WorldWideScience

Sample records for ethnically diverse older

  1. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  2. Altruism relates to health in an ethnically diverse sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William Michael; Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol

    2005-05-01

    The existing literature indicates links between aspects of social network functioning and health outcomes. It is generally believed that networks that are larger or provide greater instrumental and emotional support contribute to improved health and, perhaps, greater longevity. Recently, it has been suggested that giving as well as receiving social support may be of benefit. On the basis of evolutionary theories of emotion and altruism, the current study sought to test this thesis in a large, ethnically diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. As expected, levels of social support given were associated with lower morbidity, whereas levels of receiving were not. It is important that these relations held even when (a) socioeconomic status, education, marital status, age, gender, ethnicity, and (b) absolute network size and activity limitation were controlled for. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for theory regarding the relations among social exchanges, giving, and later life adaptation among older adults.

  3. Protection as care: moral reasoning and moral orientation among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined moral reasoning among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women based on the care and justice moral orientations reflecting theoretical frameworks developed by Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg, respectively. A major gap in this area of research and theory development has been the lack of examination of moral reasoning in later life. This study addressed this gap by assessing socioeconomically and ethnically diverse older women's reasoning in response to ethical dilemmas showing conflict between autonomy, representative of Kohlberg's justice orientation, and protection, representative of Gilligan's care orientation. The dilemmas used in this study came from adult protective services (APS), the U.S. system that investigates and intervenes in cases of elder abuse and neglect. Subjects were 88 African American, Latina, and Caucasian women age 60 or over from varying socioeconomic status backgrounds who participated in eight focus groups. Overall, participants favored protection over autonomy in responding to the case scenarios. Their reasoning in responding to these dilemmas reflected an ethic of care and responsibility and a recognition of the limitations of autonomy. This reasoning is highly consistent with the care orientation. Variations in the overall ethic of care and responsibility based on ethnicity and SES also are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  5. Ethnic Minority Status, Depression, and Cognitive Failures in Relation to Marital Adjustment in Ethnically Diverse Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Spellman, Therese; Wakefield, Jennifer; Oliver, Taylor

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between marital adjustment and ethnic minority status, depressive symptomatology, and cognitive failures among 78 married, community-dwelling, and predominantly non-European-American older women (ages 57-89). Respondents were screened to rule out dementia. Level of depressive symptoms, self-report of cognitive failures, and marital adjustment were obtained. As hypothesized, higher depressive symptomatology and cognitive failures were associated with worse marital adjustment ( p socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 1992) applied to marriage in older age, a conceptualization formulated by Bookwala and Jacobs in 2004.

  6. Confronting challenges in intervention research with ethnically diverse older adults: the USC Well Elderly II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence

    2009-02-01

    Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second 6-month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4-5 time points over an 18-24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder population.

  7. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  8. Cultural Beliefs and Mental Health Treatment Preferences of Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Consumers in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942

  9. Cultural beliefs and mental health treatment preferences of ethnically diverse older adult consumers in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Bartels, Stephen J; Cardenas, Veronica; Dhaliwal, Sanam S; Alegría, Margarita

    2012-06-01

    Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help to explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their white counterparts. This study applies the cultural influences on mental health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in 1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness, 2) preferences for type of treatment, and 3) provider characteristics. Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the cultural attitudes toward healthcare and mental illness questionnaire, developed for the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly study, a multisite randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1,257 non-Latino whites, 536 African Americans, 112 Asian Americans, and 303 Latinos. African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared with non-Latino whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services.

  10. The decisional balance sheet to promote healthy behavior among ethnically diverse older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S; Mendoza, Ilora D; Timbobolan, Jasah; Montjoy, Holly L; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-01-01

    The rising health care costs and increasing older adult population in the United States make preventive medicine for this age group especially crucial. Regular physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption may prevent or delay the onset of many chronic conditions that are common among older adults. The decisional balance sheet is a promotional tool targeting the perceived pros and cons of behavior adoption. The current study tested the efficiency and effectiveness of a single-day decisional balance sheet program, targeting increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake among older adults. Participating adults (N = 21, age = 72.2) who represented a diverse population in Hawaii (Japanese = 5, Filipino = 4, Caucasian = 4, Native American = 1, Native Hawaiian = 1, Hispanic = 1, and Others = 5) were recruited from housing communities and randomized to a decisional balance sheet program adapted for physical activity or fruit and vegetable consumption. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, and daily fruit and vegetable intake with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey single item instrument. Baseline and follow-up data were collected. Both programs were implemented efficiently, and participants in both groups improved their daily physical activity. The decisional balance sheet for fruit and vegetable consumption appeared less effective. Specific suggestions for similar programs are reported. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  12. Effects of Home-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Depression on Anxiety Symptoms among Rural, Ethnically Diverse Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Pierpaoli, Christina M; Shah, Avani; Yang, Xin; Scogin, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression on anxiety symptoms in an ethnically diverse, low resource, and medically frail sample of rural, older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized clincial trial with 134 rural-dwelling adults 65 years and older with decreased quality of life and elevated psychological symptomatology. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the anxiety and phobic anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Compared to a minimal support control condition, CBT for depression resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety and phobic anxiety from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Home-delivered CBT for depression can be an effective treatment for anxiety in a hard-to-reach older populations. Additional research should explore integrated anxiety and depression protocols and other treatment modalities, including bibliotherapy or telehealth models of CBT, to reduce costs associated with its in home delivery. Flexibility in administration and adaptations to the CBT protocol may be necessary for use with vulnerable, rural older adults.

  13. Self-rated health disparities among disadvantaged older adults in ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods in a Middle Eastern country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Rizk, Anthony; Chemaitelly, Hiam

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines differentials in self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (aged 60+ years) across three impoverished and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in post-conflict Lebanon and assesses whether variations are explained by social and economic factors. Data were drawn from the Older Adult Component (n = 740) of the Urban Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 in a formal community (Nabaa), an informal settlement (Hey El-Sellom), and a refugee camp for Palestinians (Burj El-Barajneh) in Beirut, Lebanon. The role of the social capital and economic security constructs in offsetting poor SRH was assessed using multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses. Older adults in Nabaa fared better in SRH compared to those in Hey El-Sellom and Burj El-Barajneh, with a prevalence of good, average, and poor SRH being respectively, 41.5%, 37.0%, and 21.5% in Nabaa, 33.3%, 23.9%, and 42.7% in Hey El-Sellom, and 25.2%, 31.3%, and 43.5% in Burj El-Barajneh. The economic security construct attenuated the odds of poorer SRH in Burj El-Barajneh as compared to Nabaa from 2.57 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.89-3.79) to 1.42 (95% CI: 0.96-2.08), but had no impact on this association in Hey El-Sellom (odds ratio, OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.39-3.24). The incorporation of the social capital construct in the fully adjusted model rendered this association insignificant in Hey El-Sellom (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.96-2.32), and led to further reductions in the magnitude of the association in Burj El-Barajneh camp (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.80-1.76). The social context in which older adults live and their financial security are key in explaining disparities in SRH in marginalized communities. Social capital and economic security, often overlooked in policy and public health interventions, need to be integrated in dimensions of well-being of older adults, especially in post-conflict settings.

  14. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  15. A cross-sectional study on health and physical functioning in relation to coping strategies among community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarankin Keren

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although empirical evidence is available on the coping-health link in older age, research on this topic is needed with non-clinical samples of ethnically diverse older women. To contribute to filling such a research gap, we tested whether these women's general health and functional limitations were associated with specific coping strategies (selected for their particular relevance to health issues and with known health-related demographics, i.e., age, ethnicity, income, and married status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, respondents were recruited at community facilities including stores and senior centers. The sample consisted of 180 community-dwelling women (age 52-98 screened for dementia; 64% of them reported having an ethnic minority status. The assessment battery contained the Mini-Cog, a demographics list, the Brief COPE, and the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that older women who used behavioral disengagement and, to a smaller degree, self-distraction as a form of coping reported lower levels of general health. The opposite was the case for positive reframing and, to a lesser degree, substance use. Moreover, lower income was related to worse general health and (together with more advanced age physical functioning. None of the coping strategies achieved significance in the physical functioning model. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings need corroboration by longitudinal research prior to developing related clinical interventions. Based on the initial evidence provided herein, clinicians working with this population should consider establishing the therapeutic goal of increasing the use of positive reframing while diminishing behavioral disengagement.

  16. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  17. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  18. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations.

  19. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836478

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  20. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  1. Ethnic Diversity in Geography Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.; Montalvo, Edris J.

    2008-01-01

    The discipline of geography in the United States has not done a good job of attracting people, other than Asians, from underrepresented ethnic groups. This article examines undergraduate geography programs in the United States to understand better the status of their ethnic diversity, particularly regarding Hispanics and African Americans, and to…

  2. Ethnic diversity outpatient clinic in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Nordin; Meijssen, Dominique; Chegary, Malika; Bosman, Diederik; Wolf, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC)

  3. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is empirically studied from three different perspectives. From an acculturation perspective, findings in Chapter 3 indicate that non-western immigrant workers are most healthy at work when they are abl...

  5. Ethnic diversity in intergenerational solidarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Johanna Maria Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch population is ageing, including the populations of immigrants who moved to the Netherlands several decades ago. As a consequence, the number of elderly immigrants will increase sharply in the coming years. Immigrants are likely to experience old age differently from native older people,

  6. Trajectories of Neighborhood Change : Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; van Ham, M.; Manley, D.J.

    Western cities are increasingly ethnically diverse and in most cities the share of ethnic minorities is growing. Studies analyzing changing ethnic geographies often limit their analysis to changes in ethnic concentrations in neighborhoods between two points in time. Such a static approach limits our

  7. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    desire to see ethnical diversity as productive. Theoretical reviews and empirical research have indicated that the link between diversity and knowledge synergy cannot be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of managerial strategies toward cultural diversity...

  8. Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Radiology Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Derek L; Nguyen, HaiThuy

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess ethnic and gender diversity in US radiology fellowship programs from 2006 to 2013. Data for this study was obtained from Journal of the American Medical Association supplements publications from 2005 to 2006 to 2012-2013 (Gonzalez-Moreno, Innov Manag Policy Pract. 15(2):149, 2013; Nivet, Acad Med. 86(12):1487-9, 2011; Reede, Health Aff. 22(4):91-3, 2003; Chapman et al., Radiology 270(1):232-40, 2014; Getto, 2005; Rivo and Satcher, JAMA 270(9):1074-8, 1993; Schwartz et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 149(1):71-6, 2013; Simon, Clin Orthop Relat Res. 360:253-9, 1999) and the US census 2010. For each year, Fisher's exact test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in each Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-certified radiology fellowship to the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in (1) all ACGME-certified radiology fellowships combined, (2) radiology residents, (3) ACGME-certified fellows in all of medicine combined, (4) ACGME-certified residents in all of medicine combined, and (5) graduating medical students. Chi-Squared test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities and the 2010 US census. p gender and ethnic disparities. Outreach efforts, pipeline programs, and mentoring may be helpful in addressing this issue.

  9. Facilitating Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Health Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M

    2018-01-01

    Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.

  10. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  11. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  12. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  13. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? : Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Pop, I.A.; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p2 model. Our key findings were: (1)

  14. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Deurzen, I.A. van; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  15. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide

  16. Racial and Ethnic Difference in Falls Among Older Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Han, Benjamin H; Kranick, Julie A; Wyatt, Laura C; Blaum, Caroline S; Yi, Stella S; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-04-01

    Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations. A secondary analysis examines differences in fall risk by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity among Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. African Americans and Hispanics did not differ significantly from non-Hispanic whites. Analysis adjusting for race/ethnicity and English language proficiency found that limited English proficient Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. No differences were found when examining by racial/ethnic and English proficient/limited English proficient groups. Further research is needed to explore factors associated with fall risks across racial/ethnic groups. Culturally relevant and targeted interventions are needed to prevent falls and subsequent injuries in the increasingly diverse aging population in the USA.

  17. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  18. Ethnic diversity and informal intra- and inter-ethnic contacts with neighbours in The Netherlands: A comparison of natives and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the extent to which ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods and municipalities in The Netherlands is related to personal contact with neighbours from ethnic in-groups and out-groups among the native majority as well as among ethnic minorities. The results indicate that ethnic diversity

  19. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  20. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  1. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  2. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  3. Race/Ethnicity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Design and Methods: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Results: Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Implications: Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. PMID:28087793

  4. Race/Ethnicity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  6. School ethnic diversity and White students' civic attitudes in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic diversity and personal contact at work and school in the Netherlands: a comparison of natives and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.; Sluiter, R.; Scheepers, P.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examined to what extent ethnic diversity in neighborhoods and municipalities in the Netherlands is related to personal contacts at work and at school with the ethnic in- and out-groups, among the native majority as well as ethnic minorities. Constrict theory, ethnic competition theory, and

  8. Donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, Jared R; Kraemer, Helena C; Yaffe, Kristine; O'Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M; Ashford, John W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer disease (AD) patients with ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least 1 year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average 1-year decline of 2.30 points (standard deviation: 3.9) on the 30-point Mini-Mental State Exam compared with a 1.70-point (standard deviation: 4.2) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at -0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from 1 year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services.

  10. Task Force on Culture and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    differences. Key words: work motivation, (sub) cultural differences, meta-representation. Email: kolman@pef.czu.cz 3.Abstract for presentation in Symposium Case conceptualization, relationship building and intervention challenges with culturally diverse clients among clinical psychologists: a case...... of knowledge originating from different geographical contexts. The initiative taken by the psychology students in Århus University, the specific course dynamic developed and the evaluation is to be delineated in the paper. In addition, both pedagogical psychological aspects and long term consequences...

  11. Ethnicity and gender variability in the diversity, recognition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Ethnicity and gender variability in the diversity of Wild Useful Fungi in Pobe region, Benin ..... It means that there is differences in the use of wild mushrooms by the .... Zambezian Miombo forest who pay no attention to non.

  12. Stress, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…

  13. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  14. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  15. Ethnicity and gender variability in the diversity, recognition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0,004 < 0,5) suggesting a differential use of fungal resources by rural communities. Conclusion and application of results: This study provides key basic data for a sustainable exploitation of Wild Useful Fungi in Pobè region. Keywords: Diversity; Know-how,;uses / use value; value chain; ethnic groups; Wild fungi; Pobè; ...

  16. Older Ethnic Minority Women's Perceptions of Stroke Prevention and Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Bharmal, Nazleen; Choi, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; Moore, Mignon R; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking). In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender. Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change. Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Ethnic diversity in the nurse workforce: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Laureen A; Gurney, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the 2000-2003 New York State Nurses Association Strategic Plan, the Board of Directors called for an assessment of the progress made toward achieving an ethnically diverse nursing workforce as reflected in the literature. In this paper the authors have responded to that request and offer a snapshot of progress as well as standstills in the journey toward diversity. Although the literature has tended to focus on cultural competency of the healthcare worker, and includes numerous calls for action to diversify the nurse workforce, very little scholarly work has been conducted that rigorously evaluates such diversification activities. The purpose of this literature review is to explore existing scholarly work in ethnic diversity at three levels: in the general workforce, the healthcare workforce, and the nursing workforce. The authors explored the literature as it addresses two aspects: academic and career factors influencing diversity; and recruitment, retention, and other strategies employed to diversify the workforce. By exploring the existing research, gaps can be identified in order to either direct further research, or target funding to recruitment strategies to effectively enhance a more ethnically diverse nurse workforce.

  18. Ethnic and cultural diversity: challenges and opportunities for health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aart

    2008-09-01

    Guaranteeing equal health care of appropriate quality implies taking ethnic and cultural diversity into account, without over- or underestimating the importance of these grounds. Besides awareness of its relevance, it is essential to have disaggregated data to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture on the one hand and health and health care on the other hand. From a health law perspective, it is a prerequisite to understand the conceptual and normative meaning of equality and non-discrimination, also in relation to the right to privacy, and to be aware of the need to collaborate with other legal and non-legal disciplines.

  19. Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.

  20. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  1. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Northridge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the

  2. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-04-28

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  4. Ethnically diverse pluripotent stem cells for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunle, Eyitayo S; Loring, Jeanne F

    2012-12-01

    Genetic variation is an identified factor underlying drug efficacy and toxicity, and adverse drug reactions, such as liver toxicity, are the primary reasons for post-marketing drug failure. Genetic predisposition to toxicity might be detected early in the drug development pipeline by introducing cell-based assays that reflect the genetic and ethnic variation of the expected treatment population. One challenge for this approach is obtaining a collection of suitable cell lines derived from ethnically diverse populations. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) seem ideal for this purpose. They can be obtained from any individual, can be differentiated into multiple relevant cell types, and their self-renewal capability makes it possible to generate large quantities of quality-controlled cell types. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges of using iPSCs to introduce genetic diversity into the drug development process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk and resiliency processes in ethnically diverse families in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo

    2008-06-01

    Families living in poverty face numerous stressors that threaten the health and well-being of family members. This study examined the relationships among family-level poverty-related stress (PRS), individual-level coping with PRS, and a wide range of psychological symptoms in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 family members) living at or below 150% of the federal poverty line. Hierarchical linear model (HLM) analyses revealed that family PRS is robustly related to a wide range of psychological syndromes for family members of both genders, all ages, and all ethnic backgrounds. In addition, primary and secondary control coping were both found to serve as buffers of PRS for many syndromes. For several psychological syndromes, parents showed significantly higher levels of symptoms, but the link between PRS and symptoms was significantly stronger for children than for adults. Ethnicity was not a significant predictor in overall HLM models or follow-up analyses, suggesting that the broad construct of PRS and the theoretical model tested here apply across the 3 major ethnic groups included in this study. The findings suggest that family-based, coping-focused interventions have the potential to promote resiliency and break linkages in the pernicious cycle of family economic stress. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Childhood weight status and timing of first substance use in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Jennifer C; Doran, Kelly A; Waldron, Mary

    2016-07-01

    We examined associations between weight status during childhood and timing of first cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in an ethnically diverse sample. Data were drawn from child respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, including 1448 Hispanic, 2126 non-Hispanic Black, and 3304 non-Hispanic, non-Black (White) respondents aged 10 years and older as of last assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use from weight status (obese, overweight, and underweight relative to healthy weight) assessed at ages 7/8, separately by substance class, sex, and race/ethnicity. Tests of interactions between weight status and respondent sex and race/ethnicity were also conducted. Compared to healthy-weight females of the same race/ethnicity, overweight Hispanic females were at increased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use and overweight White females were at increased likelihood of cigarette and marijuana use. Compared to healthy-weight males of the same race/ethnicity, obese White males were at decreased likelihood of cigarette and alcohol use and underweight Hispanic and Black males were at decreased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use. Significant differences in associations by sex and race/ethnicity were observed in tests of interactions. Findings highlight childhood weight status as a predictor of timing of first substance use among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black and White female and male youth. Results suggest that collapsing across sex and race/ethnicity, a common practice in prior research, may obscure important within-group patterns of associations and thus may be of limited utility for informing preventive and early intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust: The Role of Exposure in the Micro-Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each...... individual’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. The results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...

  8. Ethnic diversity of the micro-context and social trust: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The question about how ethnic diversity affects social trust has been a hot topic in recent years. To this point, within-country analyses of this question have been limited by only having data on contextual ethnic diversity at relatively high levels of aggregation. Consequently, the previous...... analyses suffer from the problem that aggregate contextual diversity likely conceals substantial variation in the ethnic diversity actually experienced at the micro-level in which people live and interact (i.e. contains measurement error). This in turn renders the estimate of ethnic diversity on trust both...... diversity at higher levels of aggregation in order to scrutinize how the relationship varies according to the contextual unit in which ethnic diversity is measured. We analyze the question about the impact of ethnic diversity on trust using Danish data from the European Social Survey, which are linked...

  9. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara E.; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age 14) attending 4 high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:23294295

  11. Cross Ethnic Friendship among Multi-ethnic Students and Teacher’s Role in Supporting Cultural Diversity in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth discussion about cross ethnic friendship among students and teacher's role in supporting the cultural diversity that exists in school. The school which consist of students from various ethnic groups provide space and opportunities for students to interact socially with peers either from the same or other ethnic groups. On the other hand, the school that consists of only one ethnic group limits the opportunity for students to interact with friends from different ethnic groups. Students who have attended the schools that are not diverse in terms of ethnicity were reported having more friends from the same ethnic group. A positive relationship between individuals from different ethnic groups led to the reduction in prejudice, enhance the sense of common identity and closeness among individuals. Teachers as agents of unity should play an important role in assisting students to acquire the necessary social skills that enables them to interact effectively with students from different ethnic, cultural and languages which consequently create a harmony cross ethnic friendships among multi-ethnic students in school.

  12. Ethnic diversity of the micro-context and generalized trust: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The question about how ethnic diversity affects generalized trust has been a hot topic in recent years. To this point, within-country analyses of this question have been limited by only having data on contextual ethnic diversity at relatively high levels of aggregation. Consequently, the previous...... analyses suffer from the problem that aggregate contextual diversity likely conceals substantial variation in the ethnic diversity actually experienced at the micro-level in which people live and interact, thereby rendering the estimate of ethnic diversity on trust both imprecise and potentially biased....... In the present paper we add to the literature by analyzing, as the first study ever, how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context affects people’s trust in others. In addition, we compare the effect in the micro context to the impact of ethnic diversity at higher levels of aggregation in order...

  13. "It is our exercise family": experiences of ethnic older adults in a group-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuan-Chun; Seman, Leslie; Belza, Basia; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Enhance Fitness (EF) (formerly the Lifetime Fitness Program) is an evidence-based community exercise program for older adults. From 1998 to 2005, participation of ethnic older adults increased significantly. However, little research is available about what ethnic older adults want or need to continue participation in exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how physical environment, social environment, and individual biology and behavior influence adherence to exercise for ethnic older adults participating in EF. Six focus groups were conducted with 52 older adults participating in EF. Facilitators asked questions about factors that helped participants continue exercising in EF. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Focus group participants were Chinese (n = 21, 40%), African American (n = 18, 35%), white (n = 10, 19%), and Japanese (n = 3, 6%). Mean (SD) age was 76 years (7.4). Participants had, on average, participated in EF for 44 months (SD = 37.8). Results revealed four themes related to adherence. First, environmental factors that promoted adherence were location of the classes, transportation, weather, and the facility. Second, design of the exercise program that encouraged adherence included exercise content and type of delivery. Third, social support factors that encouraged adherence were the socializing and support between class participants and support from family, health care providers, and the class instructors. Finally, individual factors that encouraged adherence were personality traits and feelings, past physical activity experience, health benefits, and mental stimulation. Findings from this study suggest strategies for developing community-based physical activity programs for older adults from ethnically diverse communities.

  14. Who intermarries in Britain? Explaining ethnic diversity in intermarriage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, Raya; Heath, Anthony

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates trends, patterns and determinants of intermarriage (and partnership) comparing patterns among men and women and among different ethnic groups in Britain. We distinguish between endogamous (co-ethnic), majority/minority and minority/minority marriages. Hypotheses are derived from the theoretical literatures on assimilation, segmented assimilation and opportunity structures. The empirical analysis is based on the 1988-2006 General Household Surveys (N = 115,494). Consistent with assimilation theory we find that, for all ethnic minority groups, the propensity to intermarry is higher in the second generation than in the first. Consistent with ideas drawn from segmented assimilation theory, we also find that substantial differences in propensity to form majority/minority marriages persist after controls for individual characteristics such as age, educational level, generation and length of residence in Britain, with men and women of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi background having higher propensities to form endogamous partnerships. However, we also find that opportunity structures affect intermarriage propensities for all groups alike, with individuals in more diverse residential areas (as measured by the ratio of majority to minority residents in the area) having higher likelihood to form majority/minority partnerships. We conclude then that, beginning from very different starting points, all groups, both minority and the majority groups exhibit common patterns of generational change and response to opportunity structures. Even the groups that are believed to have the strongest community structures and the strongest norms supporting endogamy appear to be experiencing increasing exogamy in the second generation and in more diverse residential settings. This suggests that a weak rather than a strong version of segmented assimilation provides the best account of British patterns.

  15. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  16. Associations between self-rated mental health and psychiatric disorders among older adults: do racial/ethnic differences exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; DeCoster, Jamie; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Allen, Rebecca S; Parmelee, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    [corrected] This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between self-rated mental health (SRMH) and psychiatric disorders among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (2001-2003). In-person household interviews. Older adults aged 60 and older (N = 1,840), including non-Hispanic Whites (N = 351), Blacks (N = 826), Hispanics (N = 406), and Asians (N = 257). SRMH was measured with a single item, "How would you rate your own mental health?" Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnoses for mood and anxiety disorders were measured with the World Health Organization's World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant main effects of both SRMH and race/ethnicity on the presence of mood and anxiety disorders: people who have poor SRMH and are non-Hispanic Whites were more likely to have mood and anxiety disorders. There were also significant interaction effects between SRMH and race/ethnicity, such that the relation of SRMH with diagnoses of psychiatric disorders was strongest in non-Hispanic Whites. Racial/ethnic variations were found in the relationship between self-perception of mental health and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest the need to develop race/ethnicity-specific strategies to screen psychiatric disorders in diverse elderly populations. Future studies are needed to investigate possible reasons for the racial/ethnic group differences.

  17. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  18. Effectiveness of a Tai Chi intervention for improving functional fitness and general health among ethnically diverse older adults with self-reported arthritis living in low-income neighborhoods: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Shah, Suhayb; Patel, Meghavi; Tamim, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a form of low to moderate physical activity that has been shown to significantly impact health and functional fitness among older adults; the impact of TC on the health and functional fitness of older adults with arthritis is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 16-week TC intervention for improving functional fitness and self-reported general health among older adults with arthritis who were born outside Canada and were residing in low-income neighborhoods. A 16-week intervention was conducted among older adults residing in 1 of 2 specified low-income neighborhoods in Canada. The analysis was limited to those who self-reported having arthritis (n = 102). Participants were encouraged to attend 2 moderate-intensity TC sessions per week for a total of 120 minutes. Functional fitness and health were assessed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Average attendance was 1.1 sessions per week. Functional fitness assessment results indicated that right-hand grip strength (25.6 ± 8.2 to 26.7 ± 7.8 kg), left-hand grip strength (24.9 ± 7.3 to 26.8 ± 7.1 kg), 30-second arm curl (15.6 ± 5.0 to 18.6 ± 5.7 repetitions/30 s), Timed Up-and-Go (7.4 ± 2.6 to 6.9 ± 2.6 s), and 30-second chair stand (12.0 ± 3.9 to 15.4 ± 5.8 s) improved significantly (P health (61.5 ± 20.9 to 66.0 ± 20.4; P = 0.03), vitality (61.5 ± 18.9 to 67.5 ± 20.2; P = 0.008), and mental health (74.3 ± 16.5 to 78.5 ± 17.7; P = 0.04) also improved significantly over the intervention period. Improvements in physical health and physical function scores were clinically meaningful. Participating in TC for 16 weeks led to significant improvements in functional fitness and components of physical and mental health among older adults with self-reported arthritis. Tai Chi seems to be a valuable mode of physical activity for this population.

  19. Ethnic Diversity in Malaysia-Lessons Learned from Bio-Diversity Research

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Hans-Dieter; Anis, Yusuf; Shamsul, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Biology and Anthropology/Sociology have dealt with issues of diversity for a long time,developing different concepts, theories and methods. In recent years there has been, if not a convergence, but at least a recognition that problems in nature and in society are interrelated. This paper attempts to use methods of biodiversity research and test their applicability for a study of ethnic relations. It is noted that the preservation of biodiversity ranks high on the agenda of researchers and pol...

  20. Neighborhood built environment and cognition in non-demented older adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; Rodriguez, Daniel A; McDonald, Noreen; Kukull, Walter A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Rapp, Stephen R; Seeman, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that neighborhood social and built environment (BE) characteristics may affect cognition in older adults. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the neighborhood environment due to a decreasing range of routine travel with increasing age. We examined if multiple neighborhood BE characteristics are cross-sectionally associated with cognition in a diverse sample of older adults, and if the BE-cognition associations vary by individual-level demographics. The sample included 4539 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between five BE measures and four cognitive measures, and effect modification by individual-level education and race/ethnicity. In the overall sample, increasing social destination density, walking destination density, and intersection density were associated with worse overall cognition, whereas increasing proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better processing speed. Effect modification results suggest that the association between urban density and worse cognition may be limited to or strongest in those of non-white race/ethnicity. Although an increase in neighborhood retail destinations was associated with better cognition in the overall sample, these results suggest that certain BE characteristics in dense urban environments may have a disproportionately negative association with cognition in vulnerable populations. However, our findings must be replicated in longitudinal studies and other regional samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial and ethnic diversity in orthopaedic surgery residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Kanu; Utuk, Mekeme E; White, Augustus A

    2011-09-21

    Although the U.S. population is increasingly diverse, the field of orthopaedic surgery has historically been less diverse. The purpose of this study was to quantify the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among orthopaedic surgery residents compared with those in other fields of medicine and to determine how these levels of diversity have changed over time. We determined the representation of minorities among residents in orthopaedic surgery and in other fields by analyzing the Graduate Medical Education reports published annually by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which provided data for African-Americans from 1968 to 2008, Hispanics from 1990 to 2008, Asians from 1995 to 2008, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders from 2001 to 2008. During the 1990s and 2000s, representation among orthopaedic residents increased rapidly for Asians (+4.53% per decade, p < 0.0001) and gradually for Hispanics (+1.37% per decade, p < 0.0001) and African-Americans (+0.68% per decade, p = 0.0003). Total minority representation in orthopaedics averaged 20.2% during the most recent years studied (2001 to 2008), including 11.7% for Asians, 4.0% for African-Americans, 3.8% for Hispanics, 0.4% for American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and 0.3% for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. However, orthopaedic surgery was significantly less diverse than all of the other residencies examined during this time period (p < 0.001). This was due primarily to the lower representation of Hispanics and Asians in orthopaedic surgery than in any of the other fields of medicine. Minority representation in orthopaedic residency programs has increased over time for Asians, Hispanics, and African-Americans. In spite of these gains, orthopaedic surgery has remained the least diverse of the specialty training programs considered in this study. While further efforts are needed to determine the factors underlying this lack of representation, we

  2. Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information: Digital Divide by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.

  3. Race/Ethnicity and Social Adjustment of Adolescents: How (Not if) School Diversity Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I describe a program of research on the psychosocial benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in urban middle schools. It is hypothesized that greater diversity can benefit students' mental health, intergroup attitudes, and school adaptation via three mediating mechanisms: (a) the formation and maintenance of cross-ethnic friendships,…

  4. Differences in Universal-Diverse Orientation by Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Daniel B.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of race-ethnicity and gender in university student orientation toward diversity. Differences in orientation toward diversity were found between men and women as well as among racial-ethnic groups (Asian/Asian American, African American, Latino, Anglo-American). Anglo-American students' scores were significantly…

  5. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Community of Voices choir study to promote the health and well-being of diverse older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julene K. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Outreach and recruitment methods used in the Community of Voices trial facilitated enrollment of a large proportion of minority and lower-SES older adults in the final sample. Similar recruitment approaches could serve as a model for recruiting diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic older adults into research.

  6. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Thelusma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

  7. Trust and contact in diverse neighbourhoods: An interplay of four ethnicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolsma, J; van der Meer, T W G

    2018-07-01

    Ethnically diverse neighbourhoods are generally less cohesive. A negative relationship between neighbourhood diversity and social cohesion is, however, neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to conclude that neighbourhood diversity erodes intra-neighbourhood cohesion. This contribution shows - by using data collected during the second wave of the NEtherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (NELLS) - that: (1) members of ethnic minority groups are more likely to report having contact with and trust their immediate neighbours than natives (ego ethnicity effect); (2) minority group residents are less likely to be contacted and trusted by their neighbours (alter ethnicity effect) and (3) all ethnic groups prefer to mix with coethnics (dyad ethnicity effect). Once we control for these three ethnic composition effects at the ego, alter and dyad-level, neighbourhood ethnic diversity is no longer related to less contact between neighbours. Previously identified negative relationships between neighbourhood diversity and cohesion should therefore be re-evaluated, as they may be the consequence of ethnic composition effects instead of a true neighbourhood diversity effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Purpose in life as a resource for increasing comfort with ethnic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Anthony L; Stanley, Maclen; Sumner, Rachel; Hill, Patrick L

    2014-11-01

    Emerging demographic trends signal that White Americans will soon relinquish their majority status. As Whites' acclimation to an increasingly diverse society is poised to figure prominently in their adjustment, identifying sources of greater comfort with diversity is important. Three studies (N = 519) revealed evidence that purpose in life bolsters comfort with ethnic diversity among White adults. Specifically, dispositional purpose was positively related to diversity attitudes and attenuated feelings of threat resulting from viewing demographic projections of greater diversity. In addition, when primed experimentally, purpose attenuated participants' preferences for living in an ethnically homogeneous-White city, relative to a more diverse city when shown maps displaying ethno-demographic information. These effects persisted after controlling for positive affect and perceived connections to ethnic out-groups, suggesting the robust influence of purpose. Potential benefits of situating purpose as a unique resource for navigating an increasingly diverse society are discussed. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Ethnic differences in attitudes and bias toward older people comparing White and Asian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin

    2015-03-01

    To identify attitudes and bias toward aging between Asian and White students and identify factors affecting attitudes toward aging. A cross-sectional sample of 308 students in a nursing program completed the measure of Attitudes Toward Older People and Aging Quiz electronically. There were no differences in positive attitudes and pro-aged bias between Asian and White groups, but Asian students had significantly more negative attitudes and anti-aged bias toward older people than White students. Multiple regression analysis showed ethnicity/race was the strongest variable to explain negative attitudes toward older people. Feeling uneasy about talking to older adults was the most significant factor to explain all attitudinal concepts. Asian students were uneasy about talking with older people and had negative attitudes toward older adults. To become competent in cross-cultural care and communication in nursing, educational strategies to reduce negative attitudes on aging are necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Classical varicose vein surgery in a diverse ethnic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murli, N L; Navin, I D

    2008-08-01

    Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups

  11. Culturally Competent Palliative and Hospice Care Training for Ethnically Diverse Staff in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; McFarlane, Sandra; Koijane, Jeannette; Li, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Between 2013 and 2030, older adults 65 years and older of racial/ethnic populations in the U.S. is projected to increase by 123% in comparison to the Whites (Non-Hispanics). To meet this demand, training of ethnically diverse health staff in long-term care facilities in palliative and hospice care is imperative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a palliative and hospice care training of staff in two nursing homes in Hawaii - (a) to evaluate knowledge and confidence over three time periods, and (b) to compare staff and family caregiver satisfaction at end of program. The educational frameworks were based on cultural and communication theories. Fifty-two ethnically diverse staff, a majority being Asian (89%), participated in a 10-week module training and one 4 hour communication skills workshop. Staff evaluation included knowledge and confidence surveys, pre- and post-test knowledge tests, and FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. There were nine Asian (89%) and Pacific Islander (11%) family caregivers who completed the FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. The overall staff knowledge and confidence results were promising. The staff rated overall satisfaction of palliative care services lower than the family caregivers. Implications for future research, practice, and education with palliative and hospice care training of ethnically diverse nursing home staff is to include patient and family caregiver satisfaction of palliative and hospice care services, evaluation of effectiveness of cross-cultural communication theories in palliative and hospice care staff training, and support from administration for mentorship and development of these services in long term care facilities.

  12. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual char...

  13. Leading Multi-Ethnic Schools: Adjustments in Concepts and Practices for Engaging with Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saeeda

    2008-01-01

    The student population across world is increasingly reflective of diverse cultures, religions and ethnicities. This rich diversity may become a challenge for educational leaders, teachers, and policy-makers in the absence of an understanding of diverse sources of knowledge people draw on for directing their beliefs and daily practices. This paper…

  14. Health and well-being of older members of ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelof Schellingerhout

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Cijferrapport allochtone ouderen. The number of older members of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands is growing, and the numerical significance of this population group will increase further in the coming years. As a result, the need for knowledge about this group is also

  15. Depression among older people in Sri Lanka: With special reference to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltar, Amartuvshin; Priyadarshani, Neelawala Gw; Delpitiya, Nisansala Y; Jayasinghe, Chandrika; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2017-12-01

    To ascertain if the factors associated with depression differ among ethnic groups in community-dwelling older people in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was carried out of people aged ≥60 years living in a single divisional secretariat of Kandy District. The participants were asked about ethnicity (Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim), sociodemographic characteristics and depression status by face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Depression was measured by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the total score of ≥6 was considered as depression. The χ 2 -test and multivariate logistic regression with two-way interaction terms between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity were carried out. Participants (n = 778) consisted of 56.6% Sinhalese, 22.1% Tamils and 21.3% Muslims. Of the participants, the prevalence of depression was 31.8% (27.3% in Sinhalese, 42.1% in Tamils and 32.9% in Muslims). Multivariate analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity. However, low economic status, low perceived social support and more than two self-reported diseases were significantly associated with depression in all ethnic groups. Some factors were found to be significantly associated with depression, but did not differ among ethnic groups. The findings would help practitioners to identify older people with a high risk of depression, and to intervene in its development or exacerbation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2414-2420. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. A deeper insight into the ethnic make-up of school cohorts: diversity and school achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maestri, V.

    2011-01-01

    While the share of non-native students in a class is expected to have a non positive effect on school achievement, little is said about the heterogeneity of the ethnic minority make-up. Ethnic diversity can stimulate the creativity of students, can push them to be proficient in the instructional

  17. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  18. Negotiating White Science in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunac, Patricia S.; Demir, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    The racial and ethnic makeup of the United States is in constant flux and is expected to experience substantial increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades. The problem the American educational system faces is attempting to problematize race/racism in its educational system and creating a system to counteract educational…

  19. Diversity as a motive for entrepreneurship?: The case of gender, culture and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Laurice Alexandre-Leclair

    2014-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly considered as a motive for entrepreneurship. In our article, we set the hypothesis that diversity positively affects self-employment. In order to validate our hypothesis, we discuss two literature reviews: the first one about the link between culture, ethnicity and entrepreneurship and the other one about gender and entrepreneurship. We also discuss the last study led by OECD (2012) on gender entrepreneurship. Our article reveals that culture and ethnicity may be con...

  20. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  1. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  2. The moderating role of ethnicity in the relation between religiousness and mental health among ethnically diverse college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Garcia, Daniel; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Tran, Kimberly; Rangel, Azucena

    2012-09-01

    Many studies have documented the links between dimensions of religiousness with mental health (e.g., Hackney and Sanders 2003; Mofidi et al. 2006). However, very little is known about whether these links differ across ethnic groups. This study examined the contribution of dimensions of religiousness to the prediction of mental health in an ethnically diverse sample of 413 college students (167 European Americans, 83 African Americans, 81 Asian Americans, and 82 Latino Americans). Results indicated significant ethnic differences across dimensions of religiousness. African Americans were significantly higher on religious engagement and religious conservatism than the other ethnic groups and significantly lower on religious struggle than European Americans. Moderated multiple regressions revealed that increases in religious struggle was associated with poorer mental health for African Americans and Latino Americans, while increases in religious engagement and ecumenical worldview were associated with better mental health for African Americans. The findings indicate that ethnicity is an important factor to consider when examining the link between religiousness and mental health.

  3. Fostering Cultural Diversity: Problems of Access and Ethnic Boundary Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria T. Allison

    1992-01-01

    This presentation explores theoretical reasons for the underutilization of services, discusses types and problems of access which may be both inadvertent and institutionalized, and discusses policy implications of this work. Data suggest that individuals from distinct ethnic populations, particularly Hispanic, African-American, and Native American, tend to underutilize...

  4. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  6. Assessing the Relationship between Physical Illness and Mental Health Service Use and Expenditures among Older Adults from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegria, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association of physical illness and mental health service use in older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the mental and physical health disparities and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of comorbid physical illness on mental health service use and expenditures in older adults; and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid physical illness. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004–2011). The sample included 1563 whites, 519 African-Americans, and 642 Latinos and (N=2,724) aged 65+ with probable mental illness. Using two-part generalized linear models, we estimated and compared mental health service use among those with and without a comorbid physical illness. Results Mental health service use was greater for older adults with comorbid physical illness compared to those without a comorbid physical illness. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid physical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use in older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of a comorbidity did not impact racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Conclusions This study highlighted the important role of comorbid physical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups. PMID:25772763

  7. Racial and Ethnic Variations in Preventive Dental Care Utilization among Middle-aged and Older Americans, 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei eWu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined recent trends of preventive dental care utilization among Americans aged 50 and above, focusing on variations across racial and ethnic groups including Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians. Methods: Self-reported information on oral health behaviors was collected from 644,635 participants in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS between 1999 and 2008.Results: Despite a significant upward trend of frequency of dental cleaning from 1999 to 2008 (OR=1.02, in 2008 still only 56 to 77% of any ethnic or racial group reported having had a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. Relative to Whites, Blacks (OR=.64 were less likely to have a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. These variations persisted even when SES, health conditions, health behaviors, and number of permanent teeth were controlled. In contrast, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives did not differ from Whites in dental cleanings. Discussion: This is the first study to provide national estimates of the frequency of dental cleaning and associated trends over time for five major ethnic groups aged 50 and above in the U.S. simultaneously. Our findings suggest that public health programs with an emphasis on educating middle-aged and older minority populations on the benefits of oral health could have a large impact, as there is much room for improvement. Given the importance of oral health and a population that is rapidly becoming older and more diverse, the need for improved dental care utilization is significant.

  8. Nonsuicidal self-injury in an ethnically diverse college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Arble, Eamonn; Boutros, Nashaat; Chugani, Diane; Barnett, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Self-report data pertaining to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI; e.g., cutting) were collected from 5,691 undergraduates at a Midwestern urban university. Consistent with the small literature on NSSI among college students, 12.8% of the sample indicated having engaged in NSSI at least once (3.4% in the past year). Women and younger students were at slightly higher risk. Important ethnic differences were found, as Caucasians and individuals self-identifying as Multiracial were at especially high risk for a history of NSSI, whereas Arab Americans and African Americans had particularly low rates. Further, links between NSSI and religion were found, such that participants with stronger self-reported religious convictions had the lowest rates of NSSI. Those who self-described as Atheist, Agnostic, or Nonbeliever were several times more likely to have engaged in NSSI (31.3%), while Muslims (7.4%) and Baptists (6.3%) had relatively low rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that ethnic differences in NSSI could not be accounted for by religious differences. Processes that may explain the associations between NSSI and ethnic affiliation and religion are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  9. Sleepy Teens and Energy Drink Use: Results From an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the association between use of energy drinks or products (EP), EP expectancies, and the association between EP use and sleep in a racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 2,485) of adolescents. Prevalence of EP use was approximately 18%, with no statistically significant racial or ethnic differences in prevalence. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in EP expectancies; Hispanic and Multiracial or Other groups endorsed less positive expectancies than Whites and Asians. EP use was significantly associated with later weekend bedtimes, shorter weekend total sleep time (TST), a smaller weekend-weekday difference in TST, and more trouble sleeping, even after adjusting for covariates. There were no significant race or ethnicity interactions between EP use and sleep. EP use is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents across racial or ethnic groups.

  10. A Record Linkage Protocol for a Diabetes Registry at Ethnically Diverse Community Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlish, Neil A.; Herrera, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Community health centers serve ethnically diverse populations that may pose challenges for record linkage based on name and date of birth. The objective was to identify an optimal deterministic algorithm to link patient encounters and laboratory results for hemoglobin A1c testing and examine its variability by health center site, patient ethnicity, and other variables. Based on data elements of last name, first name, date of birth, gender, and health center site, matches with ≥50% to < 100% o...

  11. Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Merlin

    2013-05-01

    An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Waring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that ethnic interactions damage cooperation in the provision of public goods, yet very few studies of collective action in common pool resource management have found strong evidence for the effects of ethnic diversity. Research on both public goods and common pool resource management that does find negative ethnic effects on cooperation tend to ignore the importance of interethnic relationships, particularly ethnic inequality, stratification, or dominance. This study presents data from agricultural villages in Tamil Nadu's Palani Hills to test the importance of a range of ethnic effects using caste interactions in a traditional irrigation system. I provide corroborating evidence of a negative cooperative effect of ethnic diversity, but also demonstrate that factors of ethnic dominance such as hierarchical stratification and demographic dominance strongly determine outcomes in collective irrigation management. I argue that the most important measure of equity, irrigation access, is socially, technologically, and institutionally embedded, and demonstrate that the distribution of irrigation channels is explained by measures of inequality, such as wealth inequality, Dalit status, and demographic dominance.

  13. Strategies for increasing adolescent immunizations in diverse ethnic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lauren S; Page, Libby C; Kay, Meagan; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Breuner, Cora C; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2015-05-01

    We sought to identify attitudes and knowledge of adolescent vaccination recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate (MCV4); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines among Hispanic, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean communities in King County, Washington. In-person surveys of Hispanic, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean adolescents (n = 45) and parents of adolescents (n = 157), and three focus groups with mothers of 11- to 18-year-olds were conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, and barriers related to recommended adolescent vaccines. Bivariate analyses of parent survey responses were performed to evaluate possible differences between ethnic groups (chi-square test and Fisher exact test where possible). Findings were used to develop (1) culture-specific written brochures for community members, which addressed misperceptions about adolescent immunizations and related diseases, and (2) a presentation highlighting specific messages for health care providers (HCPs) in the target communities. HCPs were surveyed after delivery of the presentation (n = 20). We identified barriers to adolescent immunization including: parents' and adolescents' limited awareness of, and misperceptions regarding, recommended adolescent vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases; lack of HCP recommendations for vaccination; and inability to access health information in native languages. Awareness of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines varied by vaccine and ethnic group. Lack of knowledge of adolescent vaccination recommendations was the main reason given by parents that their adolescents had not been vaccinated. Most parents in the focus groups identified doctors as a trusted source of health information and reported that they would vaccinate their teens if their doctor recommended it. All the surveyed HCPs routinely recommend adolescent vaccines at

  14. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Fall Prevalence among Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P

    2017-03-11

    Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may

  15. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  16. Social Trust, Quality of Government and Ethnic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Rothstein, Bo

    , including 206 regions in 24 European countries using data from an original survey of over 85,000 respondents conducted in 2013. Upon mapping national and regional levels of social trust based on our novel data, we find strong variation in levels of generalized trust within many countries, a phe......What factors lead to greater levels of generalized trust in society? The research field has established four channels through which it is commonly argued trust is affected at the macro level—economic inequality, civic participation, ethnic heterogeneity, and institutional quality. However......, the quanti-tative field has focused overwhelmingly at the national level of analysis, mostly ignoring sub-national variation in trust, or focusing on single countries. We fill that gap in this study, which of-fers the largest and most comprehensive sub-national assessment of this salient question to date...

  17. Gender and Ethnic Diversity in Academic PM&R Faculty: National Trend Analysis of Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaeho; Byrd, Kia; Nguyen, Michael O; Liu, Michael; Huang, Yuru; Bae, Gordon H

    2017-08-01

    Over the years, a number of studies have demonstrated an increase in gender and ethnic diversity among US physicians. Despite substantial progress in eliminating gender and racial inequities in the field of medicine, women and ethnic minorities are still underrepresented among medical faculty at academic institutions. This study aims to describe the trends in gender and ethnic diversity among Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) faculty through statistical analysis of data describing gender and ethnicity of full-time academic faculty gathered from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster from 1994 to 2014. Proportions representing the percentages of females and ethnic minorities of a given faculty position in medical schools were compared across each of the other faculty ranks. Results showed that the average yearly percent increases in the proportion of female PM&R faculty in associate professor (0.68%) and full professor (0.54%) positions were greater than those in instructor (0.30%) and assistant professor (0.35%) positions. In contrast, the average yearly percent increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian PM&R faculty in full professor positions (0.19%) was less than those in instructor (0.84%), assistant (0.93%), and associate professor (0.89%) positions. Overall, trends among faculty exhibit a steady increase in gender and ethnic diversity, although promotion disparity continues to exist among specific academic positions for some groups. This study provides a current perspective on recent changes in diversity among faculty in PM&R and may prove useful when defining strategies to improve workforce diversity.

  18. State-level changes in US racial and ethnic diversity, 1980 to 2015: A universal trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined long-term changes in ethnoracial diversity for US states despite the potential social, economic, and political ramifications of such changes at the state level. Objective: We describe shifts in diversity magnitude and structure from 1980 through 2015 to determine if states are following identical, parallel, divergent, or convergent paths. Methods: Decennial census data for 1980‒2010 and American Community Survey data for 2015 are used to compute entropy index (E and Simpson index (S measures of diversity magnitude based on five panethnic populations. A typology characterizes the racial/ethnic structure of states. Results: While initial diversity level and subsequent pace of change vary widely, every state has increased in diversity magnitude since 1980. A dramatic decline in the number of predominantly white states has been accompanied by the rise of states with multigroup structures that include Hispanics. These diverse states are concentrated along the coasts and across the southern tier of the country. Differences in panethnic population growth (especially rapid Hispanic and Asian growth coupled with white stability drive the diversification trend. Conclusions: The diversity hierarchy among states has remained relatively stable over the past 35 years in the face of universal gains in diversity magnitude and the increasing heterogeneity of racial/ethnic structures. Contribution: We document ethnoracial diversity patterns at an understudied geographic scale, the state level, where diversity may have important consequences across a range of institutional domains.

  19. Lifestyle behaviors and ethnic identity among diverse women at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Kubo, Ai; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Hedderson, Monique M; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2016-07-01

    Diet and physical activity lifestyle behaviors are modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes and are shaped by culture, potentially influencing diabetes health disparities. We examined whether ethnic identity-the strength of attachment to one's ethnic group, and a long-standing focus of psychological research-could help account for variations in lifestyle behaviors within a diverse population at high risk for chronic disease. Using data from the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms trial, this US-based cross-sectional study included 1463 pregnant women (74% from minority ethnic/racial groups; 46% born outside the US) with gestational diabetes (GDM), a common pregnancy complication conferring high risk for type 2 diabetes after delivery. Mixed linear regression models examined whether ethnic identity is associated with lifestyle behaviors after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and acculturative characteristics (e.g., nativity and length of residence in the US). In the overall sample, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 3% greater fiber intake, 4% greater fruit/vegetable intake, 11% greater total activity, and 11% greater walking (p values ethnic/racial groups, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 17% greater fiber intake among Filipina women; 5% lower total caloric intake among non-Hispanic White women; and 40% greater total activity, 35% greater walking, and 8% greater total caloric intake among Latina women (p values ≤ 0.03). Results from this large study suggest that ethnic group attachment is associated with some lifestyle behaviors, independent of acculturation indicators, among young women with GDM who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Stronger ethnic identity may promote certain choices known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective research is needed to clarify the temporal nature of associations between ethnic identity and

  20. A theory of ethnic diversity and income distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto, Fusako

    -, č. 395 (2009), s. 1-31 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : political economy * diversity * legislative bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp395.pdf

  1. Ethnic and sex differences in ownership of preventive health equipment among rural older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Stafford, Jeanette M; Golden, Shannon L; Snively, Beverly M; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is important for achieving successful health outcomes. Different levels of self-management have been reported among various populations, though little is known about ownership of equipment that can enhance accomplishment of these tasks. This study examined diabetes self-management equipment ownership among rural older adults. Participants included African American, American Indian, and white men and women 65 years of age and older. Data included equipment ownership overall and by ethnicity and sex across diabetes self-management domains (glucose monitoring, foot care, medication adherence, exercise, and diet). Associations between equipment ownership and demographic and health characteristics were assessed using logistic regression. Equipment ownership ranged from 85.0% for blood glucose meters to less than 11% for special socks, modified dishes, and various forms of home exercise equipment. Equipment ownership was associated with ethnicity, living arrangements, mobility, poverty status, and formal education. Rural older adults with diabetes are at risk because they lack equipment to perform some self-management tasks. Providers should be sensitive to and assist patients in overcoming this barrier.

  2. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-02-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers' assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers' experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers' generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.

  3. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Miyawaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.

  4. "Most girls want to be skinny": body (dis)satisfaction among ethnically diverse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Ann M

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I present the findings from an ethnographic study of 18 women college students living in the northeastern United States. I examine how ethnically diverse women dealt with the messages of the dominant White society's obsession with thinness, and whether it affected their perceptions of an ideal body image. From the analysis of the interviews, I identified and extracted several themes related to ethnicity, aesthetic body ideals, body dissatisfaction, and disturbed eating. Grounded in the women's narratives, I found that ethnically diverse women coming of age in American society experience anxieties and emotional stress as they related to others in their daily lives. Their stories shed light on how the body is a vehicle for social mobility and is used by women from marginalized identities to strategically negotiate social inequalities embedded in daily social relationships and interactions that more privileged women do not encounter.

  5. Southwesterners’ views of threatened and endangered species management: does ethnic/racial diversity make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of trust in the Forest Service to manage threatened and endangered species as measured through a survey of residents of four Southwestern States. Of particular interest were variations by ethnic/racial group, gender, concern about threatened and endangered species, and self-assessed knowledge. Increasing diversity in the United States...

  6. Can Ethnic-Linguistic Diversity Explain Cross-Country Differences in Social Capital Formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic...

  7. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  8. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  9. Examining the Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy across Diverse Client Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jessica Barfield

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…

  10. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Schools: The Case of English Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin-Lajoie, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, schools located in English Canada have experienced important demographic changes in their student population. This article examines the racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity in these schools, through the discourses of those who spend the most time with the students: teachers and principals. Here, the concept of…

  11. Disclosure Experiences of Urban, Ethnically Diverse LGBT High School Students: Implications for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjas, Kris; Kiperman, Sarah; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity is a milestone event for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and can have both positive and negative mental health consequences. Twenty-nine urban, ethnically diverse LGBT high school students participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Qualitative results revealed two…

  12. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  13. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  14. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  15. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  16. Tainted visions: The effect of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L. L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A. H. B.; Den Hartog, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We

  17. Tainted visions: the effects of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We

  18. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  19. Building effective working relationships across culturally and ethnically diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosley, Cheryl A; Gensheimer, Linda; Yang, Mai

    2003-01-01

    Amherst H. Wilder Foundation's Social Adjustment Program for Southeast Asians is implementing two collaborative, best practice, mental health and substance abuse prevention service models in Minnesota. It faced several issues in effectively bridging multiple cultural groups, including building a diverse collaborative team, involving families and youth, reconciling cultural variation in meeting styles, and making best practice models culturally appropriate. Researchers and program staff used multiple strategies to address these challenges and build successful partnerships. Through shared goals, flexibility, and a willingness to explore and address challenges, collaboratives can promote stronger relationships across cultural communities and improve their service delivery systems.

  20. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Roberts DrPH, MSN, FNP-BC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs and focus groups (FGs were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: ( N = 75. Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a personal expectations about aging, (b societal value of older adults, (c model of care preferred, and (d community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes.

  1. Workforce ethnic diversity and culturally competent health care: the case of Arab physicians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.

  2. Neither bridging nor bonding: A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants' inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust, and homogenous (bonding) associations to cement self-affirming identities. This multilevel analysis of the Citizenship, Involvement & Democracy (CID) 1999/2000 survey data on Mannheim (Germany), Enschede (the Netherlands), and Aberdeen (Scotland) covers 3166 active participants in 645 associations. The CID includes objective, exogenous measures of each association's composition and aim. Socialization and self-selection effects are pulled apart through interactions with detailed measures of associational involvement. The results display no evidence for (diverse and homogenous) associations as socializing agents. Although inter-ethnic tolerance is higher in ethnically diverse associations, this should be attributed to self-selection effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent and Family Processes Related to ADHD Management in Ethnically Diverse Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidipati, Cynthia P; Brawner, Bridgette; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Deatrick, Janet A

    Previous research has shown major disparities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for diverse youth across America. We do not fully understand, however, how parent and family processes are related to the identification, care-seeking approaches, treatment preferences, and engagement with care systems and services for youth with ADHD. The present study aimed to explore parent and family processes related to the management of ADHD in racially and ethnically diverse youth. This integrative review was structured with the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl. Three major electronic databases yielded a final sample of 32 articles (24 quantitative, 6 qualitative, and 2 mixed methods). Nine themes emerged within three overarching meta-themes. Understanding the unique perspectives of families from diverse backgrounds is essential for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers, who are dedicated to understanding racial and ethnic perspectives and developing ecologically appropriate and family-based interventions for youth with ADHD.

  4. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  5. The state of racial/ethnic diversity in North Carolina's health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Victoria; Fraher, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce is vital to achieving accessible, equitable health care. This study provides baseline data on the diversity of health care practitioners in North Carolina compared with the diversity of the state's population. We analyzed North Carolina health workforce diversity using licensure data from the respective state boards of selected professions from 1994-2009; the data are stored in the North Carolina Health Professions Data System. North Carolina's health care practitioners are less diverse than is the state's population as a whole; only 17% of the practitioners are nonwhite, compared with 33% of the state's population. Levels of diversity vary among the professions, which are diversifying slowly over time. Primary care physicians are diversifying more rapidly than are other types of practitioners; the percentage who are nonwhite increased by 14 percentage points between 1994 and 2009, a period during which 1,630 nonwhite practitioners were added to their ranks. The percentage of licensed practical nurses who are nonwhite increased by 7 percentage points over the same period with the addition of 1,542 nonwhite practitioners to their ranks. Nonwhite health professionals cluster regionally throughout the state, and 79% of them practice in metropolitan counties. This study reports on only a selected number of health professions and utilizes race/ethnicity data that were self-reported by practitioners. Tracking the diversity among North Carolina's health care practitioners provides baseline data that will facilitate future research on barriers to health workforce entry, allow assessment of diversity programs, and be useful in addressing racial and ethnic health disparities.

  6. Diversity based on race, ethnicity, and sex, of the US radiation oncology physician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christina H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; Pworkforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive Neighborhood Norms Buffer Ethnic Diversity Effects on Neighborhood Dissatisfaction, Perceived Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Moving Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; Asbrock, Frank; Roets, Arne; Kauff, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage. Study 2 ( N = 993 Dutch adults) replicated and extended this moderated mediation model using other characteristics of diversity (i.e., objective and estimated minority proportions). Multilevel analyses again revealed consistent buffering effects of positive neighborhood norms. Our findings are discussed in light of the ongoing public and political debate concerning diversity and social and communal life.

  8. ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG OLDER RURAL ADULTS WITH DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Graham, Christopher N.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Golden, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects ethnic minorities and has serious economic, social, and personal implications. This study examines the effect of diabetes disease burden and social resources on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older rural adults with diabetes. Data come from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 701 adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes in North Carolina from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. HRQOL was assessed using the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12). Mean scores were 35.1 ± 11.4 and 50.5 ± 10.8 for the physical and mental components of the SF-12, respectively. In bivariate analyses, scores were significantly lower for Native Americans than Whites for both components. In multivariate analyses, higher physical HRQOL was associated with male sex, greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, exercising vs not exercising, fewer depressive symptoms, and not receiving process assistance. Higher mental HRQOL was associated with greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, and a high school education or more. Diabetes appears to have a substantial effect on physical HRQOL. Physical disability associated with diabetes may have a greater impact in the rural environment than in other areas. Aspects of rural social milieu may help to keep mental HRQOL high, even in the face of severe chronic disease. Ethnic differences in HRQOL are largely accounted for by diabetes disease burden and, to a lesser extent, social resources. Strategies to reduce diabetes-related complications (long term) and assist mobility (short term) may reduce ethnic disparities in HRQOL. (Ethn Dis. 2007;17:471–476) PMID:17985500

  9. [Education on ethnic diversity in health care in medical school: what can we learn from the American perspective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Rassam, Fadi; Spong, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    In April 2012, 20 medical students took part in a study tour to San Francisco, themed 'ethnic diversity in health care'. In this article we discuss four lessons learned from the perspective of these students. The delivery of culturally sensitive healthcare is becoming more important in the Netherlands as the ethnic minority population rate will continue to grow over the coming years. However, diversity education is not a structural component of medical curricula in the Netherlands to the same degree as in the USA where medical education pays a lot of attention to differences in health between ethnic minorities; and where there is also extensive research on this subject. We emphasize that diversity education should create awareness of differences in health outcomes between ethnic groups and awareness of one's own bias and stereotypical views. The implementation of diversity education is a challenge, which requires a change of image and the involvement of teachers from diverse medical disciplines.

  10. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents.

  11. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  12. Ethnic differences of medicines-taking in older adults: a cross cultural study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Clarke, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The literature identifies many barriers to medicines use, including bio-psycho-social issues, but less is known regarding ethno-cultural barriers, which are important in culturally diverse nations. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking, focusing on the main constituents of the New Zealand (NZ) population: NZ European, Māori (the indigenous people of NZ), Pacific and Asian peoples. A qualitative study involving a series of focus groups was conducted. Participants (>50 years old) taking medicines were recruited from various community-based groups. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed for key themes via manual inductive coding and constant comparison. Twenty focus groups (n=100 participants) were conducted. Three key common themes emerged: (1) conception of a medicine; (2) self-management of medication; and (3) seeking further medicines information. In general, NZ European participants had a very narrow view of what a medicine is, were motivated to source medicines information independently and were very proactive in medicines management. At the other end of the spectrum, Pacific peoples expressed a broad view of what constitutes a medicine, were not motivated to source medicines information independently and were not proactive in medicines management, tending to instead rely on healthcare professionals for answers. The findings from the various ethnic groups highlight differences in attitudes to medicines per se and medicines-taking; these influences on medication-taking behaviour need to be considered in the provision of pharmaceutical care. Ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking are apparent, although there are some commonalities in terms of needs regarding support and advice around medicines' use. This will help inform the development of resources and communication tools to assist pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care to diverse patient

  13. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2017-03-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.

  14. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyong T.; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B.; Jang, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N=1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin’s Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  15. Longitudinal Relations between Ethnic/Racial Identity Process and Content: Exploration, Commitment, and Salience among Diverse Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Douglass, Sara; Yip, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    The present study bridges the process and content perspectives of ethnic/racial identity (ERI) by examining the longitudinal links between identity process (i.e., exploration, commitment) and a component of identity content, salience. Data were drawn from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 405 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents (63% female) from…

  16. Self-Regulated Learning Study Strategies and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: An Investigation Examining Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group affiliation.…

  17. Depression recognition and capacity for self-report among ethnically diverse nursing homes residents: Evidence of disparities in screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2017-12-01

    To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and

  18. Long-term exercise therapy resolves ethnic differences in baseline health status in older adults with knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foy, C.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Shumaker, S.A.; Messier, S.P.; Pahor, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ethnicity was associated with baseline and 18-month health status within a merged sample of older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) from the Fitness Arthritis in Seniors Trial and the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and

  19. Taking a first puff: cigarette smoking experiences among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C S; Allen, P; Crawford, M A; McCormick, L K

    1999-11-01

    To study the social contexts and physiological consequences of an initial cigarette smoking experience among adolescents from four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Hispanic, Native American) who vary by gender and locale (e.g. urban vs rural). A qualitative study using individual interviews and focus groups. Results both amplify and reinforce conclusions about peer and family influences on adolescent smoking initiation reported in quantitative studies of teen smoking. Within the broader themes of peers and family, several important sub-themes emerged. The study findings suggest that peer influence can be characterized as social conformity or social acceptance. Males were more likely than females to describe experiences involving peers exerting strong messages to conform to smoking behaviors. Roles played by family members in the initiation process were complex and included those of initiator, prompter, accomplice, and inadvertent source of cigarettes. European American and Hispanic girls provided descriptions of parents/family members as instigators of their first smoking experience. Hispanic adolescents descripted instances in which family members prompted cigarette use at a young age by encouraging the young person to light the adult's cigarette. Finally, ethnic differences in the physiological responses to initial smoking suggest the need to further explore the role of brand preference and variations in inhaling among ethnically diverse adolescents. In order to design effective cigarette smoking prevention programs for adolescents, it is important to understand the meaning of smoking behaviors for adolescents from different ethnic and social backgrounds.

  20. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  1. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  2. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  3. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  4. Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in 3 Year Olds: Results from the Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ilse J. E.; Prins, Rick G.; Mackenbach, Johan J. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. Methods We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. Results Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13–3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51–1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47–11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66–5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90–2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: −3.22, 95% CI −0.70–0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0

  5. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  6. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  7. Let him not be alone: perspectives of older British South Asian minority ethnic patients on dying in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy

    2017-09-02

    To investigate older British South Asians' views on dying at acute hospitals. Older people, including those from ethnic minorities prefer 'home as a haven' for their last days of life; however, they are more likely to die in hospital. Constructive grounded theory was used as a methodological approach that informed data collection to data analysis. Open meetings with 11 local South Asian community organisations enabled the researchers to recruit a total of 55 older South Asians in this study. Data were collected using gender-based focus groups (n=5) and in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=29). Transcripts were analysed using Nvivo 9. Three key themes were identified: 'mistrust', 'let him not be alone' and 'family as a protective shield'. The theme 'mistrust' is explored through examination of beliefs, attitudes and expectations about 'hospital' as a place in the care of the dying. The theme of 'let him not be alone' draws the family's preferences and concerns in relation to leaving their older dying relative alone in the hospital. The final theme of 'family as a protective shield' describes the element of family care as a protective shield for their older one to have peaceful end-of-life care moments in the hospital. Allowing older relatives to die in hospital seems to evoke feelings of missed filial responsibilities and guilt among family carers among older ethnic minorities. The presence of cultural paranoia and mistrust often led minorities to experience sub-standard end-of-life care in acute hospitals.

  8. Why Diversity Matters: A Roundtable Discussion on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juleah Swanson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brief:  After presenting together at ACRL 2015 to share research we conducted on race, identity, and diversity in academic librarianship, we reconvene panelists Ione T. Damasco, Cataloger Librarian at the University of Dayton, Isabel Gonzalez-Smith, Undergraduate Experience Librarian at the University of Illinois, Chicago, Dracine Hodges, Head of Acquisitions at Ohio State University, Todd Honma, Assistant Professor of Asian American Studies at Pitzer College, Juleah Swanson, Head of Acquisition Services at the University of Colorado Boulder, and Azusa Tanaka, Japanese Studies Librarian at the University of Washington in a virtual roundtable discussion. Resuming the conversation that started at ACRL, we discuss why diversity really matters to academic libraries, librarians, and the profession, and where to go from here. We conclude this article with a series of questions for readers to consider, share, and discuss among colleagues to continue and advance the conversation on diversity in libraries.

  9. Why Diversity Matters: A Roundtable Discussion on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juleah Swanson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brief:  After presenting together at ACRL 2015 to share research we conducted on race, identity, and diversity in academic librarianship, we reconvene panelists Ione T. Damasco, Cataloger Librarian at the University of Dayton, Isabel Gonzalez-Smith, Undergraduate Experience Librarian at the University of Illinois, Chicago, Dracine Hodges, Head of Acquisitions at Ohio State University, Todd […

  10. A Comprehensive, Ethnically Diverse Library of Sickle Cell Disease-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonmi Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Sickle cell anemia affects millions of people worldwide and is an emerging global health burden. As part of a large NIH-funded NextGen Consortium, we generated a diverse, comprehensive, and fully characterized library of sickle-cell-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB haplotypes, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels. iPSCs stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and perhaps eventually, treat patients. Here, we describe this unique resource for the study of sickle cell disease, including novel haplotype-specific polymorphisms that affect disease severity, as well as for the development of patient-specific therapeutics for this phenotypically diverse disorder. As a complement to this library, and as proof of principle for future cell- and gene-based therapies, we also designed and employed CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools to correct the sickle hemoglobin (HbS mutation. : In this resource article, Mostoslavsky, Murphy, and colleagues of the NextGen consortium describe a diverse, comprehensive, and characterized library of sickle cell disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB haplotypes and fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels. This bank is readily available and accessible to all investigators. Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs, sickle cell disease, disease modeling, directed differentiation, gene correction

  11. Racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. national nurse workforce 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Brewer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the racial and ethnic diversity profile of the nurse workforce over time and by geographic region. We conducted survey analysis using the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses from 1988 to 2008, and further supplemented our trend analysis using published findings from the 2013 National Workforce Survey of Registered Nurses. The gap in racial/ethnic minority representation between the RN workforce and the population has been persistent and has widened over time. This diversity gap is primarily due to underrepresentation of Hispanics and Blacks in the RN workforce, which varied across states and regions, with the largest gaps occurring for Hispanics in the South and West and for Blacks in the South. Greater levels of sustained and targeted support to increase nurse workforce diversity are needed and should be geared not only to specific underrepresented groups but also to the regions and states with the greatest needs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Conceptual Pathways to Ethnic Transcendence in Diverse Churches: Theoretical Reflections on the Achievement of Successfully Integrated Congregations

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    Gerardo Marti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ethnic transcendence—defined as the process of co-formulating a shared religious identity among diverse members that supersedes their racial and ethnic differences through congregational involvement—captures a critical aspect of successfully integrating different racial and ethnic groups into a single, commonly shared, multi-ethnic congregation. Drawing on classic theoretical resources from Max Weber and Emile Durkheim, this paper expands on previous scholarship by conceptually articulating two different paths for the achievement of ethnic transcendence in multiracial congregations. In the first path, ethnic transcendence supports and encourages congregational diversification by inspiring members and mobilizing them to contribute their efforts to accomplish a common religious mission. In the second path, the achievement of ethnic transcendence involves the sublimation of congregational members’ religious selves to an overarching moral collective. Both paths involve privileging religious identities in favor of a particularistic ethnic or racial identity. Moreover, through both paths, the development of congregationally specific religious identities results in joining with co-members of different ethno-racial ancestries as a type of spiritually-derived kinship. Due to the fact that ethnic transcendence is an interactive process, congregational diversity is a bi-directional phenomenon representing the extent to which members allow for the integration of separate ethnicities/races into a common congregation through idealized and richly-symbolic notions of connection and belonging to a congregation. Overall, this paper suggests a heuristic framework that productively expands the concept of ethnic transcendence, allows an approach for observing cross-ethnic/inter-racial organizational processes, and ultimately contributes toward understanding how congregations (whether church, temple, or mosque pursue alternative identity

  13. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic oral health disparities among US older adults: oral health quality of life and dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deborah L; Park, Mijung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine if older adults living in poverty and from minority racial/ethnic groups experienced disproportionately high rates of poor oral health outcomes measured by oral health quality of life (OHQOL) and number of permanent teeth. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,745 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. Oral health outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using the NHANES-Oral Health Impact Profile for OHQOL and standardized examination for dentition. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between oral health outcomes and predictors of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Both poverty and minority race/ethnicity were significantly associated with poor oral health outcomes in OHQOL and number of permanent teeth. Distribution of scores for each OHQOL domain varied by minority racial/ethnic group. Oral health disparities persist in older adults living in poverty and among those from minority racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic variation in OHQOL domains should be further examined to develop interventions to improve the oral health of these groups. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  15. Differences in Obesity Among Men of Diverse Racial and Ethnic Background

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sarah E.; Bell, Caryn; Bowie, Janice V.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Furr-Holden, Debra; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities exist in obesity prevalence among men, with Hispanic men exhibiting the highest prevalence compared with non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black men. Most studies do not parse out Hispanic groups; therefore, it is unclear whether the increases in obesity rates among Hispanic men applies to all groups or if there are particular groups of Hispanic men that are driving the increase. The goal of this study is to examine the variations in obesity among men of diverse ra...

  16. Locus of control and academic success among ethnically diverse baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, April Moy; Saylor, Coleen; Cohen, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study used quantitative and qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of the perceptions of locus of control and the academic success of baccalaureate nursing students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Students who were more likely to attribute academic outcomes to forces beyond their personal control were more likely to have lower medical-surgical theory grades, more likely to be Filipino or from other Asian groups, and more likely to be students for whom English was their second language. The most frequently reported factors students identified as contributors to academic success were good study strategies, persistence, and supportive social connections.

  17. AHP 37: ETHNICITY AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY ON THE NORTHEAST TIBETAN PLATEAU - SANCHUAN'S WEATHER MANAGEMENT RITUALS IN COMPARATIVE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Roche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity? This paper is part of a broader project to investigate this question in the context of a region of supposed ethno-cultural rupture – the Sino-Tibetan Frontier. My investigations of ethnicity, culture, and language in this region (Roche 2011, 2014, 2015, Roche and Lcag mo tshe ring 2013, Roche and Stuart 2015 have focused on a population referred to as the Monguor or Tu. My work also aims to contribute to broader trends in the study of Tibet and ethnic minorities in China that look at the complex relations between ethnicity and diversity (Jinba Tenzin 2013, Chao 2012, Merriam 2012, Hayes 2014. My research has been inspired by Barth's (1969 critique of the 'Herderian trinity' of community, culture, and identity (Wimmer 2013. In contrast to the Romantic notion of bounded communities professing a common identity based on shared culture, Barth suggested that the landscape of cultural difference is frequently divided arbitrarily, with ethnic boundaries often placed between culturally similar groups. He therefore advises placing emphasis on boundary marking and maintenance over the 'cultural stuff' contained within ethnic bounds. Within this 'boundary paradigm', "Researchers would no longer study 'the culture' of ethnic group A or B, but rather how the ethnic boundary between A and B was inscribed onto a landscape of continuous cultural transitions" (Wimmer 2013:22-23. ...

  18. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Ethnic Diversity on Social Network Structure in a Common-Pool Resource System: Implications for Collaborative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barnes-Mauthe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii's longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.

  20. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT. The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics

  1. Examining the Protective Effect of Ethnic Identity on Drug Attitudes and Use Among a Diverse Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.

  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  3. Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene S J; Yap, Jonathan; Xu, Chang Fen; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Seow, Swee Chong; Ching, Chi Keong; Yeo, Khung Keong; Richards, A Mark; Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Toon Wei; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-07-01

    Existing electrocardiographic (ECG) reference values were derived in middle-aged Caucasian adults. We aimed to assess the association of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Resting 12-lead ECG and anthropometric measurements were performed in a community-based cohort of 3777 older Asians (age 64.7±9.1 years, 1467 men, 88.8% Chinese, 7.7% Malay, 3.5% Indian, body mass index [BMI] 24.0±3.9kg/m(2)). Men had longer PR interval, wider QRS, shorter QTc interval and taller SV3. In both sexes, older age was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger R aVL and more leftward QRS axis, while higher BMI was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger RaVL and more negative QRS axis. There were significant inter-ethnic differences in QRS duration among men, as well as in PR and QTc intervals among women (all adjusted p<0.05). Findings were similar in a healthy subset of 1158 adults (age 61.2±9.1 years, 365 men) without cardiovascular risk factors. These first community-based ECG data in multi-ethnic older Asians highlight the independent effects of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The DREAMS Team: Creating Community Partnerships through Research Advocacy Training for Diverse Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ariel R.; Dillard, Rebecca; Perkins, Molly M.; Vaughan, Camille P.; Kinlaw, Kathy; McKay, J. Lucas; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Hagen, Kimberley; Wincek, Ron C.; Hackney, Madeleine E.

    2017-01-01

    The DREAMS Team research advocacy training program helps clinical faculty and health students introduce basic clinical research concepts to diverse older adults to galvanize their active involvement in the research process. Older adults are frequently underrepresented in clinical research, due to barriers to participation including distrust,…

  5. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  6. Endorsing an Additive Pluricultural Identity Formation for Socio-ethnic Integration in Diasporic Caribbean Societies: An Insightful Culturometric Philosophical Re-examination of Trinidad Ethnic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice BOUFOY-BASTICK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at Caribbean social spaces and their plasticity within an ontological perspective and how emergent Caribbean identities are arbitrarily constructed, interrogated and restructured at the individual level, artificially fashioned at the collective level and covertly created at the national level. From an ethno-national standpoint, the paper critically explores the process of identity formation from an original ethno-cultural deconstruction segregating ethnic groups by phenotypes to a cultural bricolage of culturally diverse fragments from which emerge the modern pluricultural Caribbean individual, pluricultural ethnicities and the competing cultural allegiances that can threaten to shatter the family unity of the nation state. The paper first explains the additive process of pluricultural identity formation then highlights subtractive multicultural socio-political threats to achieving national unity within a pluricultural Caribbean. This position is discussed here using the results of a survey assessing multicultural allegiances in the predominantly bi-ethnic African/Indian Trinidadian population.

  7. Defining a framework for medical teachers' competencies to teach ethnic and cultural diversity: Results of a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Rowan; Hendrickx, Kristin; Lanting, Katja; MacFarlane, Anne; Muntinga, Maaike; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2018-02-28

    Medical students need to be trained in delivering diversity-responsive health care but unknown is what competencies teachers need. The aim of this study was to devise a framework of competencies for diversity teaching. An open-ended questionnaire about essential diversity teaching competencies was sent to a panel. This resulted in a list of 74 teaching competencies, which was sent in a second round to the panel for rating. The final framework of competencies was approved by the panel. Thirty-four experts participated. The final framework consisted of 10 competencies that were seen as essential for all medical teachers: (1) ability to critically reflect on own values and beliefs; (2) ability to communicate about individuals in a nondiscriminatory, nonstereotyping way; (3) empathy for patients regardless of ethnicity, race or nationality; (4) awareness of intersectionality; (5) awareness of own ethnic and cultural background; (6) knowledge of ethnic and social determinants of physical and mental health of migrants; (7) ability to reflect with students on the social or cultural context of the patient relevant to the medical encounter; (8) awareness that teachers are role models in the way they talk about patients from different ethnic, cultural and social backgrounds; (9) empathy for students of diverse ethnic, cultural and social background; (10) ability to engage, motivate and let all students participate. This framework of teaching competencies can be used in faculty development programs to adequately train all medical teachers.

  8. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r 2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  9. Diverse Family Structures and the Care of Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life.

  10. Financial strain and smoking cessation among racially/ethnically diverse smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Costello, Tracy J; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Wetter, David W

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the influence of financial strain on smoking cessation among Latino, African American, and Caucasian smokers of predominantly low socioeconomic status. Smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation study (N = 424) were followed from 1 week prequit through 26 weeks postquit. We conducted a logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between baseline financial strain and smoking abstinence at 26 weeks postquit after control for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational level, annual household income, marital status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time to first cigarette of the day. Greater financial strain at baseline was significantly associated with reduced odds of abstinence at 26 weeks postquit among those who completed the study (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.94; P = .01). There was a significant association as well in analyses that included those who completed the study in addition to those lost to follow-up who were categorized as smokers (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.96; P = .02). Greater financial strain predicted lower cessation rates among racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Our findings highlight the impact of economic concerns on smoking cessation and the need to address financial strain in smoking cessation interventions.

  11. "You Get Beautiful Teeth Down There": Racial/Ethnic Minority Older Adults' Perspectives on Care at Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Schenkel, Andrew B; Birenz, Shirley; Estrada, Ivette; Metcalf, Sara S; Wolff, Mark S

    2017-11-01

    To help eliminate reported racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in oral health care, listening to the perspectives of racial/ethnic minority older adults on their experiences with dental school clinics is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican older adults who attend senior centers in upper Manhattan, New York City, regarding the care received at dental school clinics. Focus groups were conducted from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority men and women aged 50 years and older living in upper Manhattan. All of the 24 focus group sessions were digitally audiorecorded and transcribed for analysis. Groups conducted in Spanish were transcribed first in Spanish and then translated into English. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. Seven subthemes were manifest in the data related to these adults' positive experiences with dental school clinics: excellent outcomes and dentists, painless and safe treatment, affordable care, honest and reputable, benefits of student training, accepting and helpful, and recommended by family and friends. Negative experiences centered around four subthemes: multiple visits required for treatment, loss of interpersonal communication due to use of technology, inconvenient location, and perceived stigma with Medicaid. This study provided novel evidence of the largely positive experiences with dental schools of racial/ethnic minority senior center attendees. Interventions targeted at the organization and provider level, including organizational motivation, resources, staff attributes, climate, and teamwork plus payment programs and services, insurance and affordability, and provider- and system-level supports, may improve health care processes and patient experiences of care.

  12. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  13. Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solus, Joseph F; Arietta, Brenda J; Harris, James R; Sexton, David P; Steward, John Q; McMunn, Chara; Ihrie, Patrick; Mehall, Janelle M; Edwards, Todd L; Dawson, Elliott P

    2004-10-01

    The extent of genetic variation found in drug metabolism genes and its contribution to interindividual variation in response to medication remains incompletely understood. To better determine the identity and frequency of variation in 11 phase I drug metabolism genes, the exons and flanking intronic regions of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. A total of 60 kb of bi-directional sequence was generated from each of 93 human DNAs, which included Caucasian, African-American and Asian samples. There were 388 different polymorphisms identified. These included 269 non-coding, 45 synonymous and 74 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of these, 54% were novel and included 176 non-coding, 14 synonymous and 21 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of the novel variants observed, 85 were represented by single occurrences of the minor allele in the sample set. Much of the variation observed was from low-frequency alleles. Comparatively, these genes are variation-rich. Calculations measuring genetic diversity revealed that while the values for the individual genes are widely variable, the overall nucleotide diversity of 7.7 x 10(-4) and polymorphism parameter of 11.5 x 10(-4) are higher than those previously reported for other gene sets. Several independent measurements indicate that these genes are under selective pressure, particularly for polymorphisms corresponding to non-synonymous amino acid changes. There is relatively little difference in measurements of diversity among the ethnic groups, but there are large differences among the genes and gene subfamilies themselves. Of the three CYP subfamilies involved in phase I drug metabolism (1, 2, and 3), subfamily 2 displays the highest levels of genetic diversity.

  14. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hassan B. [Independent Consultant

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were

  15. Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R

    2014-09-01

    To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Ethnic diversity and social capital in upward mobility systems: Problematizing the permeability of intra-organizational career boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkop, C.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Ghorashi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between ethnic diversity, social capital, and objective career success in upward mobility systems over time. The authors conceptualize the underlying process of why intra-organizational career

  17. Religious Diversity, Inter-Ethnic Relations and the Catholic School: Introducing the "Responsive" Approach to Single Faith Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Damian

    2009-01-01

    The article offers a case study of the ways in which a Catholic primary school located in the centre of a large South-Asian community in Leicester, UK, responded to the religious and ethnic diversity of its surroundings. The school, Our Saviour's, engaged in shared activities with a neighbouring school which had a majority intake of Hindu, Muslim…

  18. The relation between ethnic diversity and fear of crime: An analysis of police records and survey data in Belgian communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of intergroup threat theory, it is routinely assumed that the presence of immigrant groups in a local community could contribute to fear of crime among the majority population. This could be explained by a direct relation between ethnic diversity and some forms of crime, but it can

  19. Ethnic Diversity and Latino/a College Access: A Comparison of Mexican American and Puerto Rican Beginning College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that there are differences among the diverse Latino/a ethnic groups in their K-12 educational experiences, but little is known about variations in their postsecondary experiences. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by the theory of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this research examined Mexican American and…

  20. A Comprehensive, Ethnically Diverse Library of Sickle Cell Disease-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonmi; Gianotti-Sommer, Andreia; Molina-Estevez, Francisco Javier; Vanuytsel, Kim; Skvir, Nick; Leung, Amy; Rozelle, Sarah S; Shaikho, Elmutaz Mohammed; Weir, Isabelle; Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Chui, David H K; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Alsultan, Abdulraham; Al-Ali, Amein; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Murphy, George J

    2017-04-11

    Sickle cell anemia affects millions of people worldwide and is an emerging global health burden. As part of a large NIH-funded NextGen Consortium, we generated a diverse, comprehensive, and fully characterized library of sickle-cell-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB) haplotypes, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. iPSCs stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and perhaps eventually, treat patients. Here, we describe this unique resource for the study of sickle cell disease, including novel haplotype-specific polymorphisms that affect disease severity, as well as for the development of patient-specific therapeutics for this phenotypically diverse disorder. As a complement to this library, and as proof of principle for future cell- and gene-based therapies, we also designed and employed CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools to correct the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) mutation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: ethnic and gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V.; Allman, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups mos...

  2. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  3. Loneliness of older immigrant groups in Canada: Effects of ethnic-cultural background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.

  4. Cardiovascular health: associations with race-ethnicity, nativity, and education in a diverse, population-based sample of Californians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R; McCarthy, William J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association. We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their U.S.-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected American Heart Association guidelines) among adults ages 25 and older (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between U.S.-born and foreign-born White, Asian, and Latino respondents. All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with greater education were generally better off except among Asian respondents. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born respondents exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared with their U.S.-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Diversity of U.S. Plastic Surgery Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p < 0.001) and 2-fold (4.6%-7.9%, p < 0.001), respectively. African American plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001) plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of classroom education on knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation in ethnically diverse urban high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Vicky; Thornton, John Daryl; Wong, Kristine A.; Spigner, Clarence; Allen, Margaret D.

    2010-01-01

    School-based health education is a promising approach for improving organ donation rates, but little is known about its efficacy among ethnically diverse youth. The impact of a classroom intervention was examined in a multicultural high school population where students’ ethnicities were 45% African American, 30% Asian American, and 33% Caucasian (allowing for multiracial choices). A baseline survey was administered to all health classes within 2 weeks prior to intervention. On the intervention day, classes randomly assigned to the intervention group received an educational session, followed by a second survey; in control classes, the second survey was taken before the educational session. At baseline, non-Caucasian ethnicity and male gender were each associated with lower levels of willingness to donate. Following the intervention, students in the intervention group demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge scores (p<0.001), as well as positive movement of opinion regarding willingness to donate (p<0.0001). Most importantly, the positive changes in opinion occurred independently of ethnicity and gender, in spite of these both being negative predictors of opinion at baseline. These results demonstrate that even a single classroom exposure can impact knowledge levels, correct misinformation, and effect opinion change on organ donation among an ethnically diverse adolescent population. PMID:20088915

  7. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  8. Diversity in Entrepreneurship: Ethnic and Female Roles in Urban Economic Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of ethnic female entrepreneurship in urban economic life. The focus of the research is on the attitudes and behaviour of Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. The main question we pose is: Are ethnic female entrepreneurs special ethnic

  9. Ayurgenomics for stratified medicine: TRISUTRA consortium initiative across ethnically and geographically diverse Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, Bhavana; Varma, Binuja; Kumar, Arvind; Khuntia, Bharat Krushna; Pandey, Rajesh; Narang, Ankita; Tiwari, Pradeep; Kutum, Rintu; Guin, Debleena; Kukreti, Ritushree; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2017-02-02

    Genetic differences in the target proteins, metabolizing enzymes and transporters that contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response are not integrated in contemporary drug development programs. Ayurveda, that has propelled many drug discovery programs albeit for the search of new chemical entities incorporates inter-individual variability "Prakriti" in development and administration of drug in an individualized manner. Prakriti of an individual largely determines responsiveness to external environment including drugs as well as susceptibility to diseases. Prakriti has also been shown to have molecular and genomic correlates. We highlight how integration of Prakriti concepts can augment the efficiency of drug discovery and development programs through a unique initiative of Ayurgenomics TRISUTRA consortium. Five aspects that have been carried out are (1) analysis of variability in FDA approved pharmacogenomics genes/SNPs in exomes of 72 healthy individuals including predominant Prakriti types and matched controls from a North Indian Indo-European cohort (2) establishment of a consortium network and development of five genetically homogeneous cohorts from diverse ethnic and geo-climatic background (3) identification of parameters and development of uniform standard protocols for objective assessment of Prakriti types (4) development of protocols for Prakriti evaluation and its application in more than 7500 individuals in the five cohorts (5) Development of data and sample repository and integrative omics pipelines for identification of genomic correlates. Highlight of the study are (1) Exome sequencing revealed significant differences between Prakriti types in 28 SNPs of 11 FDA approved genes of pharmacogenomics relevance viz. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, ESR1, F2, PGR, HLA-B, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, LDLR, CFTR, CPS1. These variations are polymorphic in diverse Indian and world populations included in 1000 genomes project. (2) Based on the phenotypic attributes of

  10. Norrie disease gene sequence variants in an ethnically diverse population with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Kelly A; Paluru, Prasuna C; Bernstein, Steven L; Koh, Jamie; Rappaport, Eric F; Leach, Richard A; Young, Terri L

    2005-07-14

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of visual loss in the pediatric population. Mutations in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) are associated with heritable retinal vascular disorders, and have been found in a small subset of patients with severe retinopathy of prematurity. Varying rates of progression to threshold disease in different races may have a genetic basis, as recent studies suggest that the incidence of NDP mutations may vary in different groups. African Americans, for example, are less likely to develop severe degrees of ROP. We screened a large cohort of ethnically diverse patients for mutations in the entire NDP. A total of 143 subjects of different ethnic backgrounds were enrolled in the study. Fifty-four patients had severe ROP (Stage 3 or worse). Of these, 38 were threshold in at least one eye (with a mean gestational age of 26.1 weeks and mean birth weight of 788.4 g). There were 36 patients with mild or no ROP, 31 parents with no history of retinal disease or prematurity, and 22 wild type (normal) controls. There were 70 African American subjects, 55 Caucasians, and 18 of other races. Severe ROP was noted in 29 African American subjects, 17 Caucasians, and 8 of other races. Seven polymerase chain reaction primer pairs spanning the NDP were optimized for denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Three primer pairs covered the coding region, and the remaining four spanned the 3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTR). Six of 54 (11%) infants with severe ROP had polymorphisms in the NDP. Five of the infants were African American, and one was Caucasian. Two parents were heterozygous for the same polymorphism as their child. One parent-child pair had a single base pair (bp) insertion in the 3' UTR region. Another parent-child pair had two mutations: a 14 bp deletion in the 5' UTR region of exon 1 and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' UTR region of exon 2. No coding region sequence changes were found. No

  11. Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups-Variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Bridget P; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Alexis, Andrew F

    2018-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects diverse ethnic groups with varying prevalence. Despite a predominance of studies in individuals of European ancestry, AD has been found to occur more frequently in Asian and Black individuals than Whites. Therefore, an understanding of the unique clinical features of AD in diverse ethnic groups, as well as the differences in genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to AD and response to current therapies, is paramount for management of an increasingly diverse patient population. In this article, we review key nuances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment of AD in non-White ethnic groups, which are largely underappreciated in the literature. We highlight the need for studies evaluating the tissue molecular and cellular phenotypes of AD in non-White patients, as well as greater inclusion of minority groups in clinical trials, to develop targeted treatments for a multi-ethnic population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diversity at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  13. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  14. Implementation-effectiveness trial of an ecological intervention for physical activity in ethnically diverse low income senior centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porchia Rich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the US population ages, there is an increasing need for evidence based, peer-led physical activity programs, particularly in ethnically diverse, low income senior centers where access is limited. Methods/design The Peer Empowerment Program 4 Physical Activity’ (PEP4PA is a hybrid Type II implementation-effectiveness trial that is a peer-led physical activity (PA intervention based on the ecological model of behavior change. The initial phase is a cluster randomized control trial randomized to either a peer-led PA intervention or usual center programming. After 18 months, the intervention sites are further randomized to continued support or no support for another 6 months. This study will be conducted at twelve senior centers in San Diego County in low income, diverse communities. In the intervention sites, 24 peer health coaches and 408 adults, aged 50 years and older, are invited to participate. Peer health coaches receive training and support and utilize a tablet computer for delivery and tracking. There are several levels of intervention. Individual components include pedometers, step goals, counseling, and feedback charts. Interpersonal components include group walks, group sharing and health tips, and monthly celebrations. Community components include review of PA resources, walkability audit, sustainability plan, and streetscape improvements. The primary outcome of interest is intensity and location of PA minutes per day, measured every 6 months by wrist and hip accelerometers and GPS devices. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Implementation measures include appropriateness & acceptability (perceived and actual fit, adoption & penetration (reach, fidelity (quantity & quality of intervention delivered, acceptability (satisfaction, costs, and sustainability. Discussion Using a peer led implementation strategy to deliver a multi-level community based PA

  15. Harmony of Coastal Community Regarding Its Ethnic Religion and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghsari, Diah; Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Abbas, Nurlaelah

    2018-05-01

    West Papua is often known to be the miniature of Indonesia. The diversity of ethnicity, religion and culture embraced by the people of West Papua is very much like the concept of Bhinneka and Tunggal Ika. However, there is a negative stigma towards the people of West Papua, namely in its underdevelopment and conflicts. This research was conducted in West Papua using the observation method, library research and interview. This study aimed at providing an overview of West Papua using emic and etic approaches. The people of West Papua have an ingredient to maintain harmony, namely through local wisdom such as the term “One Stove Three Stones”, “One House Four Doors” and the principle of brotherhood that is held firmly. Ultimately, this forms a culture of understanding in the community and establishes religious harmony. Apparently, the negative stigma of outsiders about West Papua is formed by the mass media as well as films containing negative elements about West Papua. Therefore, there is a misperception about the people of West Papua.

  16. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies.

  17. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  18. mtDNA sequence diversity of Hazara ethnic group from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep duration, snoring habits, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Matthew; Aggarwal, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Lack of sleep has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Prior research has often been conducted in select populations and has not consistently adjusted for confounders, especially psychosocial factors. The aims of this study were to assess the association between sleep habits and established risk factors for CVD and to evaluate potential interactions by race and gender. Participants were part of a CVD screening and educational outreach program in New York City. Free-living men older than 40 years and women older than 50 years (n = 371, mean age = 60 years, 57% women, 60% racial/ethnic minorities) were systematically assessed for CVD risk (including traditional, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors) and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding sleep habits (including sleep duration and snoring). Lipids were analyzed by validated finger-stick technology. Stress at work and at home was assessed using a validated screening tool from the INTERHEART study. Associations between participants' sleep habits and CVD risk factors/demographic factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of participants who reported sleeping less than 6 hours per night on average was 28%, and 52% of participants reported snoring. Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly (P stress at home, increased financial stress, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Gender modified the association between sleep duration and LDL-C level (P = .04): Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly associated with reduced LDL-C level among women and increased LDL-C level among men. Snoring was significantly associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (stress at work and at home, less than 30 minutes of exercise per day, less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and being overweight

  20. Social ties within school classes : The roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and

  1. Health-Wealth Association among Older Americans: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Using five-year longitudinal data from the AHEAD survey, this study investigated the direction of association between health and wealth among elderly people. In particular, it focused on how this association varied across racial and ethnic groups. The study found that there was a significant nonmonotonic association between health and wealth and…

  2. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Cross-cultural feigning assessment: A systematic review of feigning instruments used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2017-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The most frequently studied cognitive effort measures included the Word Recognition Test, the Test of Memory Malingering, and the Rey 15-item Memory test. The classification accuracy of these measures is compared and the implications of this research literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Understanding and supporting women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a qualitative study in an ethnically diverse UK sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle; Mani, Hamidreza; Patel, Naina; Levy, Miles; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women?s experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group. Methods Women with PCOS were recruited from an ethnically diverse UK community. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was u...

  5. Nation-State Size, Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance in the Advanced Capitalist Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurkoa, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the proposition that the economic performance of advanced capitalist countries depends on their size and ethnic composition. As such it blends insights from two important literatures in comparative political economy. One is exemplified by the work of Peter Katzenstein, who wrote...... the classic treatise on the relationship between nation-state size and economic performance. Another is illustrated by the work of Ernest Gellner, whose work suggested that economic performance depends on the ethnic composition of the nation-state. The argument is tested on pooled data from 30 advanced...... capitalist countries for the 1985 through 2007 period. Regression analysis confirms that ethnically homogenous countries tend to have stronger rates of economic growth during this period than ethnically heterogeneous countries but that neither the size of countries nor the interaction of size and ethnic...

  6. Issues in educating health professionals to meet the diverse needs of patients and other service users from ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevannes, Mel

    2002-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to undertake training needs analysis among a multi-professional group for the purpose of improving care for ethnic minority patients and other service users. Evidence from the literature identifies that some of the explanations advanced for the failure of health professionals to meet the needs of ethnic minorities include lack of understanding of cultural diversities, racism, racial stereotyping, lack of knowledge, exclusivity, and ethnocentrism. While these issues have been addressed in different countries, little work has been carried out to examine these from the perspective of health professionals caring for ethnic minorities. This study is therefore an attempt to find out what health professionals know about caring for patients and other service users from minority ethnic groups and their perception of training needs in this area of work. A pre- and post-training design phase structured the qualitative approach. A purposive sample of individuals working across five health service organizations located in a multi-racial city yielded a multi-professional group of participants. Views of 22 participants were obtained by semi-structured interviews at a pretraining phase. Training needs of health professionals drew on Walklin's (1992) six stages used to structure data collection, data analysis and delivery of training. The post-training phase used questionnaires to evaluate immediate learning that based on a 4-week period of reflection and applied to practice. The questionnaires were complemented by a facilitator-lead focus group. The majority of the participants confirmed that no attention was given in their initial education to the health care needs of minority ethnic groups. Instead, participants engaged in self-initiated learning to improve their knowledge and understanding. The issue of communication was viewed with dissatisfaction and seen as affecting the sufficiency of caring for these patients. All participants rated meeting

  7. Diversity in Older Adults’ Use of the Internet: Identifying Subgroups Through Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, Leonieke C; Peek, Sebastiaan TM; Luijkx, Katrien G

    2017-01-01

    Background As for all individuals, the Internet is important in the everyday life of older adults. Research on older adults’ use of the Internet has merely focused on users versus nonusers and consequences of Internet use and nonuse. Older adults are a heterogeneous group, which may implicate that their use of the Internet is diverse as well. Older adults can use the Internet for different activities, and this usage can be of influence on benefits the Internet can have for them. Objective The aim of this paper was to describe the diversity or heterogeneity in the activities for which older adults use the Internet and determine whether diversity is related to social or health-related variables. Methods We used data of a national representative Internet panel in the Netherlands. Panel members aged 65 years and older and who have access to and use the Internet were selected (N=1418). We conducted a latent class analysis based on the Internet activities that panel members reported to spend time on. Second, we described the identified clusters with descriptive statistics and compared the clusters using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests. Results Four clusters were distinguished. Cluster 1 was labeled as the “practical users” (36.88%, n=523). These respondents mainly used the Internet for practical and financial purposes such as searching for information, comparing products, and banking. Respondents in Cluster 2, the “minimizers” (32.23%, n=457), reported lowest frequency on most Internet activities, are older (mean age 73 years), and spent the smallest time on the Internet. Cluster 3 was labeled as the “maximizers” (17.77%, n=252); these respondents used the Internet for various activities, spent most time on the Internet, and were relatively younger (mean age below 70 years). Respondents in Cluster 4, the “social users,” mainly used the Internet for social and leisure-related activities such as gaming and social network sites. The

  8. Diversity in Older Adults' Use of the Internet: Identifying Subgroups Through Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, Leonieke C; Peek, Sebastiaan Tm; Luijkx, Katrien G

    2017-05-24

    As for all individuals, the Internet is important in the everyday life of older adults. Research on older adults' use of the Internet has merely focused on users versus nonusers and consequences of Internet use and nonuse. Older adults are a heterogeneous group, which may implicate that their use of the Internet is diverse as well. Older adults can use the Internet for different activities, and this usage can be of influence on benefits the Internet can have for them. The aim of this paper was to describe the diversity or heterogeneity in the activities for which older adults use the Internet and determine whether diversity is related to social or health-related variables. We used data of a national representative Internet panel in the Netherlands. Panel members aged 65 years and older and who have access to and use the Internet were selected (N=1418). We conducted a latent class analysis based on the Internet activities that panel members reported to spend time on. Second, we described the identified clusters with descriptive statistics and compared the clusters using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests. Four clusters were distinguished. Cluster 1 was labeled as the "practical users" (36.88%, n=523). These respondents mainly used the Internet for practical and financial purposes such as searching for information, comparing products, and banking. Respondents in Cluster 2, the "minimizers" (32.23%, n=457), reported lowest frequency on most Internet activities, are older (mean age 73 years), and spent the smallest time on the Internet. Cluster 3 was labeled as the "maximizers" (17.77%, n=252); these respondents used the Internet for various activities, spent most time on the Internet, and were relatively younger (mean age below 70 years). Respondents in Cluster 4, the "social users," mainly used the Internet for social and leisure-related activities such as gaming and social network sites. The identified clusters significantly differed in age (PInternet

  9. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  10. Risk Factors of Frailty Among Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Badrasawi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Frailty affected about one tenth of the respondents, but almost two thirds were pre-frail. In addition to gender, other modifiable factors including abdominal obesity and poor physical function were identified as risk factors for frailty and pre-frailty among Malaysian older adults.

  11. Gender, Genocide, and Ethnicity: The Legacies of Older Armenian American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Margaret M.; Walker, Alexis J.; Richards, Leslie N.

    2007-01-01

    Women use legacies to help family members articulate family identity, learn family history, and provide succeeding generations with information about family culture. Using feminist standpoint theory and the life-course perspective, this qualitative study examined the intergenerational transmissions that 30 older Armenian American mothers received…

  12. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  13. Distribution of Biopsy-Proven Presumed Primary Glomerulonephropathies in 2000-2011 Among a Racially and Ethnically Diverse US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Hever, Aviv; Harrison, Teresa N; Avelar, Taurino; Kanter, Michael H; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies vary throughout the world and by race and ethnicity. We sought to evaluate the distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies among a large racially and ethnically diverse population of the United States. Case series from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2011. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) of an integrated health system who underwent native kidney biopsy and had kidney biopsy findings demonstrating focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), minimal change disease (MCD), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and other. Rates and characteristics of the most common primary glomerulonephropathies overall and by race and ethnicity. 2,501 patients with primary glomerulonephropathy were identified, with a mean age 50.6 years, 45.7% women, 36.1% Hispanics, 31.2% non-Hispanic whites, 17.4% blacks, and 12.4% Asians. FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy (38.9%) across all race and ethnic groups, followed by MGN (12.7%), MCD (11.0%), IgAN (10.2%), and other (27.3%). The FSGS category had the greatest proportion of blacks, and patients with FSGS had the highest rate of poverty. IgAN was the second most common glomerulonephropathy among Asians (28.6%), whereas it was 1.2% among blacks. Patients with MGN presented with the highest proteinuria (protein excretion, 8.3g) whereas patients with FSGS had the highest creatinine levels (2.6mg/dL). Overall glomerulonephropathy rates increased annually in our 12-year observation period, driven by FSGS (2.7 cases/100,000) and IgAN (0.7 cases/100,000). MGN and MCD rates remained flat. Missing data for urine albumin and sediment, indication bias in performing kidney biopsies, and inexact classification of primary versus secondary disease. Among a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from a single geographical area and similar environment, FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy, but there was variability of other

  14. Promoting motor skills in low-income, ethnic children: The Physical Activity in Linguistically Diverse Communities (PALDC) nonrandomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Hardy, Louise L; Batterham, Marijka; Pearson, Phillip; McKeen, Kim; Puglisi, Lauren

    2017-11-01

    This study reports the long-term effects of a professional learning program for classroom teachers on fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency of primary school students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. A cluster non-randomized trial using a nested cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in 8 primary schools located in disadvantaged and culturally diverse areas in Sydney, Australia. The intervention used an action learning framework, with each school developing and implementing an action plan for enhancing the teaching of FMS in their school. School teams comprised 4-5 teachers and were supported by a member of the research team. The primary outcome was total proficiency score for 7 FMS (run, jump, catch, throw, kick, leap, side gallop). Outcome data were analyzed using mixed effects models. Eight-hundred and sixty-two students (82% response rate) were assessed at baseline in 2006 and 830 (82%) at follow-up in 2010. Compared with students in the control schools, there was a significantly greater increase in total motor skill proficiency among children in the intervention schools at follow-up (adjusted difference=5.2 components, 95%CI [1.65, 8.75]; p=0.01) and in four of the seven motor skills. Training classroom teachers to develop and implement units of work based around individual FMS is a promising strategy for increasing FMS among ethnically diverse children over an extended period of time. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Call for Diversity: The Need to Recruit and Retain Ethnic Minority Students in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…

  17. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  18. Delivering "Virtual Ethnicity" Drama: A Pedagogical Design for Bridging Digital and Diversity Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study examines an original dramaturgical method for creating virtual world experience called virtual world drama. The instructional focus is improving students' aptitude for analyzing ethnic identity by instilling both conceptual and multicultural competency. An exploratory research method is used, relying on observation (disguised and…

  19. Family Life and Racial and Ethnic Diversity: An Assessment of Communitarianism, Liberalism, and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Gideon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debates among communitarians, liberals, and conservatives regarding contemporary family issues and critically evaluates these perspectives. Current orientations inadequately address the impact of large-scale bureaucratic organizations on family life and do not confront problems relating to ethnic and racial discrimination. Education…

  20. The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Classroom Disruption in the Context of Migration Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Gert-Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We employ…

  1. Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M

    2017-02-08

    Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black

  2. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  3. THE DISCOURSE OF THE DIVERSITY ETHNIC-RACIAL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DIFFERENCES IN THE BLACK SUBJECT FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Inês Weschenfelder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present how the ethnical racial diversity discourse is structured in Venâncio Aires county, RS and in what way it contributes to the formation of the black citizen of Venancio Aires. The analisys of Folha do Mate NewsPaper, the main printed media of the current county, allowed to recognize an ocurred discursive shift, especially, from 1988. As characteristic of Contemporary, the diversity discourse tries to evidence how different cultures live peacefully in the same space, when work around any indication of conflict that may ocurr by the difference, it contributes to the black person formation. From the orientations of the post-structuralist perspectives and from the analitical tools of Michel Foucault, the analises of the discourse intends to enable an important debate in the education field, specially in relation to the forms of governments of the individuals.

  4. Prospective evaluation of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a race/ethnically diverse breast cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jean L.; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Lee, Eunkyung; Nelson, Omar L.; Hu, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a prospective study of a tri-racial/ethnic breast cancer population. We evaluated patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment variables in the first 392 patients in a prospective study assessing radiation-induced skin toxicity. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential predictors of skin toxicity. The study consists of 59 non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 15%), 241 Hispanic Whites (HW; 62%), 79 black or African Americans (AA; 20%), and 13 others (3%). Overall, 48% developed grade 0–1 skin toxicity, 49.8% grade 2, and 2.2% grade 3 by the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale. Twenty-one percent developed moist desquamation. In multivariate analysis, higher body mass index (BMI; OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.15, 3.82), higher disease stage (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.06, 3.11), ER-positive/PR-negative status (OR = 2.74; 95%CI = 1.26, 5.98), and conventionally fractionated regimens (OR = 3.25; 95%CI = 1.76, 6.01) were significantly associated with higher skin toxicity grade after adjustment for age, race, ethnicity, ER status, and breast volume. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, but not degree of erythema. In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the intact breast, risk factors including BMI, disease stage, and conventionally fractionated radiation predicted for higher skin toxicity grade, whereas age, race, ethnicity, and breast volume did not. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, suggesting that preventive measures to address this particular outcome should be investigated

  5. Consistent association of type 2 diabetes risk variants found in europeans in diverse racial and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Waters

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4 and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12 except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het = 3.8×10(-4. We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.

  6. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Masashige; Ito, Kanade; Suzuki, Kayo; Osaka, Ken; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors. Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10-19, 1-9, and 0). Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2). The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation), marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health), and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11). Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste), significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08)). Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.

  7. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Aida

    Full Text Available We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors.Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10-19, 1-9, and 0.Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2. The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation, marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health, and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11. Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste, significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08.Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.

  8. Socioeconomic correlates of smoking among an ethnically diverse sample of 8th grade adolescents in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2007-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with smoking among adolescents, but it is not known which attributes of SES are responsible for the added risk, or whether these associations are consistent in ethnically diverse samples. This study investigated the associations between SES variables and smoking behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 1847 8th grade adolescents in Southern California in 2002. Several aspects of SES were examined: an objective composite measure of family and neighborhood SES, the adolescent's spending money, and the adolescent's perception of SES (family's ability to afford basic necessities, wealth relative to others, and wealth relative to last year). After controlling for demographic characteristics, smoking behavior of parents and friends, and parental monitoring, low scores on the objective SES index and large amounts of pocket money were associated with an increased risk of smoking. The subjective measures of perceived SES were not associated with smoking. Results indicate that increased smoking prevention efforts are needed in low-SES areas, and that limiting adolescents' pocket money may be an effective strategy for preventing smoking.

  9. Physical activity for an ethnically diverse sample of endometrial cancer survivors: a needs assessment and pilot intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Amerigo; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson; Garber, Carol Ewing; Kuo, Dennis; Goldberg, Gary; Einstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity (PA) behavior, needs and preferences for underserved, ethnically diverse women with a history of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Women with a history of EC (41 non-Hispanic black, 40 non-Hispanic white, and 18 Hispanic) completed a needs assessment during their regular follow-up appointments at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, USA. An 8-week pilot PA intervention based on the results of the needs assessment was conducted with 5 EC survivors. Results Mean body mass index (BMI) among the 99 respondents was 34.1±7.6 kg/m2, and 66% did not exercise regularly. Self-described weight status was significantly lower than actual BMI category (p<0.001). Of the 86% who were interested in joining an exercise program, 95% were willing to attend at least once weekly. The primary motivations were improving health, losing weight, and feeling better physically. Despite the high interest in participation, volunteer rate was very low (8%). However, adherence to the 8-week pilot PA intervention was high (83%), and there were no adverse events. Body weight decreased in all pilot participants. Conclusion These data show that ethnically diverse EC survivors have a great need for, and are highly interested in, PA interventions. However, greater care needs to be taken to assess and identify barriers to increase participation in such programs. PMID:25872894

  10. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of banking umbilical cord blood units with high cell dose for ethnically diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 10 7 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 10 7 to 124 or 149 × 10 7 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 10 7 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Perspectives About Family Meals from Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households With and Without an Overweight/Obese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carrie; Draxten, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several quantitative studies have found a protective association between family meal frequency and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors (e.g., healthy dietary intake, less disordered eating behaviors). However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to understand more in depth about family meal-level characteristics (e.g., rules, responsibilities, and interpersonal dynamics) that may be risk or protective factors for child weight and weight-related behaviors. The current study aimed to identify family meal-level characteristics within racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse households that were similar and/or different between households with and without an overweight/obese child. Methods: The current study is a qualitative study including 118 parents of children ages 6–12 who participated in the Family Meals, LIVE! study. Parents (92% female) were from racially/ethnically (87% minority) and socioeconomically (73% meal-level characteristics by child weight status that may provide insight into past research showing significant associations between family meal frequency and child weight and weight-related behaviors. Similar themes between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: family meals provide more healthful food; rules about manners; meal planning; and involving children in meal preparation. Themes that were different between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: connection and communication; “clean your plate rule”; electronic devices; and child behavior problems. Conclusions: Findings from the current study may be useful for developing interventions for racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse households with and without an overweight/obese child to be delivered through family meals. PMID:27045737

  13. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. (Hebrew Univ. Hadassah-Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)) (and others)

    1994-05-01

    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Intercultural procedures and Brazil's ethnic-racial diversity on two portuguese for foreigners didactic books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria de Assunção Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we aim to discuss to what extent the concept of interculturality is present in two textbooks of Portuguese as a foreign language produced in Brazil, and how ethnic group participants of the Brazilian culture are characterized in them. Our guiding principle is the intercultural education that preconizes the development of comprehension and the acknowledgment not only of cultures in contact in the context of teaching and learning languages, but as well of the differences between them.

  15. Intercultural procedures and Brazil's ethnic-racial diversity on two portuguese for foreigners didactic books

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Maria de Assunção Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we aim to discuss to what extent the concept of interculturality is present in two textbooks of Portuguese as a foreign language produced in Brazil, and how ethnic group participants of the Brazilian culture are characterized in them. Our guiding principle is the intercultural education that preconizes the development of comprehension and the acknowledgment not only of cultures in contact in the context of teaching and learning languages, but as well of the differences ...

  16. Differences in manioc diversity among five ethnic groups of the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.M.; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, L.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Manioc is an important root crop in the tropics and the most important staple food in the Amazon. Manioc is diverse but its diversity has not yet been clearly associated with environmental or social factors. Our study evaluates how variation in edaphic environments and in social factors influences

  17. Super-diversity and the art of living in ethnically concentrated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimienti, M.; van Liempt, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how local diversity is being experienced by Somali immigrants who have previously lived in the Netherlands and are now residing in London. It explores the various challenges and potential advantages of living in homogenous urban areas within a super-diverse city and focuses on

  18. Dietary diversity decreases the risk of cognitive decline among Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the effectiveness of dietary diversity, calculated by dietary records, on cognitive decline. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants comprised 298 men and 272 women aged 60-81 years at baseline (second wave) who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least once. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination in all study waves. Dietary diversity was determined using the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity based on a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (increase), or quartiles of the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity at baseline, were adjusted for sex, age, follow-up time, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake and disease history. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio for a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.89; P < 0.001) with a 1 SD increase in dietary diversity score, or 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (95% CI 0.70-1.43), 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-0.99) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.38-0.83) according to the lowest through highest quartiles of dietary diversity score, respectively (trend P = 0.001). Daily intake of various kinds of food might be a protective factor against cognitive decline in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 937-944. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Association of genetic ancestry with breast cancer in ethnically diverse women from Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaima Al-Alem

    Full Text Available Non-Hispanic (nH Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors.We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the "Breast Cancer Care in Chicago" study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities.As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54-0.92 among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56-0.95 among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02 and higher grade (p = 0.012 in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03 in nH Blacks.Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial/ethnic groups.

  20. A theory of ethnic diversity and income distribution: a legislative bargaining approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto Menkyna, Fusako

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, June (2014), s. 52-67 ISSN 0176-2680 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : political economy * diversity * legislative bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  1. Can ethnic-linguistic diversity explain cross country differences in social capital?: a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed an...... diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock....

  2. A nursing career lattice pilot program to promote racial/ethnic diversity in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporing, Eileen; Avalon, Earlene; Brostoff, Marcie

    2012-03-01

    The nursing career lattice program (NCLP) at Children's Hospital Boston has provided employees with social, educational, and financial assistance as they begin or advance their nursing careers. At the conclusion of a pilot phase, 35% of employees in the NCLP were enrolled in nursing school and 15% completed nursing school. The NCLP exemplifies how a workforce diversity initiative can lead to outcomes that support and sustain a culture rich in diversity and perpetuate excellence in nursing in one organization.

  3. Extension of the behavioral model of healthcare utilization with ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lisa A; Marshall, Linda L; Eve, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial vulnerabilities were added to a model of healthcare utilization. This extension was tested among low-income women with ethnicity addressed as a moderator. Structured interviews were conducted at 2 points in time, approximately 1 year apart. The constructs of psychosocial vulnerability, demographic predisposing, barriers, and illness were measured by multiple indicators to allow use of Structural Equation Modeling to analyze results. The models were tested separately for each ethnic group. Community office. African-American (N = 266), Euro-American (N = 200), and Mexican-American (N = 210) women were recruited from the Dallas Metropolitan area to participate in Project Health Outcomes of Women, a multi-year, multi-wave study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with this sample. Participants had been in heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year, were between 20 and 49 years of age, and had incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level. Healthcare utilization, defined as physician visits and general healthcare visits. Illness mediated the effect of psychosocial vulnerability on healthcare utilization for African Americans and Euro-Americans. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex. Psychosocial vulnerability on illness was partially mediated by barriers, which also directly affected utilization. Psychosocial vulnerabilities were significant utilization predictors for healthcare use for all low-income women in this study. The final models for the 2 minority groups, African Americans and Mexican Americans, were quite different. Hence, women of color should not be considered a homogeneous group in comparison to Euro-Americans.

  4. Variations in BMI and prevalence of health risks in diverse racial and ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A

    2010-09-01

    When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites, blacks, East Asians and Hispanics, we examine differences in the BMI-health-risk relationships for small BMI increments. The analysis is based on 11 years of data of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), with a sample size of 337,375 for the combined 1997-2007 Sample Adult. The analysis uses multivariate logistic regression models, employing a nonparametric approach to modeling the BMI-health-risk relationship, while relying on narrowly defined BMI categories. Rising BMI levels are associated with higher levels of chronic disease burdens in four major racial and ethnic groups, even after adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and three important health-related behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption). For all population groups, except East Asians, a modestly higher disease risk was noted for persons with a BMI ethnic groups regardless of BMI levels, the evidence presented here does not support the notion that the BMI-health-risk profile of East Asians and others warrants race-specific BMI cutoff points.

  5. How diverse was the leisure time physical activity of older Australians over the past decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafna, Merom; Carmen, Cosgrove; Kamalesh, Venugopal; Adrian, Bauman

    2012-05-01

    Public health recommendations for older adults highlight the need to engage in a combination of aerobic, muscle strength, flexibility and balance activities. This study characterised leisure time physical activity in older Australians (≥ 65 years), examining the diversity in reported activities Cross-sectional monitoring. The Exercise Recreation and Sport Surveys (2001-2009) were combined and analysed for 22,050 elderly. Walking was reported by 45.6%, of those 53% engaged exclusively in walking. Prevalent sports (i.e., >1%) were bowls (9.4%), aerobics/callisthenics exercise (9.1%), golf (7.7%), swimming (6.4%), gym work (5.2%), cycling (3.2%), tennis (2.9%), dancing (2.1%), fishing (2.0%), tai chi (1.4%), weight lifting (1.2%) and yoga (1.1%). Significant gender differences were apparent. Over time, significant increases were reported in walking, aerobic/callisthenics and gym workout in both genders. In the previous year, 32.0% of older adults participated in "nil" activity, 40.6% engaged in one activity, 19.5% and 8.0% participated in two or three or more activities, respectively. Common combinations were walking with another aerobic activity. Only 2.6% reported a combination of aerobic, balance and strength activities. Multiple-activity participation increased over the years, but declined with increasing age, education and for the most disadvantaged, compared to single-activity participation. Partially or exclusively organised participation, combined, was reported by 42.5% of older adults. Women were more likely to combine mode of participation. Geographic region was associated with multiple-activity participation and organised-only participation. Most elderly people engage in one activity, if at all. An increase in participation in balance enhancing activities and weight training is warranted to maximize health benefits. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.

  7. Effects of gender discrimination and reported stress on drug use among racially/ethnically diverse women in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Gender discrimination has been associated with worse health outcomes for U.S. women. Using the stress and coping process framework, we examined whether lifetime gender discrimination was associated with maladaptive coping behaviors, namely, lifetime and recent hard drug use. We also considered whether reported stress from gender discrimination mediated this relationship and whether this process differed across racial/ethnic groups. We used data from a racially/ethnically diverse convenience sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11% African American, 17% Latina, 10% Asian, and 62% Caucasian). To test our hypotheses, we conducted logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Gender discrimination was positively associated with both lifetime and recent hard drug use. We did not find support for the mediation hypothesis, because stress was not associated with either lifetime or recent hard drug use. There was evidence of some race moderation for the Latina sample. Among these respondents, gender discrimination was associated with higher odds of lifetime drug use, whereas stress was associated with lower odds. These results suggest that experiences of gender discrimination may still activate negative coping strategies involving drug use, regardless of the stress they cause. For Latina respondents, more research is needed to better understand the stress and coping process related to gender discrimination. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  8. Feeling the beat: the meaning of rap music for ethnically diverse Midwestern college students--a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Creswell, John; Caldwell, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Despite its national and international appeal, rap is considered one of the most controversial of music genres. Given the political charge it generates, rap music has spawned research across the social and health sciences. The majority of the research has investigated its impact on African Americans. Further, the research has tended to focus on negative aspects of the music; there has been a dearth of in-depth qualitative studies that explore how rap impacts the listener. Our phenomenological study explores that impact on ethnically diverse college students. Results indicate a profound psychological and educational effect and the discussion goes on to highlight the potential and innovative ways rap music can be utilized with adolescents in fields such as education, risk reduction programs, and counseling psychology.

  9. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, hormonal contraceptive use, and cardiometabolic disease risk in an ethnically diverse population of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bailo, Bibiana; Karmali, Mohamed; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vitamin D and cardiometabolic disease risk across ethnic groups is unclear, and it is not known whether the use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs), which affect vitamin D metabolism and are also associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, modifies this relationship. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] variation in concentrations of 25(OH)D, and to examine whether 25(OH)D is associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers across ethnic groups and across men, female HC nonusers, and female HC users in an ethnically diverse population of young adults living in Canada. The study population consisted of Caucasian, East Asian, and South Asian individuals (n = 1384, 69% female) aged 20-29 years. Participants provided overnight fasting blood samples, from which plasma 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured. Vitamin D status distributions were compared using χ(2) tests, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine seasonal variations in 25(OH)D, as well as the association between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic biomarkers, across groups. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations fluctuated seasonally among Caucasians and East Asians and across men, female HC nonusers, and female HC users, but they remained low year-round in South Asians, half of whom were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-beta among Caucasians and East Asians and among men and female HC nonusers and with higher triglycerides among men only. No biomarkers were associated with 25(OH)D among South Asians and female HC users, although nonsignificant trends were observed for higher markers of glycemic dysregulation in those who were vitamin D deficient in both groups. Vitamin D deficiency varies between ethnic groups and is particularly high among South Asians

  11. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh, Rebecca Meiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03, while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05 whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001, White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001. The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05, and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0.05. Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%, and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%. Regardless of ethnicity, children who

  12. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

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    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  13. Cultural intelligence: A Pathway for Emergency Responder Engagement with Ethnically Diverse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6, no. 4 (2012): 297, doi: 10.1111/j.1751...subjective culture .34 According to this research, “Subjective cultural aspects include hidden, psychological factors such as values, beliefs, norms...research from leading researchers in the “domains of international and cross - cultural management as well as management of domestic diversity.”65 A

  14. Factors affecting walking activity of older people from culturally diverse groups: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

  16. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Library Collections: Ownership and Access of African American and U.S. Latino Periodical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Garcia, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    Measures ownership of and access to African American and Latino periodical literature, illustrating the successes and failures in promoting racial and ethnic diversity in research libraries belonging to the ARL (Association of Research Libraries). Discusses desirability of multicultural collections; bibliographic control and access issues; and…

  17. Math Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Linguistically and Ethnically Diverse High School Students: Their Relationships with English Reading and Native Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The under-preparation in math at the high school and college levels, as well as the low participation of ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in STEM fields are concerning because their preparation for work in these areas is essential for the U.S. to remain competitive in the innovative knowledge economy. While there is now a…

  18. Diversity of human lip prints: a collaborative study of ethnically distinct world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namita Alok; Eldomiaty, Magda Ahmed; Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; George, Adekunle Olufemi; Garud, Rajendra Somnath; Sánchez-Andrés, Angeles; Almasry, Shaima Mohamed; Rivaldería, Noemí; Al-Gaidi, Sami Awda; Ilesanmi, Toyosi

    2014-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is a comparatively recent counterpart to the long established dactyloscopic studies. Ethnic variability of these lip groove patterns has not yet been explored. This study was a collaborative effort aimed at establishing cheiloscopic variations amongst modern human populations from four geographically and culturally far removed nations: India, Saudi Arabia, Spain and Nigeria. Lip prints from a total of 754 subjects were collected and each was divided into four equal quadrants. The patterns were classified into six regular types (A-F), while some patterns which could not be fitted into the regular ones were segregated into G groups (G-0, G-1, G-2). Furthermore, co-dominance of more than one pattern type in a single quadrant forced us to identify the combination (COM, G-COM) patterns. The remarkable feature noted after compilation of the data included pattern C (a bifurcate/branched prototype extending the entire height of the lip) being a frequent feature of the lips of all the populations studied, save for the Nigerian population in which it was completely absent and which showed a tendency for pattern A (a vertical linear groove) and a significantly higher susceptibility for combination (COM) patterns. Chi-square test and correspondence analysis applied to the frequency of patterns appearing in the defined topographical areas indicated a significant variation for the populations studied.

  19. Clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in Israel: impact of ethnic and social diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajnah, Muhammad; Sharkia, Rajech; Shalabe, Haitham; Terkel-Dawer, Ruth; Akawi, Ashraf; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P < 0.05), while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS) were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahajnah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  1. Glycaemic control and quality of life among ethnically diverse Malaysian diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Aqil Mohammad; AlMashoor, Syed Ahmad H; Winn, Than

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL) among a sample of Malaysians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 256 patients from three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Data about QoL were collected with the 18-item Audit of Diabetes Dependent QoL questionnaire. Other data about putative predictors of QoL including personal characteristics and disease-related factors were also collected. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to determine factors associated with QoL and to control for confounding variables. The mean age of participants was 56.79 years. Participants were mostly women, employed and married and had attained secondary education. More than a third of the patients had a disease duration of more than 10 years, and about two-thirds had HbA1c ≥ 6.5 %. Those with desired glycaemic control had poorer QoL than those with less than desired glycaemic control moderated by the use of insulin. Hierarchical multiple linear regression showed that desired glycaemic control (HbA1c), diabetes worry, use of insulin, more than 10 years' duration of diabetes, neuropathy and retinopathy were associated with poor QoL, whereas being satisfied with waiting time for consultation was associated with better QoL. The results of this study show that diabetes was associated with negative impact on quality of life. The use of insulin to achieve desired glycaemic control was particularly associated with negative impact on QoL.

  2. Overview of an REU program: A case study in gender parity, ethnic diversity, and community college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. K.; Noriega, G.; Benthien, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (USEIT) is an REU Internship Program focused in multi-disciplinary, collaborative research offered through the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC); a research consortium focused on earthquake science. USEIT is an 8-week intensive undergraduate research program. The program is designed for interns to work as a collaborative engine to solve an overarching real-world earthquake problem referred to as the "Grand Challenge". The interns are organized in teams and paired with mentors that have expertise in their specific task in the Grand Challenge. The program is focused around earthquake system science, where students have the opportunity to use super computers, programming platforms, geographic information systems, and internally designed and developed visualization software. The goal of the USEIT program is to motivate undergraduates from diverse backgrounds towards careers in science and engineering through team-based research in the field of earthquake information technology. Efforts are made to recruit students with diverse backgrounds, taking into consideration gender, ethnic background, socioeconomic standing, major, college year, and institution type (2-year and 4-year colleges). USEIT has a partnership with two local community colleges to recruit underserved students. Our emphasis is to attract students that would 1) grow and develop technical skills, soft skills, and confidence from the program, and 2) provide perspective and innovation to the program. USEIT offers on-campus housing to provide a submerged learning environment, recruits diverse majors to foster interdisciplinary collaboration, maintains a full time in lab mentor for day-to-day intern needs, takes students on field trips to provide context to their research, and plans activities and field trips for team building and morale. Each year metrics are collected through exit surveys, personal statements, and intern experience

  3. Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) in ethnically diverse college women: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury, Liya M; Rozalski, Vincent; Barchard, Kimberly A; Warren, Cortney S

    2018-03-01

    Extant research suggests that disordered eating is common in college women and is associated with decreased quality of life. The Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) examines impairment to disordered eating-related quality of life, but has not been validated in college women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the EDQLS in a diverse sample of 971 college women. Students from a large United States university completed questionnaires examining disordered eating and the EDQLS online. The EDQLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). Contrary to the original 12-domain design of the EDQLS, principal component analyses suggested five factors that mapped onto the following constructs: (1) Positive Emotionality; (2) Body/Weight Dissatisfaction; (3) Disordered Eating Behaviors; (4) Negative Emotionality; and (5) Social Engagement. However, 15 of the 40 items loaded onto multiple factors. Total scores on the EDQLS are reliable and valid when used with diverse samples of college women, but some revisions are needed to create subscales than can justifiably be used in clinical practice.

  4. Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  6. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  7. Comparing the importance of different aspects of quality of life to older adults across diverse cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzahn, Anita E; Kalfoss, Mary; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-03-01

    there is limited research examining the relative importance of aspects of quality of life (QOL) to older adults across cultures. to examine the relative importance of 31 internationally agreed areas of QOL to older adults in 22 countries in relation to health status, age and level of economic development. a survey quota sampling design was used to collect cross-cultural data. This study reports a secondary analysis of WHOQOL-OLD pilot study, which was collected simultaneously in 22 centres. a variety of community, primary, secondary and tertiary health care settings located in Australia, France, Switzerland, England, Scotland, USA, Israel, Spain, Japan, China (mainland and Hong Kong), Turkey, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Hungary, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Brazil and Uruguay. the total sample contained 7,401 people over 60 years with a mean age of 73.1 years; 57.8% were women and 70.1% considered themselves 'healthy'. there were significant differences in the importance given to various aspects of QOL for people living in medium and high-development countries. Culture explained 15.9% of the variance in the importance ratings of QOL. However, the interaction showed that cultural differences were reduced once health status, gender and age were taken into account. The importance of QOL to age bands in different cultures was not significantly affected by whether or not participants perceived themselves to be healthy. understanding the self-reported importance of diverse aspects of QOL for different cultures and for healthy and less healthy people may assist national and international policy makers to decide on priorities for the development of programmes for the ageing population.

  8. Ethnic Identity in Diverse Schools: Preadolescents' Private Regard and Introjection in relation to Classroom Norms and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, Nadya; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2018-06-19

    Ethnic identity plays a key role in the normative development of children and adolescents, and efforts to provide a positive and safe environment for ethnic identity benefit from an understanding of its context-dependency. Following the social identity perspective, we add to research on ethnic identity by considering the role of the classroom context and by conceptualizing ethnic identity in terms of two key dimensions. Specifically, the present study aims to investigate the role of the classroom context for ethnic private regard (positive ethnic self-feelings) and for the under-researched construct of ethnic introjection (subjective self-group merging). These two dimensions of ethnic identity were examined in 51 Dutch school classes among grade 4-6 students (N = 573; M age  = 10.77, SD = 1.02; 54% girls) of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic background. We focused on teachers' multicultural norms and classmates' evaluation of the ethnic in-group (peer group norms) in combination with the ethnic class composition. It was found that ethnic introjection was empirically distinct from ethnic private regard, and that the former dimension depended on the classroom context more than the latter. Multicultural teacher norms affected minority preadolescents' private regard positively, but only when the share of in-group classmates was low. Positive peer group norms of in-group classmates strengthened students' introjection, while those of out-group classmates lowered it. The findings indicate that ethnic identity research will be enhanced by more fully considering the conceptual and contextual implications of the social identity perspective.

  9. Evaluation of a National E-Mentoring Program for Ethnically Diverse Student Nurse-Midwives and Student Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Welch, Maria

    2016-11-01

    The US racial profile is changing rapidly, yet the nursing and midwifery professions are not evolving accordingly. The lack of racial and ethnic diversity within these health professions negatively affects efforts to eliminate persistent health disparities. To address this issue, the Midwives of Color Committee (MOCC) of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a national online mentoring program in 2011 to support midwifery students of color. An evaluation of the program is reported here. This was a descriptive study conducted via online surveys mailed to 44 mentors and 42 mentees who participated in the program during 2012. Categorical survey responses were compared between groups, and open-ended responses were evaluated for common themes. Response rates differed across groups. Half of the mentors responded (50%), while only 38.1% of the mentees responded. The majority of mentors and mentees rated the program as either excellent or good and felt the program should continue. Both mentors and mentees shared similar positive ratings about the effectiveness of the application, speed with which matching occurred, and satisfaction with mentee-mentor match; they also share less favorable ratings regarding frequency of communication, impact of geographic proximity, and academic support need and response. Both groups desired to live closer to one another and communicate more. This study suggests that the online mentoring program for student midwives of color currently being offered should continue but with enhancements to improve the face-to-face mentoring experience, including the use of computer-based technology. Other program improvements are also recommended. To be truly effective, mentoring programs must meet the needs of mentors and mentees; future evaluations should clarify their potential as an important tool for increasing diversity. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Self-esteem, diet self-efficacy, body mass index, and eating disorders: modeling effects in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jessica F; Frazier, Leslie D; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin A

    2016-09-01

    Disordered eating patterns, particularly binge eating, are prevalent in Hispanic samples, yet the biopsychosocial risk factors remain understudied in minority populations. The relationship between diet self-efficacy and bulimic symptoms has been established in non-Hispanic white samples but not yet in Hispanics. This study sought to identify the direct role of diet self-efficacy on eating disorder risk and symptomology in a multicultural Hispanic sample, and to investigate the potential indirect relations among diet self-efficacy, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and eating disorder risk and symptomology in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. The present study surveyed 1339 college students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Participants completed four standardized scales to assess acculturation, diet self-efficacy, global self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomology and risk. Self-reported height and weight were used for BMI calculations, and the data were analyzed in a robust maximum-likelihood structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings highlighted diet self-efficacy as a predictor of eating disorder risk and symptomology. Diet self-efficacy partially explained the covariation between self-esteem and eating disorder risk and symptomology, and between BMI and eating disorder risk and symptomology for the entire sample. Diet self-efficacy emerged as an important construct to consider in developing eating disorder prevention and treatment models.

  11. A Prescription for Internet Access: Appealing to Middle-Aged and Older Racial and Ethnic Minorities Through Social Network Sites to Combat Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Mabachi, Natabhona; Lee, Jaehoon; Pacheco, Christina; Greiner, K Allen; Geana, Mugur

    2017-07-01

    The popularity and usage of social media networks or SNS (social networking sites) among American Internet users age 50 and over doubled between 2009 and 2010 and has steadily climbed. Part of this increased access may be the result of older adults who are living with a chronic disease and are reaching out for online support. Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is among those concerns, particularly among middle-age and older minority populations where disparities exist. This exploratory study investigates information seeking behavior related to cancer factors (e.g. testing for colon cancer, cancer fatalism) and current social media usage among racial and ethnic minority groups (African American and Latinos) and Whites age 50 and older. The secondary data from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was analyzed to compare these populations. Results show that African Americans and Latinos were only slightly more likely to use social network sites to seek out cancer information compared to Whites. However, Whites were more likely to use the Internet to seek health information compared to African Americans and Latinos. In this sample, Whites were also more likely to be informed by a physician about CRC testing (p social media networks, Internet sites) have increased among older Americans and can serve as critical channels for cancer information and education.

  12. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Applied Cognition - General Concerns, Short Forms in Ethnically Diverse Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieo, Robert; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Eimicke, Joseph P; Crane, Paul K; Cella, David; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    The goals of these analyses were to examine the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of a self-reported cognition measure, the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) Applied Cognition - General Concerns short form. These items are also found in the PROMIS Cognitive Function (version 2) item bank. This scale consists of eight items related to subjective cognitive concerns. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of gender, education, race, age, and (Spanish) language were performed using an ethnically diverse sample ( n = 5,477) of individuals with cancer. This is the first analysis examining DIF in this item set across ethnic and racial groups. DIF hypotheses were derived by asking content experts to indicate whether they posited DIF for each item and to specify the direction. The principal DIF analytic model was item response theory (IRT) using the graded response model for polytomous data, with accompanying Wald tests and measures of magnitude. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using ordinal logistic regression (OLR) with a latent conditioning variable. IRT-based reliability, precision and information indices were estimated. DIF was identified consistently only for the item, brain not working as well as usual. After correction for multiple comparisons, this item showed significant DIF for both the primary and sensitivity analyses. Black respondents and Hispanics in comparison to White non-Hispanic respondents evidenced a lower conditional probability of endorsing the item, brain not working as well as usual. The same pattern was observed for the education grouping variable: as compared to those with a graduate degree, conditioning on overall level of subjective cognitive concerns, those with less than high school education also had a lower probability of endorsing this item. DIF was also observed for age for two items after correction for multiple comparisons for both the IRT and OLR-based models: "I have had

  13. Wider-community Segregation and the Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Diversity on Social Capital: An Investigation into Intra-Neighbourhood Trust in Great Britain and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that neighbourhood ethnic diversity is negatively associated with intra-neighbourhood social capital. This study explores the role of segregation and integration in this relationship. To do so it applies three-level hierarchical linear models to two sets of data from across Great Britain and within London, and examines how segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested impacts trust amongst neighbours. This study replicates the increasingly ubiquitous finding that neighbourhood diversity is negatively associated with neighbour-trust. However, we demonstrate that this relationship is highly dependent on the level of segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested. Increasing neighbourhood diversity only negatively impacts neighbour-trust when nested in more segregated wider-communities. Individuals living in diverse neighbourhoods nested within integrated wider-communities experience no trust-penalty. These findings show that segregation plays a critical role in the neighbourhood diversity/trust relationship, and that its absence from the literature biases our understanding of how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion.

  14. The color and texture of hope: some preliminary findings and implications for hope theory and counseling among diverse racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C; Banks, Kira Hudson

    2007-04-01

    To clarify and extend Snyder's (1994, 2002) hope theory to a more diverse population, this study examined variations in agentic and pathways thinking, and their relations with social problem solving, affect, and with life satisfaction across a college student sample of 46 European Americans, 30 African Americans, 33 Latinos, and 46 Asian Americans. Although comparative results indicated variations in levels of hope components across the 4 racial/ethnic groups, correlational results indicated that the manner in which hope components related to measures of behavior and adjustment were similar across groups. Regression results indicated similarities and differences in predictors of hope components across the different racial/ethnic groups. Potential implications for promoting hope in working with diverse college students are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Cultural processes in parenting and youth outcomes: examining a model of racial-ethnic socialization and identity in diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Johnson, Deborah J

    2009-04-01

    We review and summarize the findings across 7 studies contained in the special section titled, "Racial-Ethnic Socialization, Identity, and Youth Outcomes: Excavating Culture." These studies represent a significant advance for research in issues related to the impact of racial-ethnic socialization and identity on child outcomes. All 7 studies attempted to test in whole or part a hypothetical model in which ethnic-racial socialization in families of color is related to child psychosocial and academic outcomes directly and indirectly through effects on self-system variables such as racial-ethnic identity and self-esteem. Two types of racial socialization messages were of particular interest: messages that promote cultural pride (referred to as ethnic or cultural socialization) and messages that address children's exposure to discrimination (referred to as racial socialization). Collectively, the studies suggest that ethnic-racial socialization processes are related to youth outcomes through indirect associations with ethnic-racial identity and self-esteem. Findings were most consistent in the studies with African American youth and some aspects of the model were not supported for American Indian and Chinese youth. Ethnic and racial group differences and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents’ Perspectives about Feeding Practices with Siblings among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents’ perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least two siblings. Setting Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota. Participants Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned siblings. Analysis Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Results Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making one meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (e.g., food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Conclusions and Implications Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. PMID:27373864

  17. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents' Perspectives About Feeding Practices With Siblings Among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents' perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least 2 siblings. Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St Paul Minnesota. Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned Parents' perceptions of feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making 1 meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (eg, food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnic variations in the relationship between multiple stress domains and use of several types of tobacco/nicotine products among a diverse sample of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Rogers

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Financial strain and discrimination are consistent predictors of negative health outcomes and maladaptive coping behaviors, including tobacco use. Although there is considerable information exploring stress and smoking, limited research has examined the relationship between patterns of stress domains and specific tobacco/nicotine product use. Even fewer studies have assessed ethnic variations in these relationships. Methods: This study investigated the relationship between discrimination and financial strain and current tobacco/nicotine product use and explored the ethnic variation in these relationships among diverse sample of US adults (N = 1068. Separate logistic regression models assessed associations between stress domains and tobacco/nicotine product use, adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and household income. Due to statistically significant differences, the final set of models was stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Higher levels of discrimination were associated with higher odds of all three tobacco/nicotine product categories. Financial strain was positively associated with combustible tobacco and combined tobacco/nicotine product use. Financial strain was especially risky for Non-Hispanic Whites (AOR:1.191, 95%CI:1.083–1.309 and Blacks/African Americans (AOR:1.542, 95%CI:1.106–2.148, as compared to other groups, whereas discrimination was most detrimental for Asians/Pacific Islanders (AOR:3.827, 95%CI:1.832–7.997 and Hispanics/Latinas/Latinos (AOR:2.517, 95%CI:1.603–3.952. Conclusions: Findings suggest discrimination and financial stressors are risk factors for use of multiple tobacco/nicotine products, highlighting the importance of prevention research that accounts for these stressors. Because ethnic groups may respond differently to stress/strain, prevention research needs to identify cultural values, beliefs, and coping strategies that can buffer the negative consequences of

  19. A Canadian qualitative study exploring the diversity of the experience of family caregivers of older adults with multiple chronic conditions using a social location perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison; Sethi, Bharati; Duggleby, Wendy; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Peacock, Shelley; Ghosh, Sunita

    2016-03-02

    A little-studied issue in the provision of care at home by informal caregivers is the increase in older adult patients with chronic illness, and more specifically, multiple chronic conditions (MCC). We know little about the caregiving experience for this population, particularly as it is affected by social location, which refers to either a group's or individual's place/location in society at a given time, based on their intersecting demographics (age, gender, education, race, immigration status, geography, etc.). We have yet to fully comprehend the combined influence of these intersecting axes on caregivers' health and wellbeing, and attempt to do this by using an intersectionality approach in answering the following research question: How does social location influence the experience of family caregivers of older adults with MCC? The data presented herein is a thematic analysis of a qualitative sub-set of a large two-province study conducted using a repeated-measures embedded mixed method design. A survey sub-set of 20 survey participants per province (n = 40 total) were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. In the first stage of data analysis, Charmaz's (2006) Constructivist Grounded Theory Method (CGTM) was used to develop initial codes, focused codes, categories and descriptive themes. In the second and the third stages of analysis, intersectionality was used to develop final analytical themes. The following four themes describe the overall study findings: (1) Caregiving Trajectory, where three caregiving phases were identified; (2) Work, Family, and Caregiving, where the impact of caregiving was discussed on other areas of caregivers' lives; (3) Personal and Structural Determinants of Caregiving, where caregiving sustainability and coping were deliberated, and; (4) Finding Meaning/Self in Caregiving, where meaning-making was highlighted. The intersectionality approach presented a number of axes of diversity as comparatively more important

  20. Managing the safe mobility of older road users: How to cope with their diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an ageing population, the management of older people's safe mobility is becoming an increasingly important issue. Mobility is vital for older people's quality of life and several examples of good practice that support older people's safe mobility already exist. However...... groups who are already users and improve their (safe) use of the preferred transport mode. However, they do not seem to succeed in increasing mobility options, e.g. by encouraging car-reliant users to cycle or use public transport or by helping older women to continue to drive. We advise that existing...... systems, a lack of programmes to increase perceived security, as well as a comprehensive scheme for older drivers who have to stop driving....

  1. Workers of the world unite (or not?) The effect of ethnic diversity on the participation in trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Benos, Nikos; Kammas, Pantelis

    2018-01-01

    This paper advances the hypothesis that workers participate less in trade unions in more ethnically fragmented societies. This hypothesis dates back at least to Marx and Engels who first suggested that increased ethnic and racial antipathies among workers undermine class consciousness and weaken the unity of the working class in the United States. Building on a set of innovative instruments derived from biogeography and more precisely the parasite-stress theory of values and sociality (Finche...

  2. Sexual Behaviors, Healthcare Interactions, and HIV-Related Perceptions Among Adults Age 60 Years and Older: An Investigation by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude-Hosch, Jonathan A; Smith, Matthew Lee; Heckman, Timothy G; Miles, Toni P; Olubajo, Babatunde A; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are remaining sexually active for longer periods of time, underscoring the need to assess sexual activity patterns in this group and identify differences by race/ethnicity, some of which may have implications for the development and implementation of sexual risk reduction interventions. Using data from the 2010 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study examined responses from 1,429 adults aged 60 years and older. Multinomial logistic regression compared sexual behaviors, health-related indicators, interactions with healthcare professionals, and HIV-related perceptions across participants' race/ethnicity. Approximately 81% of participants self-reported as non-Hispanic white, 10.59% as African American, and 8.05% as Hispanic. On average, participants were 69.9 years of age. In the previous year, 49.3% of participants engaged in sexual intercourse; only 3% used condoms. The majority of participants (83.1%) visited a physician at least twice in the previous year, 30.9% had discussed sex with a physician since turning 50, and 14.2% had been tested for HIV. Relative to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans were more likely to be divorced (OR=3.23, Psexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses (OR=1.67, P=0.030); and have paid for sex (OR=2.83, P=0.002). Although African Americans had greater perceived risk for HIV infection (OR=1.66, P=0.046), they were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician since turning 50 (OR=0.45, P=0.009). Contextualized interventions to improve patient-provider communication and proactive screening behaviors in sexually-active and aging African Americans are needed.

  3. Ethnicity/culture modulates the relationships of the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 phenotype with cognitive function in older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Hoffman, Hadas; Preiss, Rachel; Koifmann, Keren; Greenbaum, Lior; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M; Leroith, Derek; Sano, Mary; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2016-05-01

    The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype has been associated with cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Because ethnicity/culture has been associated with both cognitive function and Hp genotype frequencies, we examined whether it modulates the association of Hp with cognitive function. This cross-sectional study evaluated 787 cognitively normal older individuals (>65 years of age) with type 2 diabetes participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Interactions in two-way analyses of covariance compared Group (Non-Ashkenazi versus Ashkenazi Jews) on the associations of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1 versus non- Hp 1-1) with five cognitive outcome measures. The primary control variables were age, gender, and education. Compared with Ashkenazi Jews, non-Ashkenazi Jews with the Hp 1-1 phenotype had significantly poorer cognitive function than non-Hp 1-1 in the domains of Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.035) and Executive Function (p = 0.023), but not in Language/Semantic Categorization (p = 0.432), Episodic Memory (p = 0.268), or Overall Cognition (p = 0.082). After controlling for additional covariates (type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, Mini-mental State Examination, and extent of depressive symptoms), Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.038) and Executive Function (p = 0.013) remained significant. Older individuals from specific ethnic/cultural backgrounds with the Hp 1-1 phenotype may benefit more from treatment targeted at decreasing or halting the detrimental effects of Hp 1-1 on the brain. Future studies should examine differential associations of Hp 1-1 and cognitive impairment, especially for groups with high prevalence of both, such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.

  5. "Doctor, Make My Decisions": Decision Control Preferences, Advance Care Planning, and Satisfaction With Communication Among Diverse Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Catherine; Feuz, Mariko A; McMahan, Ryan D; Miao, Yinghui; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Culturally diverse older adults may prefer varying control over medical decisions. Decision control preferences (DCPs) may profoundly affect advance care planning (ACP) and communication. To determine the DCPs of diverse, older adults and whether DCPs are associated with participant characteristics, ACP, and communication satisfaction. A total of 146 participants were recruited from clinics and senior centers in San Francisco. We assessed DCPs using the control preferences scale: doctor makes all decisions (low), shares with doctor (medium), makes own decisions (high). We assessed associations between DCPs and demographics; prior advance directives; ability to make in-the-moment goals of care decisions; self-efficacy, readiness, and prior asked questions; and satisfaction with patient-doctor communication (on a five-point Likert scale), using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Mean age was 71 ± 10 years, 53% were non-white, 47% completed an advance directive, and 70% made goals of care decisions. Of the sample, 18% had low DCPs, 33% medium, and 49% high. Older age was the only characteristic associated with DCPs (low: 75 ± 11 years, medium: 69 ± 10 years, high: 70 ± 9 years, P = 0.003). DCPs were not associated with ACP, in-the-moment decisions, or communication satisfaction. Readiness was the only question-asking behavior associated (low: 3.8 ± 1.2, medium: 4.1 ± 1.2, high: 4.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.05). Nearly one-fifth of diverse, older adults want doctors to make their medical decisions. Older age and lower readiness to ask questions were the only demographic variables significantly associated with low DCPs. Yet, older adults with low DCPs still engaged in ACP, asked questions, and reported communication satisfaction. Clinicians can encourage ACP and questions for all patients, but should assess DCPs to provide the desired amount of decision support. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All

  6. The role of emotional vulnerability and abuse in the financial exploitation of older people from culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannettino, Lana; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Adams, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    While the literature acknowledges that older people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) communities are particularly susceptible to financial abuse by their family members, there is a dearth of research that explores the nature of CaLD older people's vulnerability to this form of abuse. This case study examines unique dynamics shaping this form of abuse and demonstrates how emotional vulnerability and dependence, exacerbated by cultural and linguistic disconnection, can place older people at risk.

  7. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (E-cigarette/Vape) use and Co-Occurring Health-Risk Behaviors Among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Teeter, Heather

    2018-01-02

    Prevalence rates of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; i.e., e-cigarette/vape) use has grown exponentially in the past few years. College students present a particularly vulnerable group for ENDS use. The current study sought to expand the literature by examining the context in which college students use ENDS, co-occurring health risks beyond traditional tobacco use, and the role of ethnicity in ENDS use. Health-risk behavior survey data was collected from 452 undergraduates attending a large, public urban university during the 2015-2016 academic year. Ever ENDS users vs. non-ENDS users were compared across potential demographic, health-risk, and other health-related correlates. Almost 40% of participants reported lifetime use of ENDS. No ethnic or sex differences were found. The primary source for obtaining ENDS was friends and ENDS were most often used with friends vs. alone or with others not considered friends. Participants engaging in risky alcohol use and cigarette smoking had a higher likelihood of endorsing ENDS use. Conclusions/Importance: The current study indicated that a large proportion of college students have tried ENDS irrespective of ethnicity or sex. An increasingly normative social context may inform the popularity of ENDS use across ethnicity and sex, but additional research using ethnically diverse samples is warranted. Risky alcohol use appears to be a significant correlate of ENDS use, even after accounting for the robust relationship between ENDS use and cigarette smoking. The robust relationship between alcohol and tobacco use likely extends to ENDS use.

  8. Edentulism trends among middle-aged and older adults in the United States: comparison of five racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Liang, Jersey; Plassman, Brenda L; Remle, Corey; Luo, Xiao

    2012-04-01

    This study examined edentulism trends among adults aged 50 and above in five ethnic groups in the United States: Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Data came from the National Health Interview Surveys between 1999 and 2008. Respondents included 616 Native Americans, 2,666 Asians, 15,295 African Americans, 13,068 Hispanics, and 86,755 Caucasians. In 2008, Native Americans had the highest predicated rate of edentulism (23.98%), followed by African Americans (19.39%), Caucasians (16.90%), Asians (14.22%), and Hispanics (14.18%). Overall, there was a significant downward trend in edentulism rates between 1999 and 2008 (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). However, compared with Caucasians, Native Americans showed a significantly less decline of edentulism during this period (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19). While there was a downward trend in edentulism between 1999 and 2008, significant variations existed across racial/ethnic groups. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent oral health diseases and conditions for minority populations who lack access to adequate dental care. Additionally, given the increasing numbers of adults retaining their natural teeth, interventions designed to assist individuals in maintaining healthy teeth becomes more critical. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  10. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  11. ‘Domesticating’ low carbon thermal technologies: Diversity, multiplicity and variability in older person, off grid households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrapson, Wendy; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of low carbon heating technologies forms an important part of government strategies to reduce carbon emissions. Yet our understanding of why such technologies are adopted and how they are engaged with post-adoption, particularly by older adults living in off-grid areas, is limited. Drawing on a contextualised, socio-technical approach to domestic heating, we present findings from 51 in-depth interviews with a sample of 17 older person households in the South West of England, with ages ranging from 60 to 89 years. Diverse and multiple configurations of heating devices and fuels were found that varied considerably, with some households using five different fuels. The design of the study ensured that approximately half the sample used some form of low carbon thermal technology, such as heat pumps and biomass boilers. Many factors were reported to influence the adoption of low carbon heating; environmental motives were not primary influences and the avoidance of financial risks associated with ‘peak oil’ was expressed. Low carbon thermal technologies were typically integrated into rather than replaced existing heating systems so that valued services provided by conventional technologies could be retained. Implications of the findings for policies to reduce carbon emissions, particularly in older adult, off-grid households, are discussed. - Highlights: • We interviewed 17 households with conventional/low carbon thermal technologies (LCTTs) in South West England. • Older adult, off grid households commonly use multiple, diverse and variable heating technologies and fuels. • Reducing fuel costs was a key reason for installing LCTTs. • LCTTs more commonly were integrated with, rather than replaced, conventional technologies. • Expected reductions in domestic carbon emissions due to LCTTs may not be realised

  12. Childhood Anxiety in a Diverse Primary Care Population: Parent-Child Reports, Ethnicity and SCARED Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…

  13. One Step Closer: Understanding the Complex Relationship between Weight and Self-Esteem in Ethnically Diverse Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…

  14. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  15. Association of parental social support with energy balance-related behaviors in low-income and ethnically diverse children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in providing their children with social support for healthy eating and physical activity. However, different types of social support (e.g., instrumental, emotional, modeling, rules might have different results on children’s actual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the different types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors, as well as to examine whether these associations differ across racial/ethnic groups. Methods We surveyed 1169 low-income, ethnically diverse third graders and their caregivers to assess how children’s physical activity and eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were associated with instrumental social support, emotional social support, modeling, rules and availability of certain foods in the home. We used sequential linear regression to test the association of parental social support with a child’s physical activity and eating behaviors, adjusting for covariates, and then stratified to assess the differences in this association between racial/ethnic groups. Results Parental social support and covariates explained 9–13% of the variance in children’s energy balance-related behaviors. Family food culture was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, with availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in the home also associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Instrumental and emotional support for physical activity were significantly associated with the child’s physical activity. Results indicate that the association of various types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions These results provide considerations for future interventions that aim to enhance parental support to improve children’s energy balance-related behaviors.

  16. Adherence to the Gluten-free Diet and Health-related Quality of Life in an Ethnically Diverse Pediatric Population With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R; Marcon, Margaret; Brill, Herbert; Liu, Amanda; Radmanovich, Kristin; Mileski, Heather; Nasser, Roseann; Alzaben, Abeer; Carroll, Matthew W; Yap, Jason; Persad, Rabin; Turner, Justine M

    2018-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease that requires lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Adherence to the GFD in childhood may be poor and adversely influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study purpose was to determine sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors influencing adherence to the GFD and HRQOL in a multiethnic cohort of youth with CD. A multisite (Edmonton, Hamilton, Toronto) study examining child-parent HRQOL in youth with CD (n = 243) and/or mild gastrointestinal complaints (GI-CON; n = 148) was conducted. Sociodemographic (age, child-parental age/education/ethnicity/place of birth), anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index), disease (diagnosis, age at diagnosis, duration, Marsh score, serology), household characteristics (income, family size, region, number of children/total household size), HRQOL (Peds TM/KINDL and Celiac Disease DUX), GI Complaints (PedsQL: Gastrointestinal Symptom Scale) and gluten intake were measured. Younger age (children (P children (parent/child) had higher HRQOL (average, composite domains) than GI-CON (P children were comparable to healthy children. Lack of GI symptoms, non-Caucasian ethnicity and age (<10 years) were associated with increased HRQOL in composite/average domains for CD (P < 0.05). Child-parent perceptions of HRQOL in a multiethnic population with CD are comparable to healthy reference populations, but significantly higher than in parent/child GI-CON. Adherence to the GFD in ethnically diverse youth with CD was related to GI symptoms, age of the child, and ethnicity of the parent-child.

  17. Effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling for psychological distress in young people: Pilot randomized controlled trial with follow-up in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Peter; Sewell, Ros; Cooper, Mick; Osman, Sarah; Fugard, Andrew J B; Pybis, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot a test of the effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) in an ethnically diverse group of young people (aged 11-18 years old), with follow-up assessments at 6 and 9 months. Pilot randomized controlled trial, using linear-mixed effect modelling and intention-to-treat analysis to compare changes in levels of psychological distress for participants in SBHC against usual care (UC). ISRCTN44253140. In total, 64 young people were randomized to either SBHC or UC. Participants were aged between 11 and 18 (M = 14.2, SD = 1.8), with 78.1% of a non-white ethnicity. The primary outcome was psychological distress at 6 weeks (mid-therapy), 12 weeks (end of therapy), 6-month follow-up and 9-month follow-up. Secondary measures included emotional symptoms, self-esteem and attainment of personal goals. Recruitment and retention rates for the study were acceptable. Participants in the SBHC condition, as compared with participants in the UC condition, showed greater reductions in psychological distress and emotional symptoms, and greater improvements in self-esteem, over time. However, at follow-up, only emotional symptoms showed significant differences across groups. The study adds to the pool of evidence suggesting that SBHC can be tested and that it brings about short-term reductions in psychological and emotional distress in young people, across ethnicities. However, there is no evidence of longer-term effects. School-based humanistic counselling can be an effective means of reducing the psychological distress experienced by young people with emotional symptoms in the short term. The short-term effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling is not limited to young people of a White ethnicity. There is no evidence that school-based humanistic counselling has effects beyond the end of therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The impact of conduct disorder and stimulant medication on later substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Seth C; Ivanov, Iliyan; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2011-08-01

    To examine late adolescent substance use outcomes in relation to childhood conduct disorder (CD) and psychostimulant treatment in urban youth found to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Ninety-seven adolescents, evaluated during childhood, were seen for follow-up on average 9.30 (SD = 1.65) years later along with a well-matched never-ADHD control group. Stimulant treatment history was coded: Never (n = 28), up to 1 year (n = 19), 1 to 5 years (n = 28), and greater than 5 years (n = 22). Substance use at outcome was coded dimensionally for severity (frequency × intensity) and categorically for substance use disorders (SUDs). Individuals with ADHD+CD in childhood had significantly higher rates of SUD and substance use severity than those with childhood ADHD and controls. The ADHD and control groups did not differ significantly. Among those with childhood ADHD, there were no significant differences in SUD status or substance use severity as a function of medication history. Within an ethnically diverse urban sample, the increased rate of substance use associated with ADHD was fully accounted for by the presence of CD. These results extend previous findings indicating little impact of psychostimulant treatment on later substance use to an ethnically diverse urban sample and to individuals who received treatment for up to 12 years.

  19. Rethinking the Structure of Student Recruitment and Efforts to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Griffin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While researchers, institutional leaders, and policymakers have made significant progress towards increasing undergraduate student diversity in the United States, diversity in graduate education has been less often studied and a more challenging goal on which to make progress. This qualitative study explores the roles and work of graduate diversity officers (GDOs in student recruitment activities with a focus on how race and issues of diversity manifest and influence this process. Interviews with fourteen GDOs at 11 different research universities in the United States highlight the phases in the graduate recruitment process, the manner in which diversity is considered at each stage, and GDOs’ perceptions of their ability to shape this process. Findings suggest that GDOs are important institutional agents in diversification efforts; however, faculty engagement and broad institutional commitment are required to increase diversity in graduate education due to GDOs’ often limited involvement in the admissions stage of the recruitment process, where race becomes the most salient in decision making.

  20. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  1. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sally E.; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J.; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were app...

  2. Shared molecular pathways and gene networks for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women across diverse ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kei Hang K; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Meng, Qingying; Wu, Chunyuan; Reiner, Alexander; Sobel, Eric M; Tinker, Lesley; Lusis, Aldons J; Yang, Xia; Liu, Simin

    2014-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) share many common risk factors, potential molecular mechanisms that may also be shared for these 2 disorders remain unknown. Using an integrative pathway and network analysis, we performed genome-wide association studies in 8155 blacks, 3494 Hispanic American, and 3697 Caucasian American women who participated in the national Women's Health Initiative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Health Association Resource and the Genomics and Randomized Trials Network. Eight top pathways and gene networks related to cardiomyopathy, calcium signaling, axon guidance, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix seemed to be commonly shared between CVD and T2D across all 3 ethnic groups. We also identified ethnicity-specific pathways, such as cell cycle (specific for Hispanic American and Caucasian American) and tight junction (CVD and combined CVD and T2D in Hispanic American). In network analysis of gene-gene or protein-protein interactions, we identified key drivers that included COL1A1, COL3A1, and ELN in the shared pathways for both CVD and T2D. These key driver genes were cross-validated in multiple mouse models of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Our integrative analysis of American women of 3 ethnicities identified multiple shared biological pathways and key regulatory genes for the development of CVD and T2D. These prospective findings also support the notion that ethnicity-specific susceptibility genes and process are involved in the pathogenesis of CVD and T2D. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portraits In Courage Vol. VIII Portraits In Courage Vol. IX Portraits In Courage Vol. X AF Sites Social -Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce Executive Order 13548 : Virtual Diversity Conference Air Force Diversity & Inclusion Air Force Diversity Graphic There is no

  4. Is frequency of family meals associated with parental encouragement of healthy eating among ethnically diverse eighth graders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E; Springer, Andrew E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between family meals and parental encouragement of healthy eating overall and by ethnicity. Family meal frequency was measured with one item asking how many times in the past 7 d all or most of the family ate a meal together, which was then categorized to represent three levels of family meals (≤2 times, 3-6 times and ≥7 times). Parental encouragement of healthy eating assessed how often parents encouraged the student to eat fruits and vegetables, drink water, eat wholegrain bread, eat breakfast and drink low-fat milk (never to always). An overall scale of parental encouragement of healthy eating was created. Mixed-effect regression analyses were run controlling for gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic status. Moderation by ethnicity was explored. Middle schools. Participants included 2895 US eighth grade students participating in the Central Texas CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) Middle School Project (mean age 13·9 years; 24·5 % White, 52·7 % Hispanic, 13·0 % African-American, 9·8 % Other; 51·6 % female). Eating more family meals was significantly associated with having parents who encouraged healthy eating behaviours (P for trend eating behaviours (P for trend eat together are more likely to encourage healthy eating in general. Interventions which promote family meals may include tips for parents to increase discussions about healthy eating.

  5. Mortality reductions for older adults differ by race/ethnicity and gender since the introduction of adult and pediatric pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Metlay, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    We determined the effectiveness of a 23-valent-polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV-23) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in reducing adult pneumococcal mortality by comparing historically predicted declines in pneumococcal disease mortality with observed patterns since the introduction of PPV-23 and PCV-7, including analyses of age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups. We analyzed all deaths registered on U.S. death certificates reporting any site of pneumococcal infection (e.g., meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, bacteremia, and peritonitis) from 1968 to 2006. We used time-series dynamic linear regression on annual pneumococcal mortality rates to determine the percentage reduction in post-1983 mortality rates for a given increase in PPV-23 vaccination rates and post-2000 mortality rates for a given increase in PCV-7 vaccination rates. Pneumococcal mortality decreased well before the introduction of PPV-23 in 1983 and again before the introduction of PCV-7 in 2000. The level of PPV-23 vaccination was associated with a direct and significant reduction in adult mortality, especially white female adults > or = 65 years of age. In contrast, the level of PCV-7 vaccination in the population was not associated with an indirect and significant reduction in pneumococcal mortality beyond the historical pace of decline. PPV-23 introduction was associated with a reduction in pneumococcal mortality among older adults > or = 65 years of age beyond levels predicted by secular trends, whereas PCV-7 introduction was not. Mortality reduction was not uniformly experienced across the population, revealing the need for additional strategies to reduce pneumococcal mortality in older adults.

  6. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Predict Dietary Intention and Future Dieting in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Veterans Attending Medical Clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  8. A Coral Reef as an Analogical Model to Promote Collaborative Learning on Cultural & Ethnic Diversity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…

  9. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, "How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?" was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and sensitivity

  10. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M. Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. Methods DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. Results The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, “How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?” was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and

  11. Brain Amyloid Deposition and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Nondemented Older Subjects: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yian Gu

    Full Text Available We aimed to whether the abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ level in the brain among apparently healthy elders is related with subtle cognitive deficits and/or accelerated cognitive decline.A total of 116 dementia-free participants (mean age 84.5 years of the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed 18F-Florbetaben PET imaging. Positive or negative cerebral Aβ deposition was assessed visually. Quantitative cerebral Aβ burden was calculated as the standardized uptake value ratio in pre-established regions of interest using cerebellar cortex as the reference region. Cognition was determined using a neuropsychological battery and selected tests scores were combined into four composite scores (memory, language, executive/speed, and visuospatial using exploratory factor analysis. We examined the relationship between cerebral Aβ level and longitudinal cognition change up to 20 years before the PET scan using latent growth curve models, controlling for age, education, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype.Positive reading of Aβ was found in 41 of 116 (35% individuals. Cognitive scores at scan time was not related with Aβ. All cognitive scores declined over time. Aβ positive reading (B = -0.034, p = 0.02 and higher Aβ burden in temporal region (B = -0.080, p = 0.02 were associated with faster decline in executive/speed. Stratified analyses showed that higher Aβ deposition was associated with faster longitudinal declines in mean cognition, language, and executive/speed in African-Americans or in APOE ε4 carriers, and with faster memory decline in APOE ε4 carriers. The associations remained significant after excluding mild cognitive impairment participants.High Aβ deposition in healthy elders was associated with decline in executive/speed in the decade before neuroimaging, and the association was observed primarily in African-Americans and APOE ε4 carriers. Our results suggest that measuring cerebral Aβ may give us

  12. Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnes Jason H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1 variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups, and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls. The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88 or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2 of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13ins

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of the MMSE in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease in ethnically diverse highly educated individuals: an analysis of the NACC database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Cynthia C; Hobson, Valerie; Lucas, John A; Menon, Chloe V; Hall, James R; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2012-08-01

    To validate and extend the findings of a raised cut score of O'Bryant and colleagues (O'Bryant SE, Humphreys JD, Smith GE, et al. Detecting dementia with the mini-mental state examination in highly educated individuals. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(7):963-967.) for the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting cognitive dysfunction in a bilingual sample of highly educated ethnically diverse individuals. Archival data were reviewed from participants enrolled in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center minimum data set. Data on 7,093 individuals with 16 or more years of education were analyzed, including 2,337 cases with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease, 1,418 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 3,088 nondemented controls. Ethnic composition was characterized as follows: 6,296 Caucasians, 581 African Americans, 4 American Indians or Alaska natives, 2 native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders, 149 Asians, 43 "Other," and 18 of unknown origin. Diagnostic accuracy estimates (sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio) of Mini-Mental State Examination cut scores in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease were examined. A standard Mini-Mental State Examination cut score of 24 (≤23) yielded a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.98 in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease across ethnicities. A cut score of 27 (≤26) resulted in an improved balance of sensitivity and specificity (0.79 and 0.90, respectively). In the cognitively impaired group (mild cognitive impairment and probable and possible Alzheimer's disease), the standard cut score yielded a sensitivity of 0.38 and a specificity of 1.00 while raising the cut score to 27 resulted in an improved balance of 0.59 and 0.96 of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. These findings cross-validate our previous work and extend them to an ethnically diverse cohort. A higher cut score is needed to maximize diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination in individuals

  14. Examining variability in parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant population using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Loth, Katie; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-04-21

    Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of, parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n = 150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Among parents who used restriction (49%) and pressure-to-eat (69%) feeding practices, these feeding practices were utilized about every other day. Contextual factors at the meal associated with parent feeding practices included: number of people at the meal, who prepared the meal, types of food served at meals (e.g., pre-prepared, homemade, fast food), meal setting (e.g., kitchen table, front room), and meal emotional atmosphere (p meat proteins, and refined grains (p < 0.05). There were some differences by race/ethnicity across findings (p < 0.01), with Hmong parents engaging in the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Parent feeding practices varied across the week, indicating feeding practices are more likely to be context-specific, or state-like than trait-like. There were some meal characteristics more strongly associated with engaging in restriction and pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Given that parent feeding practices appear to be state-like, future interventions and health care providers who work with parents and children may want to address contextual factors associated with parent feeding practices to decrease restriction and pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult Cigarette Smokers at Highest Risk for Concurrent Alternative Tobacco Product Use Among a Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  17. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  18. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  19. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  20. Appetite predicts mortality in free-living older adults in association with dietary diversity. A NAHSIT cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of appetite for mortality among representative free-living Taiwanese older adults. A total of 1856 participants aged 65 years or over from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey during 1999-2000 completed an appetite question in a larger questionnaire. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview at baseline, together with a 24-hour dietary recall and simplified food frequency questionnaire which provided a dietary diversity score and food intake frequency. Survivorship was ascertained from the Death Registry until December 31, 2008. Participants with a poor appetite had lower dietary diversity scores (DDS) and intake frequencies of meat, fish and sea food, egg, vegetable and fruit intake, along with lower energy, protein, vitamin B-1, niacin, iron and phosphate intakes. Those who had fair and poor appetites had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with good appetite, with hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.28 (1.03-1.58) and 2.27 (1.71-3.02), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, the HRs (95% CI) were 1.05 (0.83-1.33) and 1.50 (1.03-2.18), respectively. With further adjustment for DDS or general health these HRs became non-significant. The joint HR (95% CI) for "DDS ≤ 4 and poor appetite" was 1.77 (1.04-3.00) compared to "DDS > 4 and good appetite" as referent. Poor appetite is associated with lower food and nutrient intakes and an independent risk for mortality in older Taiwanese. In conclusion, appetite is separate, mediated by general health and modulated by dietary quality in its predictive capacity for mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  2. PARO robot affects diverse interaction modalities in group sensory therapy for older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanović, Selma; Bennett, Casey C; Chang, Wan-Ling; Huber, Lesa

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the seal-like robot PARO in the context of multi-sensory behavioral therapy in a local nursing home. Participants were 10 elderly nursing home residents with varying levels of dementia. We report three principle findings from our observations of interactions between the residents, PARO, and a therapist during seven weekly therapy sessions. Firstly, we show PARO provides indirect benefits for users by increasing their activity in particular modalities of social interaction, including visual, verbal, and physical interaction, which vary between primary and non-primary interactors. Secondly, PARO's positive effects on older adults' activity levels show steady growth over the duration of our study, suggesting they are not due to short-term "novelty effects." Finally, we show a variety of ways in which individual participants interacted with PARO and relate this to the "interpretive flexibility" of its design.

  3. DNA sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in a U.S. clinic-based population with broad ethnic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joan W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a major risk factor for glaucoma in many populations throughout the world. Using a U.S. clinic-based case control sample with broad ethnic diversity, we show that three common SNPs in LOXL1 previously associated with pseudoexfoliation in Nordic populations are significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Methods Three LOXL1 SNPs were genotyped in a patient sample (206 pseudoexfoliation, 331 primary open angle glaucoma, and 88 controls from the Glaucoma Consultation Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The SNPs were evaluation for association with pseudeoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and primary open angle glaucoma. Results The strongest association was found for the G allele of marker rs3825942 (G153D with a frequency of 99% in pseudoexfoliation patients (with and without glaucoma compared with 79% in controls (p = 1.6 × 10-15; OR = 20.93, 95%CI: 8.06, 54.39. The homozygous GG genotype is also associated with pseudoexfoliation when compared to controls (p = 1.2 × 10-12; OR = 23.57, 95%CI: 7.95, 69.85. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with primary open angle glaucoma. Conclusion The pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a common cause of glaucoma. These results indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is significantly associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in an ethnically diverse patient population from the Northeastern United States. Given the high prevalence of pseudooexfoliation in this geographic region, these results also indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is a significant risk factor for adult-onset glaucoma in this clinic based population.

  4. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Community College Students in Metropolitan New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Jenine

    This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…

  5. Cultural and religious beliefs and values, and their impact on preferences for end-of-life care among four ethnic groups of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, Seok; Jeong, Sarah; Saul, Peter

    2017-06-01

    To explore specific cultural and religious beliefs and values concerning death and dying, truth telling, and advance care planning, and the preferences for end-of-life care among older persons from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Whilst literature indicates that culture impacts on end-of-life decision-making significantly, there is limited evidence on the topic. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 171 community older persons who make regular visits to 17 day care centres expressed in a questionnaire their; (1) beliefs about death and dying, truth telling, and advance care planning, and (2) preferences for end-of-life care. More than 92% of respondents believed that dying is a normal part of life, and more than 70% felt comfortable talking about death. Whilst respondents accepted dying as a normal part of life, 64% of Eastern Europeans and 53% of Asia/Pacific groups believed that death should be avoided at all costs. People from the Asia/Pacific group reported the most consensual view against all of the life-prolonging measures. Cultural and religious beliefs and values may have an impact on preferences for treatment at end-of-life. The study offers nurses empirical data to help shape conversations about end-of-life care, and thus to enhance their commitment to help people 'die well'. Information acquisition to extend understanding of each individual before proceeding with documentation of advance care planning is essential and should include retrieval of individuals' cultural and religious beliefs and values, and preferences for care. An institutional system and/or protocol that promote conversations about these among nurses and other healthcare professionals are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Obese Patients in Primary Care: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Self-Help and Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Walsh, B. Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C.; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Method 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N=26), placebo (N=27), shCBT+sibutramine (N=26), or shCBT+placebo (N=25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Results Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Discussion Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to

  7. Treatment of binge eating disorder in racially and ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of self-help and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in

  8. Predicting ethnic variation in adaptation to later life: styles of socioemotional functioning and constrained heterotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine

    2004-06-01

    It is an axiom of social gerontology that populations of older individuals become increasingly differentiated as they age. Adaptations to physical and social losses and the increased dependency that typically accompany greater age are likely to be similarly heterogeneous, with different individuals adjusting to the aging process in widely diverse ways. In this paper we consider how individuals with diverse emotional and regulatory profiles, different levels of religiosity, and varied patterns of social relatedness fare as they age. Specifically, we examine the relation between ethnicity and patterns of socioemotional adaptation in a large, ethnically diverse sample (N = 1118) of community-dwelling older adults. Cluster analysis was applied to 11 measures of socioemotional functioning. Ten qualitatively different profiles were extracted and then related to a measure of physical resiliency. Consistent with ethnographic and psychological theory, individuals from different ethnic backgrounds were unevenly distributed across the clusters. Resilient participants of African descent (African Americans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Barbadians) were more likely to manifest patterns of adaptation characterized by religious beliefs, while resilient US-born Whites and Immigrant Whites were more likely to be resilient as a result of non-religious social connectedness. Taken together, although these data underscore the diversity of adaptation to later life, we suggest that patterns of successful adaptation vary systematically across ethnic groups. Implications for the continued study of ethnicity in aging and directions for future research are given.

  9. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  10. Ethnic Identity in Context: Variations in Ethnic Exploration and Belonging within Parent, Same-Ethnic Peer, and Different-Ethnic Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic…

  11. Practice Patterns in Screening for Metabolic Disease in Women with PCOS of Diverse Race-Ethnic Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Melanie M; Kitos, Nicole R; Coviello, Andrea D

    2014-09-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk for metabolic disorders, which prompted the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) to publish a 2005 position statement recommending screening for metabolic disease.The purposes of the present study were to 1) to examine changes in screening rates for obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS), hyperlipidemia (HL), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hypertension (HTN) in women with PCOS after publication of the 2005 AACE position statement and 2) to determine if screening rates and metabolic disorders vary by race-ethnicity. PCOS cases in 2006 (n = 547) and 2011 (n = 1,159) and metabolic disorders were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD9) code. Screening rates for metabolic disorders were determined by the presence of blood tests (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase [ALT/AST]). In 2006, ≤25% of PCOS patients underwent recommended screening tests: HbA1c 18%; lipid profile 11, only HbA1c testing had increased (18% to 21%). Obesity increased from 35% to 40%, while other metabolic disorders remained stable. Black women had the highest rates of obesity and HTN in 2011 (Obesity: Black 48%, Hispanic 44%, White 33%, Other 31%, P1; HTN: Black 18%, Hispanic 9%, White 10%, Other 7%, P1). Blacks and Hispanics were screened more often with ALT/AST testing (Black 27/27%, Hispanic 28/27%, White 23/22%, Other 17/18%, P = .02/.03). Screening rates were higher in the endocrine clinic for all metabolic disorders than in other clinics (P11.

  12. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sally E; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-07-06

    Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were approximately 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months old. Mothers answered questions about their own and their child's TV-time. TV-time trajectories were estimated by linear longitudinal multilevel modeling, potential determinants were considered in models. The modelled trajectory estimated that 75% of children aged 12 months exceeded guidelines of zero screen-time. At 12 months of age an accelerated increase in TV-time was observed (2 h/day by 30 months old). For every hour of mothers' TV-time and every hour the TV was on in the home, children's TV-time was 8 min and 1 min higher respectively at 6 months old (P child did not watch too much TV, had 17 min more TV-time than their counterparts (P television is on in the home and mothers' attitude towards child TV-time. These behaviours may be key components to address in interventions for parents. Mothers experiencing stress, first time mothers, and Pakistani heritage mothers (particularly those born outside of the UK), may be priority groups for intervention.

  13. Shared genetic regulatory networks for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in multiple populations of diverse ethnicities in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Shu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D are closely interrelated complex diseases likely sharing overlapping pathogenesis driven by aberrant activities in gene networks. However, the molecular circuitries underlying the pathogenic commonalities remain poorly understood. We sought to identify the shared gene networks and their key intervening drivers for both CVD and T2D by conducting a comprehensive integrative analysis driven by five multi-ethnic genome-wide association studies (GWAS for CVD and T2D, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs, ENCODE, and tissue-specific gene network models (both co-expression and graphical models from CVD and T2D relevant tissues. We identified pathways regulating the metabolism of lipids, glucose, and branched-chain amino acids, along with those governing oxidation, extracellular matrix, immune response, and neuronal system as shared pathogenic processes for both diseases. Further, we uncovered 15 key drivers including HMGCR, CAV1, IGF1 and PCOLCE, whose network neighbors collectively account for approximately 35% of known GWAS hits for CVD and 22% for T2D. Finally, we cross-validated the regulatory role of the top key drivers using in vitro siRNA knockdown, in vivo gene knockout, and two Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panels each comprised of >100 strains. Findings from this in-depth assessment of genetic and functional data from multiple human cohorts provide strong support that common sets of tissue-specific molecular networks drive the pathogenesis of both CVD and T2D across ethnicities and help prioritize new therapeutic avenues for both CVD and T2D.

  14. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  15. Effectiveness of Housing First with Intensive Case Management in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Homeless Adults with Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Stergiopoulos

    Full Text Available Housing First (HF is being widely disseminated in efforts to end homelessness among homeless adults with psychiatric disabilities. This study evaluates the effectiveness of HF with Intensive Case Management (ICM among ethnically diverse homeless adults in an urban setting. 378 participants were randomized to HF with ICM or treatment-as-usual (TAU in Toronto (Canada, and followed for 24 months. Measures of effectiveness included housing stability, physical (EQ5D-VAS and mental (CSI, GAIN-SS health, social functioning (MCAS, quality of life (QoLI20, and health service use. Two-thirds of the sample (63% was from racialized groups and half (50% were born outside Canada. Over the 24 months of follow-up, HF participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time in stable residences compared to TAU participants (75.1% 95% CI 70.5 to 79.7 vs. 39.3% 95% CI 34.3 to 44.2, respectively. Similarly, community functioning (MCAS improved significantly from baseline in HF compared to TAU participants (change in mean difference = +1.67 95% CI 0.04 to 3.30. There was a significant reduction in the number of days spent experiencing alcohol problems among the HF compared to TAU participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.47 95% CI 0.22 to 0.99 relative to baseline, a reduction of 53%. Although the number of emergency department visits and days in hospital over 24 months did not differ significantly between HF and TAU participants, fewer HF participants compared to TAU participants had 1 or more hospitalizations during this period (70.4% vs. 81.1%, respectively; P=0.044. Compared to non-racialized HF participants, racialized HF participants saw an increase in the amount of money spent on alcohol (change in mean difference = $112.90 95% CI 5.84 to 219.96 and a reduction in physical community integration (ratio of rate ratios = 0.67 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96 from baseline to 24 months. Secondary analyses found a significant reduction in the number of days

  16. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  17. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  18. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  19. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  20. Endogenous Estradiol Is Associated with Verbal Memory in Nondemented Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S.; Derby, Carol A.; Katz, Mindy J.; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age = 81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical…

  1. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed.

  2. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  3. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-29

    Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers' part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Co-creating a Peer Education program to improve skin health in older people from diverse communities: An innovation in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrin, Rajna; Brasher, Kathleen; Occleston, Jessica; Byrne, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Chronic wounds, debilitating and costly to manage, are more common in older people. Prevention is possible through improving skin health. We developed, implemented and evaluated an innovative health promotion program to improve skin health of older adults. A one-hour, peer education program was co-created and delivered to culturally diverse community-dwelling older people. A mixed-methods evaluation approach comprised objective measures of skin health and barrier function at commencement and six weeks posteducation, and focus groups posteducation. Seventy-three participants participated in the study (mean age 74.38 ± 11.80 years). Hydration significantly improved at follow-up for English speaking participants (t(27) = -2.90, P = 0.007). The majority of participants reported the education to be informative and useful in supporting behaviour changes. The peer education program improved skin hydration in older English speaking individuals. Peer education may effectively deliver health promotion information in some groups. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  6. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  7. Association between Satisfaction with State of Health and Meals, Physical Condition and Food Diversity, Health Behavior, and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Older People Living Alone in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Takemi, Y; Fukuda, Y; Nakaya, T; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptions of shopping difficulty, and the relationships with satisfaction with state of health and meals, physical condition, food diversity and health behavior in older people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectional, multilevel survey was designed. The questionnaire was distributed by mail and self-completed by participants. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample of older people living alone, by proximity to a supermarket. In total, 2,346 older people (827 men and 1,519 women) completed the questionnaire. The dependent variable was whether shopping was easy or difficult. A logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and proximity of residence to a supermarket using stepwise variable analyses. The response rate was 67.8%. Overall, 14.5% of men and 21.7% of women considered shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the factors most strongly related to shopping difficulty were a subjective feeling of poor health (men: OR = 3.01, women: OR = 2.16) and lack of satisfaction with meals (men: OR = 2.82, women: OR = 3.69). Other related physical condition and dietary factors were requiring nursing care (men: OR = 3.69, women: OR = 1.54), a high level of frailty, measured using the frailty index score (women: OR = 0.36) and low food diversity score (men: OR = 1.84, women: OR = 1.36). The study found that older people's assessment of their shopping difficulty was related to satisfaction aspects, including a subjective feeling of poor health, and lack of satisfaction with meals, as well as physical condition. These have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than income in both sexes, and proximity to a supermarket in women.

  8. Presenting characteristics and processing times for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients with chest pain in an emergency department: Time, Ethnicity, and Delay (TED) Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechkunanukul, Kannikar; Grantham, Hugh; Teubner, David; Hyun, Karice K; Clark, Robyn A

    2016-10-01

    To date there has been limited published data presenting the characteristics and timeliness of the management in an Emergency Department (ED) for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients presenting with chest pain. This study aimed to describe the presenting characteristics and processing times for CALD patients with chest pain compared to the Australian-born population, and current guidelines. This study was a cross sectional analysis of a cohort of patients who presented with chest pain to the metropolitan hospital between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2014. Of the total study population (n=6640), 1241 (18.7%) were CALD and 5399 (81.3%) were Australian-born. CALD patients were significantly older than Australian-born patients (mean age 62 vs 56years, p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of patients who had central chest pain (74.9% vs 75.7%, p=0.526); ambulance utilisation (41.7% vs 41.1%, p=0.697); and time to initial treatment in ED (21 vs 22min, p=0.375). However, CALD patients spent a significantly longer total time in ED (5.4 vs 4.3h, p<0.001). There was no difference in guideline concordance between the two groups with low rates of 12.5% vs 13%, p=0.556. Nonetheless, CALD patients were 22% (95% CI, 0.65, 0.95, p=0.015) less likely to receive the guideline management for chest pain. The initial emergency care was equally provided to all patients in the context of a low rate of concordance with three chest pain related standards from the two guidelines. Nonetheless, CALD patients spent a longer time in ED compared to the Australian-born group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  10. An examination of biracial college youths' family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment: do self-identification labels and university context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.

  11. An Examination of Biracial College Youths’ Family Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Adjustment: Do Self-Identification Labels and University Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants’ ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse. PMID:22905967

  12. Visually representing the generation of older consumers as a diverse audience: towards a multidimensional market segmentation typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.; Ekström, M.

    2014-01-01

    Television commercials and advertising often represent the generation of older consumers as eternally youthful, active and rich. Representations of senior citizens as fragile people needing services and products to help them to survive are also used, but less frequently. As individual differences

  13. Visually representing the generation of older consumers as a diverse audience: Towards a multidimensional market segmentation typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Eugène; Ekström, M.

    2014-01-01

    Television commercials and advertising often represent the generation of older consumers as eternally youthful, active and rich. Representations of senior citizens as fragile people needing services and products to help them to survive are also used, but less frequently. As individual differences

  14. Examination of Oral Microbiota Diversity in Adults and Older Adults as an Approach to Prevent Spread of Risk Factors for Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Paweł J; Perkowski, Konrad; Padzik, Marcin; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Szaflik, Jacek P; Conn, David Bruce; Chomicz, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    The oral cavity environment may be colonized by polymicrobial communities with complex, poorly known interrelations. The aim of this study was to determine oral microbiota diversity in order to prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms that are risk factors for human health complications in patients requiring treatment due to various disabilities. The study examined Polish adults aged between 40 and 70 years; parasitological, microbiological, and mycological data collected before treatment were analyzed. The diversity of oral microbiota, including relatively high prevalences of some opportunistic, potentially pathogenic strains of bacteria, protozoans, and fungi detected in the patients analyzed, may result in increasing risk of disseminated infections from the oral cavity to neighboring structures and other organs. Increasing ageing of human populations is noted in recent decades in many countries, including Poland. The growing number of older adults with different oral health disabilities, who are more prone to development of oral and systemic pathology, is an increasing medical problem. Results of this retrospective study showed the urgent need to pay more attention to the pretreatment examination of components of the oral microbiome, especially to the strains, which are etiological agents of human opportunistic infections and are particularly dangerous for older adults.

  15. Examination of Oral Microbiota Diversity in Adults and Older Adults as an Approach to Prevent Spread of Risk Factors for Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł J. Zawadzki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity environment may be colonized by polymicrobial communities with complex, poorly known interrelations. The aim of this study was to determine oral microbiota diversity in order to prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms that are risk factors for human health complications in patients requiring treatment due to various disabilities. The study examined Polish adults aged between 40 and 70 years; parasitological, microbiological, and mycological data collected before treatment were analyzed. The diversity of oral microbiota, including relatively high prevalences of some opportunistic, potentially pathogenic strains of bacteria, protozoans, and fungi detected in the patients analyzed, may result in increasing risk of disseminated infections from the oral cavity to neighboring structures and other organs. Increasing ageing of human populations is noted in recent decades in many countries, including Poland. The growing number of older adults with different oral health disabilities, who are more prone to development of oral and systemic pathology, is an increasing medical problem. Results of this retrospective study showed the urgent need to pay more attention to the pretreatment examination of components of the oral microbiome, especially to the strains, which are etiological agents of human opportunistic infections and are particularly dangerous for older adults.

  16. The Voices of Diversity: What Students of Diverse Races/Ethnicities and Both Sexes Tell Us About Their College Experiences and Their Perceptions About their Institutions’ Progress Toward Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Caplan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Voices of Diversity project’s goal was to explore which experiences of students of color and women students on campuses of predominantly white institutions make them feel welcomed, accepted, supported, and encouraged, and which make them feel the opposite. This was to address (1 the frequent claim that African American and Latino/a students’ lower graduation rates are unrelated to anything that transpires on campus and (2 the increased subtlety of many expressions of bias against members of historically mistreated groups. At each institution, between 51 and 54 students of color participated, as well as three white women and three white men, each completing a questionnaire about demographic information and campus experiences and being interviewed about what has been helpful and hurtful to them on campus. Manifestations of racism, sexism, and the two combined were reported on all campuses in both overt and microaggression forms. Recommendations for change were made in individual reports to each institution, and at one, major changes were made immediately and ongoing, and at another, work was begun on comprehensive action plans.

  17. Pathways in Diversity : Inter-ethnic contacts and experiences and the role of the residential neighbourhood from a situational, activity-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323393608

    2016-01-01

    Inter-ethnic relations in today’s diversifying urban societies are of major political concern, as inequalities and feelings of displacement and discrimination are leading to increasing polarisation. In the past decade, governments in the Netherlands and other western countries have addressed these

  18. Racializing Experiences of Foreign-Born and Ethnically Diverse Black Male Engineering Graduate Students: Implications for Student Affairs Practice, Policy, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Brian A.; Knight, Alexander; Robeson, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work on the experiences of Black collegians, the higher education knowledge base lacks scholarship focused on Black men in graduate programs who are foreign-born and/or identify ethnically as other than African American. In this article, we provide a domain-specific investigation (i.e., based on students' field of study),…

  19. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  20. "Isn't that a Dude?": Using Images to Teach Gender and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S. History Classroom--Pocahontas: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padurano, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    A few days into the new school year, the author's female students invariably beg, plead, and cajole her in the hopes of watching Disney's "Pocahontas" in class. Toddlers when the film was released in 1995, doubtless they have seen it already dozens of times; more importantly, the author cringes at the ethnic and gender stereotypes sometimes…

  1. Ethnic Afterschool Programs and Language Schools in Diverse Asian American Communities: Varying Resources, Opportunities, and Educational Experiences (Part 2: How They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 135 ethnic afterschool programs and language schools, this descriptive study (Part 2 of 2 in this issue) revealed differences in the types of programs housed within East, South, and Southeast Asian coethnic communities (strong, weak, or dispersed) in the U.S. The article applies a combined cultural-structural framework to understand…

  2. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  3. Assessing the mental health needs and barriers to care among a diverse sample of Asian American older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Nguyen, Hannah; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2011-06-01

    Asian Americans represent a mix of cultures and immigration experiences, which may put them differentially at risk for mental health problems. Yet, little is known about the mental health needs of older adults from various Asian subgroups compared to non-Hispanic whites. To compare the prevalence rates of mental distress of Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese older adults (aged 55 and older) to that of non-Hispanic whites; and to examine subgroup differences in utilization of mental health services. A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample of California adults responding to the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine subgroup differences in mental health status and use of mental health services among the six different Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic whites, adjusting for respondents' demographic and health characteristics, socioeconomic status, and English-language proficiency. A total of 20,712 respondents were included. Filipino [aOR=2.25; 95% CI=1.14-4.47] and Korean Americans [aOR=2.10; 95% CI=1.06-4.17] were more likely to report symptoms indicative of mental distress compared to non-Hispanic whites, yet were less likely to have seen a primary care provider [Filipino: aOR=0.41; 95% CI=0.18-0.90; Korean: aOR=0.24; 95% CI = 0.08-0.69] or have taken a prescription medication [Filipino: aOR=0.20; 95% CI=0.10-0.40; Korean: aOR=0.15; 95% CI=0.05-0.40], even after adjusting for indicators of respondents' demographic and health characteristics, socioeconomic status, and English-language proficiency. In contrast, Japanese Americans were less likely to report symptoms indicative of mental distress [aOR=0.43; 95% CI=0.21-0.90], and were less likely to make use of mental health services compared to non-Hispanic whites. The findings from this study not only highlight the unmet mental health needs among older Asian Americans, but also illustrate significant

  4. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  5. Adjustment to Aging, Subjective Age and Age Representation: Assessing a Nationally-Diverse Population of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research sought to analyse older adults’ conceptualization of adjustment to aging (AtA, subjective age (SA and age representation (AR, adding a cross-national comparative perspective to aging well. Method: Questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing three core areas: SA, AtA and AR. Complete information on 231 older adults aged between 74-102 years (M = 83.1; SD = 6.692 from four different nationalities, was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified to contribute to AtA: ‘accomplishment, personal fulfilment and future projects’, ‘occupation, profession, autonomy and leisure’, ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’, ‘valorisation of time and age’, ‘family, social and interpersonal attachment’, ‘stability, quality and financial situation’, and ‘sense of limit and existential issues’. Five categories were identified for SA: ‘with congruence’, ‘without concern’, ‘with apprehension’, ‘young-at-heart’ and ‘good enough’. For AR, eight emergent categories were found: ‘future investment’, ‘reconciliation with life’, ‘present challenge’, ‘regret about the past’, ‘dynamic life’, ‘with contentment’, ‘as an opportunity’ and ‘with dissatisfaction’. Conclusion: This research contributes for a better understanding of what defines AtA, SA and AR in older adults. Moreover, interventions and communication approaches in clinical practice and program development in health care context should focus on shared perceptions of aging well.

  6. Perceptions of general and postpresidential election discrimination are associated with loss of control eating among racially/ethnically diverse young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Smith, Tasia M; Hall, Gordon C N; Guidinger, Claire; Williamson, Gina; Budd, Elizabeth L; Giuliani, Nicole R

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between young men's perceived experiences with discrimination, both general and following the 2016 presidential election, and their loss of control (LOC) eating. The degree to which men identified with their ethnic identity was evaluated as a moderator. The sample included 798 men (18-30 years; M = 24.0 ± 3.6) who identified as African American (n = 261), Asian/Asian American (n = 266), or Hispanic/Latino (n = 271). Participants completed an online survey of items assessing demographic characteristics; perceived discrimination; perceptions of race-related discrimination following the 2016 U.S. presidential election; ethnic identity; and LOC eating. After adjusting for income, education, generational status and body mass index, perceived discrimination was positively associated with LOC eating frequency in African American and Hispanic/Latino men (ps election were uniquely associated with more frequent LOC eating (p election and general experiences with racial discrimination, particularly if they report a low sense of belonging to their ethnic group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...

  8. Fear of falling as a risk factor of mobility disability in older people at five diverse sites of the IMIAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Garcia, Angeles; Ylli, Alban; Deshpande, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Fear of falling (FoF) is a common health problem among older adults. Although the relationship between FoF and limitation in daily activities has been reported, FoF's relationship to mobility disability, a transitional phase to end-stage disability, is not yet understood. We examined the relationship between FoF and mobility disability among community-dwelling older adults and explored the differences in this relationship among socio-culturally diverse sites. Cross-sectional study. Community. 1875 participants (65-74 years) were recruited from five sites and included in the analysis (Kingston, Canada: 394; St-Hyacinthe, Canada: 397; Tirana, Albania: 359; Manizales, Colombia: 341; and Natal, Brazil: 384). FoF was quantified using the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I, range: 16-64). Mobility disability was defined as difficulty climbing a flight of stairs or walking 400m without assistance. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported high FoF (FES-I>27). The average FoF scores were significantly different between the sites (pfive study sites (ranged from 19.8% at Kingston, Canada to 50.7% at Tirana, Albania, pfive sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  10. Geographic and racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Parton, Jason M; Ford, Katy-Lauren; Bryant, Ami N; Shim, Ruth S; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services vary by geographic region among U.S. adults. Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), selected samples consisted of 2,160 adults age 18 and older from diverse racial-ethnic groups (Asian, black, Hispanic/Latino, and white) who had used mental health services in the past 12 months. Generalized linear model analysis was conducted for the United States as a whole and separately by geographic region (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) after adjustment for covariates. In the national sample, no significant main effects of race-ethnicity and geographic region were found in either satisfaction with or perceived benefits from mental health services. In the stratified analyses for geographic regions, however, significant racial-ethnic differences were observed in the West; blacks in the West were significantly more likely to report higher satisfaction and perceived benefits, whereas Hispanics/Latinos in the West were significantly less likely to do so. The findings suggest that there are regional variations of racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services among U.S. adults and that addressing needs of Hispanics/Latinos in the West may help reduce racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  11. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  12. Accounting for ethnic-cultural and linguistic diversity in neuropsychological assessment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Valeria; Scarpa, Pina; Toraldo, Alessio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history. Clinical reports from 43 foreign-born patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were collected from the archives of Milan Niguarda Hospital. Epileptogenic zone, age, education, profession, illness duration, seizure frequency, handedness, and gender were considered in selecting 43 Italian controls. Ethnicity (Italian/foreign-born) and years spent in Italy were analyzed as main predictors on 21 neuropsychological scales by means of General(ized) Linear Models. An additional analysis studied two composite scores of overall verbal and nonverbal abilities. Ethnicity significantly affected the following: the verbal overall score, Verbal Fluency, Naming, Token-test, Digit Span, Attentional Matrices, Trail-Making-Test, Line-Orientation-Test, and Raven matrices; no effects were found on the nonverbal overall score, Word Pairs Learning, Episodic Memory, reading accuracy, visual span, Bells test, Rey Figure, and face memory and recognition. No significant effects of years spent in Italy emerged. While years spent in Italy does not predict neuropsychological performance, linguistic background had a strong impact on it. With respect to Italian-speaking patients, those who were foreign-born showed large task-related variability, with an especially low performance on language

  13. SurePath Specimens Versus ThinPrep Specimen Types on the COBAS 4800 Platform: High-Risk HPV Status and Cytology Correlation in an Ethnically Diverse Bronx Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, R C; Goldstein, D Y; Einstein, Mark H; Ramos Rivera, G; Schlesinger, K; Khader, S N; Suhrland, M; Fox, A S

    2017-08-01

    To compare the cytologic preparations of 130 cervical specimens (from women of various ethnicities at high risk for human papillomavirus [HPV] infection) using the SurePath (SP) collection system with specimens gathered using the ThinPrep (TP) system, as processed on the Cobas 4800 analyzer, to determine which collection method more accurately identifies HPV infection. In our prospective study, specimens were collected from 130 women of various ethnicities residing in or near Bronx County, NY. The SP-collected specimen was first processed for cytologic findings; if clinical HPV testing was requested on that specimen, it was tested using Hybrid Capture II (HC2) methodology. We tested the remnant SP-collected cell concentrate using the Cobas analyzer. Then, the TP-collected and SP-collected specimens were tested in the same run on that analyzer, and the results were compared. We also compared the results with the concurrent cytologic findings. The results were concordant for overall HR-HPV status in 93.8% of cases. Also, a statistically significant lower cycle threshold value was observed with Cobas testing of specimen concentrates tested via the BD SurePath Pap Test (P = .001), suggesting higher sensitivity compared with specimens tested via the ThinPrep Pap Test. Cobas 4800 HPV testing of SP-collected specimen concentrates yields comparable results to TP-collected specimen concentrates. Based on the limited data that we derived, SP collection may be a more favorable methodology than TP collection for HPV testing of individuals at high risk in our ethnically diverse, urban patient population. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Patient activation and disparate health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Peng, Timothy R; Feldman, Penny Hollander

    2012-11-01

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses people's ability to self-manage their health. Variations in PAM score have been linked with health behaviors, outcomes, and potential disparities. This study assessed the relative impacts of activation, socio-demographic and clinical factors on health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill, elderly homecare patients. Using survey and administrative data from 249 predominantly non-White patients, logistic regression was conducted to examine the effects of activation level and patient characteristics on the likelihood of subsequent hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. Activation was not a significant predictor of hospitalization or ED use in adjusted models. Non-Whites were more likely than Whites to have a hospitalization or ED visit. Obesity was a strong predictor of both outcomes. Further research should examine potential sources of disadvantage among chronically ill homecare patients to design effective interventions to reduce health disparities in this population.

  15. Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Walwick, Julie; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Schwartz, Sheryl; Taylor, Mary; LoGerfo, James

    2004-10-01

    Increasing physical activity is a goal of Healthy People 2010. Although the health benefits of physical activity are documented, older adults are less physically active than any other age group. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults. Seventy-one older adults were recruited through community agencies to participate in seven ethnic-specific focus groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Filipino, Chinese, Latino, Korean, and Vietnamese. Groups were conducted in the participants' primary language and ranged in size from 7-13 participants. Mean age was 71.6 years (range from 52 to 85 years; SD +/- 7.39). Professional translators transcribed audiotapes into the language of the group and then translated the transcript into English. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Suggested features of physical activity programs to enhance participation among ethnically diverse minority older adults included fostering relationships among participants; providing culture-specific exercise; offering programs at residential sites; partnering with and offering classes prior to or after social service programs; educating families about the importance of physical activity for older adults and ways they could help; offering low- or no-cost classes; and involving older adults in program development. Walking was the exercise of choice across all ethnic groups. Health served as both a motivator and a barrier to physical activity. Other factors influencing physical activity were weather, transportation, and personal safety. Findings from this study suggest strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.

  16. "And now for the good news..." the impact of negative and positive messages in self-management education for people with Type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eborall, Helen C; Virdee, Satnam K; Patel, Naina; Redwood, Sabi; Greenfield, Sheila M; Stone, Margaret A

    2016-03-01

    To explore the impact of Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) Foundation education, particularly from interviewees' narratives regarding recall of good and bad news messages and behaviour changes. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample (n=19) of people who had attended education sessions as part of a randomised controlled trial in two UK sites with ethnically diverse populations. Data collection and analysis were informed by the constant comparative approach and facilitated through charting. Findings were similar in people from different ethnic backgrounds. Exploration of levels of recall of the sessions suggested that this was variable and sometimes very limited, but that interviewees had all assimilated some relevant learning. Key themes emerged relating to the way in which interviewees recalled and had been influenced by positive (good news) and negative (bad news) messages within the education sessions, including biomedical explanations. Both types of message appeared to have an important role in terms of motivation to change behaviour, but a notable observation was that none of the interviewees recalled receiving bad news messages when diagnosed. Our findings have highlighted the importance of providing and combining both negative and positive messages within education designed to promote self-management behaviour change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  18. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  19. Is the Chronic Care Model Integrated Into Research Examining Culturally Competent Interventions for Ethnically Diverse Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvrin, Marie; Lorant, Vincent; d'Hoore, William

    2015-12-01

    The chronic care model (CCM) concerns both the medical and the cultural and linguistic needs of patients through the inclusion of cultural competence in the delivery system design. This literature review attempted to@@ identify the domains of the CCM culturally competent (CC) interventions that the adults from ethnic minorities suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus report. We identified the CCM and the CC components in the relevant studies published between 2005 and 2014. Thirty-two studies were included. Thirty-one articles focused on self-management and 20 on community resources. Twenty-three interventions integrated cultural norms from the patients' backgrounds. CC interventions reported the CCM at the individual level but need to address the organizational level more effectively. The scope of CC interventions should be expanded to transform health care organizations and systems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A Pilot Program Integrating Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Screening into an Outpatient Endoscopy Unit Improves HBV Screening Among an Ethnically Diverse Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan; Lopez, Aristeo; Liu, Benny; Bhuket, Taft; Wong, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Safety-net hospitals are enriched in ethnic minorities and provide opportunities for high-impact hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening. We aim to evaluate the impact of a pilot program integrating HBV screening into outpatient endoscopy among urban safety-net populations. From July 2015 to May 2017, consecutive adults undergoing outpatient endoscopy were prospectively assessed for HBV screening eligibility using US Preventative Services Task Force guidelines. Rates of prior HBV screening were assessed, and those eligible but not screened were offered HBV testing. Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated predictors of test acceptance among eligible patients. Among 1557 patients (47.1% male, 69.4% foreign born), 65.1% were eligible for HBV screening, among which 24.5% received prior screening. In our pilot screening program in the endoscopy unit, 91.4% (n = 855) of eligible patients accepted HBV testing. However, only 55.3% (n = 415) of those that accepted actually completed HBV testing. While there was a trend toward higher rates of test acceptance among African-Americans compared to non-Hispanic whites (OR 3.31, 95% CI 0.96-11.38, p = 0.06), no other sex-specific or race/ethnicity-specific disparities in HBV test acceptance were observed. Among those who completed HBV testing, we identified 10 new patients with chronic HBV (2.4% prevalence). Only 24.5% of eligible patients received prior HBV screening among our cohort. Our pilot program integrating HBV screening into outpatient endoscopy successfully tested an additional 415 patients, improving overall HBV screening from 24.5 to 75.6%. Integrating HBV testing into non-traditional settings has potential to bridge the gap in HBV screening among safety-net systems.

  1. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  2. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, t...

  3. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  4. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  5. Disparities in Quality of Park Play Spaces between Two Cities with Diverse Income and Race/Ethnicity Composition: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Jenkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT, all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009 in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits.

  6. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  7. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity: lessons learned from a Danish community pharmacy intervention for ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.

  8. Race/ethnicity and measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS; Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson, 1997). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES; Alegría, Jackson, Kessler, & Takeuchi, 2008), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 ("People act as if they're better than you are") associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Crossing Boundaries: Nativity, Ethnicity, and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  10. Performance of a risk index for advanced proximal colorectal neoplasia among a racially/ethnically diverse patient population (risk index for advanced proximal neoplasia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Brown, Colin C; Heeren, Timothy C; Schroy, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    Tailoring the use of screening colonoscopy based on the risk of advanced proximal neoplasia (APN) has been advocated as a strategy for reducing demand and optimizing effectiveness. A 7-point index based on age, sex, and distal findings at sigmoidoscopy has been proposed that stratifies individuals into low, intermediate, and high-risk categories. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the validity of this index, which was originally derived and validated among mostly whites, for black and Hispanic patients. Data, including age, sex, colonoscopic findings, and pathology, were collected retrospectively from 1,481 white, 1,329 black, and 689 Hispanic asymptomatic, average-risk patients undergoing screening colonoscopy between 2000 and 2005. Cumulative scores ranging from 0 to 7 were derived for each subject and categorized as low, intermediate, or high risk. Rates of APN were assessed for each risk category after stratification by race/ethnicity. Index performance was assessed using the C-statistic and compared across the three racial groups. Rates of APN among patients categorized as low, intermediate, or high risk increased from 1.0 to 2.8 to 3.7% for whites, 1.0 to 2.2 to 4.2% for blacks, and 0.6 to 1.9 to 3.7% for Hispanics. The index performed similarly for all three groups, but showed limited ability to discriminate low from intermediate-risk patients, with C-statistic values of 0.62 for whites, 0.63 for blacks, and 0.68 for Hispanics. A risk index based on age, sex, and distal endoscopic findings has limited ability to discriminate low from intermediate-risk white, black, and Hispanic patients for APN.

  11. Ethnic Diversity, Inter-group Attitudes and Countervailing Pathways of Positive and Negative Inter-group Contact: An Analysis Across Workplaces and Neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2018-01-01

    This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact. This results in exposure exhibiting both positive and negative indirect associations with prejudice via more frequent inter-group mixing. These countervailing contact-pathways help explain how out-group exposure is associated with inter-group attitudes. In neighbourhoods, increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive-contact suppress an otherwise negative effect of neighbourhood diversity (driven partly by increasing numbers of individuals reporting negative contact). Across workplaces the effect differs such that increasing numbers of individuals experiencing negative-contact suppress an otherwise positive effect of workplace diversity (driven largely by increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive contact).

  12. The Minne-Loppet Motivation Study: An Intervention to Increase Motivation for Outdoor Winter Physical Activity in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Wolfson, Julian; Laska, Melissa N; Nelson, Toben F; Pereira, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. Natural experiment. Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (β = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (β = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (β = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (β = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.

  13. "I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill": Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-09-01

    The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants' access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Everyday spaces of inter-ethnic interaction: the meaning of urban public spaces in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Haan, de H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic diversity is manifest in public spaces by the presence of people originating from all over the world. It is also manifest in typical ethnic spaces that are predominantly used by specific ethnic groups. This article focuses on how people from various ethnic backgrounds use urban public spaces

  15. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  16. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  17. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pozzoli, Dario; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    /education significantly enhances firm performance as measured by firm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results – both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative effects on firm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative effects, coming from communication and integration...... costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive effects of diversity on firm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we find that ethnic diversity is valuable for firms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade...... openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and access to global markets....

  18. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  20. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...... of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group...... in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did...

  1. Interpreting ethnic inequalities in healthcare consumption: a conceptual framework for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Lamkaddem, Majda; Jellema, Petra; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the Western-European population demands identification of potential ethnic healthcare inequities. We developed a framework that helps researchers in interpreting ethnic inequalities in healthcare consumption in equity terms. From this framework, we develop recommendations

  2. Ethnic and social disparities in different types of examinations in undergraduate pre-clinical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen); F.N. Brommet; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMedical schools are increasingly faced with a more diverse student population. Generally, ethnic minority students are reported to underperform compared with those from the ethnic majority. However, there are inconsistencies in findings in different types of examinations. Additionally,

  3. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  4. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  5. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  6. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  7. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  8. When Does Ethnic Diversity Lead to Violence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Mbuvi, Kitavi

    Some people have a concern for a fair distribution of incomes while others do not. Does such a concern matter for majority voting on redistribution? Fairness preferences are relevant for redistribution outcomes only if fair-minded voters are pivotal. Pivotality, in turn, depends on the structure ...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  10. Teacher Ethnicity, Student Ethnicity, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2015-01-01

    A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…

  11. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. Methods 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and princ...

  12. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  13. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  14. Gender, ethnicity and teaching evaluations : Evidence from mixed teaching teams

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Natascha; Rieger, Matthias; Voorvelt, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the effect of teacher gender and ethnicity on student evaluations of teaching quality at university. We analyze a unique data-set featuring mixed teaching teams and a diverse, multicultural, multi-ethnic group of students and teachers. Co-teaching allows us to study the impact of teacher gender and ethnicity on students’ evaluations of teaching exploiting within course variation in an empirical model with course-year fixed effects. We document a negative effect ...

  15. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  16. Contradictions of Ethnic Loyalty and the Quest for National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many analysts have located the primary obstacle to Nigeria‟s development and integration in the multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural nature of the country. The ethnic, cultural and political diversities of the country have been perceived as the source of its fragility and instability as well as its inability to evolve a ...

  17. Gender, ethnicity and teaching evaluations : Evidence from mixed teaching teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Wagner (Natascha); M. Rieger (Matthias); K.J. Voorvelt (Katherine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the effect of teacher gender and ethnicity on student evaluations of teaching quality at university. We analyze a unique data-set featuring mixed teaching teams and a diverse, multicultural, multi-ethnic group of students and teachers. Co-teaching allows us to study

  18. Wilderness values in America: Does immigrant status or ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the values immigrant groups or U.S.-born racial and ethnic minorities attribute to wilderness. However, the views of these groups are important to wilderness preservation because of increasing diversity along ethnic, cultural, and racial lines in the United States. We examine the proposition that wilderness is a social construction (valued...

  19. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  20. Ethnicity and Healthcare Practice - A Guide for the Primary Care Team Dyson Simon Culley Lorraine Ethnicity and Healthcare Practice - A Guide for the Primary Care Team 150 Quay Books 9781856423663 1856423662 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    How could a book exploring culture and ethnicity not interest a nurse? Chapters cover ethnicity, the diversity of UK ethnic groups, managing diversity in health care, communication, the effects of disease on family and community, mental health, substance misuse and refugees and asylum seekers.

  1. Do Older Investors Make Better Investment Decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    George M Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment decisions of older individual investors. We find that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow rules of thumb that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated, earn lower income, and belong to minority racial/ethnic groups. Overall, the adverse effects of aging dominate the positive effects of ...

  2. Eldercare in a Filipino community: older women's attitudes toward caregiving and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jennifer; Browne, Colette V

    2009-01-01

    Focus group research on elderly Filipino women living in the United States yields preliminary findings regarding their attitudes toward caregiving and formal service use. Filipino cultural values and the economic challenges attributed to their immigration status were perceived to be the greatest strengths and challenges in caring for the aged. Results identify generally positive attitudes toward formal service use and governmental assistance. Together, these findings shed light on Filipinos' acceptance and use of formal services. Further research to confirm and explore these findings can guide the design of the nation's practice and policy interventions for an increasingly ethnic and cultural diverse older population.

  3. Beyond money and survival: the meaning of paid work among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and experiences of paid work for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55 to 84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the meaning of work, reasons for working, and the centrality of work to personal identity. Participants discussed the following topics: independence from men; lost dreams and regrets related to paid work and educational opportunities; being responded to as mother by co-workers and supervisors; and working above and beyond the call of duty.

  4. Latinos' Changing Ethnic Group Representation From Elementary to Middle School: Perceived Belonging and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  6. The impact of group composition and attitudes towards diversity on anticipated outcomes of diversity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Karen; Paulus, Paul; Vos, Menno; Parthasarathy, Niveditha

    In two studies, students evaluated group pictures of workgroups of varying ethnic and gender composition with respect to anticipated affective and productive outcomes. The impact of level of diversity, faultlines and individual differences in diversity attitudes on anticipated outcomes were

  7. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Prins, Maria; Schene, Aart H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Populations in Europe are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse, and health risks differ between ethnic groups. The aim of the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study is to unravel the mechanisms underlying the impact of ethnicity on communicable and non-communicable diseases. HELIUS is a

  9. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  10. Ethnic differences in diet: A focus on methodology, determinants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to enhance the scientific basis for dietary analysis and the role of diet in T2DM prevalence in an ethnically diverse population. A large multi-ethnic population including five ethnic groups - South Asian origin Surinamese, African origin Surinamese, Turkish,

  11. Women's Reasons for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: Racial/Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, MARIA T.; WADE, CHRISTINE; KRONENBERG, FREDI; KALMUSS, DEBRA; CUSHMAN, LINDA F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Although racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization have been documented, differences in the reasons for using CAM have not been empirically assessed. In an increasingly diverse society, understanding differences in rates of and reasons for CAM use could elucidate cultural and social factors of health behaviors and inform health care improvements. The current study examines reasons for CAM use among women in four racial/ethnic groups. Design A national telephone survey of 3172 women aged 18 years and older was conducted in four languages. Respondents were asked about their use of remedies or treatments not typically prescribed by a medical doctor. This study focuses on those women who used CAM in the previous year and their reasons for using CAM. Results Non-Hispanic white women were most likely to cite personal beliefs for CAM use. Cost of conventional medicine was most prevalent among Mexican-American women CAM users. Physician referral, family and friends, and media sources were all equally likely to lead to CAM use in non-Hispanic white women. In contrast, informal networks of family and friends were the most important social influences of CAM use among African-, Mexican-, and Chinese-American women. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in reasons for CAM use highlight cultural and social factors that are important to consider in public evaluation of the risks and benefits of CAM remedies and treatments. PMID:17034277

  12. The relationship between acculturation and work-related well-being : differences between ethnic minority and majority employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Today's organizations are becoming more and more ethnically diverse. It is important to understand what constitutes the well-being of ethnic minority employees. This study explored the extent to which acculturation orientations (assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization) were

  13. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  14. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  15. How diversity gets lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article...... describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an “other,” and consequently their input was neglected...

  16. Tourism and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Azeredo Grünewald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant issues confronting studies in the anthropology of tourism is that of cultural change precipitated in host societies as a result of an influx of tourists. Many times those changes are accompanied by a reorganization of the host population along ethnic lines, that is, by the creation of tourism- oriented-ethnicities. This article's purpose is to examine the relationship between tourism and ethnicity in theoretical terms and to contribute to a better academic understanding of ethnic tourism.

  17. Ethnic identity, territory and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This article explores, within the relationship between territory and society, the various points concerning cultural, social and ethnic identity through which the social contract on sustainable development must confront its greatest contradictions. The political position taken as regards sustainable development seeks cultural unity as a necessary condition for establishing modern forms of behavior to deal with styles of development and the management of the environment, for which to reconcile cultural diversity and the permanent social interaction between different ethnic groups, which is both imperative and of the utmost urgency

  18. Idioms of Distress Among Depressed White-Non-Mexican and Mexican-Origin Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Barker, Judith C; Unutzer, Jurgen; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tran, Cindy; Guarnaccia, Peter; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-09-01

    Older men are less likely than older women to receive depression treatment. Latino older men in particular have been found to have significantly lower rates of depression treatment than their white-non-Mexican (WNM) counterparts. Prior research has shown that men are less likely than women to express overt affect and/or report depression symptoms that may prompt primary care physicians' inquiry about depression. Previous studies have overlooked the idioms of distress common among older men. This study investigates: a) the range of idioms of distress that emerge in the narratives of depressed older men, and b) the use of these idioms among depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older men. The present report is based on qualitative data collected through the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS), a mixed-method study of clinically depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older (65 and above) men recruited in primary care settings. Qualitative analysis of 77 interviews led to identification of idioms of distress and informed idiom categories. Study findings show that: a) both groups of men utilized a range of idioms of distress that met current DSM criteria for depression, b) both groups were also likely to utilize idioms that feel outside clinical depression criteria, and c) there were similarities as well as differences between WNM and Mexican-origin men. This study provides a larger vocabulary that clinicians might consider in recognizing depression and initiating depression care for older men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This is important to improve depression care among older men in general and those of Mexican-origin in particular.

  19. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.; Waller, J.; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White othe...

  20. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  1. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  2. Diversity as Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trittin, Hannah; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    of organizational members in terms of individual-bound criteria (e.g., gender, age, or ethnicity). By drawing on Bakhtin's notion of polyphony as well as the 'communicative constitution of organizations' (CCO) perspective, we suggest reconsidering diversity as the plurality of 'voices' which can be understood......In this paper, we propose reconceptualizing diversity management from a communication-centered perspective. We base our proposal on the observation that the literature on diversity management, both in the instrumental and critical traditions, is primarily concerned with fostering the diversity...... as the range of individual opinions and societal discourses that get expressed and can find resonance in organizational settings. We contribute to the literature on diversity management by moving away from a focus on individual-bound and inalterable criteria of diversity and toward a reconceptualization...

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in White and Black Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2018-06-11

    Background. Poor self-esteem is a core element of depression. According to recent research, some racial groups may vary in the magnitude of the link between depression and poor self-esteem. Using a national sample, we compared Black and White older Americans for the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on decline in self-esteem over time. Methods. This longitudinal study used data from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004. The study followed 1493 older adults (734 Black and 759 White) 65 years or older for three years. Baseline depressive symptoms (CES-D), measured in 2001, was the independent variable. Self-esteem, measured at the end of the follow up, was the dependent variable. Covariates included baseline demographic characteristics (age and gender), socioeconomic factors (education, income, and marital status), health (self-rated health), and baseline self-esteem. Race/ethnicity was the moderator. Linear multi-variable regression models were used for data analyses. Results. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were predictive of a larger decline in self-esteem over time, net of covariates. We found a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and baseline depressive symptoms on self-esteem decline, suggesting a weaker effect for Blacks compared to Whites. In race/ethnicity-specific models, high depressive symptoms at baseline was predictive of a decline in self-esteem for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Depressive symptoms may be a more salient contributor to self-esteem decline for White than Black older adults. This finding has implications for psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy of depression of racially diverse populations.

  4. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  5. Same-Ethnic, Interethnic, and Interracial Friendships Among Asian Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the psychological functions of three friendship types (i.e., same ethnic, interethnic, and interracial) in a sample of 785 sixth-grade Asian students (M age  = 11.5 years). Participants listed their friends in sixth grade and whether each nominated friend was the same or a different ethnic group. They also reported on their ethnic identity, intergroup relations, and perceived school safety. Results showed that same-ethnic friendships were related to stronger ethnic identity and interracial friendships were uniquely related to school safety. Interethnic friendships (an Asian friend from a different country of origin) when perceived as same ethnic functioned similarly to same-ethnic friendships, whereas interethnic friendships perceived as from a different ethnic group, like interracial friendships, were associated with better intergroup relations. Implications for studying friendships in ethnically diverse samples are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Psychosocial Clusters and their Associations with Well-Being and Health: An Empirical Strategy for Identifying Psychosocial Predictors Most Relevant to Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah; Weinberg, Janice; Kroenke, Candyce; Luo, Juhua; Messina, Catherine; Shumaker, Sally; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategies for identifying the most relevant psychosocial predictors in studies of racial/ethnic minority women’s health are limited because they largely exclude cultural influences and they assume that psychosocial predictors are independent. This paper proposes and tests an empirical solution. METHODS Hierarchical cluster analysis, conducted with data from 140,652 Women’s Health Initiative participants, identified clusters among individual psychosocial predictors. Multivariable analyses tested associations between clusters and health outcomes. RESULTS A Social Cluster and a Stress Cluster were identified. The Social Cluster was positively associated with well-being and inversely associated with chronic disease index, and the Stress Cluster was inversely associated with well-being and positively associated with chronic disease index. As hypothesized, the magnitude of association between clusters and outcomes differed by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS By identifying psychosocial clusters and their associations with health, we have taken an important step toward understanding how individual psychosocial predictors interrelate and how empirically formed Stress and Social clusters relate to health outcomes. This study has also demonstrated important insight about differences in associations between these psychosocial clusters and health among racial/ethnic minorities. These differences could signal the best pathways for intervention modification and tailoring. PMID:27279761

  7. The daily spiritual experiences scale and well-being: demographic comparisons and scale validation with older jewish adults and a diverse internet sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkstein, Solomon; Tower, Roni Beth

    2009-12-01

    A substantive literature connects spirituality to positive physical, social, and mental health. In this study, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) was administered to 410 subjects who participated in a community study and to 87 residents at the Hebrew Home for the Aged at Riverdale (HHAR), the latter sample consisting primarily of older Jewish respondents. Internal consistency of the DSES in both samples was high and exploratory factor analyses revealed one dominant factor and a second factor, which included 14 and 2 items, respectively, consistent with the scale's original validation (Underwood and Teresi 2002). Demographic subgroup comparison among religious groups revealed significantly fewer daily spiritual experiences among Jews, and lowest scores among those respondents endorsing no religious affiliation. Women exhibited more frequent daily experience than men, and attainment of higher levels of education was associated with less frequent daily spiritual experience. All but one of the outcome measures of physical and psychologic well-being were found to be positively associated with the DSES so that more frequent daily spiritual experience correlated with less psychopathology, more close friendships, and better self-rated health. Directions for future research, study interpretation and limitations, and clinical implications for use of the DSES are discussed.

  8. End of life care - the importance of culture and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine; Phillips, Jane

    2010-04-01

    Australia is a culturally and ethnically diverse country. Within such diversity there will be differing beliefs systems about death and dying. This may be a challenging prospect for health professionals. This article discusses how cultural diversity may impact care and provides some strategies for the general practitioner when considering the provision of end of life care. This article does not attempt to provide GPs with a prescriptive approach to multicultural care, as this would run the risk of stereotyping individuals. Rather, it discusses the barriers to end of life care among different cultural and ethnic groups, and suggests ways in which to improve understanding of different cultural needs in end of life care.

  9. The Ethnic Prejudice of Flemish Pupils: The Role of Pupils' and Teachers' Perceptions of Multicultural Teacher Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: As a result of migration processes, schools in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium) are notably ethnically diverse. This evolution has coincided with an increasing number of studies focusing on ethnic-minority pupils' experiences of ethnic prejudice from their ethnic majority counterparts. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  10. Diversity Claims-Making in a Transnational Space of Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2010-01-01

    Various organisations mobilise at the transnational, European level around gender and ethnicity issues, setting forward demands both by and on behalf of ethnic minority and migrant women. The organisations deal with diversity, in terms of gender and ethnicity, in different ways but they all influ...

  11. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual

  12. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  13. Feminist identity among women and men from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnett, Rachael D; Anderson, Kristin J

    2017-01-01

    Multiracial feminist theory proposes that the meaning of feminism and the pathways to feminist identity may differ on the basis of cross-cutting social categories such as ethnicity and gender. However, there is currently little research that has included systematic examination of feminist identity among women and men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. We examined feminist orientations among 1,140 undergraduates (70% women) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution who identified as African American, Asian American, European American, or Latina/o. Three related research aims were assessed through a combination of closed- and open-ended questions. First, we examined whether the meaning of the term feminism differed depending on participants' ethnicity or gender. We then tested for ethnic and gender variation in rates of feminist identity. Lastly, we examined participants' reasons for either identifying or not identifying as feminists. Ethnic and gender differences were obtained across each of the 3 research aims. For example, there were significant ethnic differences in rates of feminist identity among women, but not among men. Relative to past research, through the current study, we have provided an especially comprehensive examination of how ethnicity and gender interact to shape feminist attitudes. Consistent with multiracial feminist theory, findings demonstrated that attitudes about feminism vary as a function of both gender and ethnicity, yet key ethnic and gender similarities also emerged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A good place to raise your children? The diversity of parents’ neighbourhood perceptions and parenting practices in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighbourhood : A case study in Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K.; Bolt, G.S.; van Kempen, R.

    A considerable number of researchers have now recognised the importance of parental strategies in mediating or moderating neighbourhood effects on children. Their studies, however, provide little insight into the diversity of the neighbourhood perceptions, the role of the involvement or

  15. Children's evaluations of interethnic exclusion: The effects of ethnic boundaries, respondent ethnicity, and majority in-group bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem

    2017-06-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted in which preadolescent children (Study 1: N=542; Study 2: N=137; aged 8-13years) evaluated the exclusion, for unknown reasons, of an immigrant minority child by a native majority peer (majority interethnic exclusion). Study 1 compared children's evaluations of majority interethnic exclusion with their evaluations of (majority and minority) intraethnic exclusion and minority interethnic exclusion, and Study 2 examined children's underlying explanations. Each study compared ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents and examined the role of in-group bias for the former. Overall, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents regarded majority interethnic exclusion more negatively than the other exclusion types (majority intraethnic, minority interethnic, and minority intraethnic). All children, but especially older minority respondents, were more likely to reject majority interethnic exclusion if they perceived it to be discriminatory (ethnicity based). Among the majority children, a strong in-group bias was associated with a weaker condemnation of majority interethnic exclusion, but this was not due to a larger tolerance of ethnicity-based discrimination. Biased majority children were also less likely to reject minority intraethnic exclusion, indicating an overall weaker concern for out-group victims. Taken together, the studies show that children are relatively negative about majority (prototypical) interethnic exclusion because it implies the possibility of ethnic discrimination, and they concur with previous evidence for a developmental increase in the awareness of discrimination in ethnic minority youths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivators of and Barriers to Engaging in Physical Activity: Perspectives of Low-Income Culturally Diverse Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Tucker, Carolyn M; Kaye, Lily B; Desmond, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising in the United States, especially among low-income and racial/ethnic minority individuals. Exploring motivators and barriers relative to engaging in physical activity is imperative. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers relative to engagement in physical activity as reported by culturally diverse low-income adolescents and adults. A total of 91 adolescent (11 to 15 years of age) and adult (18 years of age or older) participants who self-identified as African American, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic White engaged in age group-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-concordant focus groups. Qualitative data analysis indicated that the motivators and barriers most commonly identified among the adolescent and adult focus groups were: social influence; time and priorities; physical environment; fun and enjoyment; inherently physical activities; weight concerns; fatigue, physical discomfort and current fitness level; and immediate positive feelings. Findings were generally similar across age group, gender and race/ethnicity. Age group-specific, gender-specific and race/ethnicity-specific motivators and barriers were related to how commonly the motivators and barriers were identified among each group. Implications for increasing physical activity among low-income culturally diverse adolescents and adults are discussed.

  17. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    /education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative e?ects on ?rm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative e?ects, coming from communication...... and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above......-average trade openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and access to global markets....

  18. Ethnic Identity and Conflicts: Lessons from the Kosovo Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Mossa Hussen

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic identity and conflicts often inter-married in countries where diversities on such grounds were seen as a threat. Conflicts in the post-cold war period have attained a new dimension. The Balkan region has been one of the most conflict prone regions in the world where conflicts arising from ethnic difference were not uncommon. Kosovo, former province of Serbia is a case in point. The roots of Serbia and Albanian communities' conflict regarding Kosovo dated back since the medieval pe...

  19. Impact of ethnicity, geography, and disease on the microbiota in health and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Lani; Kang, Seungha; Wagner, Josef; Buckley, Michael; Mahar, Jackie E; De Cruz, Peter; Wen, Zhonghui; Chen, Liping; Xia, Bing; van Langenberg, Daniel R; Lockett, Trevor; Ng, Siew C; Sung, Joseph J Y; Desmond, Paul; McSweeney, Chris; Morrison, Mark; Kirkwood, Carl D; Kamm, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The gut microbiota is central to health and disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Differences in microbiota related to geography and ethnicity may hold the key to recent changes in the incidence of microbiota-related disorders. Gut mucosal microbiota was analyzed in 190 samples from 87 Caucasian and Chinese subjects, from Australia and Hong Kong, comprising 22 patients with Crohn's disease, 30 patients with ulcerative colitis, 29 healthy controls, and 6 healthy relatives of patients with Crohn's disease. Bacterial 16S rRNA microarray and 454 pyrosequencing were performed. The microbiota was diverse in health, regardless of ethnicity or geography (operational taxonomic unit number and Shannon diversity index). Ethnicity and geography, however, did affect microbial composition. Crohn's disease resulted in reduced bacterial diversity, regardless of ethnicity or geography, and was the strongest determinant of composition. In ulcerative colitis, diversity was reduced in Chinese subjects only, suggesting that ethnicity is a determinant of bacterial diversity, whereas composition was determined by disease and ethnicity. Specific phylotypes were different between health and disease. Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease more often than healthy Chinese tended to have had a Western diet in childhood, in the East and West. The healthy microbiota is diverse but compositionally affected by geographical and ethnic factors. The microbiota is substantially altered in inflammatory bowel disease, but ethnicity may also play an important role. This may be key to the changing epidemiology in developing countries, and emigrants to the West.

  20. Ethnicity and Democracy in the Eastern Himalayan Borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    This book presents a close look at the growth, success, and proliferation of ethnic politics on the peripheries of modern South Asia, built around a case study of the Nepal ethnic group that lives in the borderlands of Sikkim, Darjeeling, and east Nepal. Grounded in historical and ethnographic re...... research, it critically examines the relationship between culture and politics in a geographical space that is home to a diverse range of ethnic identities, showing how new modes of political representation, cultural activism, and everyday politics have emerged from the region....

  1. Validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 – Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores as a function of gender, ethnicity, and age of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the construction of quality of life in older people / Lizanlé van Biljon.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Biljon, Lizanlé

    2013-01-01

    Ageing populations and the unique challenges they pose are characteristic of the accelerating demographic transition evident in both developed and developing countries. In South Africa the elderly population is also increasing dramatically. There is a disproportionate distribution of older persons per ethnic group, with white older people representing the largest group of older South Africans (21%, proportional to ethnic group). The influx of the baby boomer generation will inevitably lead to...

  3. A new conceptualization of ethnicity for social epidemiologic and health equity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Harawa, Nina T

    2010-07-01

    Although social stratification persists in the US, differentially influencing the well-being of ethnically defined groups, ethnicity concepts and their implications for health disparities remain under-examined. Ethnicity is a complex social construct that influences personal identity and group social relations. Ethnic identity, ethnic classification systems, the groupings that compose each system and the implications of assignment to one or another ethnic category are place-, time- and context-specific. In the US, racial stratification uniquely shapes expressions of and understandings about ethnicity. Ethnicity is typically invoked via the term, 'race/ethnicity'; however, it is unclear whether this heralds a shift away from racialization or merely extends flawed racial taxonomies to populations whose cultural and phenotypic diversity challenge traditional racial classification. We propose that ethnicity be conceptualized as a two-dimensional, context-specific, social construct with an attributional dimension that describes group characteristics (e.g., culture, nativity) and a relational dimension that indexes a group's location within a social hierarchy (e.g., minority vs. majority status). This new conceptualization extends prior definitions in ways that facilitate research on ethnicization, social stratification and health inequities. While federal ethnic and racial categories are useful for administrative purposes such as monitoring the inclusion of minorities in research, and traditional ethnicity concepts (e.g., culture) are useful for developing culturally appropriate interventions, our relational dimension of ethnicity is useful for studying the relationships between societal factors and health inequities. We offer this new conceptualization of ethnicity and outline next steps for employing socially meaningful measures of ethnicity in empirical research. As ethnicity is both increasingly complex and increasingly central to social life, improving its

  4. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  5. Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin

    2018-05-25

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual

  6. Authoritarian Disbeliefs in Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Kauff, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic diversity poses a threat to authoritarians, as it indicates non-conformism to group norms and poses a threat to group conformity. According to authoritarian dynamic theory, threats elicit authoritarian reactions in people with authoritarian predispositions. In the present article we tested a mediation model derived from authoritarian dynamic theory in a sample of 171 students. As expected, authoritarian predisposition negatively predicted diversity beliefs. This effect was fully mediated by an authoritarian manifestation, that is, authoritarian aggression. The two other components of right-wing authoritarianism, authoritarian submission and conventionalism, did not mediate the effect. Results confirm contemporary research on authoritarianism and the differentiation of authoritarian predispositions and its manifestations.

  7. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  8. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  10. The development of non-essentialist concepts of ethnicity among children in a multicultural London community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    Ethnic constancy, the belief that a person cannot change ethnicity, is an important component of ethnic essentialism, the conviction that members of ethnic groups share an immutable underlying essence. Most children in previous research viewed ethnicity as increasingly immutable with age. However, some evidence suggests that children growing up in communities, which define ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features (e.g., lifestyle) rather than fixed features (e.g., ancestry), may not follow this trajectory. This study examined ethnic constancy development in a community which defined ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features. It was hypothesized that older children would view ethnicity as more changeable than younger children, but that because of personal investment which increases with age, children would view their own ethnicity as more stable than a peer's ethnicity, entailing a significant interaction between age and self-other. Ninety-two children in three age groups (mean ages 7, 9, and 11 years) from a multicultural school in London were interviewed individually. Their ethnicities were 45% Indian, 16% English, 7% Pakistani, 7% Somali, 2% unknown, and 25% other. Children's explanations were analysed thematically. All hypotheses were supported. Children's conceptions of others' ethnicity as changeable were supported by definitions focusing on religion, and by the concept of freedom of choice. This suggests that in a community in which ethnicity is primarily defined in terms of attributes which are seen as mutable (in this case, religion), children may not essentialize ethnicity. Still, ethnic change may rarely occur in practice due to an emotional commitment to one's own ethnic group. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Most research finds that children develop concept of ethnicity as fixed and essential; But limited evidence of non-essentialist developmental pathways for ethnicity For gender, children assert

  11. Dietary supplement use in the context of health disparities: cultural, ethnic and demographic determinants of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Bentley, Margaret E

    2003-06-01

    Women of African American, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American and Alaskan descent constitute 29% of the female population in the United States but they experience health problems disproportionately. Compared with white women as a group, they are in poorer health and use fewer health services. We know from recent studies that the daily use of multivitamins has been associated with lower risk of coronary disease, colon cancer and breast cancer, particularly for alcohol drinkers. In addition, daily multivitamin and multimineral usage by the elderly can reduce the number of days of illness due to infections by 50%. However, supplement use among women tends to be more prevalent among the middle and older age categories; white, well-educated and higher income women; and those residing in the western part of the United States. This examination of the current health disparities and usage patterns indicates that the women who could benefit most from supplements are not typical users. Qualitative data collected on iron and folic acid supplementation programs in developing countries indicate that diverse cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs among vulnerable populations may influence supplement use. However, data in the U.S literature that describe these factors by culture or ethnicity are sparse. If we are to promote dietary supplements to women who are most vulnerable, more research is warranted in the area of health beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic determinants of supplement use by culture and or ethnicity, particularly among underprivileged groups.

  12. Teaching Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led to genetics research that supports arguments that race is not biological. DNA comparisons show that all human populations living today are one species that came from Africa. The article explains the migration of humans out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and how they populated Australia, then Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The article shows how recent research maps the timing of the migration and admixture of specific population groups into Europe and India. The article shows how a mutation in one nucleotide can result in a trait like blue eyes, or Hemoglobin S (which confers resistance to malaria, which can be subject to evolution through natural selection. DNA comparisons show how natural selection shaped the genetics of human skin color to adapt to less UV light in the northern latitudes of Europe and Asia. The article shows that there is no relation between skin color or other “racial” characteristics and complex traits like intelligence. The science in this article will help teachers explain that as race is not biological, race is socially constructed and culturally enacted.

  13. The challenge of promoting ethnic minority education and cultural diversity in Hong Kong schools : from policy to practice = El desafío de promover la educación de los grupos étnicos minoritarios y la diversidad cultural en las escuelas de Hong Kong : de las políticas a la práctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-tak Hue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of Hong Kong’s education reform over the past decade has been the articulation of the “no loser principle”. This policy statement was meant to signal that all students are valuable and will benefit from both basic and senior secondary education. Yet barriers remain for the 2.9% of students under the age of 15 who can be classified as ethnic minorities. Until the 2008 Racial Discrimination Ordinance (RDO, the educational needs of these students remained an invisible issue for the school system. This article examines the policy context in which Hong Kong schools have made provisions for ethnic minority students, and reviews classroom practices that operationalize these policies on a daily basis. In an interview study involving 32 teachers’ narratives of how they managed the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students in classrooms (Hue & Kennedy, 2012, 2013, it was reported that at the practical level, teachers struggle to meet the diverse needs of students and to conceptualize a new rationale for responding to cultural diversity. The implications of promoting ethnic minority education at the three levels of policy, practice and research are discussed.Un rasgo importante de las reformas educativas puesta en marcha en Hong Kong a lo largo de la última década ha sido el “principio del no perdedor”. Esta afirmación política estaba orientada a señalar que todos los alumnos son importantes y se beneficiarán de una educación básica y secundaria. Sin embargo, se mantiene una barrera para el 2,9% de alumnos menores de 15 años clasificados como pertenecientes a alguna minoría étnica. Hasta la Orden de Discriminación Racial (Racial Discrimination Ordinance, RDO de 2008, las necesidades educativas de estos alumnos permanecían ocultas para el sistema educativo. Este artículo examina el contexto político en el que las escuelas de Hong Kong han aprobado medidas especiales para los alumnos de minorías

  14. Ethnic differences in the effects of media on body image: the effects of priming with ethnically different or similar models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gina L; Carter, Michele M

    2015-04-01

    Media exposure has been positively correlated with body dissatisfaction. While body image concerns are common, being African American has been found to be a protective factor in the development of body dissatisfaction. Participants either viewed ten advertisements showing 1) ethnically-similar thin models; 2) ethnically-different thin models; 3) ethnically-similar plus-sized models; and 4) ethnically-diverse plus-sized models. Following exposure, body image was measured. African American women had less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women. Ethnically-similar thin-model conditions did not elicit greater body dissatisfaction scores than ethnically-different thin or plus-sized models nor did the ethnicity of the model impact ratings of body dissatisfaction for women of either race. There were no differences among the African American women exposed to plus-sized versus thin models. Among Caucasian women exposure to plus-sized models resulted in greater body dissatisfaction than exposure to thin models. Results support existing literature that African American women experience less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women even following exposure to an ethnically-similar thin model. Additionally, women exposed to plus-sized model conditions experienced greater body dissatisfaction than those shown thin models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  16. Improving sexual health communication between older women and their providers: how the integrative model of behavioral prediction can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Rostant, Ola S; Curran, Paul G

    2014-07-01

    Talking about sexual health can be a challenge for some older women. This project was initiated to identify key factors that improve communication between aging women and their primary care providers. A sample of women (aged 60+) completed an online survey regarding their intent to communicate with a provider about sexual health. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a guide, the survey instrument captured data on attitudes, perceived norms, self-efficacy, and intent to communicate with a provider about sexual health. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived norms were the most important factors predicting intent to communicate for this sample of women. Intent did not vary with race, but mean scores of the predictors of intent varied for African American and White women. Results can guide practice and intervention with ethnically diverse older women who may be struggling to communicate about their sexual health concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Tourism and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Bacsi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultural attractions are often linked to unique features of the host population, and are often related to a national minority or a segment of the population that preserved their traditions. Ethnically or religiously varied countries may often have such unique attractions, that seem exotic and appealing to tourists. Multiculturality is often an attraction for tourism, offering generally an authentic experience for visitors of different backgrounds. Besides, an ethnically or linguistically varied population can also provide a linguisticaly more skilful labour force, that is more sensitive to the needs of visitors coming from different cultures, and thus create a more comfortable environment for them. The issue of multicultural societies has recently become a sensitive issue, due to global mass migration. There is a belief that ethnic or cultural fractionalisation would necessarily bring about difficulties of understanding and cooperation, leading to lower economic performance, less stable economic and social processes and, ultimately a slowdown of economic output. The resulting conflicts, difficulties may frighten away tourists and lead to the vulnerability of the tourism sector in very heterogeneous countries. On the other hand, ethnic fractionalisation and the resulting cultural diversity can be welcome as valuable resources as the varied pool of knowledge, traditions, skills, customs, that can enhance innovative ideas and creativity. In the present paper evidence is looked for the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity and tourism performance in a cross-country statistical analysis of 155 countries of the world. Statistical analysis of 155 countries show, that although there is a tendency of lower tourism performance with greated fractionalisation of the society, the most popular and successful tourism destinations are often multicultural and multiethnic societies.

  18. "A NEW CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ETHNICITY FOR SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND HEALTH EQUITY RESEARCH"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T

    2010-01-01

    Although social stratification persists in the US, differentially influencing the well-being of ethnically defined groups, ethnicity concepts and their implications for health disparities remain under-examined. Ethnicity is a complex social construct that influences personal identity and group social relations. Ethnic identity, ethnic classification systems, the groupings that compose each system and the implications of assignment to one or another ethnic category are place-, time- and context-specific. In the US, racial stratification uniquely shapes expressions of and understandings about ethnicity. Ethnicity is typically invoked via the term, ‘race/ethnicity’; however, it is unclear whether this heralds a shift away from racialization or merely extends flawed racial taxonomies to populations whose cultural and phenotypic diversity challenge traditional racial classification. We propose that ethnicity be conceptualized as a two-dimensional, context-specific, social construct with an attributional dimension that describes group characteristics (e.g., culture, nativity) and a relational dimension that indexes a group’s location within a social hierarchy (e.g., minority vs. majority status). This new conceptualization extends prior definitions in ways that facilitate research on ethnicization, social stratification and health inequities. While federal ethnic and racial categories are useful for administrative purposes such as monitoring the inclusion of minorities in research, and traditional ethnicity concepts (e.g., culture) are useful for developing culturally appropriate interventions, our relational dimension of ethnicity is useful for studying the relationships between societal factors and health inequities. We offer a new conceptualization of ethnicity and outline next steps for employing socially meaningful measures of ethnicity in empirical research. Ethnicity is both increasingly complex and increasingly central to social life; therefore, improving

  19. Relationship Power, Sexual Decision Making, and HIV Risk Among Midlife and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon

    2015-01-01

    The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.

  20. The relation between ethnic classroom composition and adolescents’ ethnic pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leszczensky, Lars; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Munniksma, Anke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how students? ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) were tested among 13- to 14-year-old ethnic majority and minority