview of the economics of nineteenth-century periodicals and newspapers. While media economics is an established field in business studies, the chapter redefines economics by looking at value systems including capitalist ones but no confined to them. Original case studies are offered as models for research into the economics of nineteenth-century print culture.

  12. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  13. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a laparoscope. Most patients feel a short-lived “bee sting” that lasts a second or two. Small ... procedure was performed. You should have nothing to eat or drink for a set time period before ...

  14. Ethnicity and Politics. IRSS Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark

    This research report examines the role of ethnicity in politics. The concept of ethnicity encompasses at least four distinct dimensions: nationality identification, religious identification, old vs. new ethnic stock, and racial membership. In the national sample analyzed, several interesting patterns of ethnic differentiation emerged. First, none…

  15. [Cutaneous lymphoproliferations: proposal for the use of diagnostic algorithms based on 2760 cases of cutaneous lymphoproliferations taken from the INCa networks (LYMPHOPATH and GFELC) over a two-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Émilie; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Ortonne, Nicolas; Battistella, Maxime; Carlotti, Agnes; de Muret, Anne; Wechsler, Janine; Balme, Brigitte; Petrella, Tony; Lamant, Laurence; Frouin, Éric; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Vergier, Béatrice

    2015-04-01

    Taking as a base our retrospective study of 2760 cases of cutaneous lymphoproliferations from the LYMPHOPATH and GFELC networks, we analyzed the doubtful and discordant cases between non-expert and expert pathologists, and the interest of clinicopathological confrontation. We defined the main diagnostic difficulties presented by cutaneous lymphoproliferations. We then designed and tested the algorithms on 20 random cases with 20 pathologists, in order to be used by any pathologist (not necessarily specialised in dermatopathology). The problematic differential diagnoses most frequently encountered are the following: MF or reactive dermatose; lymphoma without any other precision or reactive infiltrate; small B cell lymphoproliferation: lymphoma or reactive infiltrate; phenotyping of large B cell lymphoproliferation. We also analyzed less common problematic differential diagnoses, on the grounds that they are over- or under- diagnosed. Our test had a 72% success rate among the 20 randomly tested cases. The use of several algorithms for the same case is possible. Our study shows that an expert second-opinion is of interest in the area of cutaneous lymphoproliferations. A second opinion is useful for distinguishing a small B cell lymphoma from a HLR, and for defining a final diagnosis when the first pathologist doubts between lymphoma and reactive infiltrate. However, we demonstrate that for the problem MF or reactive dermatose, an initial clinicopathological confrontation produces more results than a second-opinion pathology review. This is the first study of cutaneous lymphoproliferations that, without excluding reactionary infiltrates, concentrates on doubtful and discordant diagnoses between non expert and expert pathologists, and which has produced tested diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. “We Are All Part of the Same Family”: China’s Ethnic Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Brady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party (CCP government works hard to promote an image of ethnic harmony in China and downplays ethnic conflict by carefully controlling public information and debate about ethnic affairs. Despite such efforts, the recent clashes in Tibetan areas in 2008 and violent riots in Urumqi in 2009 reveal the weaknesses of this approach. This paper surveys the broad themes of ethnic propaganda (民族宣传, minzu xuanchuan in present-day China, looking at the organisations involved, the systems of information management they utilise, and the current “go” and “no-go” zones for debate. The paper forms part of a larger study of the politics of ethnicity in China. It is based on primary- and secondary-source research in Chinese, secondary sources in English, and extensive interviews with Chinese bureaucrats and scholars regarding China’s ethnic affairs conducted during fieldwork in China in 2002, 2004, 2005–2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2012. Ethnic issues in China concern not only the minority peoples there, but also the majority Han – hence, my definition of ethnic propaganda incorporates materials relating to all of China’s ethnic groups. The paper uses the events in Tibetan areas in 2008 and in Urumqi as case studies to demonstrate how these policies play out in periods of crisis. It concludes with a discussion of the role that ethnic propaganda plays in maintaining China’s long-term political stability and its international affairs.

  17. A Selected Bibliography of American Ethnic Writing and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Nancy S.

    This bibliography and supplement on American ethnic writing provide extensive listings of materials by or about Afro-Americans, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and Orientals. The areas covered are novels, biography, autobiography, poetry, drama, art, folklore, music, films, records, periodicals, anthologies, bibliographies, criticism,…

  18. Ethnicity, Land and Conflict in Eastern Africa : Case Studies from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to offer insights into the ethnic dimension of conflict over land in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Kenya has just gone through a violent post-election period, Rwanda has a history of land-related problems and Uganda has just drafted a controversial land law. Although Tanzania does not have a ...

  19. FEL components and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.

    1997-01-01

    FEL hardware includes undulators, alignment systems, electron beam diagnostics, and mechanical and vacuum systems. While most FEL close-quote s employ conventional undulators, there is some interest in novel types, particularly where conventional designs cannot be used, as at very short periods and high fields. For these areas, superconducting technology is indicated. The most serious issue facing long FEL undulators is that of alignment; mechanical techniques may not be accurate enough, and beam-based strategies must be considered. To maintain alignment and control the electron trajectory, beam position monitors with micron precision are required. Beam size monitors are also required to assure control of emittance. The talks given in the working group sessions touch on undulators, alignment, and electron beam diagnostics, and they are summarized here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006

  1. The relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity exploration as mediated by ethnic identity crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Adubofour, Millicent

    2010-01-01

    In the adolescent identity formation literature, negative experiences of stress in particular, gender discrimination, and difficulties with work, relationships, finances, health, and experiences with death have been associated with increased identity exploration (Anthis, 2002a,b). Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic identity discrimination and ethnic identity exploration. Some 106 males, now 18-28 years of age who entered Norwa...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  3. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with plasma cell differentiation: Periodic acid-schiff reaction-positive Dutcher body is a diagnostic clue to distinguish it from plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Atsuko; Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Hiaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-06-01

    We herein report a case of primary parotid extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) with Dutcher bodies. An 82-year-old man presented with a 4 cm × 2.5 cm mass in the left parotid region. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed localized abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the left parotid gland and lymph nodes of the left cervical region. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the left parotid gland showed lymphoplasmacytoid cells with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive Dutcher bodies. A subsequent excisional biopsy showed sheets of small- to medium-sized neoplastic B cells with abundant IgM in the cytoplasm as detected by immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage II MALT lymphoma was made, but the patient did not receive therapeutic intervention. As previously reported, Dutcher bodies are mainly observed in B-cell neoplasms with IgM production. Because these characteristic intranuclear inclusions can be easily observed by PAS staining, the presence of PAS reaction-positive Dutcher bodies in FNA cytology can serve as a clue to differentially diagnose MALT lymphoma from plasmacytoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:547-551. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  6. EthniCity of Leisure : A Domains Approach to Ethnic Integration During Free Time Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenik, K.; Tammaru, T.; van Ham, M.

    This paper takes a domains approach to understanding ethnic segregation; ethnic segregation occurs in different ways in different domains (such as the residential neighbourhood, workplaces, leisure, etc.). Where most studies focus on residential segregation, this study focusses on ethnic segregation

  7. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed to specific 'Chinese' cultural values and strong intra-ethnic networks, of the ethnic Chinese in business and entrepreneurship. Our research among second- and third-generations shows an inclination ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the CACNA1S or SCN4A gene can cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis . ... positively charged atoms (ions) into muscle cells. The CACNA1S and SCN4A proteins form channels that control the ...

  9. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Doreen; Griggs, Robert C; Matthews, Emma

    2018-01-01

    The periodic paralyses are a group of skeletal muscle channelopathies characterizeed by intermittent attacks of muscle weakness often associated with altered serum potassium levels. The underlying genetic defects include mutations in genes encoding the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca v 1.1, sodium channel Na v 1.4, and potassium channels K ir 2.1, K ir 3.4, and possibly K ir 2.6. Our increasing knowledge of how mutant channels affect muscle excitability has resulted in better understanding of many clinical phenomena which have been known for decades and sheds light on some of the factors that trigger attacks. Insights into the pathophysiology are also leading to new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  11. Ethnic differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Petterson, John S; Russell, John C; Downs, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have reported ethnic differences in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of PTSD may reflect ethnic differences in (1) exposure to traumatic events; (2) appraisal of such event as traumatic; and (3) culturally-determined responses to standardized diagnostic instruments, reflecting differences in cultural meanings associated with physical symptoms and idioms of distress. Ethnic differences in risk factors and factor structures of PTSD symptoms were examined in 188 Alaskan Natives and 371 Euro-Americans exposed to the Exxon-Valdez oil spill in 1989. High levels of social disruption were associated with PTSD one year after the oil spill in both ethnic groups. However, low family support, participation in spill clean-up activities, and a decline in subsistence activities were significantly associated with PTSD in Alaskan Natives, but not in Euro-Americans. Factor analysis of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule PTSD subscale revealed five factors for both ethnic groups. However, the items comprising these factors were dissimilar. These results suggest that social disruption is sufficiently traumatic to be associated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress, but that a diagnosis of PTSD must take into consideration local interpretations of these symptoms.

  12. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines certain finding on ethnic aspects of mass consciousness in the Russian Federation, as presented in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes (rus. Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены, published by the All-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion. The problems of national identity and ethnic tension in Russia increased after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Ethnic phobias, complexes and ambitions reached a peak in the period 1993–1995. However, by 1999–2000, according to the surveys, they returned to the 1989–1990 level. The increase until 1995 occurred during the break-down of former Soviet political and administrative relations. By 1994 negative attitudes, apart from a traditional aversion to immigrants from the Caucasus, were directed to peoples of the newly independent former Soviet republics (especially to those from the Baltic states, and to ethnic groups such as the Vietnamese, Gypsies, etc. On the other hand, the subsequent decrease in negative attitudes to other ethnic groups was not so much the result of greater tolerance or the development of civil society, but rather due to an imperial tradition of indifference to ethnic problems. According to L. Gudkov, ethnic views in 1994–1995 showed traces inherited from the Stalinist period. Gudkov found that passivity and a “victim“ complex had assumed a central position in the self-image of Russians. Such a complex serves to exonerate the subject from any feeling of personal blame or deficiency, but also leads to a nostalgic idealisation of the past and a negation of the present. The result is a social syndrome that denies action and an ethnosocial self-awareness that prevents universalisation and the development of a national identity based on the principles of civil society. The “victim“ complex fosters a feeling of threat to the

  13. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S; Ozaki, T; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Hamada, Y; Ida, K; Ido, T; Iguchi, H; Inagaki, S; Isobe, M; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Morita, S; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Narihara, K; Nishizawa, A; Ohdachi, S; Osakabe, M; Peterson, B J; Sakakibara, S; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Tamura, N; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, T; Yamada, I; Goncharov, P; Ejiri, A; Okajima, S; Mase, A; Tsuji-Iio, S; Akiyama, T; Lyon, J F; Vyacheslavov, L N; Sanin, A

    2003-01-01

    The recent diagnostic developments on the large helical device (LHD) are described briefly. LHD is the largest helical machine with all superconducting coils, and its purpose is to prove the ability of a helical system to confine a fusion-relevant plasma in steady state. According to the missions of LHD research, the diagnostic devices are categorized as follows: diagnostics for (i) high nτ E T plasmas and transport physics; (ii) magnetohydrodynamic stability; (iii) long pulse operation and divertor function; and (iv) energetic particles. These are briefly described focusing on the recent developments of the devices. Since the LHD experiment started in March 1998, five series of experimental campaigns have been carried out. The LHD diagnostics during these periods were operated successfully, and contributed to the analysis of the experimental results

  14. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S; Ozaki, T; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Hamada, Y; Ida, K; Ido, T; Iguchi, H; Inagaki S; Isobe, M; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Morita, S; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Narihara, K; Nishizawa, A; Ohdachi, S; Osakabe, M; Peterson, BJ; Sakakibara, S; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Tamura, N; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, T; Yamada, I [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Goncharov, P [Grad. Univ. Advanced Studies, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ejiri, A [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Okajima, S [Chubu University, Kasugai-shi, 487-8501 (Japan); Mase, A [Kyushu University, Kasuga, 816-8580 (Japan); Tsuji-Iio, S [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Akiyama, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lyon, J F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8072 (United States); Vyacheslavov, L N [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sanin, A [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The recent diagnostic developments on the large helical device (LHD) are described briefly. LHD is the largest helical machine with all superconducting coils, and its purpose is to prove the ability of a helical system to confine a fusion-relevant plasma in steady state. According to the missions of LHD research, the diagnostic devices are categorized as follows: diagnostics for (i) high n{tau}{sub E}T plasmas and transport physics; (ii) magnetohydrodynamic stability; (iii) long pulse operation and divertor function; and (iv) energetic particles. These are briefly described focusing on the recent developments of the devices. Since the LHD experiment started in March 1998, five series of experimental campaigns have been carried out. The LHD diagnostics during these periods were operated successfully, and contributed to the analysis of the experimental results.

  15. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2018-02-01

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  16. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844

  17. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-02-01

    Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.

  18. Dysfunctional uterine bleedings of a climacteric period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prilepskaya, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Climacteric period of some women is complicated by dysfunctional uterine bleedings (DUB). Bearing in mind the fact that DUBS are caused by disorder of estrin rhysmic secretion, the paper presents the methods of differential diagnostics for investigations into functional disorders in the hypothalamus -hypophysis - ovaries - uterus system. The preference is given to roentgenologic and radioimmunologic diagnostic methods

  19. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  20. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  1. Quality and diagnostic perspectives in laboratory diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Mathias M.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory diagnostics is a medical discipline playing an important part in patient management. In laboratory medicine meaningful, accurate and precise routine measurements are essential for diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and follow-up of patients. The contribution of the diagnostic laboratory in the overall diagnostic process is app. 40-60%, depending on the kind of disease status investigated. The diagnostic laboratory uses nowadays more than 1.000 different tests mostly provided by ...

  2. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  3. [Ethnic Arts Program at UCLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Allegra Fuller

    The ethnic arts major at the University of California, Los Angeles--an interdisciplinary undergraduate program of courses in anthropology, art, dance, folklore and mythology, music, and theater arts--is described. The program objectives are to facilitate cultural and cross-cultural investigation of human artistic expression, and to provide an…

  4. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review th...

  5. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  6. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.

  7. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  8. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  9. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  10. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  11. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  12. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  13. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  14. Political ethnicity: a new paradigm of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coffman, James H.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Ethnic conflict is a contemporary issue plaguing many states as the international system moves towards a New World Order. However, despite the importance of ethnic-based violence and nationalistic social revolutions, current conflict theories do not adequately explain the fundamental dynamics of ethnic conflict or provide clear prescriptive policy guidance. This thesis articulates a model that describes and explains ethnic conflict. Th...

  15. What turns migrants into ethnic minorities at work? : Factors Erecting Ethnic Boundaries among Dutch Police Officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, Hans

    Transnational migration flows have revitalised the interest in ethnicity in social sciences. The ethnic boundary approach (Barth, Wimmer) argues for a non-essentialist understanding of ethnicity and calls for detecting the factors that turn migrants into ethnic minorities. Based on ethnographic

  16. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported

  17. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed

  18. Ethnic Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James H. Jr.; Oliver, Melvin L.

    1988-01-01

    The papers which comprise this volume were produced by a group of these nationally known scholars who are engaged in research on comparative aspects of ethnicity and ethnic group behavior. Organized around a series of themes which run through the extant comparative ethnicity literature and which reflect the expertise and current research foci of the conference presenters, the volume i...

  19. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  20. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  1. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-02-23

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one's neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03-1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  2. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  3. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17. Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51. The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93 but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  4. Periodic inspection of sprayers: diagnostic to the northern of Paraná Inspeção periódica de pulverizadores: diagnóstico para a região norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Gandolfo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the use of pesticides, several countries have carried out periodic inspections in agricultural sprayers. In Brazil, knowing the conditions of this machinery canguide researches and investments in guidelines for its use and maintenance. The objective of this study was to verify the state of sprayer maintenance used in the North of the state of Paraná, in Brazil. Several sprayer items were evaluated, such as: presence, status and scale of the manometer, status of the hose, status of the anti-drip component, presence of leaks, status of the bar, status of the filters, state of the spraying nozzles and errors in the targeted flow rate. Machines were named as approved when there was no failure in any item evaluated. The factor that caused the biggest level of reprove among the machines was incorrect scale of manometers, which reproved 84.55% of the machines evaluated. Other outstanding factor was the incorrect flow rate in 75.5% of the tested machines. Only one unit was approved from the total of 110 evaluated sprayers.Para a otimização no uso de agroquímicos, vários países têm realizado inspeções periódicas em pulverizadores agrícolas. No Brasil, o conhecimento do estado destas máquinas pode nortear pesquisas e investimentos em orientação de uso e de manutenção das mesmas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o estado de manutenção de pulverizadores em uso para a região norte do Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados itens como: presença, estado e escala do manômetro, estado das mangueiras, estado dos antigotejadores, presença de vazamentos, estado da barra, estado dos filtros, estado das pontas de pulverização e erros na taxa de aplicação. As máquinas foram caracterizadas como aprovadas quando não havia falha em nenhum item avaliado. O fator que ocasionou o maior índice de reprova entre as máquinas foi a escala incorreta do manômetro, que reprovou 84,55% das máquinas avaliadas. Outro fator de destaque foi

  5. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  6. Donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, Jared R; Kraemer, Helena C; Yaffe, Kristine; O'Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M; Ashford, John W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer disease (AD) patients with ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least 1 year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average 1-year decline of 2.30 points (standard deviation: 3.9) on the 30-point Mini-Mental State Exam compared with a 1.70-point (standard deviation: 4.2) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at -0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from 1 year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Host country employees’ ethnic identity confirmation: evidence from interactions with ethnically similar expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shea; Harzing, Anne-Wil

    2017-01-01

    Employing expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees (HCEs) is a widespread expatriate selection strategy. However, little research has compared how expatriates and HCEs perceive this shared ethnicity. Drawing upon an identity perspective, we propose HCEs’ ethnic identity confirmation, the level of agreement between how an HCE views the importance of his/her own ethnic identity and how expatriates view the importance of the HCE’s ethnic identity, affects HCEs’ attitudes to...

  8. Scientific Statement on the Diagnostic Criteria, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Molecular Genetics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Marshall, John C.; Laven, Joop S.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder that has both adverse reproductive and metabolic implications for affected women. However, there is generally poor understanding of its etiology. Varying expert-based diagnostic criteria utilize some combination of oligo-ovulation, hyperandrogenism, and the presence of polycystic ovaries. Criteria that require hyperandrogenism tend to identify a more severe reproductive and metabolic phenotype. The phenotype can vary by race and ethnicity, is difficult to define in the perimenarchal and perimenopausal period, and is exacerbated by obesity. The pathophysiology involves abnormal gonadotropin secretion from a reduced hypothalamic feedback response to circulating sex steroids, altered ovarian morphology and functional changes, and disordered insulin action in a variety of target tissues. PCOS clusters in families and both female and male relatives can show stigmata of the syndrome, including metabolic abnormalities. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of candidate regions, although their role in contributing to PCOS is still largely unknown. PMID:26426951

  9. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tennyson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. Method A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. Results There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026 but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. Conclusion There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.

  10. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  11. Social Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William R.; Mandorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between ethnicity, occupational choice, and entrepreneurship. Immigrant groups in the United States cluster in specific business sectors. For example, the concentration of Korean self-employment in dry cleaners is 34 times greater than other immigrant groups, and Gujarati-speaking Indians are similarly 108 times more concentrated in managing motels. We develop a model of social interactions where non-work relationships facilitate the acquisition of sector-specific sk...

  12. [The population structure of rural settlements of Sakha Republic (Yakutia): ethnic, sex, and age composition and vital statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, A N; Danilova, A L; Koneva, L A; Nogovitsyna, A N

    2006-12-01

    The genetic demographic structure of 12 rural populations from eight uluses of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) has been analyzed. The ethnic, sex, and age composition of the population and the reproductive parameters of women that have completed and have not completed the reproductive period are reported. Crow's indices have been estimated in representatives of three indigenous ethnic groups (Yakuts, Evens, and Evenks).

  13. Ethnic roots of cultural tradition illustrated in Kaimur rock art

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwary, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Ethno archaeological evidences and studies very often facilitate the interpretation of significance of rock art. But sometimes there are problems in explaining the things if there is discrepancy between local ethnic activities and the rock art of by-gone days which may be due to either a remarkable shift in social behaviors during long period span or to the relative seclusion of the developing society from art traditio...

  14. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  15. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  16. The Link between Mastery and Depression among Black Adolescents; Ethnic and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Although the link between depression and lower levels of mastery is well established, limited information exists on ethnic and gender differences in the association between the two. The current study investigated ethnic, gender, and ethnic by gender differences in the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and low mastery in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African-American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, socioeconomic status (family income), mastery (sense of control over life), and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between mastery and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample, a higher sense of mastery was associated with a lower risk of MDD. This association, however, was significant for African Americans but not Caribbean Blacks. Similarly, among African American males and females, higher mastery was associated with lower risk of MDD. Such association could not be found for Caribbean Black males or females. Findings indicate ethnic rather than gender differences in the association between depression and mastery among Black youth. Further research is needed to understand how cultural values and life experiences may alter the link between depression and mastery among ethnically diverse Black youth.

  17. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ll Diagnostic methods based upon measurements of electrical potential, resistance and impedance of these zones have been proposed; however, their diagnostic accuracy has not been proven and reproducibility has not been consistent. Some of these methods utilise specific bio-electrical properties of acupuncture points.

  19. Interpersonal Personality Type as a Result of the Manifestations of Ethnic Groups Individuals from Dobrogea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Luminiţa Sandu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian people, especially ethnic belonging of the people was one of the people subject to the proletarian dictatorship, which has claimed over a long period study in this area. In the last decade we are witnessing a revival of studies on ethnic groups in Romania. This is due not only progress and the spread of democracy, encouraging linguistic, but also some deeper theoretical perspectives on diversity of ethnicity seen as opposed unification that could bring world economic globalization and scientific and technological. Ethnic groups, social organizations with specific characteristics becomes more pronounced as, the strongest influence their component elements (organizations and institutions and through their people. Differences between ethnic groups become noticeable if we refer to the organization and functioning of families in urban and rural communities, ways to produce goods or ways to spend your free time. The difference of the ethnic groups, however, does not stop here. They are obvious and if it investigates the ways in which group members analyze and interpret them. By how they are managing their own ethnic groups, rules of internal organization, the statuses and roles of men, the ways in which they are sanctioned adverse behaviors and encourage behaviors that may be favorable, the illustrations and pictures about them, they generate especially the people involved in their operation, ethnic organizations causes people to act as their members, maintain self-awareness and ethnic groups to preserve. Currently in Romania live, learn and work together membership of several ethnicities such as Romanian, Hungarian, Saxon, Székely, Bulgarians, Armenians, Russians, Turks, Tatars, Roma, Macedo and so on, each with its own cultural particularities, characteristics known little or unknown to others.

  20. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  2. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  4. Parochial Politics: Ethnic Preferences and Politician Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Pande, Rohini

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how increased voter ethnicization, defined as a greater preference for the party representing one's ethnic group, affects politician quality. If politics is characterized by incomplete policy commitment, then ethnicization reduces average winner quality for the pro-majority party with the opposite true for the minority party. The effect increases with greater numerical dominance of the majority (and so social homogeneity). Empirical evidence from a survey on politician cor...

  5. Ethnic Conflict: Imperatives for US Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohide, Kurtis D

    1999-01-01

    .... Recent fighting in Bosnia, Central Africa, and Kosovo seems to provide this context. Such outbreaks of internecine fighting present compelling evidence that ethnic warfare will be a major source of conflict in the new millennium. Therefore, if 21st century American military thinkers are to craft a successful strategy, they must address the imperatives of ethnic conflict. This paper discusses the theoretical imperatives, doctrinal imperatives, and force structure imperatives of ethnic warfare.

  6. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  7. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The politics of ethnicity in contemporary Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, R A

    1986-01-01

    By the mid 1980s, considerably more than 750,000 Hispanics resided in the Miami metropolitan area; they comprised more than 60% of the population of Miami and over 40% of the Metro-Dade County. The Miami area population is highly segregated residentially by race and ethnicity. 3 important components of Miami's social and political structure underlie the pattern of recent ethnic politics in the Miami metropolitan area: 1) the tri-ethnic nature of the population, and the heightened sense of this ethnicity, encourages ethnic bloc voting; 2) the high degree of residential segregation not only lends strength to ethnic or racial voting blocs, but intensifies certain kinds of emotional territorial issues such as zoning or public housing location; and 3) the existing 2-tier governmental structure provides the boundaries within which the political game is played. 1 of the more interesting patterns of political change in Cuban Miami is the at 1st gradual and later more dramatic shift from exile politics to ethnic politics. The rising power of the Latin vote became apparent in the early 1970s when Maurice Ferre, of Puerto Rican background, was elected to the Miami city commission in the mid-1960s. Active participation in the political system has provided 1 means for achieving group goals, while the participation itself has stimulated the sense of ethnic identification and politicla power. It seems certain that ethnicity will dominate the political landscape in the Miami metropolitan area for some time to come.

  9. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  10. Racial and ethnic differences in individuals with sporadic Creutzfeldt-jakob disease in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Appleby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about racial and ethnic differences in individuals with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. The authors sought to examine potential clinical, diagnostic, genetic, and neuropathological differences in sCJD patients of different races/ethnicities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study of 116 definite and probable sCJD cases from Johns Hopkins and the Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare Systems was conducted that examined differences in demographic, clinical, diagnostic, genetic, and neuropathological characteristics among racial/ethnic groups. Age at disease onset differed among racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic Whites had a significantly older age at disease onset compared to the other groups (65 vs. 60, p = 0.036. Non-Whites were accurately diagnosed more rapidly than Whites (p = 0.008 and non-Hispanic Whites were more likely to have normal appearing basal ganglia on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compared to minorities (p = 0.02. Whites were also more likely to undergo post-mortem evaluation compared to non-Whites (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Racial/ethnic groups affected by sCJD demonstrated differences in age at disease onset, time to correct diagnosis, clinical presentation, and diagnostic test results. Whites were more likely to undergo autopsy compared to non-Whites. These results have implications in regards to case ascertainment, diagnosis, and surveillance of sCJD and possibly other human prion diseases.

  11. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether

  12. The work–study interface: similarities and differences between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke); L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); S.E. Severiens (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGiven the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work–study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work–study interface model, in which the work-related factors work–study

  13. Teaching about Ethnic Conflict: Global Issues. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Steven L.

    The document presents background information and activities for use by secondary school social studies teachers as they incorporate material on ethnic conflict into the curriculum. Ethnic conflicts are interpreted as hostilities which are either solely based upon or accentuated by ethnic differences. Examples are violence in Northern Ireland,…

  14. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  15. Accuracy of Diagnostic Mammography at Facilities Serving Vulnerable Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Walker, Rod; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer missed on diagnostic mammography may contribute to delayed diagnoses, while false-positive results may lead to unnecessary invasive procedures. Whether accuracy of diagnostic mammography at facilities serving vulnerable women differs from other facilities is unknown. Objective To compare the interpretive performance of diagnostic mammography at facilities serving vulnerable women to those serving non-vulnerable women. Design We examined 168,251 diagnostic mammograms performed at BCSC facilities from 1999–2005. We used hierarchical logistic regression to compare sensitivity, false positive rates, and cancer detection rates. Subjects Women ages 40–80 years undergoing diagnostic mammography to evaluate an abnormal screening mammogram or breast problem. Measures Facilities were assigned vulnerability indices according to the populations served based on the proportion of mammograms performed on women with lower educational attainment, racial/ethnic minority status, limited household income, or rural residences. Results Sensitivity of diagnostic mammography did not vary significantly across vulnerability indices adjusted for patient-level characteristics, but false-positive rates for diagnostic mammography examinations to evaluate a breast problem were higher at facilities serving vulnerable women defined as those with: lower educational attainment (odds ratio (OR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.79); racial/ethnic minorities (OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.98, 1.76); limited income (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.08, 1.66), and rural residence (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88). Conclusions Diagnostic mammography to evaluate a breast problem at facilities serving vulnerable women has higher false positive rates than at facilities serving non-vulnerable women. This may reflect concerns that vulnerable populations may be less likely to follow-up after abnormal diagnostic mammography or concerns that such populations have higher cancer prevalence. PMID:20966780

  16. A Two Decade Examination of Historical Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Academic Achievement by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Kuhfeld, Megan

    2018-01-08

    Research on achievement gaps by race/ethnicity and poverty status typically focuses on each gap separately, and recent syntheses suggest the poverty gap is growing while racial/ethnic gaps are narrowing. In this study, we used time-varying effect modeling to examine the interaction of race/ethnicity and poverty gaps in math and reading achievement from 1986-2005 for poor and non-poor White, Black, and Hispanic students in three age groups (5-6, 9-10, and 13-14). We found that across this twenty-year period, the gaps between poor White students and their poor Black and Hispanic peers grew, while the gap between non-poor Whites and Hispanics narrowed. We conclude that understanding the nature of achievement gaps requires simultaneous examination of race/ethnicity and income.

  17. Ethnic Discrimination and Global Self-Worth in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one's ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one's ethnicity has a negative influence on ethnic self-esteem and thereby…

  18. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world…

  19. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n =

  20. Ethnicity, National Integrity and Monument in Argal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, social inclusion, ethnic identity, positive discrimination and proportional representation being burning issues now. Ethnic identity is a vital element of discussion for social inclusion, positive discrimination and proportional representation. Assertion on ethnic identity, seeks recognition from concerned institutions, practices traditions and advocates their ethnic right on socio-economic and political power. These issues are intrinsically linked to national integration. To be sure, very little attention is paid toward ancestral monuments of the past. Monuments vary by their size, pattern, investment, management, and range of dissemination. Local level monuments have little possibility to attract the attention of people of various places and interest, unless they have becomes extraordinary significance. In order to understand monumentality in wider social context, it is very important to look at the village level society. Monument building in Nepal has been linked to culture, history, religion, ethnic identity as well as social system. Argal VDC of Baglung district of Nepal represent with multi-ethnic/caste setting that has high influence over the nature of monument and the rituals performed. In multiethnic setting economic, social, and political activities co-exist, each nourishing the other.Key Words: Ethnicity, Argali Magars, Intra-ethnic relation, Magars, Monuments, National Integrity, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1359Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.101-120

  1. ETHNIC MINORITIES AND THE NIGERIAN STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... ethnic group or any other kind of group feels disenchanted with the political system. The three regions, the ... minorities in Nigeria does not lie in the lack of constitutional provision and protection of their basic ... Minority group constitutes the core of ethnic turbulence and violence world-wide. In a definition ...

  2. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  3. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841226

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research

  4. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...

  5. Ethnic Art Falling Out of Favor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…

  6. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  7. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  8. Rethinking Ethnic Conflict: Somalia and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerson, Hazel M.

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)

  9. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...

  10. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  11. TOWARDS BRIDGING ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS DIVIDES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    mechanism to achieve their targets. They front ethnicity as a means to achieve political and economic powers which obviously is detrimental to the gullible and unwary followers. There are certain integrative factors that characterize ethnicity. They include religion, culture, geographical location, language, tradition and.

  12. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/187457344; Verkuijten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide

  13. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  14. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  15. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnical distance in Vojvodina: Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Žolt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the ethnical distance measuring in Vojvodina, the north Province of the Republic of Serbia. The measuring was carried out on autumn 2002, during realization of the wider project of multiculturalism research in the mentioned region. According to the results the ethnical distances in Vojvodina are quite equalized and they are grouped around the attitude "all the same". Vojvodinian Serbs are more favorable partners for the majority of social contacts, and the relatively largest distance is shown toward Roma. The ethnical distance results also discovers two very important factors for understanding the interethnic relations in Vojvodina: first, the "rational" kind of social contacts with the members of the other ethnical groups are more preferable for the majority of respondents, and second, they have very equal distances toward their own ethnical groups.

  18. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity: lessons learned from a Danish community pharmacy intervention for ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.

  19. Perception of Racial Discrimination and Psychopathology Across Three U.S. Ethnic Minority Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the e...

  20. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  1. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Clinical Impairment Assessment to Assess Disordered Eating Related Distress in an Adolescent Female Ethnic Fijian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E; Thomas, Jennifer J; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Richards, Lauren; Navara, Kesaia; Roberts, Andrea L; Gilman, Stephen E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Measurement of disease-related impairment and distress is central to diagnostic, therapeutic, and health policy considerations for eating disorders across diverse populations. This study evaluates psychometric properties of a translated and adapted version of the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) in an ethnic Fijian population. Method: The adapted CIA was administered to ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls (N = 215). We calculated Cronbach's α to assess the internal consistency, examined the association between indicators of eating disorder symptom severity and the CIA to assess construct and criterion validity, and compared the strength of relation between the CIA and measures of disordered eating versus with measures of generalized distress. Results: The Fijian version of the CIA is feasible to administer as an investigator-based interview. It has excellent internal consistency (α = 0.93). Both construct and criterion validity were supported by the data, and regression models indicated that the CIA predicts eating disorder severity, even when controlling for generalized distress and psychopathology. Discussion: The adapted CIA has excellent psychometric properties in this Fijian study population. Findings suggest that the CIA can be successfully adapted for use in a non-Western study population and that at least some associated distress and impairment transcends cultural differences. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2010 PMID:19308992

  2. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Patient Education FAQs Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish ...

  3. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Bader, A.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX

  4. [Prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in ethnic Hui and Han residents in Ningxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ma, Hui; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-11-01

    To understand the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in ethnic Hui and Han residents in Ningxia Hui autonomous region and provide evidence for the smoking cessation and alcohol use reduction in minority area. Face to face interview was performed in 6 476 subjects aged ≥ 18 years who were selected through systematic sampling in Ningxia. The tobacco use and alcohol use related disorders were evaluated with Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 ) according to International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 ). A total of 5 811 subjects completed the survey, the prevalence of current smoking was 19.15%, which was significantly higher in males than in females (44.73% vs. 1.51%, χ² =1 693.25, PHui males than in Han males (33.19% vs. 51.95%, χ² =79.99, PHui ethnic group and Han ethnic group had no statistical significance (χ² = 0.02, P=0.958). The prevalence of alcohol use was 5.78%, and it was significantly higher in males than in females (12.48% vs. 1.16%), the difference had statistical significance (χ² =329.94, PHui males than in Han males (4.71% vs. 17.34%), the difference had statistical significance (χ² =82.03, PHui ethnic group (3.50% vs. 7.61% ), the difference had statistical significance (χ² =16.68, PHui ethnic group than in Han ethnic group in Ningxia, which might be explained by the influence of the tradition of Hui ethnic group.

  5. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  7. The role of ethnicity in treatment refractory schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Celine; Borlido, Carol; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the relationship between treatment resistant schizophrenia, defined using the APA criteria and ethnic background in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a Canadian sample. A secondary goal was to analyze the number of antipsychotics failed due to side effects and number of antipsychotics failed due to non-response. We included 497 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders using the SCID. The medication history was extracted from the electronic health records. Data collection included demographics (sex, age, ethnicity), principal diagnosis according to SCID (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition), duration of mental illness, number of psychiatric admissions and treatment information. If patients were on clozapine or polypharmacy treatment, this was recorded at the time of the SCID interview. Additional data, including prior antipsychotic history, were collected from the health records. Thirty per cent of the patients were classified as resistant according to the APA criteria. There were significantly more white European subjects in the treatment resistant group (p=0.031). The duration of illness was significantly higher in the resistant group then in the non-resistant group (21.0 vs 15.1 years; p<0.001). Patients who were treatment resistant were more likely to be on polypharmacy compared with non-resistant patients (p=0.001; OR=2.424; 95%CI=1.446-4.065). When we considered the number of drug trials failed due to non response and drug trial failed because of side effects, we found a strong negative correlation in both white Europeans and non-white Europeans. White European ethnicity is associated with treatment resistant schizophrenia. In addition, patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia were on polypharmacy at higher rate than non resistant patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  9. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. The ethnic prejudice of Flemish teachers: The role of ethnic school composition and of teachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaet, Roselien; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils' teachability. Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils' teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  12. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  13. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  14. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  15. FOREIGN POLICY AND ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jülide KARAKOÇ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic identities are becoming more salient in the field of international relations. Thus,it is important to take into account the effectiveness of ethnic identities in foreign policyanalysis. This article claims that Nicholas Onuf’s rule oriented constructivism, one of theconstructivist approaches, offers a useful framework for analyzing the impact of ethnicidentities on foreign policy. It argues that rule oriented constructivism demonstrates better,compared with mainstream constructivism, the ways ethnic identities affect foreign policythrough its epistemological and ontological approach.

  16. "They were just making jokes": Ethnic/racial teasing and discrimination among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Sara; Mirpuri, Sheena; English, Devin; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The effects of peer-based discrimination are especially harmful for adolescents given the heightened role of social feedback during this period. The current study aimed to understand the unique expressions of discrimination that adolescents experience between close peers and friends, as well as the daily influence of such experiences. Study 1 included semistructured interviews (10 interviews, 2 focus groups; Mage = 17.3) with an ethnic/racially diverse sample of adolescence. Study 2 (n = 79; Mage = 15.72) used a 21-day daily diary study with a different sample of ethnic/racially diverse adolescents. Study 1 found that, among close peers and friends, adolescents experienced "ethnic/racial teasing," a unique form of discrimination characterized by humor. Additionally, adolescents consistently dismissed the negative messages as innocuous based on the supposedly humorous nature of such interactions. Study 2 found that when adolescents were targeted for ethnic/racial teasing, individuals who were already anxious experienced increased daily anxiety, and that increases in social anxiety persisted across days. The current study suggests that among peers, ethnic/racial teasing is a common way that adolescents interact around ethnicity/race. Further, this study points to the complexity of these experiences; though they were largely considered normative and harmless, they also had negative psychological effects for some adolescents. Implications for our conceptual understanding of discrimination and teasing during adolescence are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. “They Were Just Making Jokes”: Ethnic/Racial Teasing and Discrimination Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Sara; Mirpuri, Sheena; English, Devin; Yip, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effects of peer-based discrimination are especially harmful for adolescents given the heightened role of social feedback during this period. The current study aimed to understand the unique expressions of discrimination that adolescents experience between close peers and friends, as well as the daily influence of such experiences. Method Study 1 included semistructured interviews (10 interviews, 2 focus groups; Mage = 17.3) with an ethnic/racially diverse sample of adolescence. Study 2 (n = 79; Mage = 15.72) used a 21-day daily diary study with a different sample of ethnic/racially diverse adolescents. Results Study 1 found that, among close peers and friends, adolescents experienced “ethnic/racial teasing,” a unique form of discrimination characterized by humor. Additionally, adolescents consistently dismissed the negative messages as innocuous based on the supposedly humorous nature of such interactions. Study 2 found that when adolescents were targeted for ethnic/racial teasing, individuals who were already anxious experienced increased daily anxiety, and that increases in social anxiety persisted across days. Conclusions The current study suggests that among peers, ethnic/racial teasing is a common way that adolescents interact around ethnicity/race. Further, this study points to the complexity of these experiences; though they were largely considered normative and harmless, they also had negative psychological effects for some adolescents. Implications for our conceptual understanding of discrimination and teasing during adolescence are discussed. PMID:26009942

  18. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  19. Psychologists' Diagnostic Processes during a Diagnostic Interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, M.; Beerthuis, R.J.; Pieters, J.M.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Swinkels, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  20. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  1. Facial-based ethnic recognition: insights from two closely related but ethnically distinct groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Henzi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on facial recognition have considered widely separated populations, both geographically and culturally, making it hard to disentangle effects of familiarity with an ability to identify ethnic groups per se.We used data from a highly intermixed population of African peoples from South Africa to test whether individuals from nine different ethnic groups could correctly differentiate between facial images of two of these, the Tswana and Pedi. Individuals could not assign ethnicity better than expected by chance, and there was no significant difference between genders in accuracy of assignment. Interestingly, we observed a trend that individuals of mixed ethnic origin were better at assigning ethnicity to Pedi and Tswanas, than individuals from less mixed backgrounds. This result supports the hypothesis that ethnic recognition is based on the visual

  2. The census categorization of ethnic identity: Between theoretical comprehensions and statistical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical debates about ethnic identity during the second half of the 20th century did not just attract attention of academic circles, but they influenced creation of political discourse which determined public life in almost every multinational society, regardless the level of socio-economic development. In recent decades, many theories about ethnic identity have emerged, especially those about ethnicity as a relatively new concept, which caused a great deal of controversy that has been ongoing since the 1960s. Modern demography deals with problems of great social importance, especially when it comes to anthropological, social and political demography, whose results often take lead in the modern political debate. In that sense, a lot of theoretical approaches tried to emphasize the decline of importance of traditional elements of ethnic identity, even their disappearance in favor of supranational concepts, over the past more than half a century. However, in practice, the opposite processes are constantly repeating and the awareness of belonging to certain ethnic group, not only remained the important part of social life, but its significance rapidly grew in certain periods and societies. Ethnic and social pluralism of modern societies, together with massive migration flows, have initiated the review of sustainability, not only the traditional definitions of ethnic identity, but also the various supranational concepts which have mostly emerged from ethnic identification and legal nationality. The fear that ethno-cultural pluralism will have negative effects on ethno-demographic differentiation increased the need for quantitative researches of demographic characteristics of population towards ethnic marks, also for reviewing of methodological solutions of ethno-statistic evidence, starting from definitions, categorizations and statistic classification, as far as the ways of collecting and publishing the data. In that sense the censuses are

  3. Trust in a time of increasing diversity: On the relationship between ethnic heterogeneity and social trust in Denmark from 1979 until today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    in the period from 1979 to 2009 coupled with diversity at the municipality level. Individual-level measures of trust over time enable us to estimate the impact on social trust of changes in ethnic diversity within municipalities and, we argue, thereby obtain a more precise estimate of the effect of ethnic...

  4. Variation in Vaginal Birth After Cesarean by Maternal Race and Detailed Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Cohen, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the likelihood of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) for women in Massachusetts. Methods We used birth certificate data among term, singleton, vertex presentation births by repeat cesarean or VBAC to conduct logistic regression models to examine the likelihood of VBAC for women categorized into standard classifications of race and ethnicity and into 31 detailed ethnicities. Data were analyzed for the entire study period (1996–2010, N = 119,752) and for the last 5 years (2006–2010, N = 46,081). Results The adjusted odds of VBAC were lowest for non-Hispanic Black mothers (0.91, CI [0.85, 0.98]) and highest for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers (1.41, CI [1.31, 1.53]) relative to non-Hispanic White women. VBAC rates ranged from 5.8 % among Brazilians to 29.3 % among Cambodians. The adjusted odds of VBAC were lower for 7 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 0.40–0.89) and higher for 8 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 1.18–2.11) relative to self-identified American mothers. For the last 5 years, Asian/Pacific Islander mothers had a higher adjusted VBAC rate (1.39, CI [1.21, 1.60]), as did 9 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of 1.25–1.84). Only Brazilian mothers had lower rates (0.37, CI [0.27, 0.50]), relative to self-identified American mothers. Conclusions Detailed maternal ethnicity explains the variation in VBAC rates more precisely than broad race/ethnicity categories. Improvements in our public health data infrastructure to capture detailed ethnicity are recommended to identify and address disparities and improve the quality of maternity care. PMID:26699791

  5. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  6. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maskarinec, Gertraud

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether mammographic density patterns differ by ethnic background and to explore the possible association of a soy rich diet with mammographic density patterns...

  7. Consumer responses to ethnic targeted marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-S.I.A. Lenoir (Anne-Sophie); S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Marketing is impacted more than ever by demographic change, to the extent that practitioners targeting ethnic groups should re-think their approach depending upon the strength with which different generations identify with their cultural heritage.

  8. Ethnicity and conflict: theory and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Joan; Mayoral, Laura; Ray, Debraj

    2012-05-18

    Over the second half of the 20th century, conflicts within national boundaries became increasingly dominant. One-third of all countries experienced civil conflict. Many (if not most) such conflicts involved violence along ethnic lines. On the basis of recent theoretical and empirical research, we provide evidence that preexisting ethnic divisions do influence social conflict. Our analysis also points to particular channels of influence. Specifically, we show that two different measures of ethnic division--polarization and fractionalization--jointly influence conflict, the former more so when the winners enjoy a "public" prize (such as political power or religious hegemony), the latter more so when the prize is "private" (such as looted resources, government subsidies, or infrastructures). The available data appear to strongly support existing theories of intergroup conflict. Our argument also provides indirect evidence that ethnic conflicts are likely to be instrumental, rather than driven by primordial hatreds.

  9. Surveying Ethnical Policies in Iran and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Wendt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the bases of culture and ethnic nowadays the world is a plural world, in way that it’s reasonable to say nowhere could be exempted fro this classification. Researches conducted in this field have classified all countries whether developed or developing into lingual, religion, racial and cultural classes.As result of religious, cultural and ethnical overlapping between the countries and cases of unsatisfied needs and request by such group, local, national and even disputes between theses group and their governments is a common case through the ages.this study was conducted while having a historical look on the issue of ethnics in two countries including Iran and Malaysia and also surveying current situation and place of this challenge in the two countries, and also determining courses of ethnical and tradition reconstruction.

  10. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  11. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  12. Ethnic and social distance towards Roma population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are one of social marginalised ethnic groups which can easily be classified as underclass or ethno-class. In this work are presented the results of survey data analysis of ethnic and social distance towards the Roma population (2007. It concludes that the Roma people are one of ethnic groups with the highest social and ethnic distances in all observed social relations. The conclusion is that their generations poverty and still of life which the poverty produces are main causes of the high distance. The society has very important task to overcome situation which keep their social situation. In this paper are showed some of possible solutions of solving global Romas social situation and their integration in the rest of society. .

  13. 100 History-Making Ethnic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.

  14. Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey; Bared, Anthony; Kuka, Gorana

    2014-08-01

    Patients of different ethnicities have specific characteristics that are essential for hair transplant surgeons to understand so that aesthetic results can be achieved. In this article, the approaches of follicular unit extraction and follicular unit grafting or strip hair transplants for pattern hair loss are reviewed, along with the procedures of eyebrow and beard transplants and surgical hairline advancement/forehead reduction surgeries, within various ethnic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet Siena; Uribe, Erika Flores; Weingart, Saul

    2017-09-01

    Although there is extensive evidence on disparities in the process and outcomes of health care, data on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety remain inconclusive in the United States. The aims of this study were to (1) explore differences in reporting race/ethnicity in studies on disparities in patient safety; (2) assess adjustment for socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and disease severity; and (3) make recommendations on the inclusion of race/ethnicity for future studies on adverse events. We searched PubMed database (for articles published from 1991 to May 1, 2013) using a predetermined criteria for studies on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety. Only quantitative studies that used chart review or administrative data for the detection of adverse events were considered for eligibility. Two reviewers independently extracted data on inclusion of race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and in stratification of outcomes. A total of 174 studies were initially obtained from the search. Of these, 24 met inclusion criteria and received full-text review. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies. Eight studies included race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and adjusted for confounders. Hospital-level variations such teaching status and percentage of minorities served were infrequently analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first methodological review of racial/ethnic disparities in patient safety in the United States. The evidence on the existence of disparities in adverse events was mixed. Poor stratification of outcomes by race/ethnicity and consideration of geographic and hospital-level variations explain the inconclusive evidence; variations in the quality of care at hospitals should be considered in studies using national databases.

  16. Ethnic food preferences in the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Camarena-Gomez, Dena M.; Sanjuan, Ana Isabel

    2008-01-01

    A labelled choice experiment is conducted in order to investigate preferences of Spanish consumers towards ethnic cuisines. In particular, the three best known cuisines, Mexican, Arab and Asian, are considered, across three consumption situations: restaurant, take-away and at home. Wald statistics are applied in order to assess the differential marginal utilities of ethnic food in alternative consumption situations, and the appropriateness of considering a linear effect in price.

  17. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  18. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Christian Franklin Svensson elaborates on the social and political position of the Indian ethnic minority in Malaysia. Based on a total of five months field research, he investigates why Indian students at a public university in peninsular Malaysia consciously attempt to transform their life...... argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....

  19. Ethnic Differences in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chanchlani, Rahul; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a common glomerular disease in children with significant variability in both incidence and steroid responsiveness among various ethnic groups. The average incidence of nephrotic syndrome is 2–16.9 per 100,000 children worldwide. Understanding the variability by ethnicity may point to potential factors leading to nephrotic syndrome, which remains elusive, and may highlight factors accounting for differences in medication response. The emerging role of genetic factors asso...

  20. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...

  1. [Ethnic entrepreneurship in Montreal: some preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juteau, D; Daviau-guay, J; Moallem, M

    1992-01-01

    "This research note presents a first sketch of a study we are undertaking on ethnic entrepreneurship [in Montreal]. It details first of all our theoretical framework and then presents some preliminary results. For this research, we are studying various ethnic groups, those in the majority as well as the minority. For each of them, we will analyze the impact that immigration status, sex, the industrial sector and urban context play on entrepreneurial activity." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  2. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  3. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  4. Aspects of Ethnicity: Understanding Differences in Pluralistic Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, Wilma S.

    This volume utilizes biography-social science research findings, classroom management techniques, and a language/communication analysis system to consider multi-ethnic interaction in the classroom. After defining ethnicity and making a case for "heritage ethnicity" and "scholastic ethnicity," the concept of stereotyping and its relation to…

  5. The role of communication in an ethnically diverse organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinsbach, A.A.; Feij, J.A.; de Vries, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A research on the content of communication at work, job attitudes and unequal treatment was conducted in an ethnically diverse organization in the Netherlands comprising 504 ethnic majority and 113 ethnic minority employees. Ethnic minority employees experienced less person-related communication at

  6. Perceived Ethnic Stigma across the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnicity-based negative treatment during the transition to college may affect the long-term adjustment of ethnic-minority youth. We examined within-person changes in youths' perceptions of overt discrimination and their sense of their ethnic group being devalued by the larger society among 563 Latino, European, Asian, and other ethnic minority…

  7. School Ethnic Composition and Bullying in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…

  8. Behavioural intention and perception of ethnic groups among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria like many other African countries is an arbitrary manmade national entity amalgamated from numerous ethnic groups. Stereotypic belief proliferates as the number of these ethnic groups. This study therefore examines if stereotype is used in intra ethnic perception and inters ethnic perception; and measures the ...

  9. The influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Krško

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.

  10. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  11. Absent menstrual periods - secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... Secondary amenorrhea can occur due to natural changes in the body. For example, the most common cause of secondary ...

  12. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuen-Seng

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269 in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in

  13. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  14. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  15. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program for Families with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; van den Ban, Els; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds in the Netherlands. One hundred fifty-four families from a wide range of socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds were recruited in an outpatient clinic for child and adolescent psychiatry and in elementary schools serving deprived neighborhoods. Families were randomly assigned to the BASIC Incredible Years parenting intervention or a waiting list control condition. Children were 3-8 years old (M = 5.59, SD = 1.35; 62% boys, 66% ethnic minorities) and 65% of the children met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and/or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Incredible Years reduced parent-reported disruptive child behavior and teacher-reported hyperactive and inattentive child behavior and increased parent-reported use of praise and incentives and reduced harsh and inconsistent discipline. Incredible Years did not affect parent-reported hyperactive and inattentive child behavior; teacher-reported child conduct problems; and parent-reported use of appropriate discipline techniques, clear expectations, physical punishment, and parenting stress. Of importance, the effectiveness of Incredible Years did not differ across families with different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. This study shows that socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority families in disadvantaged neighborhoods can be engaged in and benefit from parenting interventions to reduce disruptive child behavior.

  16. Bullying and Victimization Among Young Elementary School Children : The Role of Child Ethnicity and Ethnic School Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Mieloo, Cathelijne L.; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Verlinden, Marina; van der Ende, Jan; Stevens, Gonneke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    School-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school composition, and

  17. Bullying and Victimization Among Young Elementary School Children: The Role of Child Ethnicity and Ethnic School Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); J. van der Ende (Jan); G. Stevens (Gonneke); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSchool-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school

  18. Ethnic discrimination and global self-worth in early adolescents : The mediating role of ethnic self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one’s ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one’s ethnicity has a

  19. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  20. Ethnic differences in adverse drug reactions to asthma medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on ethnic diversity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to asthma medications is rare despite evidence suggesting higher risk for African Americans when using β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. The objectives are to investigate how ethnic background was involved in ADR assessment...... studies disaggregated information by ethnic background, and reports of ADRs to asthma medications in different ethnic groups were rare. We suggest that the inclusion of ADR analysis by different ethnic backgrounds is desirable....

  1. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  2. Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Alex R; AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D; Brett, Paul J; Brooks, Timothy J G; Brown, Katherine A; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C; Dance, David A B; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J; Rolim, Dionne B; Simpson, Andrew J; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A; Stokes, Martha M; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T

    2015-02-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions.

  3. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution optical diagnostics of laser performance, energy balance, and applicable plasma probing techniques are reviewed. A variety of spatially, temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray diagnostics techniques and instruments as discussed. Particular emphasis is on high spatial resolution imaging techniques and applications and on high temporal resolution x-ray streak camera applications to exploding pusher target experiments. Finally, particle diagnostics and systems designed to diagnose target performance via yield and temperature measurements and techniques designed to determine the characteristics of compressed targets are discussed

  4. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual

  5. Religion and settlement as preservers of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A separate ethnic group living in an isolated settlement could preserve ethnic identity even when surrounded by an alien ethnic environment. This is even more likely to happen if the ethnic group in question has a different religious affiliation than the rest, since the religious affiliation and ethnicity were often equated in the area examined. This paper presents a few cases of ethnicity preservation (sometimes its loss, namely: (1 The Sarakačans group (a Greek speaking ancient Balkan population; that is, its lineage Ašana in Goč (nearby Kraljevo; (2 Serbs in White Krajina (Slovenia and Zumberka (Croatia; (3 Serbs from former Montenegro settled in the village of Peroj, in Istria; (4 Catholic Albanians, tribe Klimenti settled in Srem' villages Nikinci, Hrtkovci and Jarak, who declare themselves to be Croatians today; (5 A Serbian population from Montenegro and parts of Herzegovina (various tribes from Ceklina, Bjelopavlić, Riječka nahija, Njeguš, Grahovo and Zubac, from Petlovo Selo, in northeast Serbia (6 Torbeša families, from the group Mijaka, an originally Slav-Islamic population in the Crni Drim area, that immigrated in the 1960's to Izmir, in Turkey; (7. Janjevci, Catholics of a mixed Slavic origin, from Janjevo near Priština; in the past they declared themselves natives of Dubrovnik but lately declared themselves Croatians; (8. Slovak Adventists from Gospođinci, in Srem, who declare themselves to be Serbs; and (9. Slovaks Greco-Catholic, from Kučura, Bačka, who declare themselves as Ruthenians although their native language is Slovakian. In conclusion, the author argues that ethnic identity preservation depends on a lot of factors and circumstances, among which the most important are settlement and religious affiliation. Many of the positive experiences of multilingual, multinational and multireligious tolerances in the area could serve as a model in other potentially troubled multicultural environments.

  6. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German "Aussiedler"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupbach, Doris

    2009-01-01

    "Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines…

  7. The Rise and Fall of the Ethnic Revival: Perspectives on Language and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Joshua A.; Gertner, Michael H.

    This book contains 15 essays on the relation of language to ethnicity, race, and culture. Although a wide variety of topics are covered, much of the discussion is intended to contribute to an understanding of the Western "ethnic revival" of the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s and the sociology of language in general. Chapter titles are: (1) "Language,…

  8. Entrapment by consent : the co-ethnic brokerage system of ethnic Yi labour migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, China has been witnessing the largest internal migration in the history of the world. Among the studies of labour migrants in China, ethnic minorities have been largely ignored. This study fills in this research gap by focusing on ethnic Yi workers who migrate

  9. The Relationship of Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Latino Ethnic Identity to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…

  10. Adolescents' Engagement in Ethnic Harassment: Prejudiced Beliefs in Social Networks and Classroom Ethnic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Sun, Shuyan; Korol, Liliia; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan

    2018-01-02

    Research on ethnic victimization to date has done little to identify the reasons why adolescents victimize their peers due to their ethnic background. To address this limitation, we examined: (1) the extent to which prejudiced attitudes within adolescents' close and larger social networks determine their engagement in ethnic harassment, and (2) the extent to which classroom ethnic diversity plays a role in any such link. Our sample included 902 Swedish adolescents (M age  = 14.40, SD = .95; 50.3% girls). We found that Swedish adolescents who held negative attitudes toward immigrants or who were surrounded by prejudiced peers were more likely to be involved in ethnic harassment, particularly in classrooms with high ethnic diversity. Adolescents in classrooms with a high anti-immigrant climate were more likely to harass their immigrant peers. These findings suggest that prejudiced beliefs in youth social networks put young people at risk of engaging in ethnic harassment, particularly in ethnically diverse classrooms.

  11. School Ethnic-Racial Socialization: Learning about Race and Ethnicity among African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Adriana; Byrd, Christy M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has sought to understand how parents socialize their children around race and ethnicity, but few studies have considered how contexts outside the home are also important sources of socialization. In this paper we review and integrate literature on practices in school settings that have implications for ethnic-racial socialization using a…

  12. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available for many inherited disorders. The main disadvantage is that diagnostic testing carries a very small ... chromosomes, arranged in order of size. Microarray: A technology that examines all of a person’s genes to ...

  13. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  14. Rotorcraft Diagnostics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  15. Life satisfaction, ethnicity and neighbourhoods: Is there an effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition on life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-11-01

    Immigrants and ethnic minorities tend to have lower life satisfaction than majority populations. However, current understanding of the drivers of these gaps is limited. Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of ethnic minorities and matched neighbourhood characteristics, we test whether first and second generation minorities experience lower life satisfaction once accounting for compositional differences and whether, specifically, neighbourhood deprivation impacts their wellbeing. We further investigate whether a larger proportion of own ethnic group in the neighbourhood improves satisfaction. We find life satisfaction is lower among ethnic minorities, and especially for the second generation, even controlling for individual and area characteristics. Neighbourhood concentration of own ethnic group is, however, associated with higher life satisfaction for Black Africans and UK born Indians and Pakistanis. The effect for Black Africans may stem from selection into areas, but findings for Indians and Pakistanis are robust to sensitivity tests. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial/ethnic variation in the reliability of DSM-IV pathological gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Ostmann, Emily L; Spitznagel, Edward L; Books, Samantha J

    2007-07-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in mental disorders, including pathological gambling disorder (PGD), may be either real or artifacts of how they are conceptualized and measured. We aimed to assess racial/ethnic variation in the reliability of self-reported lifetime PGD determined by meeting > or = 5 criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Using community advertising, we recruited 15-85-year-old Caucasians (n = 225) and African (American/other minorities (n = 87), who had gambled more than 5 times lifetime), for 2 interviews, held 1 week apart, about gambling and associated behaviors. Results indicate substantial to almost-perfect DSM-IV PGD reliability for Caucasians (kappa = 0.82) and African Americans/other minorities (kappa = 0.68). Reliability for symptoms and for game-specific disorders was fair to almost perfect (kappa = 0.37-0.90). After adjusting results for confounding variables and multiple comparisons, racial/ethnic variation in PGD and game-specific reliability failed to persist. Implications exist for increased attention to screening and prevention efforts critical to reducing racial/ethnic disparities in PGD prevalence.

  17. Mental health in senior housing: racial/ethnic patterns and correlates of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Julie; Schensul, Jean J; Coman, Emil; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Radda, Kim E; Gaztambide, Sonia; Disch, William B

    2009-09-01

    Mental health problems are associated with disability, overuse of medical care, higher rates of mortality and suicide as well as personal suffering for older adults. Residents of urban, low-income senior housing may face increased risk of a variety of mental health problems, including depression. This study identified the prevalence of multiple mental health problems in older residents of low-income senior housing and explored correlates of major depressive disorder for the two largest ethnic groups: black and Latino. In-person diagnostic interviews identified rates of mental illness in a sample of 635 residents of 13 low-income senior housing buildings in a medium-sized northeastern city. Applying George's Social Antecedent Model of Depression, logistic regression analyses identified shared and unique correlates of depression for Latino and black participants. This population had high rates of major depressive disorder (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (12%) and other mental health problems that varied significantly by ethnic and racial group. Separate multivariate models for Latino and black people showed that younger age, more chronic conditions and social distress were related to major depressive disorder for both ethnic groups. Perceived environmental stress, shorter tenure in the building, poorer perceived health, higher life stress and fewer leisure activities were associated with depression for Latinos only. Mental health screening and treatment services are needed in senior housing to address these high rates of mental illness. Unique constellations of correlates of depression for different ethnic groups underscore a need for culturally competent approaches to identification and treatment.

  18. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  19. 'Ethnic cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rony; Stanton, Gregory H; Sagi, Shira; Richter, Elihu D

    2008-04-01

    Genocide has been the leading cause of preventable violent death in the 20th-21st century, taking even more lives than war. The term 'ethnic cleansing' is used as a euphemism for genocide despite it having no legal status. Like 'Judenrein' and 'racial hygiene' in Nazi medicine, it expropriates pseudo-medical terminology to justify massacre. Use of the term reifies a dehumanized view of the victims as sources of filth and disease, and propagates the reversed social ethics of the perpetrators. Timelines for recent genocides (Bosnia, 1991-1996, 200,000; Kosovo 1998-2000, 10,000-20,000; Rwanda, 1994, 800,000; Darfur 2002-2006, >400,000) show that its use bears no relationship to death tolls or the scale of atrocity. Bystanders' use of the term 'ethnic cleansing' signals the lack of will to stop genocide, resulting in huge increases in deaths, and undermines international legal obligations to acknowledge genocide. The term 'ethnic cleansing' corrupts observation, interpretation, ethical judgment and decision-making, thereby undermining the aim of public health. Public health should lead the way in expunging the term 'ethnic cleansing' from official use. 'Ethnic cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide, leading to inaction in preventing current and future genocides.

  20. Divergent mortality trends by ethnicity in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.

  1. Pension prospects of minority ethnic groups: inequalities by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, J; Arber, S

    2001-09-01

    Minority ethnic groups have low income in later life from private pensions, partly due to shorter employment records in Britain since migration. Yet disadvantage and discrimination in the labour market, as well as differences in cultural norms concerning women's employment, may lead to persistence of ethnic variation in private pension acquisition. Little is known about the pension arrangements made by men and women in minority ethnic groups during the working life. This paper examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyses variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using three years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that Blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of Black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income. The research suggests that minority ethnic groups - especially women - will be disproportionately dependent on means-tested benefits in later life, due to the combined effects of low private pension coverage and the policy of shifting pension provision towards the private sector.

  2. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  3. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012: A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery L Feigin

    Full Text Available Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ over 30-years.Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years of Auckland NZ in 1981-1982, 1991-1992, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution.5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31% and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%, respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years. There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17% across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus, but a reduction in

  4. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L; Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M; Barber, P Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981-1982, 1991-1992, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus, but a reduction in frequency

  5. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? : Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Pop, I.A.; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p2 model. Our key findings were: (1)

  6. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Deurzen, I.A. van; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  7. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  8. Ethnic and social disparities in different types of examinations in undergraduate pre-clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, K M; Brommet, F N; Themmen, A P N

    2016-12-01

    Medical schools are increasingly faced with a more diverse student population. Generally, ethnic minority students are reported to underperform compared with those from the ethnic majority. However, there are inconsistencies in findings in different types of examinations. Additionally, little is known about the performance of first-generation university students and about performance differences across ethnic minority groups. This study aimed to investigate underperformance across ethnic minority groups and by first-generation university students in different types of written tests and clinical skills examinations during pre-clinical training. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of progress on a 3-year Dutch Bachelor of Medicine course was conducted. Participants included 2432 students who entered the course over a consecutive 6-year period (2008-2013). Compared with Dutch students, the three non-Western ethnic minority groups (Turkish/Moroccan/African, Surinamese/Antillean and Asian) underperformed in the clinical problem solving tests, the language test and the OSCEs. Findings on the theoretical end-of-block tests and writing skills tests, and results for Western minority students were less consistent. Age, gender, pre-university grade point average and additional socio-demographic variables (including first-generation university student, first language, and medical doctor parent) could explain the ethnicity-related differences in theoretical examinations, but not in language, clinical and writing skills examinations. First-generation university students only underperformed in the language test. Apparently, underperformance differs both across ethnic subgroups and between different types of written and clinical examinations. Medical schools should ensure their assessment strategies create a level playing field for all students and explore reasons for underperformance in the clinical and writing skills examinations.

  9. Pregnancy outcomes in severe hyperemesis gravidarum in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea, E; Vlachodimitropoulou-Koumoutsea, E; Gosh, S; Manmatharajah, B; Ray, A; Igwe-Omoke, N; Yoong, W

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated pregnancy outcomes among women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in a North London multi-ethnic population. A retrospective case-control study was performed on records of obstetric admissions during a 4-year period, at North Middlesex University Hospital in North London. A total of 208 women with HG were identified according to Fairweather's criteria occurring in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, which is severe enough to require admission to hospital. The control study group consisted of 208 women without HG, matched for age, ethnicity and parity. Maternal characteristics as well as pregnancy outcomes were compared in the two groups. The incidence of a delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate below the 10th per centile was significantly higher in the HG group compared with unaffected pregnancies (8.7% vs 16.8%, p = 0.01). Hyperemesis gravidarum in a multi-ethnic population in North London is associated with SGA neonates.

  10. Naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinema, hawaijar, tungrymbai, bekang, aakhone, and peruyaan are naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India; they are popular among the Mongolian-origin races in the Eastern Himalayas. Bacillus subtilis is the dominant functional bacterium in all naturally fermented soybean foods of these regions. Although there is a good demand for ethnic fermented soybean foods among local consumers in north-east India, the production is limited to household level. A ready-to-use pulverized starter culture for kinema production can be introduced to kinema-makers or similar sticky fermented soybean foods of north-east India and adapted to local conditions for additional income generation. Ethnic fermented soybeans are one of the major food resources in the Eastern Himalayas; they supplement inexpensive, high-digested plant protein in the local diet with low fat/cholesterol content and high nutritive value as well as antioxidant and other health-promoting properties.

  11. Ethnic Characteristics of Students’ Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ju Chebotareva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ethnic features of value orientations in students from different parts of the world. It is shown that the lives of the students from Latin America and Central Asia are more holistic and meaningful than the lives of the students from China, the Middle East and Russia. Latin American students are more focused on individuality, self-regulation, and the Central Asian — on collectivism, the controllability of life events. The gender specifics of the value orientations of students are described. The connection between the students’ value orientations personality components such as a basic trust in the world, social and emotional intelligence, ethnic identity and tolerance towards the people of other ethnic groups, stress-coping strategies are analyzed.

  12. Body dysmorphic symptoms: phenomenology and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luana; LeBlanc, Nicole; Weingarden, Hilary; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Traeger, Lara N; Keshaviah, Aparna; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2011-03-01

    Differences in the presentation of clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) across ethnic groups have received little investigation. The current study assessed BDD symptoms in an ethnically diverse sample of adults (n=401) using an online survey. Participants completed self-report measures assessing BDD symptoms, body parts of concern and BDD behaviors. Compared to Caucasian participants, no significant differences were found in body parts or behaviors reported by Latino or African American participants. Significant group differences did emerge between Asian and Caucasian participants. Specifically, Asians reported more concern with straight hair and dark skin and fewer body shape concerns than Caucasians. Asians also endorsed lower rates of grooming, touching body parts, and camouflaging and higher rates of exercise compared to Caucasians. Although most clinical features of BDD appear similar across ethnic groups, results showed some differences in body parts and behaviors between Caucasians and Asian Americans with BDD symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  14. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity......, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has become hegemonic in policy initiatives and legal documents. This hegemony is achieved by understanding ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversions from established norms in terms of deprivation. In this way,educational institutions and ‘majority society......’ as such are protected from criticism and structural changes towards multiculturalism and the recognition of the linguistic and cultural rights of minority groups. Alternative and competing positions exist in the research literature in the field, but this literature has been excluded from the level of policy and public...

  15. Family, neighbourhood, and children's health: Trends and racial/ethnic disparities between 2003 and 2007 in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuying; Moore, Ami; Yang, Philip Q; Yeatts, Dale E

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the race/ethnicity-specific trend of parent-reported health among children aged 17 years and under in the U.S. between 2003 and 2007, and its relationship with family background, neighbourhood support and neighbourhood safety. Data from the 2003 and 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were merged and analysed after taking into account the weighting and the complex sampling design of the data. Trends in children's health and racial/ethnic disparities were identified for this time period. Multivariate models were analysed to examine the association between children's health and their family background variables, neighbourhood support and safety, and other socio-demographic variables. Race/ethnicity-specific stratified models were also performed. Our findings indicated an adverse trend in the parent-reported health among children in the U.S. from 2003 to 2007, and little progress has been made towards reducing the health disparities by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic disparities also existed in children's family background and neighbourhood support and safety. Further, the health effects of family background and neighbourhood characteristics differed in magnitudes and directions by race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that different intervention/prevention strategies should be employed in improving childhood health for different racial/ethnic groups.

  16. Ethnic inequalities and sex differences in body mass index among tibet minorities in China: implication for overweight and obesity risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we for the first time investigated overweight and obesity level among Tibet minorities (Deng, Lhoba, Monba) living in remote villages at the south slope of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. For each ethnicity, the total number of population is less than 10 thousands in China. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on adult participants of three ethnicities in Tibet, China. Totally, the whole sample consists of 141 males and 163 females. Body mass index (BMI) was adopted to evaluate the overweight and obesity level. Within each ethnicity, there was no significant sex difference on BMI. The general prevalence of overweight and obesity level of Lhoba ethnicity (18.42%) is higher than that of Monba (17.65%) and Deng ethnicity (6.29%). For each sex, the distribution of BMI classification was found to be significantly associated with ethnicity identity. One possible reason for ethnic disparity among Tibet minorities in the present study is special dietary elements. Measures to prevent and cope with the problem of overweight and obesity among Tibet minorities are urgently required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ethnic Groups Differ in How Poor Self-Rated Mental Health Reflects Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656). SRMH was the outcome. Independent variables were psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder [MDD], general anxiety disorder [GAD], social phobia, alcohol abuse, binge eating disorders, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were covariates. The only psychiatric disorder which was universally associated with SRMH across all ethnic groups was MDD. More psychiatric disorders were associated with poor SRMH in Non-Hispanic Whites than any other ethnic groups. Among African Americans, demographic and socioeconomic factors could fully explain the associations between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Among Mexican and Other Hispanics, demographic and socioeconomic factors could only explain the association between some but not all psychiatric disorders and SRMH. In all other ethnic groups, demographic and socioeconomic factors did not explain the link between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Although SRMH is a useful tool for estimation of mental health needs of populations, poor SRMH may not have universal meanings across ethnically diverse populations. Ethnic groups differ in how their poor SRMH reflects psychiatric conditions and the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors

  18. Does geography explain ethnic inequalities in health in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martin; Searle, Paula

    2006-10-01

    To quantify the potential contribution of inter-district relative to intradistrict variation to the Maori disparity in life expectancy in 2000-02, by counterfactual modelling. SETTING, DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: The setting was New Zealand's 21 health districts (District Health Boards, DHBs). All data (population estimates and life expectancy estimates) were sourced from Statistics New Zealand and relate to the 2000-02 period. Maori life expectancy (nationally) was recalculated under the counterfactual that Maori life expectancy in each DHB did not differ from total population life expectancy in the corresponding DHB (so eliminating intra-district variation). The difference between the observed total population and counterfactual Maori life expectancies therefore represents the contribution of inter-district variation to the Maori life expectancy disparity. Observed total population and Maori life expectancies at birth in 2000-02, pooling sexes, were 78.7 and 71.1 years respectively, giving a total disparity of 7.6 years. Under the counterfactual, Maori life expectancy increased to 78.4 years (and total population life expectancy to 79.0 years). Inter-district variation was therefore estimated to potentially contribute only 0.6 years or 8% to the total Maori disparity. Allowing for imprecision, inter-district variation almost certainly accounts for less than 10.5% of the total disparity. Inter-district or geographic variation makes only a small contribution to the total Maori disparity in life expectancy. Adjustment or standardisation for district is not necessary when comparing Maori and non-Maori health outcomes. If the policy goal is to reduce ethnic inequalities in health, then the focus of policy (e.g. funding formulae) needs to be on factors directly linked to ethnicity, rather than on geographic variations in health and health care that have an impact on all ethnic groups more-or-less alike.

  19. Adolescent Pregnancy among Ethnic Variants at Lumbini Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Shrestha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy is a common social phenomenon that results to both maternal and fetal related health consequences globally. Important factors affecting this high risk group of pregnancies are social, cultural, ethnic and racial disparities which may limit the care during pregnancy thereby affecting the perinatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to estimate the maternal and fetal outcome of adolescent pregnancies visiting Lumbini Medical college among ethnic variants of mid-western region. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital for one year duration. Data was retrieved from the medical records of the admitted adolescent pregnant mothers with hospital delivery after 20 weeks’ gestation. Variables of interest were the selective demographic characteristics like place of residence and ethnicity of women, parity, and obstetrical &fetal outcomes. Results: The total numbers of admission for deliveries during the study period were 1905, out of which 462 (24.3% were adolescent pregnancy. A total of 184 (39% adolescent mothers were at the age of 19 and 334 (72.2% of them were from Palpa district. The highest number of teenagers were from Janajati group i.e. 240 (52%. Among all, 38 (10% had preterm delivery and 7 (1.5% had intrauterine fetal death. While 407 (88.3% adolescent pregnancies had vaginal deliveries, 54 (11.7%of them had lower segment cesarean section (LSCS. Fifty-one (11.4% neonates had low birth weight (below 2500 gmand 11 (2.4% had stillbirths. Among the low birth weight, 32 (51% newborns were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Conclusions: Adolescent pregnancy is higher common in Palpa district of Nepal. Janajati adolescent girls are becoming pregnant early after marriage. Higher numbers of teenagers are 19 years of age and are primigravida. On reaching the tertiary center, obstetrical outcome is better with less maternal

  20. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebov, R.; Panov, M.; Totev, M.; Deliverski, T.; Tcandev, I.; Velkovski, I.

    2006-01-01

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  1. Patterns of anaphylaxis after diagnostic workup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza, Athamaica Ruiz; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most published studies on anaphylaxis are retrospective or register based. Data on subsequent diagnostic work-up are sparse. We aimed to characterize patients seen with suspected anaphylaxis at the emergency care setting (ECS), after subsequent diagnostic work-up at our Allergy Center...... patient with clinical suspicion but not fulfilling the WAO/EAACI criteria at the ECS. The estimated incidence rate of anaphylaxis was 26 cases per 100,000 person years and the one year period prevalence was 0.04%. The most common elicitor was drugs (41.1%) followed by venom (27.4%) and food (20.6%). In 13...

  2. Relationships among identity, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms in eight ethnic-generational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Roxanne A; Huynh, Que-Lam; Park, Irene J K; Kim, Su Yeong; Lee, Richard M; Robertson, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Examine whether personal identity confusion and ethnic identity, respectively, moderate and/or mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and depressive symptoms (DS) in eight ethnic-generational groups. The sample consisted of 9665 students (73% women; mean age 20.31) from 30 colleges and universities from around the United States. Cross-sectional data were gathered through a confidential online survey. Across groups, PD and ethnic identity levels varied, while identity confusion levels were mostly similar. Neither identity confusion nor ethnic identity moderated the PD-DS relationship for any groups. However, identity confusion was a partial mediator for immigrant and nonimmigrant Hispanic/Latino(a) and White/European American participants. Identity confusion also suppressed the PD-DS relationship for Black/African American participants. Results highlight the need for additional research on identity confusion's role in the PD-distress link and the importance of addressing ethnicity and generation status when examining the effects of PD on college students' mental health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mutual compensation of the effects of religious and ethnic homogamy on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Homogamy, mating based on similarity, has been demonstrated for a great variety of traits such as age, education, religion, and physical and psychological traits. Recently, pro-fertile effects of religious as well as educational homogamy have been reported. We investigate whether ethnic homogamy also has a pro-fertile effect and whether ethnic and religious homogamy interact in their putative effects on reproduction (in terms of average number of offspring). We analyzed the association between ethnic as well as religious homogamy and woman's average number of offspring based on census data from ten countries provided by IPUMS international, encompassing a total of 1,485,433 married women aged 46-60 years (who have thus completed or almost completed reproduction) and their spouses. We find a clear pro-fertile but nonadditive effect of both ethnic and religious homogamy, which is most pronounced in the case of double homogamy. Our results further indicate that homogamy for one trait may compensate for heterogamy of the other, albeit countries differ regarding which trait compensates for the other. We suggest that the interaction between ethnic homogamy, religious homogamy, and reproduction provides an interesting example for gene-culture co-evolution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ethnic identity, territory and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This article explores, within the relationship between territory and society, the various points concerning cultural, social and ethnic identity through which the social contract on sustainable development must confront its greatest contradictions. The political position taken as regards sustainable development seeks cultural unity as a necessary condition for establishing modern forms of behavior to deal with styles of development and the management of the environment, for which to reconcile cultural diversity and the permanent social interaction between different ethnic groups, which is both imperative and of the utmost urgency

  5. On genocide, economic reasons vs. ethnic passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballet Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional vision of genocide is exogenous. In this framework, ethnics have a real sense. The economic approach of conflicts has expressed slight differences in the relation between ethnics and conflicts. However it does not reject this explanation. Here we propose an alternative approach, an endogenous vision of genocide. Genocide appears in society where social capital plays a major role in solidarities. But social capital is a weak asset in the individual portfolio. Economic and social shocks may have impacts on the assets structure and may produce conflicts such as genocide. In this new framework, policy makers may have to adopt prudential rules. .

  6. Grandparent caregiving role in ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle; Ceria, Clementina; Caulfield, Rick

    2004-10-01

    The grandparenting caregiving role in ethnically diverse families has not been well defined and described in the present literature. The goals of this article are to (a) synthesize what is known about the grandparent caregiving role in ethnically diverse families in the context of the African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American families and (b) identify gaps in knowledge to guide future research, education, and practice in this area of study. A narrative approach was used to review the literature from 1980 to 2003 and a descriptive summary of the literature is provided with a discussion of the research methods and salient findings.

  7. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults......, reciprocal expectations, ambivalences. The results of these studies show a convergence in the filial norms among ethnic groups in the Danish welfare state. The unique aspects of the young adults’ trajectories challenge, transgress and transform some of the stereotypes related to cultural practices...

  8. Ethnic Environmentalism in the Eastern Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalaya is undergoing serious environmental changes as a result of rampant construction of hydroelectric projects and climate-induced changes. Their impact is most discernible on the economically and politically vulnerable mountain communities who remain marginalised from....... This paper illustrates the socio-economic impact of hydropower projects and climate-induced changes on lives and livelihoods and the unrelenting imperative for ethnic environmentalism....... political discussions and economic opportunities. Silence in the public-sphere around environmental issues reflects the scalar distribution of political power, the limitations of grievance sharing mechanism and the predominance of ethnicity as a key variable in negotiations around the environment...

  9. Armed-Conflict Risks Enhanced by Climate-Related Disasters in Ethnically Fractionalized Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Schleussner, C. F.; Donges, J. F.; Schellnhuber, J.

    2016-12-01

    Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state of affairs is likely to be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change and in particular climate-related natural disasters. Ethnic divides might serve as predetermined conflict lines in case of rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. Here, we hypothesize that climate-related disaster occurrence enhances armed-conflict outbreak risk in ethnically fractionalized countries. Using event coincidence analysis, we test this hypothesis based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities. Although we do not report evidence that climate-related disasters act as direct triggers of armed conflicts, the disruptive nature of these events seems to play out in ethnically fractionalized societies in a particularly tragic way. This observation has important implications for future security policies as several of the world's most conflict-prone regions, including North and Central Africa as well as Central Asia, are both exceptionally vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change and characterized by deep ethnic divides.

  10. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Cardiovascular disease by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep Lien M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.

  12. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  13. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  14. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.

  15. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a family history of periodic paralysis or thyroid disorders. Emergency symptoms include: Difficulty breathing, speaking, or swallowing ... Prevention Genetic counseling may be advised. Treating the thyroid disorder prevents attacks of weakness. Alternative Names Periodic paralysis - ...

  16. Your First Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your abdomen or lower back. What is amenorrhea? Amenorrhea means not having a period. It is normal ... or less often than every 45 days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female ...

  17. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  18. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  19. Improving Occupational Health Disparity Research: Testing a method to estimate race and ethnicity in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Bonauto, David K

    2018-04-02

    Race and ethnicity data are often absent from administrative and health insurance databases. Indirect estimation methods to assign probability scores for race and ethnicity to insurance records may help identify occupational health inequities. We compared race and ethnicity estimates from the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) formula to self-reported race and ethnicity from 1132 workers. The accuracy of the BISG using gender stratified regression models adjusted for worker age and industry were excellent for White and Latino males and Latino females, good for Black and Asian Pacific Islander males and White and Asian Pacific Islander females. American Indian/Alaskan Native and those who indicated they were "Other" or "More than one race" were poorly identified. The BISG estimation method was accurate for White, Black, Latino, and Asian Pacific Islanders in a sample of workers. Using the BISG in administrative datasets will expand research into occupational health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Wolves in sheep's clothing: SDO asymmetrically predicts perceived ethnic victimization among white and Latino students across three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Green, Eva G T; Ho, Arnold K; Levin, Shana; van Laar, Colette; Sinclair, Stacey; Sidanius, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Dominant groups have claimed to be the targets of discrimination on several historical occasions during violent intergroup conflict and genocide.The authors argue that perceptions of ethnic victimization among members of dominant groups express social dominance motives and thus may be recruited for the enforcement of group hierarchy. They examine the antecedents of perceived ethnic victimization among dominants, following 561 college students over 3 years from freshman year to graduation year. Using longitudinal, cross-lagged structural equation modeling, the authors show that social dominance orientation (SDO) positively predicts perceived ethnic victimization among Whites but not among Latinos, whereas victimization does not predict SDO over time. In contrast, ethnic identity and victimization reciprocally predicted each other longitudinally with equal strength among White and Latino students. SDO is not merely a reflection of contextualized social identity concerns but a psychological, relational motivation that undergirds intergroup attitudes across extended periods of time and interacts with the context of group dominance.

  1. Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: A cross-national comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples’ lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to

  2. Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: a cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein

    2012-12-01

    Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples' lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to it

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. Nova diagnostics summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Drake, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors intend that Nova be the best diagnosed ICF research facility in operation today. The authors experience in providing advanced diagnostics for previous laser systems will be extended at Nova, and will be challenged by the development of new instrumentation to diagnose the more advanced targets made possible by this powerful laser. Previous experience has shown that to understand target performance, the authors must have as complete a set of diagnostics as possible. The Nova diagnostics are divided into two sets: the basic set required for the initial Nova experiments and the more advanced set for later, generally more complex, experiments. The basic set will be operational for the first Nova shots; it was a Nova line item funded with Nova construction money. This basic set is presented in a table

  6. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  7. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points.

  8. Laser diagnostics of biofractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushenko, A G

    1999-01-01

    An optical approach to the problem of modeling and diagnostics of the structures of biofractal formations was considered in relation to human bone tissue. A model was proposed for the optical properties of this tissue, including three levels of fractal organisation: microcrystaline, macrocrystallne, and architectural. The studies were based on laser coherent polarrimetry ensuring the retrieval of the fullest information about the optical and polarisation properties of bone tissue. A method was developed for contactless noninvasive diagnostics of the orientational and mineralogical structure of bone tissue considered as a biofractal. (lasers in medicine)

  9. Diagnostic Imaging Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Fisica Medica

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and the Argentina Society of Medical Physics (SAFIM) was organized the Diagnostic Imaging Workshop 2012, in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This workshop was an oriented training and scientific exchange between professionals and technicians who work in medical physics, especially in the areas of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, with special emphasis on the use of multimodal imaging for radiation treatment, planning as well of quality assurance associates.

  10. Diagnostic Imaging for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Mallya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants are a popular modality for permanent tooth replacement. The key to successful implant placement, its subsequent osseointegration and the final prosthetic rehabilitation is proper preoperative assessment. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the pre- and post-surgical evaluation process. Imaging is used to evaluate suitability of implant sites, aid in selection of appropriate implants, and finally evaluate implant placement and osseointegration. This article reviews the role of diagnostic imaging in the various phases and the advantages and limitations of the numerous imaging modalities.

  11. Designing high speed diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz Carrillo, Gerardo; Martinez, Adam; Mula, Swathi; Prestridge, Kathy; Extreme Fluids Team Team

    2017-11-01

    Timing and firing for shock-driven flows is complex because of jitter in the shock tube mechanical drivers. Consequently, experiments require dynamic triggering of diagnostics from pressure transducers. We explain the design process and criteria for setting up re-shock experiments at the Los Alamos Vertical Shock Tube facility, and the requirements for particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence measurements necessary for calculating Richtmeyer-Meshkov variable density turbulent statistics. Dynamic triggering of diagnostics allows for further investigation of the development of the Richtemeyer-Meshkov instability at both initial shock and re-shock. Thanks to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for funding our project.

  12. Mexican origin youths' trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence: variation by neighborhood ethnic concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats.

  13. Mexican Origin Youths’ Trajectories of Perceived Peer Discrimination from Middle Childhood to Adolescence: Variation by Neighborhood Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats. PMID:24488094

  14. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high...

  15. Ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XXth century the communist regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe collapsed, as well as the socialist system and the Warsaw Treaty’s Organization. New countries appeared in the international arena: instead of the former Yugoslavia, six new independent countries emerged. The disintegration of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia was followed by ethnic conflicts with tens of thousands victims. International sanctions and bombing of Serbia and Montenegro by the NATO aviation were the results of these conflicts. In 2006 disintegration continued: Serbia and Montenegro became independent countries, and in 2008, after many years of the armed conflict, Kosovo seceded from Serbia. The separation and disintegration processes seem to be typical for the Balkans, because for centuries the region has been home for several South Slavic ethnic groups with different religions, cultural and political traditions. Serbs used to dominate in the region, which provoked a constant latent confrontation with other ethnic groups. The collapse of the authoritarian system and the death of the powerful communist leader B. Tito gave impetus to nationalist movements. Various ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia brought the region to the deep social and economic crisis and pose a threat to the whole Europe due to the criminal groups’ activities in the “hot spots”. In particular, Kosovo is the center of drug trafficking to the Western countries. There are also numerous facts of kidnapping and murders of civilians in the areas, including foreigners, as well as sale of human organs, etc.

  16. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the

  17. Ethnic Differences in Persistence with COPD Medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Frølich, Anne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) are recommended as a first-line maintenance therapy in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore potential ethnic differences in persistence with LABD in COPD patients. METHODS...

  18. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jamestown Foundation Vol. 7, Issue 3 February 7, 2007. 57 “Democracy activists and some spiritual or religious adherents, including Tibetan Buddhists ...hand, the Chinese fear the Uyghur movement could internally radicalize other minorities, whether it was the ethnic Tibetans or the Muslim Hui

  19. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  20. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  1. Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former power struggles between the central and the regional rulers changed from a struggle for territorial expansion into a class struggle. And the 1974 Revolution which was provoked by the Ethiopian. Student's Movement was a national class struggle. It was not an ethnic conflict. During the revolution, a pool of ...

  2. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  3. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  4. Anthropology, Ethnology and Ethnic and Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Yu. V.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews anthropological thinking on ethnic and racial prejudice. Provides examples of discrimination and cites the major theorists who have played a part in developing anti-racist views of society. Concludes that racism has no scientific or legal justification, that racism is a crime against humanity, and that it is the enemy of peace, culture,…

  5. The Politics of Ethnicity in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Raymond A.

    1986-01-01

    The arrival of Cubans and other exile and refugee groups since 1960 has dramatically altered the social and political demography of Miami. Those groups' active participation in the political system is discussed, as is the use of that system to achieve group goals and stimulate the sense of ethnic identity and political power. (PS)

  6. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  8. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  9. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  11. URBANISM, ETHNIC CONSCIOUSNESS AND AFFINITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... slave trade and the colonization/ amalgamation of the country. These roles boosted ... in the modern day Nigeria has a direct bearing to the historical roles they enacted in the domestication of the .... emergence and growth of modern cities in the country, the manifestation of ethnic group consciousness ...

  12. Ethnic differences in childhood nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul eChanchlani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome is a common glomerular disease in children with significant variability in both incidence and steroid responsiveness among various ethnic groups. The average incidence of nephrotic syndrome is 2-16.9 per 100,000 children worldwide. Understanding the variability by ethnicity may point to potential factors leading to nephrotic syndrome, which remains elusive, and may highlight factors accounting for differences in medication response. The emerging role of genetic factors associated with steroid responsive and steroid resistant forms of nephrotic syndrome within an ethnic group can provide insight into potential biological mechanisms leading to disease. For example, among African Americans, the risk variants in APOL1 are associated with a more than 10-fold increase in risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and high-risk carriers have a 2-fold greater risk of progression to end stage renal disease. Ongoing collaborative studies should consider capturing data on self-reported ethnicity to understand differences in incidence and outcomes. In the future, the availability of whole genome data will provide an excellent opportunity for new clinical and translational research in childhood nephrotic syndrome and lead to better understanding of the disease.

  13. Ethnic Differences in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchlani, Rahul; Parekh, Rulan S

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a common glomerular disease in children with significant variability in both incidence and steroid responsiveness among various ethnic groups. The average incidence of nephrotic syndrome is 2-16.9 per 100,000 children worldwide. Understanding the variability by ethnicity may point to potential factors leading to nephrotic syndrome, which remains elusive, and may highlight factors accounting for differences in medication response. The emerging role of genetic factors associated with steroid responsive and steroid-resistant forms of nephrotic syndrome within an ethnic group can provide insight into potential biological mechanisms leading to disease. For example, among African-Americans, the risk variants in APOL1 are associated with a more than 10-fold increase in risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and high-risk carriers have a twofold greater risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. Ongoing collaborative studies should consider capturing data on self-reported ethnicity to understand differences in incidence and outcomes. In the future, the availability of whole-genome data will provide an excellent opportunity for new clinical and translational research in childhood nephrotic syndrome and lead to a better understanding of the disease.

  14. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  15. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  16. Cloudland, stronzoland, brisbane: Urban development and ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brisbane's recovery from its somewhat shady past involving corrupt government and law enforcement echoes the journey upon which Armanno's protagonists ... Brisbane and using critical definitions of Bildung and the notion of ethnic Bildungsromane, this paper aims to examine the parallel development of the Italian ...

  17. Psychiatric Disorders Differently Correlate with Physical Self-Rated Health across Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-11-13

    In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical

  18. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.

  19. Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Corral, Irma; Fernandez, Senaida; Roesch, Scott

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale, an 18-item measure of perceived ethnic discrimination that can be used in health research with any ethnic group. The 1569 participants (half college students, half community adults) completed the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and measures of cigarette smoking and of psychiatric symptoms. Results revealed that the General Ethnic Discrimination subscales model the latent construct of perceived ethnic discrimination equally well for Blacks, Latinos, Asians, and Whites. Discrimination was strongly related to psychiatric symptoms and to current cigarette smoking for ethnic minorities and Whites alike, but such relationships were stronger for ethnic minorities. Minorities who experienced frequent discrimination were 2.3 times more likely than their low-discrimination counterparts to be smokers. This 5th grade reading-level scale takes 10 min to complete and has sufficient, initial psychometric integrity for use in clinical and community health studies.

  20. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...

  1. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population...... of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group...... not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...

  2. Tsonga popular music: negotiating ethnic identity in 'global' music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identity performance'. Although ethnic identity continues to be performed in contemporary black South African popular music, this article argues for the existence of a performance of, and discourse on, identities that go beyond ethnicity. Here the ...

  3. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  4. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  5. Implicit and explicit interethnic attitudes and ethnic discrimination in hiring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour

  6. Ethnicity and incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in the capital of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasovska, Violeta; Kocova, Mirjana

    2017-04-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common and preventable cause of intellectual disability for which early diagnosis is difficult without newborn screening. Genetic and environmental factors, race, ethnicity, sex, and pregnancy outcomes were noted as risk factors. In the study we aimed to determine the incidence of CH among different ethnic groups in the capital of Macedoina - a multiethnic city. A 14-year retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 121,507 newborns in the capital of Macedonia, Skopje, screened for whole-blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in dry blood spots collected 48-72 h after birth, during the period 2002-2015. A TSH value of 15 mIU/L was used as cutoff point until 2010 and 10 mIU/L thereafter. Primary CH was detected in 46 newborns (female to male ratio 1.3) with overall incidence of 3.8/10,000 (1/2641). The incidence of primary CH was significantly increased after lowering the TSH cutoff value (p=0.038), primarily due to detected neonates with transient CH for this period. Ethnic differences in the incidence of primary CH were detected. CH incidence among Roma neonates (6.7/10,000) was significantly higher (pcapital of Macedonia. Further analysis of factors in direct interrelationship with the increased CH incidence in Roma newborns, as well as elucidation of impact of the CH incidence in this ethnicity on the overall incidence in Skopje, is warranted.

  7. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54% female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (Mage.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection–identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446

  8. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships Between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans.

  9. Ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery; Carter, Kristie; Hackett, Maree; Barber, P Alan; McNaughton, Harry; Dyall, Lorna; Chen, Mei-hua; Anderson, Craig

    2006-02-01

    Limited population-based data exist on differences in the incidence of major pathological stroke types and ischaemic stroke subtypes across ethnic groups. We aimed to provide such data within the large multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand. All first-ever cases of stroke (n=1423) in a population-based register in 940 000 residents (aged 15 years) in Auckland, New Zealand, for a 12-month period in 2002-2003, were classified into ischaemic stroke, primary intracerebral haemorrhage (PICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage, and undetermined stroke, according to standard definitions and results of neuroimaging/necropsy (in over 90% of cases). Ischaemic stroke was further classified into five subtypes. Ethnicity was self-identified and grouped as New Zealand (NZ)/European, Maori/Pacific, and Asian/other. Incidence rates were standardised to the WHO world population by the direct method, and differences in rates between ethnic groups expressed as rate ratios (RRs), with NZ/European as the reference group. In NZ/European people, ischaemic stroke comprised 73%, PICH 11%, and subarachnoid haemorrhage 6%, but PICH was higher in Maori/Pacific people (17%) and in Asian/other people (22%). Compared with NZ/European people, age-adjusted RRs for PICH were 2.7 (95% CI 1.8-4.0) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.4-3.7) among Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people, respectively. The corresponding RR for ischaemic stroke was greater for Maori/Pacific people (1.7 [95% CI 1.4-2.0]), particularly embolic stroke, and for Asian/other people (1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]). The onset of stroke in Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people began at significantly younger ages (62 years and 64 years, respectively) than in NZ/Europeans (75 years; p<0.0001). There were ethnic differences in the risk factor profiles (such as age, sex, hypertension, cardiac disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking status, overweight) for the stroke types and subtypes. Compared to NZ/Europeans, Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people are

  10. Racial/Ethnic Disparities: a Longitudinal Study of Growth Trajectories Among US Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isong, Inyang A; Richmond, Tracy; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-09

    While previous studies have documented racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity, less is known about when disparities emerge, how they evolve, and the most appropriate early childhood period for targeted interventions. We examined racial/ethnic differences in growth trajectories among US kindergarten-aged children followed from birth and identified sensitive periods at which disparities emerge. This is a longitudinal study design using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort data. We employed random effects growth curves to model trajectories of mean BMI z-scores by race/ethnicity and sex. To visualize sensitive periods for emergence of disparities, we used locally estimated smoothing spline curves to graph the relationship between age and BMI z-score within each racial group. Unweighted baseline sample size included ~ 7200 children. Overall, 54.6% of children were white, 23.1% Hispanic, 15.7% African-American, 3.4% Asian, 2.8% American-Indian, and 0.4% Pacific-Islander. Mean BMI z-scores for Hispanic boys and American-Indian boys and girls were already significantly higher by 24 months than their white peers and remained higher through kindergarten entry. African-American and Asian children started with significantly lower birth-weights compared to whites, but Asian girls' growth trajectory remained slow, while African-American girls experienced steeper increases in BMI z-scores and ultimately overtook their white and Asian peers over time. By kindergarten entry, disparities were present across all racial/ethnic groups. Racial/ethnic disparities in US children's weight status and growth trajectories emerge at different ages for different racial groups, but they are generally well established by kindergarten age. Our findings indicate that interventions designed to prevent early childhood overweight/obesity should be implemented early in the life course.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Ramey, Sharon L.; Krohn, Julie; Reed-Vance, Maxine; Raju, Tonse N.K.; Shalowitz, Madeleine U.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding rates differ among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Our aim was to test whether racial/ethnic disparities in demographic characteristics, hospital use of infant formula, and family history of breastfeeding mediated racial/ethnic gaps in breastfeeding outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Community and Child Health Network study (N = 1636). Breastfeeding initiation, postnatal intent to breastfeed, and breastfeeding duration were assessed postpartum. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate relative odds of breastfeeding initiation, postnatal intent, and duration among racial/ethnic groups and to test the candidate mediators of maternal age, income, household composition, employment, marital status, postpartum depression, preterm birth, smoking, belief that “breast is best,” family history of breastfeeding, in-hospital formula introduction, and WIC participation. RESULTS: Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers were most likely to initiate (91%), intend (92%), and maintain (mean duration, 17.1 weeks) breastfeeding, followed by English-speaking Hispanic mothers (initiation 90%, intent 88%; mean duration, 10.4 weeks) and white mothers (initiation 78%, intent 77%; mean duration, 16.5 weeks); black mothers were least likely to initiate (61%), intend (57%), and maintain breastfeeding (mean duration, 6.4 weeks). Demographic variables fully mediated disparities between black and white mothers in intent and initiation, whereas demographic characteristics and in-hospital formula feeding fully mediated breastfeeding duration. Family breastfeeding history and demographic characteristics helped explain the higher breastfeeding rates of Hispanic mothers relative to white and black mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals and policy makers should limit in-hospital formula feeding and consider family history of breastfeeding and demographic characteristics to reduce racial/ethnic breastfeeding disparities. PMID:27405771

  12. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m(2). We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks.

  13. Teenage pregnancies: Consequences of poverty, ethnic background, and social conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....

  14. Ethnic divisions, trust, and the size of the informal sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ethnic fractionalization and the size of the informal, or hidden, economy. Recent experimental and empirical research links, in turn, ethnicity and trust, and trust and tax compliance. In addition, recent empirical studies have identified an unwill......This paper investigates the relationship between ethnic fractionalization and the size of the informal, or hidden, economy. Recent experimental and empirical research links, in turn, ethnicity and trust, and trust and tax compliance. In addition, recent empirical studies have identified...

  15. Life satisfaction, ethnicity and neighbourhoods: Is there an effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition on life satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of minorities and matched small area characteristics, we explore differences in life satisfaction for ethnic groups living in UK. We test the hypothesis that minorities will be less satisfied, which will in part be explained by less favourable individual and area contexts, but that living in areas with a larger proportion of own ethnic group promotes well-being. We find that satisfaction is lower among minorities, ceteris pa...

  16. Diagnostic studies in amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke Pier Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis two diagnostic techniques are studied in amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils (tiny fibres) throughout the body resulting in damage of vital organs. Amyloid can be detected in a tissue specimen stained with Congo red: red-stained amyloid

  17. Angiography in renal diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreyer, H.; Justich, E.; Graz Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The angiographic symptoms of kidney vessels diseases are described as well as traumas and growing and displacing processes of the kidneys. The diagnostic value of angiography in kidney traumas and growing and displacing processes of the kidney is discussed and compared with other techniques, e.g. urography, sonography and computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  18. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  19. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  20. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  1. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  2. It's diagnostics, stupid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, René

    2010-04-02

    To stem the spiraling cost of cancer treatment, a concerted effort is urgently needed to develop molecular diagnostics to better identify the patients that respond to expensive targeted therapies. Opportunities and obstacles in the development of such drug response biomarkers are discussed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  4. Diagnostic Vacuum Curettage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-17

    Apr 17, 1974 ... A trial of the Vabra aspirator, a sterile disposable suction curette, was carried out on 136 outpatients. The apparatus is designed to allow full curettage of the uterine cavity. Adequate specimens for diagnostic histology were ob- tained in' all but 10 cases. Of these, no specimen was obtained in 4 cases.

  5. Ethnic Relations in Lokoja in the Colonial Period | Ali | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja is situated in the middle belt of Nigeria in the confluence of the Niger and Benue River. It lies on Latitude 7 50 N and Longitude 6 44 E. In this area temperatures are generally high. The highest temperature are usually recorded in the afternoon.1 Lokoja rose to fame due to its location at the confluence of the two great ...

  6. Essay: The Yi and the Internet: Promoting Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity in Chinese Virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraef, Olivia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of the century China has witnessed an unparalleled development of internet sites, blogs, chat forums, and corresponding virtual communities. These virtual platforms have become important nodes for information and networking, especially in light of economic and intellectual migration and the corresponding trans-local quality of relationships and networks, and contribute to a further diversification of China’s cultural landscape. China’s ethnic minorities, too, have been employing internet platforms as a means to promote, and to reflect on, their own culture. For some groups these platforms signify an extension of early, non-virtual ethnic networks and platforms in urban contexts, which provide a renewed incentive for the affirmation of ethnicity/ethnic identity by engaging netizens in an ongoing dialogue on ethnic cultural contents, which transcends physical space. The article introduces two major internet platforms of the so-called Yi minority, www.yizuren.com and http://yizucn.com, and probes into their potential for ethnic identity promotion, and into general parameters of the relationship between the Yi and the internet.

  7. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  8. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: the Case of the Family Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Granhemat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years old. To select the participants, a random proportional stratified sampling strategy was developed. A self administered questionnaire survey comprising three sections was used for gathering information about participants’ demographic profiles, their language choices in the family domain, and the concepts of their ethnic identity. To make analyses about the most used languages of the participants and the relationships between variables, SPSS software was run. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the participants’ profiles as well as participants’ used languages in the family domain of language use. Inferential statistics was used to examine relationships between variables. According to results of the study, in the family domain five codes were mostly used by the participants. These five codes were respectively, the Malay language, mixed use of Malay and English, Chinese, Mixed use of Chinese and English, and English. Furthermore, in the family domain, gender did not exert any influence on the choice of language of the multilingual participants, but ethnicity was found to be a determinant of language choice. Ethnic identity was found to influence the language choices of the Malays as well, but it did not affect the Chinese and Indian participants’ language choices in this domain of language use.

  9. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    administration, e.g. the administrative buildings and the sealing of products, were abandoned. The economic decline of the Middle Bronze Age affected the social stratification as well. The changes in social stratification appear in a series of completely new burial customs which show the prevalence of social......The Middle Bronze Age on Mainland Greece is also known as the Middle Helladic period. The chronological framework of this period extends from the beginnings of the second millenium - roughly 1900 - until 1550 BC, that is until the beginnings of the Mycenaean period. The Middle Helladic period...... is considered as the dark period of the cultural decline. The remains of the material culture reveal a clear retrogression while the information available on the social stratification and economy are so few and problematic in interpretation that this period is considered as the "Middle Age of Greek Prehistory...

  10. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and…

  11. Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Nigeria: The Marginalisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the issue of ethnic conflicts and their implications for democracy in Nigeria. Ethnic conflict and distrust is identified as the bane of former democratic experiments in Nigeria. Moreover, since the late 1980s, ethnicity in Nigeria has assumed disturbing new dimensions. The most crucial of these are the ...

  12. World on Fire? Democracy, Globalization and Ethnic Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that democracy and globalization lead to ethnic hatred and violence in countries with a rich ethnic minority. We examine the thesis by Chua (2003) that democratization and globalization lead to ethnic violence in the presence of a market-dominant minority. We use different

  13. Ethnicity: A threat to Nigeria's security and development | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative implications of ethnicity to national security and development are enormous. This paper interrogates ethnicity as the major hindrance to Nigeria.s security and development. The paper unveils the role of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in strengthening ethnicity and calls for a constitutional ...

  14. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  15. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  16. The Role of Ethnic School Segregation for Adolescents' Religious Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school…

  17. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2009-01-01

    Spatial concentration of ethnic groups may theoretically have positive or negative effects on the economic performance of those groups. I examine the effects of the ethnic enclave size on labor market outcomes of immigrants. I account for ability-sorting into ethnic enclaves by exploiting a Danish...

  18. Interpreting Democracy: Ethnic Politics and Democracy in the eastern Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2014-01-01

    into ethnic grievances in order to facilitate political mobilization and deeper engagement with the state. In this process, discussions and debates are framed around ethnicity but are presented and deliberated within state approved democratic practices. In the eastern Himalaya, ethnic identity is one...

  19. Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia | Taye | African Journal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current regime in Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and redesigned the country along ethnic lines as soon as it took political power in 1991. The aim of this article is to examine the prevalence of ethnic conflict in Ethiopia and to evaluate the potential causes of the conflicts that followed in the past twenty-five years.

  20. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  1. Children's cross-ethnic friendships: Antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jugert, P.; Feddes, A.R.; Rutland, A.; Nesdale, D.; Brown, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent research on the antecedents of cross-ethnic friendships, on friendship stability and quality, as well as on their consequences. It discusses structural, intergroup, and family factors and its relationship to cross-ethnic friendships. Research shows that cross-ethnic

  2. Beyond ethnicity: writing Caribbean histories through social spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic groups have frequently functioned as building blocks for the narration of Surinamese and, more generally, Caribbean social histories. This focus on ethnicity may lead to the portrayal of society as made up exclusively of racial/ethnic groups with primordial loyalties and attachments and pure,

  3. Ethnicity and Transition to Democracy in Nigeria: Explaining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay addresses an important variable in Nigerian politics, namely, ethnicity and the ways in which it affects the conduct of national affairs. It represents an effort at theorizing the role and place of ethnicity in the transition from authoritarianism in a multi-ethnic setting such as that represented by Nigeria. Drawing on ...

  4. Change in Ethnic Identity across the College Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kim M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic…

  5. Community Social Psychology dimensions facing ethnic and racial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto Da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and racial issues lead to new forms to the Brazilian psychological praxis. Psychological suffering from racists’ relations resulted from psychosocial dynamics of long-term. On the opposite, social behavior of black people overcomes that by perpetuating meaningful and symbolical process through the whole Colonial and Republic Brazilian lifespan. We will demonstrate that psychological contingency can help to understand psychosocial process related to a long-term period. Maritza Montero’s psychological dimensions and Social Sciences interface will explain contingency approach. Thus, we conclude that psychological dimensions show a new way of observing social behavior of Brazilian black people, whom promoted identity links in daily relationships, through collective and affectional recognition, whereas social asymmetry perpetuated itself in Brazilian Social History.

  6. Ethnic roots of cultural tradition illustrated in Kaimur rock art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Tiwary

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethno archaeological evidences and studies very often facilitate the interpretation of significance of rock art. But sometimes there are problems in explaining the things if there is discrepancy between local ethnic activities and the rock art of by-gone days which may be due to either a remarkable shift in social behaviors during long period span or to the relative seclusion of the developing society from art traditions manifested in local rock art. The present paper is based on the ethno rock art investigation made in the Kaimur region of Bihar. In this paper the author has attempted to link between ancient rock art living pattern and the art and culture of modern local group especially the tribe and semi tribes residing in the hill, foot hill and the plain.

  7. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  8. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... related activities for a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of ...

  9. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christian S; Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M; Vega, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC's impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done.

  10. Donepezil Treatment in Ethnically Diverse Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, Jared R.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Yaffe, Kristine; O’Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M.; Ashford, John W.; Yesavage, Jerome A.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients to ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Design Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least one year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. Results The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average one year decline of 2.30 points (3.9 SD) on the 30-point MMSE compared with a 1.70 point (4.2 SD) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at – 0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Conclusion California ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from one year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. PMID:25747405

  11. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  12. Friends' cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity among Mexican-origin adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter Seung Yoo; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Jian, Ni; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2017-04-01

    Research has indicated that ethnic identity protects ethnic minority youth on various indicators of adjustment, but there is a dearth of research pertaining to contextual influences on ethnic identity. Our study investigated how familial ethnic socialization and best friend's orientation toward Mexican culture influenced ethnic identity among Mexican-origin girls. Using a 3-wave longitudinal sample of 175 Mexican-origin adolescent girls (Mage = 13.75), the current study examined best friend's Mexican cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were conducted to examine potential age and generational status differences within the model. Analyses revealed that familial ethnic socialization promoted ethnic identity exploration and resolution 3.5 years later and that this effect was mediated by best friend's Mexican cultural orientation. No significant differences were found across age or generational status groups. Our study highlights the contribution of peer context to ethnic identity and its role in the process by which familial ethnic socialization influences ethnic identity during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Are mixed-ethnic unions more likely to dissolve than co-ethnic unions? New evidence from Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Z.; Boyle, P.; Van Ham, M.; Raab, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in Britain has been paralleled by an increase in the occurrence of mixed-ethnic marriages between one White partner and an ethnic minority partner. Such marriages are thought to be at higher risk of divorce, but empirical studies so far have been

  14. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  15. Being Smart is not Enough: the role of psychlogical factors in study success of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the

  16. Closeness and Competition in the Inter-Ethnic and Co-Ethnic Friendships of Early Adolescents in Toronto and Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Dixon, Kristopher; Udvari, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the inter-ethnic and co-ethnic friendships of 390 junior high school students in multi-ethnic neighborhoods of Montreal and Toronto. Friendship dyads were identified on the basis of reciprocal nomination as close friends. The quality of the friendships was measured by questionnaires completed by both members…

  17. Time-Varying Effects of Family Ethnic Socialization on Ethnic-Racial Identity Development among Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Sara; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has established that family ethnic socialization messages promote ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development, yet it is unknown whether these effects remain constant throughout adolescence. The current study examined the time-varying effects of family ethnic socialization on ERI exploration and resolution among Latino adolescents…

  18. Second Period Access Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisondieu, Christophe; Giebhardt, Jochen; Tetu, Amelie

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  19. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  20. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the talk is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts for a hierarchy of four mathematical models....... In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common...

  1. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  2. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    OpenAIRE

    Komalsingh Rambaree; Igor Knez

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic gr...

  3. Ethnic differences in fetal size and growth in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Rasmussen, Svein; Jenum, Anne Karen; Nakstad, Britt; Jensen, Odd Harald Rognerud; Vangen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Impaired or excessive fetal growth is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes that differ between ethnic groups. We explored ethnic differences in fetal size and growth from mid pregnancy until birth. Data are from the multi-ethnic STORK-Groruddalen study, a population-based, prospective cohort of 823 pregnant women and their offspring in Oslo, Norway. Measures were z-scores of estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, measured by ultrasound, and similar measures at birth. Differences in fetal size and growth were assessed using separate Linear Mixed Models including all four time points, with ethnic Europeans as reference. In week 24 South Asian fetuses had smaller AC, but larger FL than Europeans, and slightly lower EFW (-0.17 SD (-0.33, -0.01), p=0.04). Middle East/North African fetuses also had larger FL, but similar AC, and hence slightly higher EFW (0.18 (0.003, 0.36), p=0.05). Both groups had slower growth of AC, FL and EFW from this time until birth, and had -0.61 SD (-0.73, -0.49) and -0.28 SD (-0.41, -0.15) lower birth weight respectively. Ethnic East Asians, on the other hand, were smaller throughout pregnancy and had -0.58 SD (-0.82, -0.34) lower birth weight. Significant ethnic differences remained after adjusting for maternal factors. We observed ethnic differences in fetal size and body proportions already in gestational week 24, and in fetal growth from this time until birth, which were only partly explained by key maternal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bunched beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    There is a remarkable diversity in the field of accelerator physics. Look at the proceedings of any conference. Papers range from Hamiltonian dynamics to the latest improvements of performance in accelerator X to the engineering of specialized equipment. Beam diagnostics is somewhere in the middle of this. Diagnostic instruments make the connection between theories and observations, and the capabilities of these instruments influence strongly our ability to improve performance. The gave a series of lectures in 1987 on the general topic of Principles of Beam Observation. The emphasis was on frequency domain analysis of beam generated signals in storage rings, and that is the subject of this paper. The goal is to connect spectrum analyzer observations to what the beam is doing. In addition, understanding beam spectra is essential for understanding coherent effects and instabilities in storage rings, and this is discussed extensively. 23 figures, 4 tables

  5. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  6. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  7. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology examinations are frequently performed in all countries because of the benefit that the patient derives from the resultant diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed it is inevitable that there will be occasions when the planned exposure of a woman who is known to be pregnant is contemplated. In these circumstances, there must be rigorous justification of the examination and the procedure itself must be optimised as well. Radiation risks from fetal irradiation are well established. These risks fall into three categories: 1) a cancer induction risk (mainly leukaemia); 2) hereditary effects (as the fetus is a potential parent); 3) a risk of serious mental retardation (if the fetus is exposed in the critical 8-15 weeks period when the forebrain is being developed). Risk factors for these effects have been reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Special rules apply to the radiology of women who are or who may be pregnant. These rules have been developed to avoid he unintended irradiation of the fetus. These rules have been variously referred to as the 10-day rule and the 28-day rules, in which radiology of potentially pregnant women is restricted to the first 10 or 28 days following menstruation. It is apparent that the advice provided by national bodies varies, as different rules apply internationally, due presumably to a lack of an international consensus on the subject. The advice from the National Radiological Protection Board, the College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists applies in the United Kingdom. In summary, the advice is that women of child bearing age are asked before a diagnostic radiology examination in which the pelvis is in, or near, the primary beam are asked if they are, or may be, pregnant. If pregnancy can be excluded then the examination can proceed. If it is likely that the patient is pregnant, then the proposed examination must undergo rigorous justification. If

  8. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  9. RFQ1 diagnostic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.G.; Arbique, G.M.; de Jong, M.S.; McMichael, G.E.; Michel, W.L.; Smith, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic devices in use on RFQ1 will be described. They consist of a double-slit emittance-measuring unit, a 45 degree deflection energy-analysis magnet, parametric current transformers, optical beam sensors, beam-stop current monitors, and an x-ray end-point analyzer. All of these devices are able to operate up to the full output current of RFQ1 (75 mA cw at 0.6 MeV)

  10. Volumetric Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Force Office of Scientific Research Submitted by: Lin Ma, PhD Professor Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Department of Mechanical ...established PLIF (planar LIF [11, 12]) to volumetric measurement of species concentration, and have demonstrated single- shot VLIF measurements in both...Ikeda, J., Xu, W., Carter, C.D. Single Shot 3D Flame Diagnostic Based on Volumetric Laser Induced Fluorescence (VLIF), Proceedings of the

  11. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  12. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  13. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  14. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage.

  15. Contextual influences on Latino adolescent ethnic identity and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Andrew J; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Frabutt, James M; Plunkett, Scott W; Sands, Tovah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between 3 components of ethnic identity (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and factors related to family, neighborhood, and individual characteristics. The purpose was to identity factors that are positively associated with adolescent ethnic identity among a sample of 187 Latino adolescents with a mean age of 14.61. The findings suggested that family ethnic socialization was directly associated with exploration and resolution, but not ethnic affirmation. Analyses with moderator variables suggested that associations between family ethnic socialization and ethnic affirmation varied based on parental behaviors and neighborhood characteristics. The results also suggested that ethnic affirmation, but not exploration or resolution, was positively associated with teacher reports of school performance.

  16. Essence and Content Schoolchildren’s Ethnic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses essence and content of schoolchildren’s ethnic education on the basis of the study of scientific works by domestic and foreign researchers. The analysis of their works shows that ethnic education as a scientific and pedagogical problem is associated with the development of ethno-pedagogical science. The article considers different points of view on the definition of the terms "folk pedagogy" and "ethnic pedagogy", "popular education" and "ethnic education". The analysis specifies the concept "schoolchildren’s ethnic education”, which is considered as a goal-oriented, well-organized educational process of schoolchildren familiarizing with ethno-social values and, as a result, formation of positive ethnic identity. The necessity of ethnic education in the process of formation of multicultural personality is justified; the importance of special training of future teachers for this activity is emphasized

  17. Another Challenge for Africa: Ethnic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    assuage and improve, given the right focus and assistance. Ethnicity can combine with other factors of instability such as poverty , disease...regional stability in Africa in support of U.S. national interests. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Conflict Prevention, Global and Regional Strategic Issues...FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 24 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 8,312 PAGES: 42 KEY TERMS: Conflict Prevention, Global and Regional Strategic

  18. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Galito, Maria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  19. Race and ethnicity as biological constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F L

    1992-01-01

    For some time, biologists and anthropologists have overwhelmingly rejected the partitioning of modern humans into biological "races." An examination of recent human evolutionary history suggests that the zoological definition of race, based on significant genetic differences, cannot be legitimately applied to contemporary humans. Extensive past hybridization, plasticity of the human phenotype, the presence of ecotypes, the lack of extensive molecular information, and the lack of longitudinal multigenerational evaluations of diverse groups contribute to ambiguity in taxonomic assignment. Although biological aggregates do exist, they represent variation below the subspecies level, and, as such, are much more tenuous over evolutionary time. The persistent reference to quasibiological constructs such as ethnicity and race in the lay and scientific literatures requires that ethnicity be scrutinized for possible biological dimensions. The Diop model of ethnicity suggests that at least three components contribute to its formation: a historical factor, a linguistic factor, and a psychological factor, each of which can be examined for possible biological dimensions. Presumed biological affinities may allow certain groups to expand and extend their collective history and amplify their kin networks, possibly improving group biological fitness. Individual and group initial language of acquisition may influence brain physiology and organize the template for interpretation and behavior, creating greater consistency of response across otherwise divergent biological aggregates. Psychological continuity in particular behavioral traits, particularly repetitive multigenerational responses, may have an adaptive aspect at the group level. While ethnicity remains primarily a sociocultural category, it has biological precursors, parameters, and consequences for both individuals and groups. The genetic components of these biological dimensions remain to be identified and quantified.

  20. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  1. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  2. An Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James C.; McKinley, Donna L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the value of diagnostic classification systems to counseling professionals. Describes the Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan, an approach to diagnosis that includes the environment as a possible cause of pathology and target of intervention. (Author/KS)

  3. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  4. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  5. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  6. Ethnicity and waterpipe smoking among US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughosh, S; Wu, I-H; Peters, R J; Hawari, F; Essien, E J

    2012-11-01

    To examine the effect of ethnicity on waterpipe smoking among college students. A cross-sectional study utilized data from University of Houston students through an online survey (n = 2334) from March to April 2011. The survey included questions on demographic characteristics (sex, age, race/ethnicity), tobacco use experience, risk perception, social acceptability and popularity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of waterpipe use with three outcomes: ever-use vs. no use, past-year use vs. no use and past-month use vs. no use. Half of the sample had previously smoked tobacco using a waterpipe, approximately a third in the past year and 12.5% in the past month. Significant predictors included Middle Eastern ethnicity, Middle Eastern friend, past cigarette or cigar use. Perception of harm was associated with less use in the ever-use model, while perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipes were predictors in all models. Our findings underscore the importance of developing culturally appropriate interventions to control waterpipe smoking among Middle Eastern Americans and those of Indian/Pakistani descent to curb further spread in US society, and highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipe smoking.

  7. Ethnic variation in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Banerjee, P; Davis, D; Charteris, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the clinical variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) in patients of different ethnicities. Methods Patients presenting with a primary RD from two ethnic groups were recruited from our tertiary referral hospital between August 2010 and December 2012. Patients who self-reported their ethnic origin either as European Caucasian (EC) or South Asian (SA) were included. Exclusion criteria included trauma, previous vitreoretinal procedures, age under 18 years, complicated cataract surgery and the presence of syndromes known to be associated with a high prevalence of RD. Detailed phenotypic data were collected. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were undertaken. Results 1269 Patients were recruited. 1173 (92.4%) were EC. Mean age of onset was 58.3 years (EC) and 54.5 years (SA) (P=0.006). 75.3% EC and 58.4% SA were phakic (Plattice retinal degeneration in the affected eye (P=0.003). Refractive myopia was greater in SA patients (mean: −6.1DS) than EC (−4.2DS) (P=0.032). Additionally, SA patients had a greater mean axial length (25.65 mm) than EC (25.06 mm) (P=0.014). No differences were demonstrated in laterality, family history, type of retinal break or macular status. Conclusions SA patients present with RD at an earlier age and have a more severe phenotype than ECs. Future management strategies for RD may need to reflect these differences. PMID:25853394

  8. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  9. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  10. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined......The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... autobiographical periods are the latter....

  11. New diagnostic criteria for diabetes: is the change from glucose to HbA1c possible in all populations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a change of the diagnostic tool for diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been suggested. The aim of the study was to assess whether ethnicity modified the association between glucose levels and HbA1c and to compare diabetes prevalence accordi...

  12. New diagnostic criteria for diabetes: is the change from glucose to HbA1c possible in all populations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a change of the diagnostic tool for diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been suggested. The aim of the study was to assess whether ethnicity modified the association between glucose levels and HbA1c and to compare diabetes prevalence according...

  13. Examining the impact of migrant status on ethnic differences in mental health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame J; Kurdyak, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Some ethnic groups have more negative contacts with health services for first-episode psychosis, likely arising from a complex interaction between ethnicity, socio-economic factors, and immigration status. Using population-based health administrative data, we sought to examine the effects of ethnic group and migrant status on patterns of health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder among people aged 14-35 over a 10-year period. We compared access to care and intensity of service use for first-generation ethnic minority groups to the general population of Ontario. To control for migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and compared service use indicators for ethnic minority groups to the European migrant group. Our cohort included 18,080 people with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, of whom 14.4% (n = 2607) were the first-generation migrants. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of ethnic differences in health service use is reduced and no longer statistically significant when the sample is restricted to first-generation migrants. Of exception, nearly, all migrant groups have lower intensity of primary care use, and Caribbean migrants are consistently less likely to use psychiatric services. We observed fewer ethnic differences in health service use preceding the first diagnosis of psychosis when patterns are compared among first-generation migrants, rather than to the general population, suggesting that the choice of reference group influences ethnic patterning of health service use. We need a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms behind observed differences for minority groups to adequately address disparities in access to care.

  14. A systematic review of issues around antenatal screening and prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders: women of Asian origin in western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juping

    2012-07-01

    Antenatal screening has become standard practice in many countries. However, not all pregnant women choose to be tested. In the UK, the incidence of some birth defects is found to be higher in babies of Asian women than in those of women from other ethnic groups, while there is some evidence suggesting that ethnic minorities, especially Asian women, are less likely to undergo antenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, the reasons for which are unclear. This study aims to identify and describe the literature on issues around antenatal screening and prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders among women of Asian descent in western countries. The Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA and PsycInfo databases were searched for the period of 1995 and 2010. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore reviewed. In general, Asian women were found to hold favourable attitudes towards testing. However, they reported a poorer understanding of testing than white women and not being offered a test, and were less able to make informed choices. Asian women in the UK and Australia were found to be less likely than their white counterparts to have undergone prenatal diagnosis, while such differences were not found in the USA and Canada. The equity of access to quality antenatal care, alongside comprehensive well thought out antenatal screening programmes, can be assured if strategies are in place which actively involve all ethnic groups and take account of social and cultural appropriateness for the population served. An understanding of broad factors that inform women's decision-making on test uptake would help health professionals provide women and their families with more culturally sensitive information and support that they may additionally need to make more informed choices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with

  16. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rott K, Rudel R, Lehmann-Horn F. Muscle channelopathies: myotor and periodic paralyses. In: Darras BT, Jones ... Elsevier; 2015:chap 38. Kerchner GA, Ptacek LJ. Channelopathies. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  17. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rott K, Rudel R, Lehmann-Horn F. Muscle channelopathies: myotonias and periodic paralyses. In: Darras BT, Jones ... Elsevier; 2015:chap 38. Kerchner GA, Ptacek LJ. Channelopathies: episodic and electrical disorders of nervous system. In: ...

  18. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  19. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  20. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  1. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common. View Full Definition Treatment Treatment of the periodic paralyses focuses on preventing further attacks and relieving acute symptoms. Avoiding carbohydrate-rich meals and strenuous exercise, and taking acetazolamide daily may ...

  2. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  3. Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Cierpka, P.; Egorov, S.M.; Kass, T.; Kuteev, B.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Sergeev, V.Yu.; Vetter, H.; Weber, G.

    1994-07-01

    We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N 2 , H 2 ) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x10 18 to 10 20 atoms. Both the scattering angle (∝1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 10 16 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (≥85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

  4. Cross Ethnic Friendship among Multi-ethnic Students and Teacher’s Role in Supporting Cultural Diversity in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth discussion about cross ethnic friendship among students and teacher's role in supporting the cultural diversity that exists in school. The school which consist of students from various ethnic groups provide space and opportunities for students to interact socially with peers either from the same or other ethnic groups. On the other hand, the school that consists of only one ethnic group limits the opportunity for students to interact with friends from different ethnic groups. Students who have attended the schools that are not diverse in terms of ethnicity were reported having more friends from the same ethnic group. A positive relationship between individuals from different ethnic groups led to the reduction in prejudice, enhance the sense of common identity and closeness among individuals. Teachers as agents of unity should play an important role in assisting students to acquire the necessary social skills that enables them to interact effectively with students from different ethnic, cultural and languages which consequently create a harmony cross ethnic friendships among multi-ethnic students in school.

  5. 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference: the molecular diagnostics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Bernard M; Pandori, Mark

    2013-04-01

    2012 HIV Diagnostic Conference Atlanta, GA, USA, 12-14 December 2012. This report highlights the presentations and discussions from the 2012 National HIV Diagnostic Conference held in Atlanta (GA, USA), on 12-14 December 2012. Reflecting changes in the evolving field of HIV diagnostics, the conference provided a forum for evaluating developments in molecular diagnostics and their role in HIV diagnosis. In 2010, the HIV Diagnostics Conference concluded with the proposal of a new diagnostic algorithm which included nucleic acid testing to resolve discordant screening and supplemental antibody test results. The 2012 meeting, picking up where the 2010 meeting left off, focused on scientific presentations that assessed this new algorithm and the role played by RNA testing and new developments in molecular diagnostics, including detection of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, detection and quantification of HIV-2 RNA, and rapid formats for detection of HIV-1 RNA.

  6. Ethnic Identity Development and Ethnic Discrimination: Examining Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment for Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098

  7. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with potential adult-onset autoinflammatory disorders: our experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Isabella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cantarini, Luca; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Simonini, Gabriele; Brizi, Maria Giuseppina; Vitale, Antonio; Frediani, Bruno; Cimaz, Rolando; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFSs) are a group of inherited disorders of the innate immune system caused by mutations of genes involved in the regulation or activation of the inflammatory response, which belong to the category of autoinflammatory disorders. Most HPFs typically have an onset in pediatric age, while a limited number of patients experience disease onset during adulthood. The relative rarity and lack of information on adult-onset autoinflammatory diseases make it likely that genetic testing is often inconclusive. Recently, we have identified a set of variables related to the probability of detecting gene mutations in MEFV, responsible for familial Mediterranean fever, and TNFRSF1A, responsible for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. In addition, we have proposed a diagnostic score for identifying those patients at high risk of carrying mutations in these genes. However, before the score can be recommended for application, further evaluation by means of longitudinal studies on different ethnicities and different populations deriving from other geographical areas is needed in order to definitively verify both its sensitivity and its specificity. The present manuscript offers our suggestions on how to establish a differential diagnosis for adult-onset HPFs, as well as a review of the literature, and we also provide a score revision available online. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DIAGNOSTICS OF POLYCULTURAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Smolyaninova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, repeatedly increasing migration flows connected with labor international migration and cocurrent frequent ethnic conflicts directly touched upon the education as intolerance to representatives of other cultures is most considerably shown among youth. Taking into account those processes, the problem of teachers’ training capable to cope with their professional duties in the conditions of ethnic and religious variety is brought into focus. Polycultural competence of the professional standard of the teacher is counted as a basic one. At the same time, the components of polycultural education are insufficiently fully and accurately registered in obligatory results of development of the main programs of pedagogical specialties.The aim of the present publication is to discuss the need of subject content changes of teachers’ vocational training at Federal University taking into account the specifics of the multinational regional environment and justification of expediency of regular diagnostics development of polycultural competence among future teachers for dynamics tracking of the planned personal new growths and their timely correction.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on cross-cultural, theoretical and activity-based studies as the most relevant ones for the present stage of professional and pedagogical training. Theoretical and empirical methods of studying of formation of components of poly-cultural competence of students are used; interviewing and questioning of students, methods of quantitative-qualitative and content analysis are applied.Results and scientific novelty. The experience of complex diagnostics of level of polycultural competence of students of pedagogical specialties of the Siberian Federal University is presented (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of monitoring results served as basis for creation of the model of components formation of this competence which is obligatory for a teacher

  9. Measuring alcohol use across the transition to adulthood: Racial/ethnic, sexual identity, and educational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Pollitt, Amanda M; Schulenberg, John E; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-02-01

    Patterns of alcohol use change from adolescence to adulthood and may differ based on race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and education. If alcohol use measures do not operate consistently across groups and developmental periods, parameter estimates and conclusions may be biased. To test the measurement invariance of a multi-item alcohol use measure across groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education during the transition to adulthood. Using three waves from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we tested configural, metric, and scalar invariance of a 3-item alcohol use measure for groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education at three points during the transition to adulthood. We then assessed longitudinal measurement invariance to test the feasibility of modeling developmental changes in alcohol use within groups defined by these characteristics. Overall, findings confirm notable variability in the construct reliability of a multi-item alcohol use measure during the transition to adulthood. The alcohol use measure failed tests of metric and scalar invariance, increasingly across ages, both between- and within-groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education, particularly among females. Measurement testing is a critical step when utilizing multi-item measures of alcohol use. Studies that do not account for the effects of group or longitudinal measurement non-invariance may be statistically biased, such that recommendations for risk and prevention efforts could be misguided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnic intermarriage in longitudinal perspective : Testing structural and cultural explanations in the United States, 1880-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spörlein, Christoph; Schlueter, Elmar; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on macro-level processes, this article combines Decennial Census and Current Population Survey data to simultaneously test longitudinal and cross-sectional effects on ethnic intermarriage using structural and cultural explanations. Covering a 130. year period, the results of our multilevel

  11. Postsecondary Participation Rates by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: 1974-2003. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lisa; Aquilino, Sally; Kienzl, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines participation in postsecondary education among women and men and among different racial/ethnic groups, from 1974 to 2003. Participation rates are defined here as the proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds who are enrolled in or have completed postsecondary education. Over this time period, the participation rates of young…

  12. The Indians Speak for Themselves. Literature Booklet. Indian Ethnic Heritage Studies Curriculum Development Project, 1974-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allery, Alan J.

    Student activities and a teacher's guide comprise each of the ten lessons of this ethnic studies unit. The unit's goals are to focus on life, ways, and history of the Dakota/Lakota Indian people; include the transition period as well as their past and present; provide activities which are intended to improve the self-concept of students; utilize…

  13. Adopting the new World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes: How the prevalence changes in a high-risk region in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent W; Lin, Andrew; Russell, Hamish

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we assessed changes in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a region with diverse cultural backgrounds in Australia under the new World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria, with reference to the woman's ethnicity, age and pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI). We recorded results of all 75-gram oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed on pregnant women between February and December 2015 together with their demographic details, and determined the prevalence of GDM based on the old Australian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) and the new WHO criteria respectively. Over that period, 2140 OGTTs were performed in 1725 pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM was 14.8% (255/1725 women) under old ADIPS criteria, but went up to 29.6% (510/1725) when using WHO criteria. An increase in prevalence was observed in all ethnic groups. Women from East/South-East Asia had the lowest increment (from 19.2 to 22.3%) while those from South Asia had the highest (from 22.0 to 44.4%). Prevalence of GDM was 45.9% amongst women with BMI>30kg/m 2 . For women from South Asia with BMI>30kg/m 2 , 70.0% would have GDM. Birth outcomes were similar between women who would have GDM under WHO but not the old ADIPS criteria (untreated), and those who were treated for GDM under old criteria. In parts of Australia, adoption of WHO diagnostic criteria could result in doubling of the prevalence of GDM, depending on the women's demographic characteristics. Women from South Asia or those with obesity should be targeted for pre-pregnant lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atypical periodic paralysis and myalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Christoph; Jaffer, Fatima; Scalco, Renata S.; Fialho, Doreen; Parton, Matt; Raja Rayan, Dipa; Suetterlin, Karen; Sud, Richa; Spiegel, Roland; Mein, Rachel; Houlden, Henry; Schaefer, Andrew; Healy, Estelle; Palace, Jacqueline; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Holton, Janice L.; Jungbluth, Heinz; Hanna, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To characterize the phenotype of patients with symptoms of periodic paralysis (PP) and ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene mutations. Methods Cases with a possible diagnosis of PP but additional clinicopathologic findings previously associated with RYR1-related disorders were referred for a tertiary neuromuscular clinical assessment in which they underwent detailed clinical evaluation, including neurophysiologic assessment, muscle biopsy, and muscle MRI. Genetic analysis with next-generation sequencing and/or targeted Sanger sequencing was performed. Results Three cases with episodic muscle paralysis or weakness and additional findings compatible with a RYR1-related myopathy were identified. The McManis test, used in the diagnosis of PP, was positive in 2 of 3 cases. Genetic analysis of known PP genes was negative. RYR1 analysis confirmed likely pathogenic variants in all 3 cases. Conclusions RYR1 mutations can cause late-onset atypical PP both with and without associated myopathy. Myalgia and cramps are prominent features. The McManis test may be a useful diagnostic tool to indicate RYR1-associated PP. We propose that clinicopathologic features suggestive of RYR1-related disorders should be sought in genetically undefined PP cases and that RYR1 gene testing be considered in those in whom mutations in SCN4A, CACNA1S, and KCNJ2 have already been excluded. PMID:29298851

  15. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; DeFreitas, Mariana R

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income), BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  16. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES, body mass index (BMI, physical and mental self-rated health (SRH, and major depressive disorder (MDD with eating disorders (EDs across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, a national household probability sample collected in 2001–2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income, BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  17. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  18. MAST magnetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlington, T.; Martin, R.; Pinfold, T.

    2001-01-01

    The mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) experiment is a new, large, low aspect ratio device (R=0.7-0.8 m, a=0.5-0.65 m, maximum BT˜0.63 T at R=0.7 m) operating its first experimental physics campaign. Designed to study a wide variety of plasma shapes with up to 2 MA of plasma current with an aspect ratio down to 1.3, the poloidal field (PF) coils used for plasma formation, equilibrium and shaping are inside the main vacuum vessel. For plasma control and to investigate a wide range of plasma phenomena, an extensive set of magnetic diagnostics have been installed inside the vacuum vessel. More than 600 vacuum compatible, bakeable diagnostic coils are configured in a number of discrete arrays close to the plasma edge with about half the coils installed behind the graphite armour tiles covering the center column. The coil arrays measure the toroidal and poloidal variation in the equilibrium field and its high frequency fluctuating components. Internal coils also measure currents in the PF coils, plasma current, stored energy and induced currents in the mechanical support structures of the coils and graphite armour tiles. The latter measurements are particularly important when halo currents are induced following a plasma termination, for example, when the plasma becomes vertically unstable. The article describes the MAST magnetic diagnostic coil set and their calibration. The way in which coil signals are used to control the plasma equilibrium is described and data from the first MAST experimental campaign presented. These coil data are used as input to the code EFIT [L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)], for measurement of halo currents in the vacuum vessel structure and for measurements of the structure of magnetic field fluctuations near the plasma edge.

  19. Bouveret's Syndrome: diagnostic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.G.; Sherman, S.B.; Steinhardt, J.E.; Wilson, J.M. Jr.; Richman, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare disease entity manifested by the formation of a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula with passage of a gallstone into the duodenal bulb and subsequent obstruction of the gastric outlet. To date, no report of this entity using computed tomographic (CT) imaging is available. This article presents a case of Bouveret's syndrome with the classic findings on upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract series and a description of the CT manifestations. The literature is reviewed with discussion of the diagnostic approach to patients with Bouveret's syndrome

  20. COMPLEX RENAL MASSES DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Chekhonatskaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Saratov State Medical University Research Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Urology Nephrology Renal masses are widespread pathology with high mortality and morbidity rate. Early diagnostics is a possibility of nephron-spearing surgery. Ultrasonography is screening imaging modality for renal lesions, Doppler investigation provide possibility for vascularity of these masses evaluation. CT with and without contrast enhancement can be used as a marker of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed for the evaluation of renal lesions, especially in cases in which ultrasonography (US and/or CT results are not definitive.