Pike, Amanda Alders
This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…
Werner, Julie M; Carlson, Mike; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Clark, Florence
In this study, we analyzed self-reported computer use, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, and health and well-being variables collected from 460 ethnically diverse, community-dwelling elders to investigate the relationship computer use has with demographics, well-being, and other key psychosocial variables in older adults. Although younger elders with more education, those who employ active coping strategies, or those who are low in anxiety levels are thought to use computers at higher rates than do others, previous research has produced mixed or inconclusive results regarding ethnic, gender, and psychological factors or has concentrated on computer-specific psychological factors only (e.g., computer anxiety). Few such studies have employed large sample sizes or have focused on ethnically diverse populations of community-dwelling elders. With a large number of overlapping predictors, zero-order analysis alone is poorly equipped to identify variables that are independently associated with computer use. Accordingly, both zero-order and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of two types of computer use: e-mail and general computer use. Results indicate that younger age, greater level of education, non-Hispanic ethnicity, behaviorally active coping style, general physical health, and role-related emotional health each independently predicted computer usage. Study findings highlight differences in computer usage, especially in regard to Hispanic ethnicity and specific health and well-being factors. Potential applications of this research include future intervention studies, individualized computer-based activity programming, or customizable software and user interface design for older adults responsive to a variety of personal characteristics and capabilities.
Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.
Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…
Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Miller, David P; Latulipe, Celine; Leng, Xiaoyan; Talton, Jenifer W; Melius, Kathryn P; Smith, Alden; Bertoni, Alain G
Patient portals can improve patient communication with providers, provide patients with greater health information access, and help improve patient decision making, if they are used. Because research on factors facilitating and limiting patient portal utilization has not been conceptually based, no leverage points have been indicated for improving utilization. The primary objective for this analysis was to use a conceptual framework to determine potentially modifiable factors affecting patient portal utilization by older adults (aged 55 years and older) who receive care at clinics that serve low income and ethnically diverse communities. The secondary objective was to delineate how patient portal utilization is associated with perceived usefulness and usability. Patients from one urban and two rural clinics serving low income patients were recruited and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires on patient portal utilization. A total of 200 ethnically diverse patients completed questionnaires, of which 41 (20.5%) patients reported utilizing portals. Education, social support, and frequent Internet utilization improve the odds of patient portal utilization; receiving health care at a rural clinic decreases the odds of portal utilization. Leverage points to address disparities in patient portal utilization include providing training for older adults in patient portal utilization, involving spouses or other care partners in this training, and making information technology access available at public places in rural and urban communities.
Lavin, Robert; Park, Juyoung
This article presents a critical review of the influence of interracial and ethnic variation on pain prevalence, intensity, interference/function/disability, and treatment in older adults. A search of scientific databases published from 1900 to 2011, using key words associated with pain, geriatrics, and race/ethnicity, identified 180 articles, of which 27 empirical studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the retained articles, 17 reported that race/ethnicity was a statistically significant factor at p interracial/ethnic differences in pain assessment and treatment interventions among older adults.
Pound, Carole; Greenwood, Nan
Very little is known about how older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups caring for someone after a stroke access and engage with social care services. This paper explores both the experiences of carers whose relative was receiving social care services in their own home and the value of a theory of humanising care to understand and explain these experiences. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 50 carers from five different ethnic groups: Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and White British. Data were thematically analysed within a phenomenological framework. Five interacting themes emerged: communication and bureaucracy; time and timing; communication and rapport building; trust and safety; humanity and the human dimensions of care. Many of the experiences could be interpreted within a conceptual framework of humanising care underpinned by eight interacting dimensions of what it means to be treated as an individual and a human. Carers from BME and White British groups share many experiences of homecare although language and cultural difference may exacerbate common pressures and stresses. The framework for humanising care is a useful tool to evaluate aspects of homecare that are responsive to dignity and diversity. Implications for Rehabilitation Explicitly identifying, describing and valuing the human dimensions of care may support services in responding appropriately to homecare users from black minority ethnic communities as well as those from white majority groups. Unresponsive services and poor communication may lead to loss of trust with care agencies and undermine BME carers' sense of entitlement and competence in engaging with homecare services. Care worker continuity investing time in building relationships and care worker familiarity is important to many families who access social care services.
Munaganuru, Nagambika; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Creasman, Jennifer; Subak, Leslee L; Strano-Paul, Lisa; Huang, Alison J
Urinary incontinence is associated with decreased female sexual function, but little is known about the prevalence, predictors, and impact of urine leakage during sexual activity among women in the community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of urine leakage during sex in ethnically diverse, community-dwelling midlife and older women. Urinary incontinence and sexual function were assessed by structured questionnaire in a multiethnic, community-based cohort of women enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system in California. All women were aged 40-80 years and sampled from 1 of 4 racial/ethnic groups (20% black, 20% Latina, 20% Asian, and 40% non-Latina white). Differences in frequency, bother, and fear of urine leakage during sexual activity were examined among women with monthly, weekly, and daily urinary incontinence and across different types of urinary incontinence (stress, urgency, mixed, and other type urinary incontinence), with the use of chi-square tests. Independent risk factors for urine leakage during sexual activity were identified through multivariable logistic regression. Of the 509 women who reported being sexually active and having at least monthly urinary incontinence, 127 of them (25%) reported experiencing any urine leakage during sex during the past 3 months. Nineteen percent of the women reported being subjectively bothered by leakage during sex, and 16% of them reported restricting sexual activity because of fear of leakage. Women with more frequent underlying urinary incontinence were more likely to report experiencing or being bothered by leakage during sex and restricting sexual activity because of fear of leakage (Pconfidence interval, 1.20-3.20), symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.98), mixed vs urgency type urinary incontinence (odds ratio, 3.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-5.88), stress vs urgency type
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual......We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but we also compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. Our results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although empirical evidence is available on the coping-health link in older age, research on this topic is needed with non-clinical samples of ethnically diverse older women. To contribute to filling such a research gap, we tested whether these women's general health and functional limitations were associated with specific coping strategies (selected for their particular relevance to health issues and with known health-related demographics, i.e., age, ethnicity, income, and married status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, respondents were recruited at community facilities including stores and senior centers. The sample consisted of 180 community-dwelling women (age 52-98 screened for dementia; 64% of them reported having an ethnic minority status. The assessment battery contained the Mini-Cog, a demographics list, the Brief COPE, and the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that older women who used behavioral disengagement and, to a smaller degree, self-distraction as a form of coping reported lower levels of general health. The opposite was the case for positive reframing and, to a lesser degree, substance use. Moreover, lower income was related to worse general health and (together with more advanced age physical functioning. None of the coping strategies achieved significance in the physical functioning model. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings need corroboration by longitudinal research prior to developing related clinical interventions. Based on the initial evidence provided herein, clinicians working with this population should consider establishing the therapeutic goal of increasing the use of positive reframing while diminishing behavioral disengagement.
Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David
Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313
Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David
Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....
Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre
Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.
Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.
Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…
Mower, Marilyn T
Montgomery County in Maryland is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the United States. Since the 1970s, traditional American and Kosher meals have been offered at congregate sites in this County, but few seniors of varied ethnicity participated. This article describes creative approaches used in the County Senior Nutrition Program within the Older Americans Act from 1990 to 2007 to develop nutrition sites targeted to seniors in Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese communities. The services provided are culturally sensitive, and the meals meet both nutritional and food safety standards. With secure funding, programs can be made available to other ethnic groups.
Lai, Daniel W L
In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.
The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is
Washko, Michelle M; Schack, Ronald W; Goff, Barry A; Pudlin, Bennett
Title V of the Older Americans Act, the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), is a 40+-year-old federal program providing subsidized community service and employment training to low-income, unemployed individuals aged 55 and older. It is the only nationally mandated workforce training program for seniors. Because of SCSEP's dual mission, participants added 48 million hours of community service (valued at almost $1 billion) to the U.S. economy in 2008. Almost half (48.9%) of the participants are racial or ethnic minorities, which makes it crucial to understand the program experience of these individuals. Participation, program duration, and employment placement of minorities are examined. Findings show successful enrollment rates, an interactive effect of age and education on program duration, and no indication of a minority disadvantage in employment placement. Recommendations include funding for innovative grants, leveraging of federal partnerships, and targeted technical assistance.
Northridge, Mary E.; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the pa...
Northridge, Mary E.; Michele Shedlin; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Ivette Estrada; Leydis De La Cruz; Rogelina Peralta; Stacia Birdsall; Metcalf, Sara S.; Bibhas Chakraborty; Carol Kunzel
Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities ...
Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe
I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....
Dahhan, Nordin; Meijssen, Dominique; Chegary, Malika; Bosman, Diederik; Wolf, Bart
Background: The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC)
Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel
School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Sweden, as many other European countries, has been engaged in the debate concerning the relationships between social cohesion and the media. The article examines the tension between officially expressed attitudes and diversity goals of Swedish newsrooms and how journalists who have foreign backgrounds perceive these. Despite the intense discussions in recent years concerning media's role in a multi-ethnic context Swedish media organizations have not yet developed an effective means of promoting and implementing diversity in the newsrooms. The interviewed journalists draw attention to the dilemma of not being accepted in majority dominated newsrooms and stress the need to change editorial organization patterns, newsroom cultures and to re-define journalistic missions regarding ethnic diversity. The article concerns the market focus of news production and argues that the present tendency to mainstream cultural diversity in media content may lead to the exclusion of minority voices and thus undermining diversity efforts.
Rao, Rahul; Schofield, Peter; Ashworth, Mark
This study explores the relationship between alcohol consumption, health, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. 27,991 people aged 65 and over from an inner-city population, using a primary care database. Primary outcome measures were alcohol use and misuse (>21 units per week for men and >14 for units per week women). Older people of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin from four distinct ethnic groups comprised 29% of the sample. A total of 9248 older drinkers were identified, of whom 1980 (21.4%) drank above safe limits. Compared with older drinkers, older unsafe drinkers contained a higher proportion of males, white and Irish ethnic groups and a lower proportion of Caribbean, African and Asian groups. For older drinkers, the strongest independent predictors of higher alcohol consumption were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity. Independent predictors of lower alcohol consumption were Asian, black Caribbean and black African ethnicity. Socioeconomic deprivation and comorbidity were not significant predictors of alcohol consumption in older drinkers. For older unsafe drinkers, the strongest predictor variables were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity; comorbidity was not a significant predictor. Lower socioeconomic deprivation was a significant predictor of unsafe consumption whereas African, Caribbean and Asian ethnicity were not. Although under-reporting in high-alcohol consumption groups and poor health in older people who have stopped or controlled their drinking may have limited the interpretation of our results, we suggest that closer attention is paid to 'young older' male drinkers, as well as to older drinkers born outside the UK and those with lower levels of socioeconomic deprivation who are drinking above safe limits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dinsbach, A.A.; Feij, J.A.; Vries, de R.E.
Abstract A research on the content of communication at work, job attitudes and unequal treatment was conducted in an ethnically diverse organization in the Netherlands comprising 504 ethnic majority and 113 ethnic minority employees. Ethnic minority employees experienced less person-related
Zwiers, M.D.; van Ham, M.; Manley, D.J.
Western cities are increasingly ethnically diverse, and in most cities, the share of the population belonging to an ethnic minority is growing. Studies analysing changing ethnic geographies often limit their analysis to changes in ethnic concentrations in neighbourhoods between 2 points in time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC was integrated in the general Paediatric Outpatient Departments (POPD of three hospitals in Amsterdam. Methods Feasibility of the MOC, factors influencing the health care process and encountered bottlenecks in health care were studied in ethnic minority children with asthma, diabetes type 1 or metabolic disease originating from Morocco, Turkey and Surinam. Feasibility was determined by the number of patients attended, support from the paediatric medical staff and willingness of the patients to participate. Influences on the health care process comprised parents' level of knowledge of disease, sense of disease severity, level of effort, linguistic skills, health literacy, adherence to treatment and encountered bottlenecks in the health care process. Moreover, the number of admissions and visits to the POPD in the years before, during and after the MOC were analysed. Results In 2006 a total of 189 ethnic minority children were seen. Integration of the MOC within the general POPD of the hospital is feasible. The ability of the parents to speak and understand Dutch was found to be 58%, functional health literacy was 88%; sufficient knowledge of disease and sense of disease severity were 59% and 67%, respectively. The main bottlenecks in the healthcare process: poor knowledge of disease, limited sense of disease severity and low health literacy in the parents proved to be the best predictors for decreased adherence. After attending the MOC there was a decrease in the number of admissions and visits to the POPD for asthma while the number of visits increased in patients with diabetes and the amount of no-shows decreased in patients with a metabolic
Lee, John Michael, Jr.
This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.
Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique
The present study examined the relationship between ethnic diversity in school and educational outcomes, social-emotional functioning, and citizenship competences for bi-ethnic students. The focus of this study is bi-ethnic children with 1 non-migrant parent (with 2 non-migrant grandparents) and 1 migrant parent (with 2 foreign grandparents). It…
Karssen, M.; van der Veen, I.; Volman, M.
The present study examined the relationship between ethnic diversity in school and educational outcomes, social-emotional functioning, and citizenship competences for bi-ethnic students. The focus of this study is bi-ethnic children with 1 non-migrant parent (with 2 non-migrant grandparents) and 1
This study investigates the impact of ethnic diversity on test scores, on top of the effect of the share of non-native pupils. We use a rich survey of Dutch primary school students and exploit variations between subsequent cohorts within the same school as our identification strategy. We find that ethnic diversity has a positive impact on the test…
Menkin, Josephine A; Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Araiza, Daniel; Reyes, Carmen E; Trejo, Laura; Choi, Sarah E; Willis, Phyllis; Kotick, John; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ma, Sina; McCreath, Heather E; Chang, Emiley; Witarama, Tuff; Sarkisian, Catherine A
The study identifies differences in age-expectations between older adults from Korean, Chinese, Latino, and African American backgrounds living in the United States. This study uses baseline demographic, age-expectation, social, and health data from 229 racial/ethnic minority seniors in a stroke-prevention intervention trial. Unadjusted regression models and pair-wise comparisons tested for racial/ethnic differences in age-expectations, overall, and across domain subscales (e.g., physical-health expectations). Adjusted regression models tested whether age-expectations differed across racial/ethnic groups after controlling for demographic, social, and health variables. Regression and negative binomial models tested whether age-expectations were consistently associated with health and well-being across racial/ethnic groups. Age-expectations differed by race/ethnicity, overall and for each subscale. African American participants expected the least age-related functional decline and Chinese American participants expected the most decline. Although African American participants expected less decline than Latino participants in unadjusted models, they had comparable expectations adjusting for education. Latino and African American participants consistently expected less decline than Korean and Chinese Americans. Acculturation was not consistently related to age-expectations among immigrant participants over and above ethnicity. Although some previously observed links between expectations and health replicated across racial/ethnic groups, in adjusted models age-expectations were only related to depression for Latino participants. With a growing racial/ethnic minority older population in the United States, it is important to note older adults' age-expectations differ by race/ethnicity. Moreover, expectation-health associations may not always generalize across diverse samples.
Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe
I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....
Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René
This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)
Tolsma, J.; Deurzen, I. van; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, D.R.
This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)
Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel
Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide
Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others
This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…
Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Gravers, Mikael (ed., Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, Copenhagen: NIAS Press (= NIAS Studies in Asian Topics Series, 39, 2007, ISBN 9788791114960, 283 pages
Douglass, Sara; Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J Nicole
Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66% female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed.
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Sun, Shuyan; Korol, Liliia; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Research on ethnic victimization to date has done little to identify the reasons why adolescents victimize their peers due to their ethnic background. To address this limitation, we examined: (1) the extent to which prejudiced attitudes within adolescents' close and larger social networks determine their engagement in ethnic harassment, and (2) the extent to which classroom ethnic diversity plays a role in any such link. Our sample included 902 Swedish adolescents (M age = 14.40, SD = .95; 50.3% girls). We found that Swedish adolescents who held negative attitudes toward immigrants or who were surrounded by prejudiced peers were more likely to be involved in ethnic harassment, particularly in classrooms with high ethnic diversity. Adolescents in classrooms with a high anti-immigrant climate were more likely to harass their immigrant peers. These findings suggest that prejudiced beliefs in youth social networks put young people at risk of engaging in ethnic harassment, particularly in ethnically diverse classrooms.
Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.
We have examined the extent to which ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods and municipalities in The Netherlands is related to personal contact with neighbours from ethnic in-groups and out-groups among the native majority as well as among ethnic minorities. The results indicate that ethnic diversity
Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Juvonen, Jaana; Nishina, Adrienne; Graham, Sandra
Students' perceptions of their safety and vulnerability were investigated in 11 public middle schools (more than 70 sixth-grade classrooms) that varied in ethnic diversity. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicate that higher classroom diversity is associated with feelings of safety and social satisfaction. African American (n= 511) and Latino (n= 910) students felt safer in school, were less harassed by peers, felt less lonely, and had higher self-worth the more ethnically diverse their classrooms were, even when controlling for classroom differences in academic engagement. Results at the school level were similar to those at the classroom level; higher ethnic diversity was associated with lower levels of self-reported vulnerability (but no difference in self-worth) in both fall and spring of sixth grade. In the spirit of Brown v. Board of Education, the current findings offer new empirical evidence for the psychological benefits of multiethnic schools.
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho...
Tinklenberg, Jared R; Kraemer, Helena C; Yaffe, Kristine; O'Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M; Ashford, John W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L
To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer disease (AD) patients with ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least 1 year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average 1-year decline of 2.30 points (standard deviation: 3.9) on the 30-point Mini-Mental State Exam compared with a 1.70-point (standard deviation: 4.2) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at -0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from 1 year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Feb 12, 2014 ... (K) were used to assess the diversity, the level of knowledge, use of wild mushrooms and variability among all three ethnic groups. A total ... Volaviella volvacea as the commonly exploited mushrooms in the study area (TUV between 2,14 and 2,40). All recorded ...... basidiomycetes mushrooms. International.
This paper discusses how diversity policies within organizations contribute to paradoxical outcomes in face-to-face interactions. The findings are the result of a long-term ethnographic study on the processes of in- and exclusion of ethnic minority police officers in the Netherlands between 2007-
The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Radstake, Hester; Leeman, Yvonne
In the literature on intercultural education there is an abundance of text about what ought to be going on in the classroom and a lack of empirical descriptions of the dilemmas of intercultural education in practice. This article describes the practice of five teachers guiding discussions about sensitive issues in ethnically diverse secondary…
Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K; Leclerc, Christian
Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers' social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers' membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers' homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed.
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the
Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and
Guaranteeing equal health care of appropriate quality implies taking ethnic and cultural diversity into account, without over- or underestimating the importance of these grounds. Besides awareness of its relevance, it is essential to have disaggregated data to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture on the one hand and health and health care on the other hand. From a health law perspective, it is a prerequisite to understand the conceptual and normative meaning of equality and non-discrimination, also in relation to the right to privacy, and to be aware of the need to collaborate with other legal and non-legal disciplines.
Chang, Eun Ah; Tomov, Martin L; Suhr, Steven T; Luo, Jiesi; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L; Cibelli, Jose
The human genome with all its ethnic variations contributes to differences in human development, aging, disease, repair, and response to medical treatments and is an exciting area of research and clinical study. The availability of well-characterized ethnically diverse stem cell lines is limited and has not kept pace with other advances in stem cell research. Here we derived xenofree ethnically diverse-human induced pluripotent stem cell (ED-iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from individuals of African American, Hispanic-Latino, Asian, and Caucasian ethnic origin and have characterized the lines under a uniform platform for comparative analysis. Derived ED-iPSC lines are low passage number and evaluated in vivo by teratoma formation and in vitro by high throughput microarray analysis of EB formation and early differentiation for tri-lineage commitment to endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These new xenofree ED-iPSC lines represent a well-characterized valuable resource with potential for use in future research in drug discovery or clinical investigations.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523
Full Text Available We test whether ethnic diversity in Dutch neighbourhoods and municipalities drives down associational involvement and build on earlier research in two important ways. First, we explicitly take into account the ethnic composition of local voluntary associations, distinguishing involvement in bonding (only in-group members and bridging (with out-group members associations. Second, we aim to explain relationships between ethnic diversity and associational involvement, testing two competing sets of predictions derived from conflict and contact theories. Using data from the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (2013, ethnic diversity turns out to hardly affect associational involvement negatively. Only for leisure associations, living in ethnically more diverse municipalities substantially decreases the likelihood to be involved in bonding associations, whereas higher levels of neighbourhood ethnic diversity increase the likelihood to be involved in bridging associations. Moreover, ethnic diversity indirectly affects associational involvement via interethnic contact. Higher levels of ethnic diversity increase interethnic contact which, in turn, is negatively related to involvement in bonding associations. Whereas higher levels of ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods increase perceptions of ethnic threat, these perceptions decrease with higher levels of ethnic diversity in the municipality. Perceptions of ethnic threat do not, however, affect associational involvement. Our results shed more light on the direct and indirect relationships between ethnic diversity and bonding and bridging associational involvement.
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
analyses suffer from the problem that aggregate contextual diversity likely conceals substantial variation in the ethnic diversity actually experienced at the micro-level in which people live and interact (i.e. contains measurement error). This in turn renders the estimate of ethnic diversity on trust both...... diversity at higher levels of aggregation in order to scrutinize how the relationship varies according to the contextual unit in which ethnic diversity is measured. We analyze the question about the impact of ethnic diversity on trust using Danish data from the European Social Survey, which are linked...... we include measures of ethnic diversity in contextual units ranging from a radius of 80 meters up to 2750 meters within the address of a given respondent. In line with our expectations, the results show that increased ethnic diversity in the immediate surroundings affects generalized trust negatively...
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each......In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... individual’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. The results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...
Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R
Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Greenhill, Lisa M; Nelson, Phillip D; Elmore, Ronnie G
A comprehensive survey containing 30 questions regarding racial, cultural, and ethnic issues was sent electronically to each of the member colleges within the Association of American Veterinary Colleges (AAVMC) during 2005. Responses were received from 25 of the 28 veterinary colleges in the United States and two foreign colleges. Most colleges had more than one respondent complete the survey. Since the respondents were not identified and were not uniform in regards to position within each college, some responses might have reflected the individual respondent's views rather than the college's actual situation or philosophy. The information gained from this survey demonstrates strong trends in attitudes to and practices with respect to diversity in US veterinary colleges. Three major areas were addressed in the survey-college and university environment and cultures, faculty and curriculum, and recruitment and retention of veterinary students from underrepresented minorities. In many instances, the survey confirmed a lack of knowledge about diversity issues at the respondents' institutions. These survey results will serve as a benchmark for gauging changes in the profession's racial, cultural, and ethnic demographics in the future and as a foundation upon which to build effective diversity programs.
Lancee, B.; Dronkers, J.
Several studies conclude that ethnic diversity tends to reduce social capital. There may, however, be other forms of diversity that also affect social capital, and their inclusion might make the negative effect of ethnic diversity spurious. Besides ethnic diversity, we identify economic and
Helbling, Marc; Reeskens, T.; Stolle, Dietlind
Recent research on the consequences of ethnic diversity for social cohesion indicates that the effects of diversity are not necessarily universal. In this article we hypothesise that the rhetoric of political parties conditions whether diversity negatively affects generalised trust. Political
Helbling, M; Reeskens, T.; Stolle, D.
Recent research on the consequences of ethnic diversity for social cohesion indicates that the effects of diversity are not necessarily universal. In this article we hypothesise that the rhetoric of political parties conditions whether diversity negatively affects generalised trust. Political
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
to scrutinize how the relationship varies according to the contextual unit in which ethnic diversity is measured. We analyze the question about the impact of ethnic diversity on trust using Danish data from the European Social Survey, which are linked with data from the national Danish registers. The latter......The question about how ethnic diversity affects generalized trust has been a hot topic in recent years. To this point, within-country analyses of this question have been limited by only having data on contextual ethnic diversity at relatively high levels of aggregation. Consequently, the previous...... analyses suffer from the problem that aggregate contextual diversity likely conceals substantial variation in the ethnic diversity actually experienced at the micro-level in which people live and interact, thereby rendering the estimate of ethnic diversity on trust both imprecise and potentially biased...
Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana
This study examined the mediating role of self-blaming attributions on peer victimization-maladjustment relations in middle school and the moderating role of classroom ethnic diversity. Latino and African American 6th grade participants (N = 1105, 56% female) were recruited from middle schools in which they were either members of the numerical majority ethnic group, the numerical minority, or one of several ethnic groups in ethnically diverse schools. Peer nomination data were gathered in the...
Munniksma, A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Stark, T.H.; Tolsma, J.
This study examines how classroom and neighborhood ethnic diversity affect adolescents' tendency to form same- versus cross-ethnic friendships when they enter middle school. Hypotheses are derived from exposure, conflict, and constrict theory. Hypotheses are tested among 911 middle school students
Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam
Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…
Munniksma, Anke; Scheepers, Peer; Stark, Tobias H.; Tolsma, Jochem
This study examines how classroom and neighborhood ethnic diversity affect adolescents' tendency to form same- versus cross-ethnic friendships when they enter middle school. Hypotheses are derived from exposure, conflict, and constrict theory. Hypotheses are tested among 911 middle school students
Muttarak, Raya; Heath, Anthony
This paper investigates trends, patterns and determinants of intermarriage (and partnership) comparing patterns among men and women and among different ethnic groups in Britain. We distinguish between endogamous (co-ethnic), majority/minority and minority/minority marriages. Hypotheses are derived from the theoretical literatures on assimilation, segmented assimilation and opportunity structures. The empirical analysis is based on the 1988-2006 General Household Surveys (N = 115,494). Consistent with assimilation theory we find that, for all ethnic minority groups, the propensity to intermarry is higher in the second generation than in the first. Consistent with ideas drawn from segmented assimilation theory, we also find that substantial differences in propensity to form majority/minority marriages persist after controls for individual characteristics such as age, educational level, generation and length of residence in Britain, with men and women of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi background having higher propensities to form endogamous partnerships. However, we also find that opportunity structures affect intermarriage propensities for all groups alike, with individuals in more diverse residential areas (as measured by the ratio of majority to minority residents in the area) having higher likelihood to form majority/minority partnerships. We conclude then that, beginning from very different starting points, all groups, both minority and the majority groups exhibit common patterns of generational change and response to opportunity structures. Even the groups that are believed to have the strongest community structures and the strongest norms supporting endogamy appear to be experiencing increasing exogamy in the second generation and in more diverse residential settings. This suggests that a weak rather than a strong version of segmented assimilation provides the best account of British patterns.
Naomi Thelusma; Penny Ralston
Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists? involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies...
Brenner, Allison B; Clarke, Philippa J
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites. Living in homes with clutter was associated with higher rates of ADL difficulty, but it was not related to racial/ethnic disparities. Racial/ethnic differences were explained by physical impairment for men, but not for women. Socioeconomic factors and health accounted for remaining disparities for Black, but not for Hispanic women. Attention to individual and environmental factors is necessary to fully understand and address race/ethnic disparities in disability in older Americans.
Lipman, Valerie; Manthorpe, Gillian
Little research has explored how not-for-profit housing providers, often termed Housing Associations in the United Kingdom, meet the needs of older tenants with dementia who are from black and ethnic minority communities. This article presents findings from an exploratory study conducted in 2015. The study took an audit approach, investigating current practice and policy in 12 Housing Associations. All were developing their understanding of dementia; some were augmenting their standard rented property portfolio to include housing with care provision; and most had policies relating to equalities and diversity and were offering dementia training to members of staff. None appeared to have fully integrated the three strands of housing services, dementia care, and cultural or ethnicity-related needs and preferences. A range of strategies was reported as being developed to meet tenants' changing circumstances. Anxiety about the cost of adaptations was commonly reported, although the nature and extent of this were ill-defined. Discussion focuses on the findings' implications for housing providers and for dementia professionals.
Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem
Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both
Morozova, Irina; Evsyukov, Alexey; Kon'kov, Andrey; Grosheva, Alexandra; Zhukova, Olga; Rychkov, Sergey
With the aim of gaining insight into the genetic history of the Russians, we have studied mitochondrial DNA diversity among a number of modern Russian populations. Polymorphisms in mtDNA markers (HVS-I and restriction sites of the coding region) of populations from 14 regions within present-day European Russia were investigated. Based on analysis of the mitochondrial gene pool geographic structure, we have identified three different elements in it and a vast "intermediate" zone between them. The analysis of the genetic distances from these elements to the European ethnic groups revealed the main causes of the Russian mitochondrial gene pool differentiation. The investigation of this pattern in historic perspective showed that the structure of the mitochondrial gene pool of the present-day Russians largely conforms to the tribal structure of the medieval Slavs who laid the foundation of modern Russians. Our results indicate that the formation of the genetic diversity currently observed among Russians can be traced to the second half of the first millennium A.D., the time of the colonization of the East European Plain by the Slavic tribes. Patterns of diversity are explained by both the impact of the native population of the East European Plain and by genetic differences among the early Slavs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kao, Tsui-Sui A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
Family efficacy, which refers to a family's belief in its ability to produce a desired outcome, has been shown to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors. Few studies have examined family efficacy within diverse populations, however, and understanding of how efficacy is framed and formed within the context of cultural and familial values is limited. This descriptive qualitative study examined sources of family efficacy within ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families, evaluating how such families develop and exercise family efficacy with the intent to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors (i.e., marijuana and alcohol use and early sexual activity). We collected qualitative data via two semi-structured interviews, 4-6 months apart, with 31 adolescents (ages 12-14) and their parent/s, for total of 148 one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis identified three distinct domains of family efficacy: relational, pragmatic, and value-laden. Prior experiences and cultural background influenced the domain/s utilized by families. Significantly, families that consistently tapped into all three domains were able to effectively manage personal and family difficulties; these families also had family strategies in place to prevent adolescents from risky behaviors. Health professionals could utilize this concept of multidimensional family efficacy to promote health within culturally diverse families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available The paper aims to clarify the possible determinants of peoples’ attitudes towards immigrants depending on their personal characteristics as well as attitudes towards households’ socio-economic stability and a country's institutions relying on the data of the European Social Survey fourth round database. The study intends to provide empirical evidence-based grounds for the development of policy measures to integrate ethnically diverse societies, taking into account the composition of the country's population as well as other country’s peculiarities. The results of the empirical analysis are consistent with several theoretical approaches explaining individual and collective determinants of people’s attitudes towards immigrants. Ethnic minorities, urban people, people with higher education and income, as well as people who have work experience abroad are, as a rule, more tolerant towards immigrants in Europe. Furthermore, people whose attitudes to socio-economic risks are lower and who evaluate the political and legal systems of a country and its police higher are more tolerant towards immigrants. The respondents’ labour market status (employed, unemployed does not have a statistically significant relationship with their attitudes towards immigrants. In addition to the respondent’s personal characteristics and their attitudes, the collective determinants depending on country specific conditions measured by country dummies are valid in explaining people’s attitudes towards immigration.
Evers, Hans-Dieter; Anis, Yusuf; Shamsul, A.B.
Biology and Anthropology/Sociology have dealt with issues of diversity for a long time,developing different concepts, theories and methods. In recent years there has been, if not a convergence, but at least a recognition that problems in nature and in society are interrelated. This paper attempts to use methods of biodiversity research and test their applicability for a study of ethnic relations. It is noted that the preservation of biodiversity ranks high on the agenda of researchers and pol...
Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin Lê; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F; Alegría, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J
The association of general medical illness and mental health service use among older adults from racial-ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the disparities in mental health and general medical services and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of comorbid general medical illness on mental health service use and expenditures among older adults and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures in a racially-ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid general medical illness. Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004-2011). The sample included 1,563 whites, 519 African Americans, and 642 Latinos (N=2,724) age ≥65 with probable mental illness. Two-part generalized linear models were used to estimate and compare mental health service use among adults with and without a comorbid general medical illness. Mental health service use was more likely for older adults with comorbid general medical illness than for those without it. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid general medical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use by older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of comorbidity did not affect racial-ethnic disparities in mental health service use. This study highlighted the important role of comorbid general medical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial-ethnic minority groups.
Julene K. Johnson
Discussion: Outreach and recruitment methods used in the Community of Voices trial facilitated enrollment of a large proportion of minority and lower-SES older adults in the final sample. Similar recruitment approaches could serve as a model for recruiting diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic older adults into research.
Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes
Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…
Manfra, Louis; Squires, Christina; Dinehart, Laura H. B.; Bleiker, Charles; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam
The present study was designed to explore the association between preschool academic skills and Grade 3 achievement among a sample of ethnically diverse children from low-income families. Data were collected from a sample of 1,442 low-income, ethnically diverse children in preschool and associated with Grade 3 achievement in reading and…
Full Text Available Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
Quandt, Sara A.; Graham, Christopher N.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Golden, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects ethnic minorities and has serious economic, social, and personal implications. This study examines the effect of diabetes disease burden and social resources on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older rural adults with diabetes. Data come from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 701 adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes in North Carolina from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. HRQOL was assessed us...
Du, Yan; Xu, Qingwen
To examine racial/ethnic/immigration disparities in health and to investigate the relationships among race/ethnic/immigration status, delayed health care, and health of the elderly. Responses from 13,508 people aged 65 and above were analyzed based on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012. Key variables include race/ethnicity/immigration status, health outcome, and delayed health care. Age, gender, education, work status, and annual family income are used as covariates. The findings indicate that Whites (regardless of country of birth) and U.S.-born Asians enjoy better health than Latinos, African-Americans, and Foreign-born Asians. Foreign-born Asians and foreign-born Latinos have the poorest self-reported health and mental health, respectively. Delayed use of health care is negatively associated with both self-reported health and mental health status. Health disparities exist among older adult populations; the combined effects of minority and immigrant status can be approximated from the results in this study. Health care accessibility and the quality of care should be promoted in minority/immigrant populations. Public health nurses have a strong potential to aide in reducing health disparities among an aging American population that continues to exhibit increasing racial/ethnic diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To explore physiotherapists' perceptions, views and experiences of ethnic diversity in relation to the physiotherapy profession. Qualitative research study, drawing on ethnographic traditions and including ethnographic interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. Several verification procedures were incorporated into the design to ensure quality. Venues chosen by the participants in North West England. A purposive sample of 22 physiotherapists (five students, seven clinicians and 10 academics) with a range of ethnicities. Most participants' experiences and perceptions were of a lack of ethnic diversity within the profession. Further findings related to the impact of this included: the perception that physiotherapy is a White profession; some Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) physiotherapists felt 'out of place' on occasions; and failure to meet patients' needs. The potential benefits of increased ethnic diversity and the possible risks of valuing BME staff solely in terms of their ethnicity were also illuminated by the findings. This study of the perceptions and experiences of physiotherapists identified a lack of ethnic diversity within the profession. It is argued that a lack of ethnic diversity may result in a failure to meet patients' needs. A workforce that is reflective of the population it serves can have greater cultural knowledge, and is more likely to understand and respond to patients' needs. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khaltar, Amartuvshin; Priyadarshani, Neelawala Gw; Delpitiya, Nisansala Y; Jayasinghe, Chandrika; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko
To ascertain if the factors associated with depression differ among ethnic groups in community-dwelling older people in Kandy District, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was carried out of people aged ≥60 years living in a single divisional secretariat of Kandy District. The participants were asked about ethnicity (Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim), sociodemographic characteristics and depression status by face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Depression was measured by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the total score of ≥6 was considered as depression. The χ 2 -test and multivariate logistic regression with two-way interaction terms between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity were carried out. Participants (n = 778) consisted of 56.6% Sinhalese, 22.1% Tamils and 21.3% Muslims. Of the participants, the prevalence of depression was 31.8% (27.3% in Sinhalese, 42.1% in Tamils and 32.9% in Muslims). Multivariate analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between sociodemographic characteristics and ethnicity. However, low economic status, low perceived social support and more than two self-reported diseases were significantly associated with depression in all ethnic groups. Some factors were found to be significantly associated with depression, but did not differ among ethnic groups. The findings would help practitioners to identify older people with a high risk of depression, and to intervene in its development or exacerbation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2414-2420. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Burrow, Anthony L; Stanley, Maclen; Sumner, Rachel; Hill, Patrick L
Emerging demographic trends signal that White Americans will soon relinquish their majority status. As Whites' acclimation to an increasingly diverse society is poised to figure prominently in their adjustment, identifying sources of greater comfort with diversity is important. Three studies (N = 519) revealed evidence that purpose in life bolsters comfort with ethnic diversity among White adults. Specifically, dispositional purpose was positively related to diversity attitudes and attenuated feelings of threat resulting from viewing demographic projections of greater diversity. In addition, when primed experimentally, purpose attenuated participants' preferences for living in an ethnically homogeneous-White city, relative to a more diverse city when shown maps displaying ethno-demographic information. These effects persisted after controlling for positive affect and perceived connections to ethnic out-groups, suggesting the robust influence of purpose. Potential benefits of situating purpose as a unique resource for navigating an increasingly diverse society are discussed. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F.; Cui, Mengchun; Liu, Chao; Zeng, Lin; Yue, Ricci P. H.; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Huayu
There are 56 officially-recognized ethnic groups in China. However, the distinct geographic patterns of various ethnic groups in relation to the physical environment in China have rarely been investigated. Based on the geo-referenced physical environmental parameters of 455 Han, Tu, Hui, Salar, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities in Qinghai, we found that the communities could be statistically demarcated by temperature and aridity threshold according to their ethnic populations, implying that the geographic distribution of each ethnic group is mediated by the physical environment. We also observed that the habitat of each ethnic group is ecologically compatible with current subsistence strategies. Tibetans settle in cold high-altitude regions owing to the cultivation of highland barley and the breeding of yak, dzo, Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. Mongolians survive by animal husbandry in cold and humid grassland areas. The Han and Tu ethnic groups settle in the Huangshui River Valley, which offers relatively humid climate and flat land for agriculture. The Hui and Salar ethnic groups occupy the Yellow River Valley with its relatively arid environment and grassland vegetation suitable for animal breeding. Our findings offer a new perspective in explaining the geographic pattern and the variety of ethnic groups in China and elsewhere.
This article assesses the viability of ethnicity as an explanation for the worsening orgy of conflict and militarisation in Nigeria's oil producing region. This is against the background that the Niger Delta crisis, despite being widely portrayed as turning on an ethnic pivot, reveals attributes that should compel a rethink of its ...
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; McFarlane, Sandra; Koijane, Jeannette; Li, Dongmei
Between 2013 and 2030, older adults 65 years and older of racial/ethnic populations in the U.S. is projected to increase by 123% in comparison to the Whites (Non-Hispanics). To meet this demand, training of ethnically diverse health staff in long-term care facilities in palliative and hospice care is imperative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a palliative and hospice care training of staff in two nursing homes in Hawaii - (a) to evaluate knowledge and confidence over three time periods, and (b) to compare staff and family caregiver satisfaction at end of program. The educational frameworks were based on cultural and communication theories. Fifty-two ethnically diverse staff, a majority being Asian (89%), participated in a 10-week module training and one 4 hour communication skills workshop. Staff evaluation included knowledge and confidence surveys, pre- and post-test knowledge tests, and FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. There were nine Asian (89%) and Pacific Islander (11%) family caregivers who completed the FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. The overall staff knowledge and confidence results were promising. The staff rated overall satisfaction of palliative care services lower than the family caregivers. Implications for future research, practice, and education with palliative and hospice care training of ethnically diverse nursing home staff is to include patient and family caregiver satisfaction of palliative and hospice care services, evaluation of effectiveness of cross-cultural communication theories in palliative and hospice care staff training, and support from administration for mentorship and development of these services in long term care facilities.
Murli, N L; Navin, I D
Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups
Parasnis, Ila; Samar, Vincent J; Fischer, Susan D
Deaf college students' attitudes toward a variety of issues related to racial/ethnic diversity were surveyed by contacting all racial/ethnic minority deaf students and a random sample of Caucasian deaf students attending the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology; 38% completed the survey. Although racial/ethnic groups similarly perceived NTID's commitment and efforts related to diversity, they differed significantly on some items related to campus climate and role models. Furthermore, the racial/ethnic minority groups differed from each other in their perceptions of campus comfort level, racial conflict, friendship patterns, and availability of role models. Educational satisfaction was positively correlated with campus comfort level; both correlated negatively with perception of discrimination and racial conflict. Qualitative data analyses supported quantitative data analyses and provided rich detail that facilitated interpretation of deaf students' experiences related to racial/ethnic diversity.
Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; McEvoy, Peter; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen
The present study investigated the reliability and factor structure of scores on a 12-item version of Phinney's multigroup ethnic identity measure with an Australian sample from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 485 students aged between 10 and 15 years. The results generally supported the reliability of the ethnic identity scale…
Dunac, Patricia S.; Demir, Kadir
The racial and ethnic makeup of the United States is in constant flux and is expected to experience substantial increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades. The problem the American educational system faces is attempting to problematize race/racism in its educational system and creating a system to counteract educational…
While the share of non-native students in a class is expected to have a non positive effect on school achievement, little is said about the heterogeneity of the ethnic minority make-up. Ethnic diversity can stimulate the creativity of students, can push them to be proficient in the instructional
Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.
This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…
Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.
Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…
Vasantha Muthu Muthuppalaniappan
Full Text Available Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM is a huge global public health problem. As the number of individuals with Type 2 DM grows, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD, which is one of the most serious complications, is expected to rise sharply. Many ethnic and racial groups have a greater risk of developing DM and its associated macro and micro-vascular complications.
Charl C. Wolhuter; Ferdinand J. Potgieter; Van der Walt, Johannes L.
Modern societies have become much more complex in recent decades, also in terms of ethnic identities and differences. The question arose whether education systems were capable of addressing the needs of ethnic and other minorities in countries across the globe. After examining a cross-section of education systems (in Australia, Canada, China, Israel, Malaysia, Rwanda, Russia and South Africa) with the aid of a set of specially developed criteria, it was concluded that these sys...
Veal, Josie L; Bull, Margaret J; Miller, Judith Fitzgerald
The goal of this qualitative study was to examine how ethnically diverse graduate nursing students persisted with academic studies. Ethnically diverse nurses are vastly underrepresented in the workforce.This problem is accentuated by high attrition rates in academic programs. A grounded theory approach was used. Five focus groups were conducted with 16 ethnically diverse graduate students in nursing and interviews were conducted with two diversity advisers. Analysis of the data indicated that the process of learning to balance stressors with moderators was key to academic persistence and retention.A conceptual framework emerged from the data that provides a guide for academic institutions seeking to implement strategies to promote retention and graduation of diverse graduate nursing students. Recommendations are offered to address faculty development, administrative action, and student resources.
Huey, Stanley J; Tilley, Jacqueline Lee; Jones, Eduardo O; Smith, Caitlin A
Despite compelling arguments for the dissemination of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), questions regarding their relevance to ethnically diverse populations remain. This review summarizes what is known about psychotherapy effects with ethnic minorities, with a particular focus on the role of cultural competence when implementing EBTs. Specifically, we address three questions: (a) does psychotherapy work with ethnic minorities, (b) do psychotherapy effects differ by ethnicity, and (c) does cultural tailoring enhance treatment effects? The evidence suggests that psychotherapy is generally effective with ethnic minorities, and treatment effects are fairly robust across cultural groups and problem areas. However, evidence for cultural competence is mixed. Ethnic minority-focused treatments frequently incorporate culturally tailored strategies, and these tailored treatments are mostly efficacious; yet support for cultural competence as a useful supplement to standard treatment remains equivocal at best. We also discuss research limitations, areas for future research, and clinical implications.
Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia
In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…
Charl C. Wolhuter
Full Text Available Modern societies have become much more complex in recent decades, also in terms of ethnic identities and differences. The question arose whether education systems were capable of addressing the needs of ethnic and other minorities in countries across the globe. After examining a cross-section of education systems (in Australia, Canada, China, Israel, Malaysia, Rwanda, Russia and South Africa with the aid of a set of specially developed criteria, it was concluded that these systems seemed to comply with the criteria in various ways, albeit in different measures and in several configurations. It is recommended that policy makers apply such criteria for enhancing the capability of an education system to address the needs of ethnic minorities and to meet the demands of increased social complexity.
Cokley, Kevin; Garcia, Daniel; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Tran, Kimberly; Rangel, Azucena
Many studies have documented the links between dimensions of religiousness with mental health (e.g., Hackney and Sanders 2003; Mofidi et al. 2006). However, very little is known about whether these links differ across ethnic groups. This study examined the contribution of dimensions of religiousness to the prediction of mental health in an ethnically diverse sample of 413 college students (167 European Americans, 83 African Americans, 81 Asian Americans, and 82 Latino Americans). Results indicated significant ethnic differences across dimensions of religiousness. African Americans were significantly higher on religious engagement and religious conservatism than the other ethnic groups and significantly lower on religious struggle than European Americans. Moderated multiple regressions revealed that increases in religious struggle was associated with poorer mental health for African Americans and Latino Americans, while increases in religious engagement and ecumenical worldview were associated with better mental health for African Americans. The findings indicate that ethnicity is an important factor to consider when examining the link between religiousness and mental health.
Cené, Crystal W; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Leng, Iris; Garcia, Lorena; Benavente, Viola; Rosal, Milagros; Vaughan, Leslie; Coker, Laura H; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kim, Mimi; Bell, Christina L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Manson, JoAnn E; Cochrane, Barbara
Most research has focused on definitions and predictors of successful aging. However, racial/ethnic minorities are often under represented in this research. Given that the U.S. population is aging and becoming more racially diverse, we examined correlates of "successful aging," as defined by physical functioning and overall quality of life (QOL), among racial/ethnic minority women aged 80 years and older in the Women's Health Initiative. Participants included 1,924 racial/ethnic minority women (African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, Hispanic/Latinos, and American Indian/Alaskan Natives) 80 years of age and older who are enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative and have physical functioning data after turning 80 years of age. Analysis of covariance was used to examine between and within group differences in physical functioning and selfrated overall QOL for African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic/Latinos. We found no significant differences in physical functioning between racial/ethnic minority groups in adjusted analyses. However, overall QOL was significantly different between racial/ethnic minority groups. Age, recreational physical activity, and overall selfrated health were independent correlates of physical functioning across racial/ethnic minority groups, whereas overall selfrated health was the only consistent correlate of overall QOL across the minority groups for the within minority group comparisons. Between racial/ethnic minority group differences in physical functioning are largely explained by demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health-related variables. We found statistically significant differences in selfrated overall QOL between racial/ethnic minority groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
El Fakiri, Fatima; Kegel, Amber A; Schouten, Gea M; Berns, Mary P H
This study measures the prevalence of falls and fear of falling among a population sample aged ≥65 years from different ethnic minorities living in the Netherlands, and examines whether ethnicity contributed to the differences in fall risk. We analyzed data from 8,892 Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese participants. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses were conducted with falls and fear of falling as the dependent variable and ethnicity as the independent variable. Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese older adults had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for fear of falling than their Dutch counterparts (OR = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 4.31]; OR = 2.09, 95% CI = [1.07, 4.09]; and OR = 2.49, 95% CI = [1.53, 4.03], respectively). The association between ethnicity and falling disappeared after controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Dutch minority older adults were at higher risk for fear of falling than their Dutch counterparts. The study underlines the need for targeting culture-sensitive interventions.
Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.
An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…
Maria T. Allison
This presentation explores theoretical reasons for the underutilization of services, discusses types and problems of access which may be both inadvertent and institutionalized, and discusses policy implications of this work. Data suggest that individuals from distinct ethnic populations, particularly Hispanic, African-American, and Native American, tend to underutilize...
Lewis, Jakeem Amir; Nishina, Adrienne; Ramirez Hall, Alysha; Cain, Shannon; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R
As the U.S. becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, opportunities for cross-ethnic interaction at school may be increasing, and these interactions may have implications for academic outcomes for both ethnic minority and White youth. The current study examines how cross-ethnic peer relationships, measured using peer nominations for acceptance and daily lunchtime interactions, relate to academic outcomes for an ethnically diverse sample of 823 (45% boys and 55% girls; M age = 11.69) public middle school sixth graders across one Midwestern and two Western states. For White, Black, Asian, Latino/a, and Multiethnic students, self-reported daily cross-ethnic peer interactions were associated with higher end-of-year GPAs in core academic courses and teachers' expectations for educational attainment, but not self-reported school aversion. Making cross-ethnic acceptance nominations was not associated with any academic outcomes. Thus, daily opportunities for cross-ethnic interactions may be important school experiences for early adolescents.
Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegria, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J.
Objective The association of physical illness and mental health service use in older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the mental and physical health disparities and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of comorbid physical illness on mental health service use and expenditures in older adults; and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid physical illness. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004–2011). The sample included 1563 whites, 519 African-Americans, and 642 Latinos and (N=2,724) aged 65+ with probable mental illness. Using two-part generalized linear models, we estimated and compared mental health service use among those with and without a comorbid physical illness. Results Mental health service use was greater for older adults with comorbid physical illness compared to those without a comorbid physical illness. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid physical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use in older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of a comorbidity did not impact racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Conclusions This study highlighted the important role of comorbid physical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups. PMID:25772763
Umezawa, Yoshiko; Lu, Qian; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C
Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients.
Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin
Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Charron, Nicholas; Rothstein, Bo
-nomenon that has been often overlooked by national-level studies. We use a number of statistical estimations to assess the strength of the four channels through which trust can be enhanced or eroded. We find strong and robust evidence that institutional quality—measured as a public sector that allocates services......What factors lead to greater levels of generalized trust in society? The research field has established four channels through which it is commonly argued trust is affected at the macro level—economic inequality, civic participation, ethnic heterogeneity, and institutional quality. However...... impartially and without corruption—is the strongest determinant of regional variations in trust within countries, while economic inequality, civic participation and ethnic hetero-geneity are not significant factors in explaining variations in trust patterns....
Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A
Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda; Russell, Stephen; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian
Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6...
Song, Jing; Chang, Huan J.; Tirodkar, Manasi; Chang, Rowland W.; Manheim, Larry M.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.
Objective To investigate racial/ethnic differences in disability onset among older Americans with arthritis. We examined factors amenable to clinical and public health intervention that may explain racial/ethnic differences in incident disability. Methods Longitudinal data (1998−2004) from a national representative sample of 5818 non-Hispanic Whites, 1001 African Americans, 228 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish (Hispanic/Spanish), and 210 Hispanics interviewed in English (Hispanic/English), ages 51 or older with arthritis who did not have baseline disability were analyzed. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL) was identified from report of inability, avoidance, or needing assistance to perform one or more ADL tasks. Results Over six years, 28.0% African Americans, 28.5% Hispanic/Spanish, 19.1% Hispanic/English, and 16.2% Whites developed disability. The demographic-adjusted disability hazard ratio (AHR) were significantly greater among African Americans (AHR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.51−2.38) and Hispanic/Spanish (AHR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.35−2.71), but not significantly increased for Hispanic/English (AHR=1.41, 95% CI: 0.82−2.00) compared to Whites. Differences in health factors (comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and behaviors) explained over half the excess risk among African Americans and Hispanic/Spanish. Medical access factors (education, income, wealth, and health insurance) were substantial mediators of racial/ethnic differences in all minority groups. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences in the development of disability among older adults with arthritis were largely attenuated by health and medical access factors. Lack of health insurance was particularly problematic. At the clinical level, treatment of comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and promotion of physical activity and weight maintenance should be a priority to prevent the development of disability, especially in minority populations. PMID:17665484
... the known demographic histories of populations. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrated that the intrapopulation diversity is not only present at the national level, but also within smaller geographical regions of the country. This is the first attempt to understand the extent of diversity within populations of India at such a ...
Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M; Rullo, Jordan E
High rates of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among lesbian and bisexual female adolescents have been documented. However, previous research has not adequately described racial/ethnic subgroup differences in risk behaviors within this population. We examined HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among an ethnically diverse sample of sexual minority girls (N = 244). Compared to their White peers, girls who identified their race/ethnicity as mixed had more than four times the odds of reporting both unprotected vaginal sex with a male and multiple male sex partners. All subgroups exhibited risk behaviors, indicating that sexual minority girls must be included in HIV-prevention efforts targeting adolescent females.
An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Rahul; Matchar, David B; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko
The aim of the present study was to compute total life expectancy (TLE), active life expectancy (ALE) and inactive life expectancy among older Singaporeans by gender, education and ethnicity. Data from a longitudinal survey of older Singaporeans were used. No difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living was considered as "active." Transition probabilities across health states (active/inactive/dead) were assessed to develop multistate life tables, which estimated TLE, ALE and inactive life expectancy. At age 60 years, women, versus men, had significantly higher TLE (25.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-27.8 vs 21.6, 95% CI 20.1-23.1), but similar ALE (18.1, 95% CI 17.0-19.2 vs 18.9, 95% CI 17.7-20.2). Those with high (secondary or higher), versus low (primary or less), education had significantly higher TLE (28.5, 95% CI 25.0-32.0 vs 22.5, 95% CI 21.1-23.9) and ALE (23.5, 95% CI 21.2-25.7 vs 17.1, 95% CI 16.1-18.0) at age 60 years. Those of Chinese, versus non-Chinese, ethnicity had significantly higher ALE at age 60 years (19.4, 95% CI 18.4-20.3 vs 15.0, 95% CI 13.4-16.7). Unlike Western nations, there was no gender difference in ALE among older adults in Singapore. However, difference in ALE by education among older Singaporeans was similar to that observed in Western societies. Policies focusing specifically on improving women's health at all ages, in addition to policies that increase population education levels, are promising approaches to improving ALE. Recognizing ethnic differences in ALE will help target policies that increase ALE in multicultural societies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Condon, Vaneta M; Morgan, Charlie Jo; Miller, Earline W; Mamier, Iris; Zimmerman, Grenith J; Mazhar, Wajeeha
To describe and evaluate the use of a "Success in Learning: Individualized Pathways Program (SLIPP)" to retain and graduate disadvantaged and ethnically diverse nursing students. A summative evaluative design was used with a population of 77 disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students who were accepted into a pre-entrance preparation quarter. The program based on an academic success model, included six pre-entrance classes, academic, social, and financial support, and seven faculty development workshops. Program outcomes were studied using student records, survey results, and interviews. Following the pre-entrance quarter, all 77 students were accepted into the baccalaureate nursing program, 90.9% graduated with either a Bachelor in Science (75.3%) or Associate in Science (15.6%), and 98.6% of the graduates passed the state board registered nursing examination. Outcomes are discussed in light of similar programs. Underprepared disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students can successfully become registered nurses. Educators and recruiters for nursing practice should accept/hire culturally diverse students/nurses to expand the ethnic diversity of the nursing workforce to meet the needs of culturally diverse clients. Research is needed to determine the classes/components and length of the pre-entrance preparation program to successfully enhance success.
Tinklenberg, Jared R.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Yaffe, Kristine; O’Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M.; Ashford, John W.; Yesavage, Jerome A.; Taylor, Joy L.
Objective To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients to ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Design Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least one year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. Results The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average one year decline of 2.30 points (3.9 SD) on the 30-point MMSE compared with a 1.70 point (4.2 SD) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at – 0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Conclusion California ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from one year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. PMID:25747405
Kshatriya of Uttar Pradesh) showed highest allelic diversity, as well as rare alleles, not reported in any other Indian populations. Analysis based on average hetero- zygosity was also found to be lowest among the populations of central India (0.729) ...
The link between cultural diversity, innovation, creativity and knowledge synergies has often been equated directly with competitive advantages. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research and is subsequently based on an intuitive seductive...
Work Package 1: Overview of National Discourses on Tolerance and Cultural diversity (Literature and Realities) The aim of this report is to present and discuss the main ethnic, cultural and religious diversity challenges that Europe is facing today. In particular the report surveys 15 European countries, notably 14 member states (Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) and one associated country (Turk...
Clara P. Peña-Venegas
Full Text Available Manioc is an important root crop in the tropics and the most important staple food in the Amazon. Manioc is diverse but its diversity has not yet been clearly associated with environmental or social factors. Our study evaluates how variation in edaphic environments and in social factors influences manioc diversity among five ethnic groups of the Amazon region of Colombia. Inventories of landraces, genetic analysis of manioc diversity, visits to farmers’ swiddens and interviews with farmers were carried out during two years of field work. Morphotypic and genotypic diversity of manioc were large. The different ethnic groups of our study cultivate different sweet and bitter manioc landraces which they select and maintain in accordance with their ancestral rules and norms. Differences in available environments among indigenous communities (such as the presence of different soils did not markedly affect manioc morphotypic or genotypic diversity, while social factors considerably influenced observed manioc diversity. Manioc diversity was explained by two parallel processes of manioc diversification: volunteer seedling selection and manioc seed exchange. We argue that, for a full understanding of manioc diversity, indigenous knowledge, as well as morphological and genetic variation should be taken into account.
Varjas, Kris; Kiperman, Sarah; Meyers, Joel
Disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity is a milestone event for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and can have both positive and negative mental health consequences. Twenty-nine urban, ethnically diverse LGBT high school students participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Qualitative results revealed two…
Puskás, Tünde; Andersson, Anita
The Swedish preschool is an important socializing agent because the great majority of children aged, from 1 to 5 years, are enrolled in an early childhood education program. This paper explores how preschool teachers and children, in an ethnically diverse preschool, negotiate the meaning of cultural traditions celebrated in Swedish preschools.…
Gesthuizen, Maurice; Meer, Tom van der; Scheepers, Peer
This article focuses on the core theory recently proposed by Putnam on the relationship between ethnic diversity and dimensions of social capital. Hypotheses are derived from this theory, but also from other theories that propose competing hypotheses on relationships between national characteristics
This article discusses the need for the right person to ask the right questions of the right people in the right place and time to evaluate special education services for ethnically diverse groups. These requirements are discussed in the context of research evaluating services for Maori children in New Zealand. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Dryden-Peterson, Sarah; Mulimbi, Bethany
This study examines how education can disrupt threats of conflict, specifically in the presence of ethnic diversity. We present a historical analysis of Botswana, using methods of process tracing drawing on documents, in-depth interviews, and Afrobarometer survey data. Postindependence Botswana engaged in redistribution of educational access…
Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie
There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.
This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Romano, Maria
Shortages of school psychologists and the underrepresentation of minorities in school psychology represent longstanding concerns. Scholars recommend that one way to address both issues is to recruit individuals from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds into school psychology. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and…
Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.
Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…
Thijs, J.T.; Fleischmann, F.
Among an ethnically diverse sample of 803 preadolescent students (ages 9-13 years), the present study examined the associations between students’ perceptions of the student-teacher relationship and their achievement goal orientations. Multilevel analyses showed that students who perceived more
Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen
Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…
Greer, L.L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.
Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We
Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie
The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…
Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…
The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.
Lisa R. Roberts DrPH, MSN, FNP-BC
Full Text Available Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs and focus groups (FGs were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: ( N = 75. Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a personal expectations about aging, (b societal value of older adults, (c model of care preferred, and (d community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes.
Dunlop, Dorothy D; Song, Jing; Manheim, Larry M; Daviglus, Martha L; Chang, Rowland W
We investigated differences in the development of disability in activities of daily living among non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans, Hispanics interviewed in Spanish, and Hispanics interviewed in English. We estimated 6-year risk for disability development among 8161 participants 65 years or older and free of baseline disability. We evaluated mediating factors amenable to clinical and public health intervention on racial/ethnic difference. The risk for developing disability among Hispanics interviewed in English was similar to that among Whites (hazard ratio [HR]=0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6, 1.4) but was substantially higher among African Americans (HR=1.6; 95% CI=1.3, 1.9) and Hispanics interviewed in Spanish (HR=1.8; 95% CI=1.4, 2.1). Adjustment for demographics, health, and socioeconomic status reduced a large portion of those disparities (African American adjusted HR=1.1, Spanish-interviewed Hispanic adjusted HR=1.2). Higher risks for developing disability among older African Americans, and Hispanics interviewed in Spanish compared with Whites were largely attenuated by health and socioeconomic differences. Language- and culture-specific programs to increase physical activity and promote weight maintenance may reduce rates of disability in activities of daily living and reduce racial/ethnic disparities in disability.
Choi, Namkee G; Smith, Joan
This paper reports findings from a study that was conducted to identify perceived barriers to racial/ethnic minority elders' participation in an elderly nutrition program (ENP) in a large metropolitan area and effective strategies for reaching out to them. The data were collected from a survey with the ENP's staff and volunteers and three focus group discussions with professionals working with minority elders and minority community leaders. The study participants identified as their perceived barriers: the lack of information or misinformation; culturally driven reluctance to ask for outside help; fear and distrust of formal systems; lack of ethnic menus in the program; discomfort due to cultural differences; and inaccessibility and inadequacy of transportation. Recommended outreach strategies included: involvement of family members in the information dissemination process; establishment of good working relationships with community leaders and contact with key older persons; diversification of menus and increased use of food enhancements; increase in cultural activities/programs in congregate dining centers; solicitation of input from current participants; provision of intergenerational programs; recruitment of volunteer drivers from the minority community; location of the program in ethnic enclaves or places where minority elders can easily congregate; and improvement in transportation services.
van der Meer, Tom
The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust, and homogenous (bonding) associations to cement self-affirming identities. This multilevel analysis of the Citizenship, Involvement & Democracy (CID) 1999/2000 survey data on Mannheim (Germany), Enschede (the Netherlands), and Aberdeen (Scotland) covers 3166 active participants in 645 associations. The CID includes objective, exogenous measures of each association's composition and aim. Socialization and self-selection effects are pulled apart through interactions with detailed measures of associational involvement. The results display no evidence for (diverse and homogenous) associations as socializing agents. Although inter-ethnic tolerance is higher in ethnically diverse associations, this should be attributed to self-selection effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saha, Somnath; Guiton, Gretchen; Wimmers, Paul F; Wilkerson, LuAnn
Many medical schools assert that a racially and ethnically diverse student body is an important element in educating physicians to meet the needs of a diverse society. However, there is limited evidence addressing the educational effects of student body racial diversity. To determine whether student body racial and ethnic diversity is associated with diversity-related outcomes among US medical students. A Web-based survey (Graduation Questionnaire) administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges of 20,112 graduating medical students (64% of all graduating students in 2003 and 2004) from 118 allopathic medical schools in the United States. Historically black and Puerto Rican medical schools were excluded. Students' self-rated preparedness to care for patients from other racial and ethnic backgrounds, attitudes about equity and access to care, and intent to practice in an underserved area. White students within the highest quintile for student body racial and ethnic diversity, measured by the proportion of underrepresented minority (URM) students, were more likely to rate themselves as highly prepared to care for minority populations than those in the lowest diversity quintile (61.1% vs 53.9%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.57). This association was strongest in schools in which students perceived a positive climate for interracial interaction. White students in the highest URM quintile were also more likely to have strong attitudes endorsing equitable access to care (54.8% vs 44.2%, respectively; P < .001; adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.74). For nonwhite students, after adjustment there were no significant associations between student body URM proportions and diversity-related outcomes. Student body URM proportions were not associated with white or nonwhite students' plans to practice in underserved communities, although URM students were substantially more likely than white or nonwhite
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael
In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R
The present study examined direct and interactive links between friendships and social, academic, and psychological adjustment problems (i.e., peer rejection as nominated by same-ethnic and cross-ethnic peers, teacher-reported academic engagement, and teacher-reported internalizing symptoms) among school-age children in multiethnic schools (n = 509, age: 9-10). The data, which included 2 time points with a 6-month interval, were drawn from a relatively large-sized, short-term longitudinal study. Results showed that cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) were associated with greater academic engagement concurrently and predated decreased peer rejection and internalizing symptoms longitudinally, even after controlling for the availability of same-ethnic peers and classroom diversity. Furthermore, cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) moderated the link between relational victimization and increased peer rejection and greater internalizing symptoms, such that this link was evidenced for children with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. However, the moderation effect was contingent upon the type of outcome variables and the ethnicity of the child. For example, the buffering effect against the negative contribution of relational victimization to internalizing symptoms was found particularly for African American children. The findings are discussed based on theories of normative development, ethnic socialization, and intergroup relations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
E. A. Hammel
Full Text Available Demographic analysis clarifies political issues in the collapse of Yugoslavia. In most regions, 1961-1991, ethnic diversity (estimated by informational entropy increased and segregation (estimated by Theil's H decreased. In a few regions there was a reversal in 1991 as migration flows or presentations of self perhaps changed in anticipation of war. The analysis strengthens refutations of the view that long standing ethnic hatreds were the root cause of the Yugoslav collapse and supports analyses that attribute collapse to general economic crisis, economic competition between regions, and failures at the peak of government.
Quandt, Sara A; Graham, Christopher N; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Golden, Shannon L; Stafford, Jeanette M; Arcury, Thomas A
Diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects ethnic minorities and has serious economic, social, and personal implications. This study examines the effect of diabetes disease burden and social resources on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older rural adults with diabetes. Data come from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 701 adults (age > or =65 years) with diabetes in North Carolina from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. HRQOL was assessed using the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12). Mean scores were 35.1 +/- 11.4 and 50.5 +/- 10.8 for the physical and mental components of the SF-12, respectively. In bivariate analyses, scores were significantly lower for Native Americans than Whites for both components. In multivariate analyses, higher physical HRQOL was associated with male sex, greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, exercising vs not exercising, fewer depressive symptoms, and not receiving process assistance. Higher mental HRQOL was associated with greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, and a high school education or more. Diabetes appears to have a substantial effect on physical HRQOL. Physical disability associated with diabetes may have a greater impact in the rural environment than in other areas. Aspects of rural social milieu may help to keep mental HRQOL high, even in the face of severe chronic disease. Ethnic differences in HRQOL are largely accounted for by diabetes disease burden and, to a lesser extent, social resources. Strategies to reduce diabetes-related complications (long term) and assist mobility (short term) may reduce ethnic disparities in HRQOL.
Baldwin, Matthew R; Sell, Jessica L; Heyden, Nina; Javaid, Azka; Berlin, David A; Gonzalez, Wendy C; Bach, Peter B; Maurer, Mathew S; Lovasi, Gina S; Lederer, David J
To determine whether minority race or ethnicity is associated with mortality and mediated by health insurance coverage among older (≥ 65 yr old) survivors of critical illness. A retrospective cohort study. Two New York City academic medical centers. A total of 1,947 consecutive white (1,107), black (361), and Hispanic (479) older adults who had their first medical-ICU admission from 2006 through 2009 and survived to hospital discharge. None. We obtained demographic, insurance, and clinical data from electronic health records, determined each patient's neighborhood-level socioeconomic data from 2010 U.S. Census tract data, and determined death dates using the Social Security Death Index. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 79 years (8.6 yr) and median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 1.6 years (0.4-3.0 yr). Blacks and Hispanics had similar mortality rates compared with whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.11 and adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.12, respectively). Compared to those with commercial insurance and Medicare, higher mortality rates were observed for those with Medicare only (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98) and Medicaid (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52). Medicaid recipients who were the oldest ICU survivors (> 82 yr), survivors of mechanical ventilation, and discharged to skilled-care facilities had the highest mortality rates (p-for-interaction: 0.08, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively). Mortality after critical illness among older adults varies by insurance coverage but not by race or ethnicity. Those with federal or state insurance coverage only had higher mortality rates than those with additional commercial insurance.
Schwartz, Joseph S; Young, Meredith; Velly, Ana M; Nguyen, Lily H P
To examine the evolution of racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in US otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency programs and compare these figures with other residency programs. Retrospective database review. US residency programs. Information concerning minority and female representation in US residency programs was obtained from annually published graduate medical education reports by the Journal of the American Medical Association from 1975 to 2010. Minority representation among US population and university students was obtained from the US Census Bureau. The racial, ethnic, and gender diversity of otolaryngology residents was then compared with other medical fields (general surgery, family medicine, and internal medicine). Underrepresentation in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery is particularly disconcerting for African Americans (-2.3%/y, P = .09) and Native Americans (1.5%/y, P = .11) given their nonsignificant annual growth rates. Hispanic representation (17.3%/y, P otolaryngology but is half the rate of growth of the Hispanic American population (32.8%/y, P otolaryngology residents. Despite increasing gender, ethnic, and racial diversity among medical residents in general, female and certain minority group representation in US otolaryngology residency programs is lagging. These findings are in contrast to rising trends of diversity within other residency programs including general surgery.
Black, S A; Jakobi, P L; Rush, R D; DiNuzzo, A R; Garcia, D
The health burden of self-reported diabetes was compared across three ethnic groups of older adults. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to compare ethnic differences in the rates of co-morbid chronic health conditions, complications, and disability for older diabetics vs non-diabetics, in a sample of 173 Mexican Americans, 201 African Americans, and 181 non-Hispanic whites, all aged 75 and older. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was significantly higher in older Mexican Americans (17.6%) and African Americans (16.4%) than in non-Hispanic whites (8.5%). In all three ethnic groups, and after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, diabetics were found to be generally at higher risk for chronic conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and hypertension, circulation and foot problems, obesity, and impaired vision and activities of daily living. Multivariate analyses indicated that the burden of diabetes appeared to be greatest among non-Hispanic white diabetics. We suggest that this is the result of higher diabetes-mortality rates among minority diabetics at earlier ages. Diabetes is known to be increasing in prevalence and incidence, particularly among the elderly, the fastest growing segment of the population. Our findings indicate that regardless of ethnicity, diabetes carries an increased burden that affects both the functioning and the quality of life of older adults.
Byers, Amy L; Lai, Amy X; Nelson, Craig; Yaffe, Kristine
Little is known about key factors associated with use of mental health services across the life course. This study determined key socioeconomic, social support, psychiatric, and medical predictors of services use in younger, middle, and older age. The sample included 3,708 adults with DSM-IV-based mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. Key predictors of mental health services use for each age group were systematically determined by multivariable models, and exploratory analyses examining potential effect modification by race-ethnicity and sex were assessed by interaction terms. Statistical analyses included complex design-corrected and weighted logistic regression analyses that provide results generalizable to the United States. Psychiatric and medical issues such as prior suicidal behavior, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and perceived cognitive impairment increased odds of mental health services use in younger, middle, and older age. Chronic medical conditions also influenced services use in younger and older age, with their impact on use across age potentially modified by racial-ethnic disparities (p interaction = 0.01). Moreover, socioeconomic factors like marital status influenced use in middle and older age, where being divorced, separated, widowed, or never married encouraged use. The effect of marital status on use across age was also potentially modified by racial-ethnic disparities (p interaction = 0.02). Key socioeconomic, social support, psychiatric, and medical predictors uniquely influence use of mental health services across the life course. These findings will help inform efforts to encourage greater services use by adults across the life course in need of care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Dansky, Kathryn H; De Souza, Gita; Gatto, Maria
Major demographic trends are changing the face of America's labor pool, and healthcare managers increasingly face a scarcer and more diverse workforce. As a result, healthcare organizations (HCOs) must develop policies and practices aimed at recruiting, retaining, and managing a diverse workforce and must meet the demands of a more diverse patient population by providing culturally appropriate care and improving access to care for racial/ethnic minorities. Ultimately, the goal of managing diversity is to enhance workforce and customer satisfaction, to improve communication among members of the workforce, and to further improve organizational performance. Research on diversity management practices in HCOs is scarce, providing few guidelines for practitioners. This study attempted to close that gap. Results show that hospitals in Pennsylvania have been relatively inactive with employing diversity management practices, and equal employment requirements are the main driver of diversity management policy. The number and scope of diversity management practices used were not influenced by organizational or market characteristics. The results suggest that hospitals need to adopt diversity management practices for their workforces and need to pay particular attention to marketing and service planning activities that meet the needs of a diverse patient population.
McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of
Weden, Margaret M; Miles, Jeremy N V; Friedman, Esther; Escarce, José J; Peterson, Christine; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A
Hispanics, and particularly foreign-born Mexican Americans, have been shown to fare better across a range of health outcomes than might be expected given the generally higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in this population, a phenomena termed the "Hispanic Paradox". Previous research on social disparities in cognitive aging, however, has been unable to address both race/ethnicity and nativity (REN) in a nationally-representative sample of US adults leaving unanswered questions about potentially "paradoxical" advantages of Mexican ethnic-origins and the role of nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), and enclave residence. We employ biennial assessments of cognitive functioning to study prevalent and incident cognitive impairment (CI) within the three largest US REN groups: US-born non-Hispanic whites (US-NHW), US-born non-Hispanic blacks (US-NHB), US-born Mexican Americans (US-MA), and foreign-born Mexican Americans (FB-MA). Data come from a nationally-representative sample of community-dwelling older adults in the Health and Retirement Study linked with the 2000 Census and followed over 10 years (N = 8,433). Large disadvantages in prevalent and incident CI were observed for all REN minorities respective to US-born non-Hispanic whites. Individual and neighborhood SES accounted substantially for these disadvantages and revealed an immigrant advantage: FB-MA odds of prevalent CI were about half those of US-NHW and hazards of incident CI were about half those of US-MA. Residence in an immigrant enclave was protective of prevalent CI among FB-MA. The findings illuminate important directions for research into the sources of cognitive risk and resilience and provide guidance about CI screening within the increasingly diverse aging US population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.
Blume, Amabda K.
Students of color experience numerous educational disadvantages compared to White students. These disadvantages begin in elementary school and continue into college and adulthood. Ethnic minority students typically have less resources available to them than White students and are typically less prepared for college—academically and financially. Once students of color enroll in college, they face additional barriers due to discrimination and negative attitudes towards diversity. These factors ...
Societies rely on different models to address ethnic, cultural and religious diversity in education, with different potential consequences for the experiences young people have in schools and different implications for policy and identity. For example, Germany, Greece and Ireland prefer the term interculturalism and intercultural education. In contrast, Britain, the Netherlands, Canada, the United States and Malaysia have historically worked with the concept of multiculturalism (Faas, 2010). ...
Knifsend, Casey Anne
My dissertation consists of two studies investigating extracurricular activities as a context for social identity development. These studies relied on a sample drawn from 11 multiethnic middle schools as part of a larger project investigating the role of school ethnic diversity in socio-emotional adjustment. Study 1 examined the correlates of extracurricular participation and identification among seventh grade youth (N = 2,376). African-American and Latino/Mexican-American adolescents were...
Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.
We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…
Laiteerapong, Neda; Karter, Andrew J; John, Priya M; Schillinger, Dean; Moffet, Howard H; Liu, Jennifer Y; Adler, Nancy; Chin, Marshall H; Huang, Elbert S
To explore racial and ethnic (ethnic hereafter) differences in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in older adults with diabetes mellitus in an integrated delivery system. Observational cross-sectional study. Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Ethnic-stratified, random sample of 6,096 adults with diabetes mellitus aged 60 to 75 who completed a HRQL questionnaire. Physical and mental HRQL were measured based on the Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short Form Survey (range 0-100, mean 50). Age- and sex-adjusted weighted linear regression models estimated associations between ethnicity and HRQL and evaluated potential mediators (socioeconomic status, acculturation, health behaviors, diabetes mellitus-related conditions). Differences in ethnic-specific, adjusted mean HRQL scores were tested (reference whites). Physical HRQL was better for Filipinos (48.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 47.0-49.6, P diabetes mellitus-related conditions. In older adults with diabetes mellitus in a well-established integrated healthcare delivery system, ethnic minorities had better physical HRQL than whites. Equal access to care in an integrated delivery system may hold promise for reducing health disparities in diabetes mellitus-related patient-reported outcomes. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on "cultural competence," remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care.We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care.This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health care. It identifies critical
Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John
This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group affiliation.…
Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy
To investigate older British South Asians' views on dying at acute hospitals. Older people, including those from ethnic minorities prefer 'home as a haven' for their last days of life; however, they are more likely to die in hospital. Constructive grounded theory was used as a methodological approach that informed data collection to data analysis. Open meetings with 11 local South Asian community organisations enabled the researchers to recruit a total of 55 older South Asians in this study. Data were collected using gender-based focus groups (n=5) and in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=29). Transcripts were analysed using Nvivo 9. Three key themes were identified: 'mistrust', 'let him not be alone' and 'family as a protective shield'. The theme 'mistrust' is explored through examination of beliefs, attitudes and expectations about 'hospital' as a place in the care of the dying. The theme of 'let him not be alone' draws the family's preferences and concerns in relation to leaving their older dying relative alone in the hospital. The final theme of 'family as a protective shield' describes the element of family care as a protective shield for their older one to have peaceful end-of-life care moments in the hospital. Allowing older relatives to die in hospital seems to evoke feelings of missed filial responsibilities and guilt among family carers among older ethnic minorities. The presence of cultural paranoia and mistrust often led minorities to experience sub-standard end-of-life care in acute hospitals.
Boisvert, Jennifer A; Harrell, W Andrew
There is currently a gap in our knowledge of how eating disorder symptomatology is impacted by spirituality and religiosity. To date, studies examining the role of ethnicity in women's self-reported levels of eating disorder symptomatology have neglected the roles of spirituality and religiosity. This study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating ethnicity, spirituality, religiosity, body shame, body mass index (BMI) and age in relation to eating disorder symptomatology in women. A representative non-clinical sample of ethnically diverse Canadian women (N = 591) was surveyed. Younger women, particularly those with higher body shame, BMI and lower spirituality, reported more eating disorder symptomatology. Hispanic and Asian women had higher body shame and lower BMI compared to white women. Spirituality was more strongly related to eating disorder symptomatology than religiosity. This is the first study identifying interactive relationships between ethnicity, spirituality, body shame, BMI and age on eating disorder symptomatology in women. Particularly significant is that higher spirituality was related to a lower level of eating disorder symptomatology. These findings have important implications for treatment and women's physical and psychological health and wellness.
Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.
Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian
We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72,691. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes.
Herbozo, Sylvia; Stevens, Serena D; Moldovan, Christina P; Morrell, Holly E R
Although research has shown that appearance-related commentary influences body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, limited research has studied such commentary among ethnically diverse women. The current study examined ethnic group differences in the frequency and impact of appearance-related commentary and associations with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 280 undergraduate women aged 18-25 (56.1% European American, 28.6% African American, and 15.3% Latina American). Results indicated no ethnic group differences in frequencies of positive weight/shape, positive general appearance, or negative weight/shape commentary while controlling for BMI. However, African American and Latina American women reported stronger negative responses to positive weight/shape commentary than European American women. Negative responses to positive weight/shape commentary were correlated with more body dissatisfaction in African American women, after controlling for frequency of commentary. Findings suggest that positive weight/shape commentary may be associated with poor outcomes in a subgroup of ethnic minority college women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rice, Valerie Montgomery
Menopause is a naturally occurring "equal opportunity" event that every woman who lives beyond the age of approximately 52 years will experience. During the next 20 years, approximately 3.5 million African American women, 2 million Latinas, and 1 million Asian American women will enter the menopause. How a woman approaches the menopausal transition depends on a number of factors, from educational level to socioeconomic status; health-related factors, including stress; and marital status. Increasingly, the roles of race and ethnicity, as they relate to menopausal symptoms, are being explored. Understanding similarities and differences among women of color in perceptions, attitudes, and expectations surrounding the menopause can help provide culturally appropriate care and promote lifestyles that may decrease symptoms and increase quality of life. For example, minority women are usually the gatekeepers for healthcare for themselves and their families and have a highly developed social support network, often including extended family, a church community, and involvement in sororal or social organizations. In the future, research on menopausal symptoms among women of different racial/ethnic groups should focus on exploring in greater detail the effect of dietary factors and body mass index, additional evaluation of pituitary sensitivity, and use of complementary and alternative medicines in symptom management, with a better understanding of the risks and benefits of such therapies.
Ilse J E Flink
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. METHODS: We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5. Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. RESULTS: Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.04 and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79-3.92. Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13-3.64 but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51-1.57. When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47-11.14, smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66-5.99 and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90-2.82. Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: -3.22, 95% CI -0.70-0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76. CONCLUSION
Full Text Available In Brief: After presenting together at ACRL 2015 to share research we conducted on race, identity, and diversity in academic librarianship, we reconvene panelists Ione T. Damasco, Cataloger Librarian at the University of Dayton, Isabel Gonzalez-Smith, Undergraduate Experience Librarian at the University of Illinois, Chicago, Dracine Hodges, Head of Acquisitions at Ohio State University, Todd Honma, Assistant Professor of Asian American Studies at Pitzer College, Juleah Swanson, Head of Acquisition Services at the University of Colorado Boulder, and Azusa Tanaka, Japanese Studies Librarian at the University of Washington in a virtual roundtable discussion. Resuming the conversation that started at ACRL, we discuss why diversity really matters to academic libraries, librarians, and the profession, and where to go from here. We conclude this article with a series of questions for readers to consider, share, and discuss among colleagues to continue and advance the conversation on diversity in libraries.
Full Text Available In Brief: After presenting together at ACRL 2015 to share research we conducted on race, identity, and diversity in academic librarianship, we reconvene panelists Ione T. Damasco, Cataloger Librarian at the University of Dayton, Isabel Gonzalez-Smith, Undergraduate Experience Librarian at the University of Illinois, Chicago, Dracine Hodges, Head of Acquisitions at Ohio State University, Todd […
Full Text Available The concept of ethnic transcendence—defined as the process of co-formulating a shared religious identity among diverse members that supersedes their racial and ethnic differences through congregational involvement—captures a critical aspect of successfully integrating different racial and ethnic groups into a single, commonly shared, multi-ethnic congregation. Drawing on classic theoretical resources from Max Weber and Emile Durkheim, this paper expands on previous scholarship by conceptually articulating two different paths for the achievement of ethnic transcendence in multiracial congregations. In the first path, ethnic transcendence supports and encourages congregational diversification by inspiring members and mobilizing them to contribute their efforts to accomplish a common religious mission. In the second path, the achievement of ethnic transcendence involves the sublimation of congregational members’ religious selves to an overarching moral collective. Both paths involve privileging religious identities in favor of a particularistic ethnic or racial identity. Moreover, through both paths, the development of congregationally specific religious identities results in joining with co-members of different ethno-racial ancestries as a type of spiritually-derived kinship. Due to the fact that ethnic transcendence is an interactive process, congregational diversity is a bi-directional phenomenon representing the extent to which members allow for the integration of separate ethnicities/races into a common congregation through idealized and richly-symbolic notions of connection and belonging to a congregation. Overall, this paper suggests a heuristic framework that productively expands the concept of ethnic transcendence, allows an approach for observing cross-ethnic/inter-racial organizational processes, and ultimately contributes toward understanding how congregations (whether church, temple, or mosque pursue alternative identity
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; Degroot, Joleen
Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women. This study sought to capture perceptions of anxiety and depression in 3 urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods. Using community-based participatory research, in the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, the researchers recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years. Data were collected via 6 homogeneous focus groups composed of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. The women identified themes pertaining to the manifestations and effects of anxiety and depression as well as unique coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available What is the relationship between ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity? This paper is part of a broader project to investigate this question in the context of a region of supposed ethno-cultural rupture – the Sino-Tibetan Frontier. My investigations of ethnicity, culture, and language in this region (Roche 2011, 2014, 2015, Roche and Lcag mo tshe ring 2013, Roche and Stuart 2015 have focused on a population referred to as the Monguor or Tu. My work also aims to contribute to broader trends in the study of Tibet and ethnic minorities in China that look at the complex relations between ethnicity and diversity (Jinba Tenzin 2013, Chao 2012, Merriam 2012, Hayes 2014. My research has been inspired by Barth's (1969 critique of the 'Herderian trinity' of community, culture, and identity (Wimmer 2013. In contrast to the Romantic notion of bounded communities professing a common identity based on shared culture, Barth suggested that the landscape of cultural difference is frequently divided arbitrarily, with ethnic boundaries often placed between culturally similar groups. He therefore advises placing emphasis on boundary marking and maintenance over the 'cultural stuff' contained within ethnic bounds. Within this 'boundary paradigm', "Researchers would no longer study 'the culture' of ethnic group A or B, but rather how the ethnic boundary between A and B was inscribed onto a landscape of continuous cultural transitions" (Wimmer 2013:22-23. ...
Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Ruhr, Lindsay; Pevehouse, Danielle; Pilgrim, Sarah
This cross-sectional study examined the links between body appreciation, contraceptive use, and sexual health outcomes. Body appreciation has been shown to influence contraceptive use in homogenous samples of women. However, a common problem in body image literature is a lack of racial and ethnic diversity with regard to sample; this study was able to take steps toward overcoming that limitation. A sample of 499 women aged 18-56 (M = 26.24; SD = 6.15) was recruited via Reddit.com-White (29.3%, n = 120), Asian (19%, n = 78), Black (17.3%, n = 73), multiracial (13.9%, n = 57), and Latina (13.9%, n = 57). Covariates included race/ethnicity, body size as measured by body mass index, relationship status, age, sexual orientation, and education level. Results indicated that higher levels of body appreciation were related to a higher likelihood of using non-barrier contraception. Regarding the covariates, race, relationship status, age, and education were related to non-barrier contraceptive use and age was related to dual contraceptive use. Further exploration is needed to determine how body appreciation may affect contraceptive use and sexual health outcomes and how these differ by race/ethnicity.
Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey
Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joan A. Vaccaro PhD
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among sex, race/ethnicity, and food security with the likelihood of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease for older adults. Method: Complex sample analysis by logistic regression models for chronic diseases were conducted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 to 2012 and 2013 to 2014, for N = 3,871 adults aged ≥55 years. Results: Being female with low food security was associated with lung disease and diabetes. Poverty, rather than low food security, was associated with cardiovascular diseases. Minority status was independently associated with low food security and diabetes. Discussion: Food insecurity, sex, and race/ethnicity were associated with chronic diseases in a representative sample of U.S. older adults.
Kai, Joe; Beavan, Jackie; Faull, Christina; Dodson, Lynne; Gill, Paramjit; Beighton, Angela
Background While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care. Conclusions This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health
Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii's longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.
van Selm, M; Westerhof, G J; de Vos, B
The present study replicates our study of older adults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether older adults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring older adults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although older adults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Older adults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials.
Vinod K. Gupta
Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT. The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics
Gupta, Vinod K.; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment
Gupta, Vinod K; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota-the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome-nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment. Some of
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica
Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.
Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F
In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.
Hart, Ariel R.; Dillard, Rebecca; Perkins, Molly M.; Vaughan, Camille P.; Kinlaw, Kathy; McKay, J. Lucas; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Hagen, Kimberley; Wincek, Ron C.; Hackney, Madeleine E.
The DREAMS Team research advocacy training program helps clinical faculty and health students introduce basic clinical research concepts to diverse older adults to galvanize their active involvement in the research process. Older adults are frequently underrepresented in clinical research, due to barriers to participation including distrust,…
Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo
Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed an...... diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock.......Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...... and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic...
Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo
Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed an...... diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock.......Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...... and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic...
Endorsing an Additive Pluricultural Identity Formation for Socio-ethnic Integration in Diasporic Caribbean Societies: An Insightful Culturometric Philosophical Re-examination of Trinidad Ethnic Diversity
Full Text Available This paper looks at Caribbean social spaces and their plasticity within an ontological perspective and how emergent Caribbean identities are arbitrarily constructed, interrogated and restructured at the individual level, artificially fashioned at the collective level and covertly created at the national level. From an ethno-national standpoint, the paper critically explores the process of identity formation from an original ethno-cultural deconstruction segregating ethnic groups by phenotypes to a cultural bricolage of culturally diverse fragments from which emerge the modern pluricultural Caribbean individual, pluricultural ethnicities and the competing cultural allegiances that can threaten to shatter the family unity of the nation state. The paper first explains the additive process of pluricultural identity formation then highlights subtractive multicultural socio-political threats to achieving national unity within a pluricultural Caribbean. This position is discussed here using the results of a survey assessing multicultural allegiances in the predominantly bi-ethnic African/Indian Trinidadian population.
Chan, Grace M F; Riandini, Tessa; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Goh, Su Yen; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Duque, Gustavo; Ng, Alvin Choon-Meng; Venkataraman, Kavita
Osteoporosis is an important health issue for older adults, and has been relatively understudied in older men. This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD), and elucidate the role of bone turnover markers (BTMs), fat and fat biomarkers on these ethnic differences. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, marrow fat at femoral neck, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, bone and fat biomarkers were evaluated in 120 healthy men aged ≥ 60 years. Indians had higher BMD values compared to Chinese at the lumbar spine (β = 20.336, SE = 4.749, p fat composition and lifestyle choices. Marrow fat, VAT and adiponectin were independent predictors of BMD. However, these factors did not explain the lower BMD observed in older Chinese men. Our findings suggest that older Chinese men are at significant risk of osteoporotic fractures due to lower BMD. Fat appears to be a key factor associated with lower BMD, and warrants further longitudinal studies to elucidate the complex interactions between adipose tissue and bone strength.
Parker, Chris; Philp, Ian
There is a well-documented tendency for cognitive tests to underestimate the abilities of older people in black and minority ethnic groups. This gives rise to a substantially higher risk of mistaken diagnosis of dementia. Reasons include differences in extent or focus of formal education, lack of familiarity with English, lack of literacy in own first language, and culture-specific factors related to individual test items. Attempts to improve the accuracy of screening for these groups have included adaptation of existing tests, including adjustment of cut-points, translation and replacement of culture-specific items. So-called 'culture-free' tests have also been developed, which are less dependent on language, literacy and other skills developed during formal education. Cultural modifications and evidence of cross-cultural performance are summarized here for traditional tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, Abbreviated Mental Test Score, Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly), and for culture-free tests (Clock Drawing Test, Mini-Cog, 7-minute screening battery, Time and Change Test). The evidence on unadapted traditional tests shows that short ones perform at least as well as longer ones, and are more consistent across cultural and educational groups. Cut-point adjustments have not been universally found successful in improving accuracy, and do not address issues of acceptability. Translated and/or culturally adapted versions exist for a number of tests: it is important to establish cut-points appropriate to the target populations. There are promising results on culture-free tests, which are seen as less threatening and require little language interpretation, but they require further evaluation.
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....
Jimenez, Daniel E; Schmidt, Andrew C; Kim, Giyeon; Cook, Benjamin Le
The objective is to apply the Institute of Medicine definition of healthcare disparities in order to compare (1) racial/ethnic disparities in general medical care use among older adults with and without comorbid mental health need and (2) racial/ethnic disparities in general medical care use within the group with comorbid mental health need. Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004-2012). The sample included 21,263 participants aged 65+ years (14,973 non-Latino Caucasians, 3530 African-Americans, and 2760 Latinos). Physical illness was determined by having one of the 11 priority chronic health illnesses. Comorbid mental health need was defined as having one of the chronic illnesses plus a Kessler-6 Scale >12, or two-item Patient Health Questionnaire >2. General medical care use refers to receipt of non-mental health specialty care. Two-part generalized linear models were used to estimate and compare general medical care use and expenditures among older adults with and without a comorbid mental health need. Racial/ethnic disparities in general medical care expenditures were greater among those with comorbid mental health need compared with those without. Among those with comorbid mental health need, non-Latino Caucasians had significantly greater expenditures on prescription drug use than African-Americans and Latinos. Expenditure disparities reflect differences in the amount of resources provided to African-Americans and Latinos compared with non-Latino Caucasians. This is not equivalent to disparities in quality of care. Interventions and policies are needed to ensure that racial/ethnic minority older adults receive equitable services that enable them to manage effectively their comorbid mental and physical health needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary
Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life.
Gans, Kim M; Risica, Patricia M; Strolla, Leslie O; Fournier, Leanne; Kirtania, Usree; Upegui, David; Zhao, Julie; George, Tiffiney; Acharyya, Suddhasatta
Computer-tailored written nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing diet, but continued research is needed. Your Healthy Life/Su Vida Saludable (YHL-SVS) was an intervention study with low income, ethnically diverse, English and Spanish-speaking participants to determine which methods of delivering tailored written nutrition materials were most effective in lowering fat and increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. YHL-SVS was a randomized controlled trial with four experimental conditions: 1) Nontailored (NT) comparison group; 2) Single Tailored (ST) packet; 3) Multiple Tailored (MT) packet mailed in four installments; 4) Multiple Re-Tailored (MRT) MT packets re-tailored between mailings via brief phone surveys. A baseline telephone survey collected information for tailoring as well as evaluation. Follow-up evaluation surveys were collected 4- and 7-months later. Primary outcomes included F&V intake and fat related behaviors. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to examine the effectiveness of different methods of delivering tailored nutrition information. Both the ST and MT groups reported significantly higher F&V intake at 4-months than the NT and MRT groups. At 7 months, only the MT group still had significantly higher F&V intake compared to the NT group. For changes in fat-related behaviors, both the MT and MRT groups showed more change than NT at 4 months, but at 7 months, while these differences persisted, they were no longer statistically significant. There was a significant interaction of experimental group by education for change in F&V intake (P = .0085) with the lowest educational group demonstrating the most change. In this study, tailored interventions were more effective than non-tailored interventions in improving the short-term dietary behaviors of low income, ethnically diverse participants. Delivery of information in multiple smaller doses over time appeared to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-tailored written nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing diet, but continued research is needed. Your Healthy Life/Su Vida Saludable (YHL-SVS was an intervention study with low income, ethnically diverse, English and Spanish-speaking participants to determine which methods of delivering tailored written nutrition materials were most effective in lowering fat and increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V intake. Methods YHL-SVS was a randomized controlled trial with four experimental conditions: 1 Nontailored (NT comparison group; 2 Single Tailored (ST packet; 3 Multiple Tailored (MT packet mailed in four installments; 4 Multiple Re-Tailored (MRT MT packets re-tailored between mailings via brief phone surveys. A baseline telephone survey collected information for tailoring as well as evaluation. Follow-up evaluation surveys were collected 4- and 7-months later. Primary outcomes included F&V intake and fat related behaviors. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to examine the effectiveness of different methods of delivering tailored nutrition information. Results Both the ST and MT groups reported significantly higher F&V intake at 4-months than the NT and MRT groups. At 7 months, only the MT group still had significantly higher F&V intake compared to the NT group. For changes in fat-related behaviors, both the MT and MRT groups showed more change than NT at 4 months, but at 7 months, while these differences persisted, they were no longer statistically significant. There was a significant interaction of experimental group by education for change in F&V intake (P = .0085 with the lowest educational group demonstrating the most change. Conclusion In this study, tailored interventions were more effective than non-tailored interventions in improving the short-term dietary behaviors of low income, ethnically diverse participants. Delivery of
Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina
To explore the experiences of both student and qualified nurses of caring for patients from diverse cultural, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, in one region of Ireland. Hearing the stories, experiences and attitudes of nurses has the potential to influence future clinical practice and has implication for nurses, nurse educators and nurse managers and leaders. There is a wealth of international literature highlighting the importance of providing culturally sensitive care. However, global reports of culturally insensitive care continue. There is a paucity of in-depth research exploring the actual concerns and challenges nurses experience when caring for patients from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds, as well as what influences their actions and omissions of care in practice. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design adopting the principles of a classic grounded theory approach was used. Focus groups (n - 10) and individual face-to-face interviews (n - 30) were conducted with student and qualified nurses studying and working in one region of Ireland. As data were collected, it was simultaneously analysed using the classic grounded theory methodological principles of coding, constant comparison and theoretical sampling. Uncertainty was the consistent main concern that emerged. Feelings of ambiguity of how to act were further influenced by a lack of knowledge, an awareness of ethnocentric beliefs and the culture of the organisation in which participants learn and work in. Instead of finding answers to uncertainties, participants demonstrated a lack of commitment to meeting patients' needs in a culturally appropriate way. This study adds new perspectives to our understanding of enablers and barriers to culturally sensitive care. It explains the poignant effect of uncertainty and describes how nurses were unable (or unwilling) to find answers when in doubt. It raises questions that remain unanswered in the existing literature, as to why nurses feel it is
de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S
Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be
Kishiyama, Shirley S; Leahy, Marjorie J; Zitzelberger, Tracy A; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P; Calvert, James F; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Oken, Barry S
To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon; 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention; and 3) 136 participants, ages 65-85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people.
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary
Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education.
Horton, Khim; Dickinson, Angela
This grounded-theory study explored the perceptions of Chinese older people, living in England, on falls and fear of falling, and identified facilitators and barriers to fall prevention interventions. With a sample of 30 Chinese older people, we conducted two focus groups and 10 in-depth interviews in Mandarin or Cantonese. Interview transcripts, back translated, were analyzed using N6. Constant comparative analysis highlighted a range of health-seeking behaviors after a fall: Chinese older people were reluctant to use formal health services; talking about falls was avoided; older people hid falls from their adult children to avoid worrying them; and fatalistic views about falls and poor knowledge about availability and content of interventions were prevalent. Cost of interventions was important. Chinese older adults valued their independence, and cultural intergenerational relations had an impact on taking action to prevent falls. Cultural diversity affects older adults' acceptance of fall prevention interventions.
Gum, Amber M.; Ayalon, Liat; Greenberg, Jared Matt; Palko, Balint; Ruffo, Emily; Areán, Patricia A.
Older adults (N=140; 68.6% minority) participating in community health screenings reported their use and preferences for various professionals and services to deal with distress. Race/ethnicity was recorded based on self-report. A third of participants had discussed distress with some professional within the past year. Compared to Whites, Asian and Black elders were less likely to see a mental health professional or receive counseling in the past year. Almost all participants (89.3%) were wil...
de Jong Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.
Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline
A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.
Ali, Hassan B. [Independent Consultant
The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were
Song, Jing; Chang, Huan J; Tirodkar, Manasi; Chang, Rowland W; Manheim, Larry M; Dunlop, Dorothy D
To investigate racial/ethnic differences in disability onset among older Americans with arthritis. Factors amenable to clinical and public health intervention that may explain racial/ethnic differences in incident disability were examined. We analyzed longitudinal data (1998-2004) from a national representative sample of 5,818 non-Hispanic whites, 1,001 African Americans, 228 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish (Hispanic/Spanish), and 210 Hispanics interviewed in English (Hispanic/English), with arthritis and age >or=51 years who did not have baseline disability. Disability in activities of daily living (ADL) was identified from report of inability, avoidance, or needing assistance to perform >or=1 ADL task. Over the period of 6 years, 28.0% of African Americans, 28.5% of Hispanic/Spanish, 19.1% of Hispanic/English, and 16.2% of whites developed disability. The demographic-adjusted disability hazard ratios (AHR) were significantly greater among African Americans (AHR 1.94, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.51-2.38) and Hispanic/Spanish (AHR 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-2.71), but not significantly increased for Hispanic/English (AHR 1.41, 95% CI 0.82-2.00) compared with whites. Differences in health factors (comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and behaviors) explained over half the excess risk among African Americans and Hispanic/Spanish. Medical access factors (education, income, wealth, and health insurance) were substantial mediators of racial/ethnic differences in all minority groups. Racial/ethnic differences in the development of disability among older adults with arthritis were largely attenuated by health and medical access factors. Lack of health insurance was particularly problematic. At the clinical level, treatment of comorbid conditions, functional limitations, and promotion of physical activity and weight maintenance should be a priority to prevent the development of disability, especially in minority populations.
Witkow, Melissa R.; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Ethnic and generational differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, minimal research has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and…
Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.
This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative changes in forms of peer victimization or peer support and the roles of classroom diversity and sociometric status (i.e., social preference) in these associations. A total of 444 children (age range: 9-10 years) from…
The article offers a case study of the ways in which a Catholic primary school located in the centre of a large South-Asian community in Leicester, UK, responded to the religious and ethnic diversity of its surroundings. The school, Our Saviour's, engaged in shared activities with a neighbouring school which had a majority intake of Hindu, Muslim…
Stroub, Kori J.; Richards, Meredith P.
Background: While postwar suburban migration established suburbs as relatively affluent, homogeneous white enclaves distinct from the urban core, recent waves of suburbanization and exurbanization have been spurred largely by rapid growth in the nonwhite population. While these increases in suburban racial/ethnic diversity represent a significant…
Robman, Liubov D; Islam, Fakir M A; Chong, Elaine W T; Adams, Madeleine K M; Simpson, Julie A; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Baird, Paul N; Guymer, Robyn H
To determine and compare the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in older Australians of Anglo-Celtic and Southern European origin. A total of 21,132 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, aged 47-86 years, were assessed for AMD in 2003-2007 with non-mydriatic fundus photography. Of these, 14% were born in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy or Malta), with the remaining 86% of Anglo-Celtic origin, born in Australia, the United Kingdom or New Zealand. Overall, 2694 participants (12.7%) had early stages of AMD, defined as either one or more drusen ≥ 125 μm (with or without pigmentary abnormalities) or one or more drusen 63-124 μm with pigmentary abnormalities in a 6000-μm diameter grading grid, in the absence of late AMD in either eye. A total of 122 participants (0.6%) had late AMD, defined as either geographic atrophy or neovascular AMD. In logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education and physical activity, Southern Europeans compared to Anglo-Celts had a higher prevalence of the early stages of AMD (odds ratio, OR, 1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.34), and lower prevalence of late AMD (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.78). Australians of Southern European origin have a higher prevalence of the early stages of AMD and lower prevalence of late AMD compared to those of Anglo-Celtic origin. Although AMD prevalence in the older age group(s) of Southern Europeans could be underestimated due to disparity in participation rates, it is likely that both lifestyle and genetic factors play their parts in differential AMD prevalence in these ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia affects millions of people worldwide and is an emerging global health burden. As part of a large NIH-funded NextGen Consortium, we generated a diverse, comprehensive, and fully characterized library of sickle-cell-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB haplotypes, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels. iPSCs stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and perhaps eventually, treat patients. Here, we describe this unique resource for the study of sickle cell disease, including novel haplotype-specific polymorphisms that affect disease severity, as well as for the development of patient-specific therapeutics for this phenotypically diverse disorder. As a complement to this library, and as proof of principle for future cell- and gene-based therapies, we also designed and employed CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools to correct the sickle hemoglobin (HbS mutation.
Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R; McCarthy, William J
This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association. We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their U.S.-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected American Heart Association guidelines) among adults ages 25 and older (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between U.S.-born and foreign-born White, Asian, and Latino respondents. All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with greater education were generally better off except among Asian respondents. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born respondents exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared with their U.S.-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N
The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease often associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Current epidemiological data are limited to studies of predominantly Caucasian populations. Our aim was to define the epidemiology of PSC in a large, ethnically diverse US population. Methods The Northern California Kaiser Permanente (KP database includes records from over 3 million people and was searched for cases of PSC between January 2000 and October 2006. All identified charts were reviewed for diagnosis confirmation, IBD co-morbidity, and major natural history endpoints. Results We identified 169 (101 males cases fulfilling PSC diagnostic criteria with a mean age at diagnosis of 44 years (range 11-81. The age-adjusted point prevalence was 4.15 per 100,000 on December 31, 2005. The age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 person-years was not significantly greater in men 0.45 (95% CI 0.33 - 0.61 than women 0.37 (95% CI 0.26 - 0.51. IBD was present in 109/169 (64.5% cases and was significantly more frequent in men than women with PSC (73.3% and 51.5%, respectively, p = 0.005. The cumulative average yearly mortality rate was 1.9%. Age and serum sodium, creatinine and bilirubin at diagnosis and albumin at last entry were identified as significant factors associated with death, liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The incidence and prevalence of PSC observed in a representative Northern California population are lower compared to previous studies in Caucasian populations and this might reflect differences in the incidence of PSC among various ethnic groups.
Catarino, Luís; Havik, Philip J; Romeiras, Maria M
The rich flora of Guinea-Bissau, and the widespread use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases, constitutes an important local healthcare resource with significant potential for research and development of phytomedicines. The goal of this study is to prepare a comprehensive documentation of Guinea-Bissau's medicinal plants, including their distribution, local vernacular names and their therapeutic and other applications, based upon local notions of disease and illness. Ethnobotanical data was collected by means of field research in Guinea-Bissau, study of herbarium specimens, and a comprehensive review of published works. Relevant data were included from open interviews conducted with healers and from observations in the field during the last two decades. A total of 218 medicinal plants were documented, belonging to 63 families, of which 195 are native. Over half of these species are found in all regions of the country. The medicinal plants are used to treat 18 major diseases categories; the greatest number of species are used to treat intestinal disorders (67 species). More than thirty ethnic groups were identified within the Guinea-Bissau population; 40% of the medicinal plants have been recorded in the country's principal ethnic languages (i.e. Fula and Balanta). This multi-disciplinary, country-wide study identifies a great diversity of plants used by indigenous communities as medicinal, which constitute an important common reservoir of botanical species and therapeutic knowledge. The regional overlap of many indigenous species, the consensual nature of disease groups based upon local perceptions of health conditions, and the relevance of local vernacular including Guinean Creole are key factors specific to the country which enhance the potential for the circulation and transmission of ethno-botanical and therapeutic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca
Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of biological and cultural reasons. Key pointsRegardless of race, inactivity levels are related to body mass.In an ethnically diverse urban group of South African school children, there exists an age related decline in physical activity and increase in time spent in front of a screen.Ethnic and gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of
Heinrich, Katie M; Maddock, Jay
Health behaviors of adults living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors affect additional risk, where lifestyle behavioral choices become even more important in controlling disease and preventing additional negative health outcomes. In addition, both lifestyle behaviors and CVD risk factor prevalence can vary by ethnicity. We compared multiple health behaviors of adults with diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity to the behaviors of adults without those conditions in a diverse ethnic sample to determine if significant differences existed between groups. Data were obtained from 30-minute random-digit-dial telephone surveys in 2007 (n = 3607). All data were self-reports. Healthy behaviors included meeting recommendations for intake of fruits and vegetables; consuming low or very low amounts of dietary fat; eating breakfast six or seven days per week; having a healthy diet; and meeting recommendations for walking, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Unhealthy behaviors included frequent consumption of soda and fast food, smoking, binge drinking, and high stress. More than 6% of respondents had diabetes, 15.9% had hypertension, 16.4% had high cholesterol, and 18.5% were obese. Significantly fewer healthy and more unhealthy behaviors were reported for those who had CVD risk factors than were reported by those who did not have such conditions. Ethnic differences in CVD risk factor prevalence and health behaviors existed as well (p eating a healthy diet (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82) was a significant predictor for diabetes; not eating a healthy diet (OR = 1.52) and not doing vigorous physical activity (OR = 1.79) were significant predictors for hypertension; consumption of high amounts of dietary fat (OR = 1.70) and of fast food (OR = 1.51) were significant predictors for high cholesterol levels; and not eating a healthy diet (OR = 1.52), high consumption of dietary fat (OR = 2.20), not eating breakfast (OR = 1.33) and not performing vigorous
Phinney, Jean S.
Presents a questionnaire measure of ethnic identity based on elements of ethnic identity that are common across groups, so that it can be used across all groups. Reliability, assessed by Cronbach's alpha, was .81 for the high school sample (n=417), and .90 for the college sample (n=136). Whites scored lower in ethnic identity than members of the…
Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia
Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…
Prasher, Bhavana; Varma, Binuja; Kumar, Arvind; Khuntia, Bharat Krushna; Pandey, Rajesh; Narang, Ankita; Tiwari, Pradeep; Kutum, Rintu; Guin, Debleena; Kukreti, Ritushree; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali
Genetic differences in the target proteins, metabolizing enzymes and transporters that contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response are not integrated in contemporary drug development programs. Ayurveda, that has propelled many drug discovery programs albeit for the search of new chemical entities incorporates inter-individual variability "Prakriti" in development and administration of drug in an individualized manner. Prakriti of an individual largely determines responsiveness to external environment including drugs as well as susceptibility to diseases. Prakriti has also been shown to have molecular and genomic correlates. We highlight how integration of Prakriti concepts can augment the efficiency of drug discovery and development programs through a unique initiative of Ayurgenomics TRISUTRA consortium. Five aspects that have been carried out are (1) analysis of variability in FDA approved pharmacogenomics genes/SNPs in exomes of 72 healthy individuals including predominant Prakriti types and matched controls from a North Indian Indo-European cohort (2) establishment of a consortium network and development of five genetically homogeneous cohorts from diverse ethnic and geo-climatic background (3) identification of parameters and development of uniform standard protocols for objective assessment of Prakriti types (4) development of protocols for Prakriti evaluation and its application in more than 7500 individuals in the five cohorts (5) Development of data and sample repository and integrative omics pipelines for identification of genomic correlates. Highlight of the study are (1) Exome sequencing revealed significant differences between Prakriti types in 28 SNPs of 11 FDA approved genes of pharmacogenomics relevance viz. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, ESR1, F2, PGR, HLA-B, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, LDLR, CFTR, CPS1. These variations are polymorphic in diverse Indian and world populations included in 1000 genomes project. (2) Based on the phenotypic attributes of
Kally, Zina; Cote, Sarah D; Gonzalez, Jorge; Villarruel, Monica; Cherry, Debra L; Howland, Susan; Higgins, Melinda; Connolly, Lora; Hepburn, Kenneth
This article reports on the impact of the Savvy Caregiver Program (SCP) on English-speaking caregivers of Hispanic, Black/African American, and Asian/Pacific Islander descent. Caregivers completed a questionnaire prior to study enrollment, at 6 and 12 months postenrollment. Caregivers in all 3 ethnic groups showed more caregiver competence, reduced depression, greater tolerance for care recipients' memory problems, better management of their overall situation, and improved perception of that situation 6 months and 12 months post-enrollment. The study demonstrates that in the sample studied the SCP was as effective in helping ethnically diverse caregivers as it has shown to be with Caucasian caregivers.
Sabo, Sandra R.
Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)
Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaodong; Caiji, Zhuoma; Yang, Jingbiao; Cui, Di; Cao, Guilan; Ma, Xiaoding; Han, Bing; Xue, Dayuan; Han, Longzhi
Crop genetic resources are important components of biodiversity. However, with the large-scale promotion of mono-cropping, genetic diversity has largely been lost. Ex-situ conservation approaches were widely used to protect traditional crop varieties worldwide. However, this method fails to maintain the dynamic evolutionary processes of crop genetic resources in their original habitats, leading to genetic diversity reduction and even loss of the capacity of resistance to new diseases and pests. Therefore, on-farm conservation has been considered a crucial complement to ex-situ conservation. This study aimed at clarifying the genetic diversity differences between ex-situ conservation and on-farm conservation and to exploring the influence of traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation. The conservation status of rice landrace varieties, including Indica and Japonica, non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Matsum), was obtained through ethno-biology investigation method in 12 villages of ethnic groups from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China. The genetic diversity between 24 pairs of the same rice landraces from different times were compared using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers technology. The landrace paris studied were collected in 1980 and maintained ex-situ, while 2014 samples were collected on-farm in southwest of China. The results showed that many varieties of rice landraces have been preserved on-farm by local farmers for hundreds or thousands of years. The number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) of rice landraces were significantly higher by 12.3-30.4 % under on-farm conservation than under ex-situ conservation. Compared with the ex-situ conservation approach, rice landraces under on-farm conservation programs had more alleles and higher genetic diversity. In
Rajpal, Neha; Muñoz, Juliana; Peshkin, Beth N; Graves, Kristi D
Despite the disproportionate underuse of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1/2 (BRCA)-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk among Latinas, little is known about the associated barriers and facilitators. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 at-risk Latina women from diverse backgrounds. Eligible women were diagnosed with breast cancer 1 first-degree relative diagnosed personal beliefs about genetic counseling. In addition, older women were equally as interested in education, cancer prevention, and BRCA genetic counseling as younger women. These findings suggest that Latinas, regardless of age, increasingly acknowledge and prioritize their own health. Women reported their main motivator to undergo counseling was concern about family members' cancer risks. Main barriers included financial and insurance concerns, and lack of awareness about genetic services. Investigating the beliefs and attitudes of diverse populations of Latinas at risk for HBOC reveals logistical barriers to BRCA genetic counseling uptake within this under-represented community. Efforts are needed to provide at-risk Latina breast cancer survivors' knowledge of and access to genetic counseling and testing based on risk status and Latinas' increasing responsiveness and uptake of these services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the US population ages, there is an increasing need for evidence based, peer-led physical activity programs, particularly in ethnically diverse, low income senior centers where access is limited. Methods/design The Peer Empowerment Program 4 Physical Activity’ (PEP4PA is a hybrid Type II implementation-effectiveness trial that is a peer-led physical activity (PA intervention based on the ecological model of behavior change. The initial phase is a cluster randomized control trial randomized to either a peer-led PA intervention or usual center programming. After 18 months, the intervention sites are further randomized to continued support or no support for another 6 months. This study will be conducted at twelve senior centers in San Diego County in low income, diverse communities. In the intervention sites, 24 peer health coaches and 408 adults, aged 50 years and older, are invited to participate. Peer health coaches receive training and support and utilize a tablet computer for delivery and tracking. There are several levels of intervention. Individual components include pedometers, step goals, counseling, and feedback charts. Interpersonal components include group walks, group sharing and health tips, and monthly celebrations. Community components include review of PA resources, walkability audit, sustainability plan, and streetscape improvements. The primary outcome of interest is intensity and location of PA minutes per day, measured every 6 months by wrist and hip accelerometers and GPS devices. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Implementation measures include appropriateness & acceptability (perceived and actual fit, adoption & penetration (reach, fidelity (quantity & quality of intervention delivered, acceptability (satisfaction, costs, and sustainability. Discussion Using a peer led implementation strategy to deliver a multi-level community based PA
Warburton, Jeni; McLaughlin, Deirdre
Australia is a culturally diverse country, with one in five older Australians born overseas in non-English speaking countries, as well as others who are part of the Indigenous population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Little is known about how these individuals age productively and contribute to society. Survey data show that they are less likely to volunteer for an organisation than other older people, yet it may be that they contribute to civil society in alternate ways that are generally unrecognised and unacknowledged. In the absence of a general lack of understanding of how older Australians from diverse cultural backgrounds contribute to community, the aim of the present paper is to explore this topic using qualitative data from a larger study of the lived experiences of older Australians. Findings suggest that respondents are very active within their families and communities in ways that differ from mainstream older Australians. Generally, they have an important role in maintaining or promoting their culture; and providing support across their communities based on common experience. In particular, respondents describe a special relationship with the young within their communities. This includes being a grandparent or elderly advisor, as well as the role that many Indigenous elders play in encouraging and supporting troubled young people. Although further and more representative studies of older Australians are now needed, this paper, nevertheless, begins to explore what has been a neglected area of ageing policy and research.
Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A
This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M
Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies.
Perrin, Paul B; Heesacker, Martin; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Uthe, Catherine E; Rittman, Maude R
This study examined (1) causality in the relationship between stroke caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning, and (2) the prediction from stroke caregiver and care-recipient variables 5 months and 11 months later. Questionnaire, interview, and observational data were collected from 124 ethnically diverse stroke caregiver/care-recipient dyads in the homes of care recipients at 1, 6, and 12 months after discharge. The magnitudes of the causal pathways between stroke caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning were not significantly different. At 1 month after discharge, the best predictors of poor caregiver mental health 11 months later were care-recipient low daily functioning and caregiver low sense of coherence, high burden, and high depression. Caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning may have reciprocal causal influence on each other, so one of the first steps in stroke rehabilitation may be providing counseling to the primary caregiver. Caregivers with high burden, a low sense of coherence, and a low-functioning care recipient are those most at risk for poor mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Tejeda, Silvia; Stolley, Melinda R; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Campbell, Richard T; Estwing Ferrans, Carol; Warnecke, Richard B; Rauscher, Garth H
Breast cancer has psychological consequences that impact quality of life. We examined factors associated with negative psychological consequences of a breast cancer diagnosis, in a diverse sample of 910 recently diagnosed patients (378 African American, 372 white, and 160 Latina). Patients completed an in-person interview as part of the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study within an average of 4 months from diagnosis. The Cockburn negative psychological consequences of breast cancer screening scale was revised to focus on a breast cancer diagnosis. Path analysis assessed predictors of psychological consequences and potential mediators between race/ethnicity and psychological consequences. Compared to white counterparts, bivariate analysis showed African American (β = 1.4, P psychological consequences. Strongest predictors (P psychological consequences was unmet social support. African American and Latina women reported greater psychological consequences related to their breast cancer diagnosis; this disparity was mediated by differences in unmet social support. Social support represents a promising point of intervention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang
The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Boekel, Leonieke C; Peek, Sebastiaan Tm; Luijkx, Katrien G
As for all individuals, the Internet is important in the everyday life of older adults. Research on older adults' use of the Internet has merely focused on users versus nonusers and consequences of Internet use and nonuse. Older adults are a heterogeneous group, which may implicate that their use of the Internet is diverse as well. Older adults can use the Internet for different activities, and this usage can be of influence on benefits the Internet can have for them. The aim of this paper was to describe the diversity or heterogeneity in the activities for which older adults use the Internet and determine whether diversity is related to social or health-related variables. We used data of a national representative Internet panel in the Netherlands. Panel members aged 65 years and older and who have access to and use the Internet were selected (N=1418). We conducted a latent class analysis based on the Internet activities that panel members reported to spend time on. Second, we described the identified clusters with descriptive statistics and compared the clusters using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests. Four clusters were distinguished. Cluster 1 was labeled as the "practical users" (36.88%, n=523). These respondents mainly used the Internet for practical and financial purposes such as searching for information, comparing products, and banking. Respondents in Cluster 2, the "minimizers" (32.23%, n=457), reported lowest frequency on most Internet activities, are older (mean age 73 years), and spent the smallest time on the Internet. Cluster 3 was labeled as the "maximizers" (17.77%, n=252); these respondents used the Internet for various activities, spent most time on the Internet, and were relatively younger (mean age below 70 years). Respondents in Cluster 4, the "social users," mainly used the Internet for social and leisure-related activities such as gaming and social network sites. The identified clusters significantly differed in age (PInternet
Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P
In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and
In many countries diversity management has become an increasingly common way of treating differences between people in the world of work. Companies may sign diversity charters to show their engagement in promoting diversity, design and implement diversity management programmes, and communicate about their diversity initiatives to internal and external stakeholders. But what does diversity in the workplace mean? Who is defined as being different? And what do those defined as being different th...
Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of ethnic female entrepreneurship in urban economic life. The focus of the research is on the attitude and behaviour of Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. The main fascinating question is: Are ethnic female entrepreneurs special ethnic entrepreneurs or special female entrepreneurs? This paper provides an answer to this question on the basis of field surveys. The results of the case study research on Turkish female entrepreneurs in...
Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen
The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Brooks, Kristine M.
The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the
Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma
To conduct meaningful, epidemiologic research on racial–ethnic health disparities, racial–ethnic samples must be rendered equivalent on other social status and contextual variables via statistical controls of those extraneous factors. The racial–ethnic groups must also be equally familiar with and have similar responses to the methods and measures used to collect health data, must have equal opportunity to participate in the research, and must be equally representative of their respective populations. In the absence of such measurement equivalence, studies of racial–ethnic health disparities are confounded by a plethora of unmeasured, uncontrolled correlates of race–ethnicity. Those correlates render the samples, methods, and measures incomparable across racial–ethnic groups, and diminish the ability to attribute health differences discovered to race–ethnicity vs. to its correlates. This paper reviews the non-equivalent yet normative samples, methodologies and measures used in epidemiologic studies of racial–ethnic health disparities, and provides concrete suggestions for improving sample, method, and scalar measurement equivalence. PMID:25566524
Yancey, Antronette K.; Aneshensel, Carol S.; Driscoll, Anne K.
Investigated ethnic identity among urban adolescents using the revised Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Interviews with White, Asian American, Hispanic American, and African American youths indicated that Whites scored significantly lower than the other groups, whose scores were similar to one another. The similarity in measurement properties…
Taylor, J H; Xu, Y; Li, F; Shaw, M; Dziura, J; Caprio, S; Tamborlane, W V; Nowicka, P; Savoye, M
An important area of research in childhood obesity is the identification of factors that predict or moderate the responses to obesity intervention programmes, yet few studies have examined the impact of self-esteem and family functioning on obesity treatment outcomes. We sought to determine whether baseline self-esteem and family functioning predicted or moderated childhood obesity intervention outcomes at 6 months. From 2009 to 2011, seventy-five 10-16 year old, racially/ethnically diverse obese youths with abnormal glucose tolerance were randomized to 6 months of an intensive family-based obesity lifestyle intervention (Bright Bodies) or routine outpatient Clinic Care. We examined youth self-concept, parent-rated family functioning and 6-month outcomes (youths' glucose tolerance, weight, body mass index and percent fat). We set the significance threshold as P ≤ 0.05 for moderator and predictor analyzes. Having poor family functioning and self-concept scores indicating high anxiety and low self-esteem at baseline predicted poor 6-month outcomes overall (Bright Bodies and Clinic Care groups combined). Additionally, baseline self-esteem and family functioning moderated treatment effects such that Bright Bodies outperformed Clinic Care in youths with low self-esteem and poorly functioning families, whereas youths with high self-esteem and high-functioning families did similarly well with either intervention. Our findings suggest intensive family-based lifestyle programmes are particularly beneficial for youth with low self-esteem and poorly functioning families. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Conclusion: Frailty affected about one tenth of the respondents, but almost two thirds were pre-frail. In addition to gender, other modifiable factors including abdominal obesity and poor physical function were identified as risk factors for frailty and pre-frailty among Malaysian older adults.
June, Andrea; Segal, Daniel L; Klebe, Kelli; Watts, Linda K
The aim of the present study was to explore end-of-life health care attitudes among younger and older sexually diverse women. Self-identified lesbian and heterosexual older women as well as lesbian and heterosexual middle-aged women were recruited. Results indicated that lesbian women held significantly more positive beliefs about hospice services and the role of alternative medicines in health care. No differences among sexual orientation were found for comfort discussing pain management but heterosexual women reported a significantly greater desire for life-sustaining treatments in the event of an incurable disease and severe life-limiting conditions (eg, feeding tube, life support, no brain response). Additionally, as expected, older women in this study held more positive beliefs about hospice and more comfort discussing pain management than middle-aged women.
Schoonveld, K Cheri; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; LeRoy, Bonnie S
Increasingly, the genetic counseling profession is recognizing the need for greater ethnic and gender diversity. Recruitment and retention efforts may be enhanced by better understanding of the experience of individuals considered to be underrepresented in the profession. In this qualitative study, 8 genetic counseling students and 7 practicing genetic counselors who were ethnic minority and/or male participated in semi-structured telephone interviews regarding how they were introduced to the field, perceived career supports and barriers, their experiences within training programs and the field, and suggestions for increasing diversity. Introduction to the field tended to be late and accidental. There were several career supports (e.g., field combines science and helping others) and barriers (e.g., lack of information about the field). Participant experiences, although primarily positive, included instances of passive, unintentional discrimination; and there were internal and external pressures to be diversity experts and positive representatives of their group. Participants reported positively impacting colleagues' cultural competency and offering a different presence within clinical settings. Suggestions for increasing diversity and research recommendations are given.
Way, Niobe; Greene, Melissa L.; Mukherjee, Preetika Pandey
It is important to examine both the belief systems and the practices of parents in regard to adolescent friendships. Belief systems inform parental practices and also reveal the full extent of cultural variations that exist within and across ethnic communities.
Gupta, Vinod K.; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review f...
Bustillo, Natalie Escobio; McGinty, Heather L.; Dahn, Jason R.; Yanez, Betina; Antoni, Michael H.; Kava, Bruce; Penedo, Frank J.
Objective Few studies have examined the impact of cultural processes prevalent in minority ethnic groups such as cancer fatalism and medical mistrust on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following a cancer diagnosis. The present study examined relationships among ethnicity, HRQoL and two possible cultural vulnerability factors—fatalistic attitudes and medial mistrust, among an ethnically diverse sample of men with prostate cancer (PC) prior to undergoing active treatment. Methods A total of 268 men with localized PC (30% African American, 29% Hispanic & 41% non-Hispanic white) were assessed cross-sectionally prior to active treatment. Path analyses examined relationships among ethnicity, vulnerability factors, and HRQoL. Results Ethnicity was not related to HRQoL after controlling for relevant covariates. Hispanic men reported greater cancer fatalism compared to non-Hispanic white men (β= .15, p= .03), and both Hispanics (β= .19, pFatalism demonstrated a trend towards negatively impacting physical well-being (β= −.12, p= .06), but was not significantly related to emotional well-being (β= −.10, p= .11). Greater medical mistrust was associated with poorer physical (β= −.14, p= .03) and emotional well-being (β= −.13, p= .04). Conclusions Results indicate that fatalistic attitudes and medical system mistrust were more prevalent among minority men. Less trust in the medical system was associated with poorer physical and emotional well-being. Attention to perceptions of the health care system and its relation to HRQoL may have implications for targeting culturally-driven attitudes that may compromise adjustment to a PC diagnosis. PMID:26553139
Bustillo, Natalie Escobio; McGinty, Heather L; Dahn, Jason R; Yanez, Betina; Antoni, Michael H; Kava, Bruce R; Penedo, Frank J
Few studies have examined the impact of cultural processes prevalent in minority ethnic groups such as cancer fatalism and medical mistrust on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following a cancer diagnosis. The present study examined relationships among ethnicity, HRQoL, and two possible cultural vulnerability factors-fatalistic attitudes and medical mistrust-among an ethnically diverse sample of men with prostate cancer (PC) prior to undergoing active treatment. A total of 268 men with localized PC (30% African American, 29% Hispanic, and 41% non-Hispanic White) were assessed cross-sectionally prior to active treatment. Path analyses examined relationships among ethnicity, vulnerability factors, and HRQoL. Ethnicity was not related to HRQoL after controlling for relevant covariates. Hispanic men reported greater cancer fatalism compared with non-Hispanic White men (β = 0.15, p = 0.03), and both Hispanics (β = 0.19, p Fatalism demonstrated a trend toward negatively impacting physical well-being (β = -0.12, p = 0.06), but was not significantly related to emotional well-being (β = -0.10, p = 0.11). Greater medical mistrust was associated with poorer physical (β = -0.14, p = 0.03) and emotional well-being (β = -0.13, p = 0.04). Results indicate that fatalistic attitudes and medical system mistrust were more prevalent among minority men. Less trust in the medical system was associated with poorer physical and emotional well-being. Attention to perceptions of the healthcare system and its relation to HRQoL may have implications for targeting culturally driven attitudes that may compromise adjustment to a PC diagnosis.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Hever, Aviv; Harrison, Teresa N; Avelar, Taurino; Kanter, Michael H; Jacobsen, Steven J
The incidence and distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies vary throughout the world and by race and ethnicity. We sought to evaluate the distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies among a large racially and ethnically diverse population of the United States. Case series from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2011. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) of an integrated health system who underwent native kidney biopsy and had kidney biopsy findings demonstrating focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), minimal change disease (MCD), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and other. Rates and characteristics of the most common primary glomerulonephropathies overall and by race and ethnicity. 2,501 patients with primary glomerulonephropathy were identified, with a mean age 50.6 years, 45.7% women, 36.1% Hispanics, 31.2% non-Hispanic whites, 17.4% blacks, and 12.4% Asians. FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy (38.9%) across all race and ethnic groups, followed by MGN (12.7%), MCD (11.0%), IgAN (10.2%), and other (27.3%). The FSGS category had the greatest proportion of blacks, and patients with FSGS had the highest rate of poverty. IgAN was the second most common glomerulonephropathy among Asians (28.6%), whereas it was 1.2% among blacks. Patients with MGN presented with the highest proteinuria (protein excretion, 8.3g) whereas patients with FSGS had the highest creatinine levels (2.6mg/dL). Overall glomerulonephropathy rates increased annually in our 12-year observation period, driven by FSGS (2.7 cases/100,000) and IgAN (0.7 cases/100,000). MGN and MCD rates remained flat. Missing data for urine albumin and sediment, indication bias in performing kidney biopsies, and inexact classification of primary versus secondary disease. Among a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from a single geographical area and similar environment, FSGS was the most common glomerulonephropathy, but there was variability of other
Okely, Anthony D; Hardy, Louise L; Batterham, Marijka; Pearson, Phillip; McKeen, Kim; Puglisi, Lauren
This study reports the long-term effects of a professional learning program for classroom teachers on fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency of primary school students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. A cluster non-randomized trial using a nested cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in 8 primary schools located in disadvantaged and culturally diverse areas in Sydney, Australia. The intervention used an action learning framework, with each school developing and implementing an action plan for enhancing the teaching of FMS in their school. School teams comprised 4-5 teachers and were supported by a member of the research team. The primary outcome was total proficiency score for 7 FMS (run, jump, catch, throw, kick, leap, side gallop). Outcome data were analyzed using mixed effects models. Eight-hundred and sixty-two students (82% response rate) were assessed at baseline in 2006 and 830 (82%) at follow-up in 2010. Compared with students in the control schools, there was a significantly greater increase in total motor skill proficiency among children in the intervention schools at follow-up (adjusted difference=5.2 components, 95%CI [1.65, 8.75]; p=0.01) and in four of the seven motor skills. Training classroom teachers to develop and implement units of work based around individual FMS is a promising strategy for increasing FMS among ethnically diverse children over an extended period of time. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M
Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black
Patsiurkoa, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.
This paper examines the proposition that the economic performance of advanced capitalist countries depends on their size and ethnic composition. As such it blends insights from two important literatures in comparative political economy. One is exemplified by the work of Peter Katzenstein, who wrote...... the classic treatise on the relationship between nation-state size and economic performance. Another is illustrated by the work of Ernest Gellner, whose work suggested that economic performance depends on the ethnic composition of the nation-state. The argument is tested on pooled data from 30 advanced...
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191
Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine
This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie
There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…
Peck, Carla Lee; Sears, Alan; Donaldson, Shanell
In recent years, Canadian schools have developed new policies and practices in their approaches to both diversity policy and curriculum development. Public schools once intended to homogenize a diverse population have been transformed to institutions designed to foster tolerance and respect for diversity. Curricula previously organized around…
Carter, E. Vincent
This study examines an original dramaturgical method for creating virtual world experience called virtual world drama. The instructional focus is improving students' aptitude for analyzing ethnic identity by instilling both conceptual and multicultural competency. An exploratory research method is used, relying on observation (disguised and…
Munoz-Dunbar, Rocio; Stanton, Annette L.
Examines graduate recruitment and admissions processes for ethnic minority students in clinical psychology by surveying graduate admissions directors. Reports that 98% of programs reported efforts to recruit minority applicants with 82% using flexible criteria when evaluating applicants; directors identified community characteristics, financial…
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth
Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…
Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John
Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…
Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.
In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…
Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.
The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526
Becker, Anne E; Hadley Arrindell, Adrienne; Perloe, Alexandra; Fay, Kristen; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H
The study aim was to identify and describe health consumer perspectives on social barriers to care for eating disorders in an ethnically diverse sample. We conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of qualitative data comprising transcripts from semi-structured interviews with past and prospective consumers of eating disorder treatment (n = 32). Transcripts were inputted into NVivo 8 for coding, sorting, and quantifying thematic content of interest within strata defined by ethnic minority and non-minority participants. We then examined the influence of key social barriers-including stigma and social stereotypes-on perceived impact on care. The majority of respondents (78%) endorsed at least one social barrier to care for an eating or weight concern. Perceived stigma (or shame) and social stereotyping-identified both within social networks and among clinicians-had adversely impacted care for 59% and 19% of respondents, respectively. Social barriers to care for eating and weight related concerns may be prevalent in the U.S. and impact both ethnic minority and non-minority health care consumers. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K; Seldin, Michael F
The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4,000 subjects genotyped for 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian, and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be controlled effectively in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity of performing additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets.
Cachelin, Fary M; Thompson, Doug
To investigate the relationship between maternal child-feeding practices and child adiposity in an ethnically diverse sample by examining three categories of relationships: 1) mothers' weight status; 2) mothers' investment in eating-related issues; and 3) mothers' concerns about child's weight. It was predicted that these variables would be related to mothers' use of restriction, monitoring, and pressure in child feeding, influencing child adiposity. A total of 563 mothers (306 Hispanic, 76 Asian, 36 Black, and 145 White) with children aged 2-11 years completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test. Analyses used structural equation modeling. Ethnic differences in the resulting models emerged. Mothers' weight status negatively predicted maternal control over child's eating; heavier mothers reported less control over child's eating. Greater concern about child's weight was associated with more maternal control of child's eating for all groups. Maternal control over child's eating was predictive of child's body mass index only in the White group. Although maternal investment in eating-related issues did predict maternal control over child's eating for White mothers, this relationship did not exist for Hispanics. Different maternal factors influence mothers' control over their child's eating in Hispanic and White groups. In ethnic minorities, maternal control over child's eating may not influence child adiposity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Sato, Amy F.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Esteban, Cynthia; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Klein, Robert; Fritz, Gregory K.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne
While the pediatric psychology literature underscores the importance of illness related aspects of the home environment for optimal family asthma management, little is known about the contribution of more global aspects of the home environment (e.g., family routines/schedule, quality of stimulation provided to child) to asthma management in ethnic minority and urban families. The goals of this study were to: 1) explore ethnic/racial group differences in global and specific dimensions of home environment quality among Latino, non-Latino white (NLW), and African American urban children with asthma; and 2) examine associations between the quality and quantity of support and stimulation within the home environment, as measured by the HOME Inventory, and family asthma management in this sample. Urban, low-income children (N=131) between the ages of 6 and 13 with asthma and a primary caregiver participated in a multi-modal assessment including an in home observation and semi structured interviews to assess aspects of home environment quality and family asthma management practices. While controlling for poverty, no ethnic group differences were found in the global home environment; however, there were significant differences in specific dimensions (e.g. Family Participation in Developmentally Stimulating Experiences, and Aspects of the Physical Environment) of home environment quality. Across the whole sample, home environment quality predicted family asthma management. When examining this association for specific ethnic groups, this finding did not hold for the Latino subsample. The results highlight the need to consider ethnic group differences in non-illness specific aspects of the home environment when addressing families’ asthma management strategies. PMID:23795627
Blazer, Dan G; Moody-Ayers, Sandra; Craft-Morgan, Jennifer; Burchett, Bruce
This study focuses on the comorbidity between depression and diabetes, as well as depression and obesity, in a biracial community sample of older adults. The data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey of five counties in North Carolina, USA, part of a longitudinal study of morbidity and mortality among elders in the urban and rural south. During the first wave of the survey, 4162 persons 65+ years of age participated in an interview at their homes. During this interview, data were collected to assess demographics, functional status, cognitive status, depression and self-report of diabetes. In addition, subjects were asked to estimate their height and weight for the interviewers, from which data body mass index (BMI) was estimated. In both uncontrolled and controlled analyses, female gender, lower education, functional impairment and cognitive impairment were associated with comorbid depression/diabetes and depression/high BMI. Age was not associated with comorbid depression/diabetes but younger age was associated with depression/cognitive impairment. African American race was strongly associated with depression/diabetes but not with depression/high BMI. More studies of comorbidity in the general population should be implemented to determine the relationship between these comorbid conditions and risk factors. Longitudinal studies are especially needed.
Viviane Inês Weschenfelder
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present how the ethnical racial diversity discourse is structured in Venâncio Aires county, RS and in what way it contributes to the formation of the black citizen of Venancio Aires. The analisys of Folha do Mate NewsPaper, the main printed media of the current county, allowed to recognize an ocurred discursive shift, especially, from 1988. As characteristic of Contemporary, the diversity discourse tries to evidence how different cultures live peacefully in the same space, when work around any indication of conflict that may ocurr by the difference, it contributes to the black person formation. From the orientations of the post-structuralist perspectives and from the analitical tools of Michel Foucault, the analises of the discourse intends to enable an important debate in the education field, specially in relation to the forms of governments of the individuals.
Full Text Available We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors.Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10-19, 1-9, and 0.Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2. The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation, marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health, and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11. Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste, significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08.Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.
Aw, Su; Koh, Gerald; Oh, Yeon Ju; Wong, Mee Lian; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Harding, Susana Concordo; Geronimo, Mary Ann B; Lai, Cecilia Yoon Fong; Hildon, Zoe J L
This study aims to identify and explain the continuum in which older people in Singapore participate in community and social life, highlighting the influence of culture and policy context on social participation. Using an ethnographic approach in a neighbourhood (n=109), we conducted focus groups with older adults of different ethnicities, exploring experiences of social participation. Next, participants took 50 photographs relating to 'lives of elders', showcasing the socio-ecological context that influenced social participation. Lastly, go-along interviews were conducted in various precincts with community leaders. A continuum of social participation emerged among older adults, ranging from (1) marginalization and exclusion, to (2) 'comfort-zoning' alone (3) seeking consistent social interactions, (4) expansion of social network, and (5) giving back to society. Seeking consistent social interactions was shaped by a preference for cultural grouping and ethnic values, but also a desire for emotional safety. Attitudes about expanding one's social network depended on the psychosocial adjustment of the older person to the prospect of gossip and 'trouble' of managing social relations. Despite the societal desirability of an active ageing lifestyle, cultural scripts emphasizing family meant older adults organized participation in social and community life, around family responsibilities. Institutionalizing family reliance in Singapore's welfare approach penalized lower-income older adults with little family support from accessing subsidies, and left some living on the margins. To promote inclusiveness, ageing programs should address preferences for social participation, overcoming barriers at the individual, ethnic culture and policy level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michos, Erin D; Rice, Kenneth M; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P; Barr, R Graham; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Greenland, Philip; Jacobs, David R; Post, Wendy
Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and reduced ankle brachial indices (ABI) are markers of subclinical vascular disease strongly associated with aging. The authors identified factors associated with low levels of subclinical vascular disease in 1824 participants 70 years and older in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. A total of 452 had low CAC (0.9), and 165 had a combination index indicating favorable values for all 3 parameters. This combination index was independently associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR] 2.5 per 1 SD [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-3.6]), female sex (OR 3.0 [95% CI, 1.9-4.8]), lower body mass index (OR 1.6 per 1 SD [95% CI, 1.2-2.0]), absence of hypertension (OR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]), absence of dyslipidemia (OR 1.6 [95% CI, 1.04-2.4]), and never-smoking (OR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]). No significant associations were observed for C-reactive protein, education, diet, or physical activity. Favorable levels of multiple traditional risk factors, but not several novel risk factors, were associated with subclinical markers of successful cardiovascular aging. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kevin M Waters
Full Text Available It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4 and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12 except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het = 3.8×10(-4. We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.
Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C
We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.
Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason
Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 107 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 107 to 124 or 149 × 107 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 107 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.
Tuomainen, Helena; Cross-Bardell, Laura; Bhoday, Mandeep; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe
Objective There is a growing interest in developing and offering more systematic preconception healthcare. However, it is unclear how this might be regarded by ethnically diverse communities at higher risk of poor maternal and child health outcomes. We sought to explore perceptions about preconception health and care among women from these communities to identify opportunities and challenges for intervention development in primary care. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and semistructured interviews. Setting Ethnically diverse and socially disadvantaged community settings of the UK. Participants 41 women aged 18–45 years, of Pakistani, Indian, Caribbean, African, White and mixed ethnic origin, participating in nine focus groups, half of whom (n=19) had one-to-one follow-up telephone interviews. Results Women had modest or poor awareness of preconception health issues. They perceived these could be addressed in primary care, particularly if raised within a range of clinically ‘relevant’ consultations, such as for contraception, or when opportune for individuals in their social context. However, challenges for engaging women in preconception care more routinely were underlined. These included little prevailing culture of preparing for pregnancy and the realities of their pregnancies often being unplanned; and, for those planning pregnancy, sensitivity and maintaining secrecy when trying to conceive. A preference for female professionals, engaging men, and enhancing access for younger people or women less disposed to general practice, in educational and other settings were highlighted. Conclusions Raising preconception health when this has heightened clinical or social resonance for women may hold promise for initiating more systematic intervention. In primary care this could offer greater potential to directly engage those with low awareness or not considering pregnancy, while enlarging opportunity for others who may be seeking to conceive
Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. (Hebrew Univ. Hadassah-Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)) (and others)
The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Mexican immigrants comprise 28 percent of foreign-born peoples , followed by Asians at 26 percent. Additional immigrants originate from the Caribbean (10...or volunteers charged with providing life-safety services to the whole community, regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender identity . The...inclusivity promoted by the president of the United States, which supports the values of the American people , is a core guiding principle in the
van der Meer, T.
The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and
Zanoni, P.; Thoelen, Annelies; Ybema, S.B.
Much literature on the cultural industries celebrates ethnicity as a source of creativity. Despite its positive connotation, this discourse reduces ethnic minority creatives to manifestations of a collective ethnic identity automatically leading to creativity, creating a paradox of creativity
Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily
Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…
Chimienti, M.; van Liempt, I.
This article discusses how local diversity is being experienced by Somali immigrants who have previously lived in the Netherlands and are now residing in London. It explores the various challenges and potential advantages of living in homogenous urban areas within a super-diverse city and focuses on
Diversity Matters: New Directions for Institutional Research on Undergraduate Racial/Ethnic and Economic Diversity. SERU Project and Consortium Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.11
This paper reviews the new directions in institutional research on undergraduate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity at the University of California, Berkeley. The use of SERU/UCUES and other web-based census surveys has made possible more detailed and extensive analysis of student diversity. Included is research on an expanded number of…
Sajja, Krishna C; Mohan, Desh P; Rockey, Don C
Cirrhosis is diagnosed in patients of all ages and is the end result of many different diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize clinical and ethnic features of adult patients who were admitted to the hospital at different (young/old) ages and examine associations between age and ethnicity within these groups. In this retrospective analysis of a diverse cohort of 2017 patients with a clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis between January 2001 and December 2011, we focused on age, ethnicity, and outcome of patients with cirrhosis. We identified 219 patients younger than the age of 40 years, including 87 (11%) of 802 white, 31 (6%) of 550 African American, and 89 (16%) of 550 Hispanic patients (P Ethnicity and causes of cirrhosis were found to have a significant correlation with age. Overall, Hispanic and white patients together were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with cirrhosis at an age younger than 40 years compared with African American patients (P age regardless of ethnicity (P age (P = 0.008). African American patients with cirrhosis due to either alcohol or hepatitis C virus were older than Hispanic (P ethnicity and age of cirrhosis diagnosis, both overall and in patients with certain cirrhosis etiologies. This work raises the possibility of an ethnic and/or genetic basis for cirrhosis.
Full Text Available Non-Hispanic (nH Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors.We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the "Breast Cancer Care in Chicago" study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities.As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54-0.92 among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56-0.95 among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02 and higher grade (p = 0.012 in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03 in nH Blacks.Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial/ethnic groups.
Al-Alem, Umaima; Rauscher, Garth; Shah, Ebony; Batai, Ken; Mahmoud, Abeer; Beisner, Erin; Silva, Abigail; Peterson, Caryn; Kittles, Rick
Non-Hispanic (nH) Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors. We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the "Breast Cancer Care in Chicago" study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities. As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54-0.92) among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56-0.95) among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02) and higher grade (p = 0.012) in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03) in nH Blacks. Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial/ethnic groups.
Dafna, Merom; Carmen, Cosgrove; Kamalesh, Venugopal; Adrian, Bauman
Public health recommendations for older adults highlight the need to engage in a combination of aerobic, muscle strength, flexibility and balance activities. This study characterised leisure time physical activity in older Australians (≥ 65 years), examining the diversity in reported activities Cross-sectional monitoring. The Exercise Recreation and Sport Surveys (2001-2009) were combined and analysed for 22,050 elderly. Walking was reported by 45.6%, of those 53% engaged exclusively in walking. Prevalent sports (i.e., >1%) were bowls (9.4%), aerobics/callisthenics exercise (9.1%), golf (7.7%), swimming (6.4%), gym work (5.2%), cycling (3.2%), tennis (2.9%), dancing (2.1%), fishing (2.0%), tai chi (1.4%), weight lifting (1.2%) and yoga (1.1%). Significant gender differences were apparent. Over time, significant increases were reported in walking, aerobic/callisthenics and gym workout in both genders. In the previous year, 32.0% of older adults participated in "nil" activity, 40.6% engaged in one activity, 19.5% and 8.0% participated in two or three or more activities, respectively. Common combinations were walking with another aerobic activity. Only 2.6% reported a combination of aerobic, balance and strength activities. Multiple-activity participation increased over the years, but declined with increasing age, education and for the most disadvantaged, compared to single-activity participation. Partially or exclusively organised participation, combined, was reported by 42.5% of older adults. Women were more likely to combine mode of participation. Geographic region was associated with multiple-activity participation and organised-only participation. Most elderly people engage in one activity, if at all. An increase in participation in balance enhancing activities and weight training is warranted to maximize health benefits. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.
Spadola, Christine E; Wagner, Eric F; Varga, Leah M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; De La Cruz Munoz, Nestor F; Messiah, Sarah E
Mounting evidence suggests that bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery (WLS), patients might be vulnerable to developing post-operative alcohol use problems. While the majority of published research offers information concerning the prevalence of problematic alcohol use post-WLS, the literature lacks comprehensive, qualitative explorations examining why alcohol misuse might emerge after WLS. Such data-driven hypotheses are needed to effectively target this emerging concern. Additionally, young adults and racial/ethnic minorities are both increasingly undergoing WLS and are at heightened risk for problems related to alcohol use. To date, these groups have been under-represented in study samples. To address these important gaps in the literature, racially/ethnically diverse, young adult WLS patients who indicated a post-WLS increase in alcohol use (n = 12) participated in an individual, semi-structured qualitative interview. Data were analyzed through two coding cycles; an external audit of the emerging themes was also conducted to further ensure the trustworthiness of the data. Interviews revealed four major themes prompting an increase in alcohol use after WLS: (1) increased sensitivity to alcohol intoxication, (2) utilizing alcohol as a replacement self-soothing mechanism for food, (3) increase in socialization, and (4) utilizing alcohol as a coping mechanism. By understanding the drivers of increases in alcohol use after WLS, precision-targeted pre- and post-surgical counseling interventions can be developed to address this emerging concern.
Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level. A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported. The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.
Iwamoto, Derek K; Creswell, John; Caldwell, Leon
Despite its national and international appeal, rap is considered one of the most controversial of music genres. Given the political charge it generates, rap music has spawned research across the social and health sciences. The majority of the research has investigated its impact on African Americans. Further, the research has tended to focus on negative aspects of the music; there has been a dearth of in-depth qualitative studies that explore how rap impacts the listener. Our phenomenological study explores that impact on ethnically diverse college students. Results indicate a profound psychological and educational effect and the discussion goes on to highlight the potential and innovative ways rap music can be utilized with adolescents in fields such as education, risk reduction programs, and counseling psychology.
Geller, Karly S; Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. METHOD: Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. RESULTS: Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points.
Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith
This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.
Le Thi Thanh Xuan
Full Text Available Background: Handwashing with soap (HWWS is a simple and effective measure to prevent transmission of fecal–oral disease and other infectious diseases in school-age children. To promote the behavior, we need to understand their HWWS compliance. The aim of this article is to describe handwashing behavior and HWWS compliance and to identify associated factors among schoolchildren in the multiethnic rural area of northern Vietnam. Methods: The study was conducted in six primary and secondary schools and in the homes of four ethnic villages in northern Vietnam. Quantitative methods included face-to-face interviews with, and demonstration of handwashing protocol to, 319 schoolchildren in first, fourth, and seventh grades. Qualitative methods included structured observations at six schools and 20 homes comprising 24 children. The dependent variable was the self-reported HWWS behavior (yes/no. The independent variables included grade, school type, gender, ethnicity group, owning home latrine, and household assets. Logistic regression modelling was performed to examine associations between HWWS behavior and demographic factors. Results: Among the 319 schoolchildren interviewed, 66% reported HWWS. Through the demonstration protocol, only 10 out of 319 schoolchildren, performed HWWS satisfactorily. The percentage of students who washed their hands at recommended times (30–60 sec was 58%. This proportion increased by grade (from 34% among grade 1 to 67% among grade 7; p<0.05. Correlates of self-reported HWWS were more common in higher grades [grade 4 vs. grade 1: odds ratio (OR=4.14 (2.00–8.56, grade 7 vs. grade 1: OR=7.76 (3.67–16.4] and less common in ethnic minority groups [Xa Phó vs. Kinh-Tay: OR=0.28 (0.11–0.70]. All 20 homes of schoolchildren visited had soap and water but none of the six schools had soap for handwashing. Conclusions: This article describes poor compliance of schoolchildren with HWWS in a multiethnic population in Vietnam
Taylor, Bruce V; Pearson, John F; Clarke, Glynnis
Background: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not uniform, with a latitudinal gradient of prevalence present in most studies. Understanding the drivers of this gradient may allow a better understanding of the environmental factors involved in MS pathogenesis. Method: The New Zealand...... national MS prevalence study (NZMSPS) is a cross-sectional study of people with definite MS (DMS) (McDonald criteria 2005) resident in New Zealand on census night, 7 March 2006, utilizing multiple sources of notification. Capture?recapture analysis (CRA) was used to estimate missing cases. Results: Of 2917...... the presence of a robust latitudinal gradient of MS prevalence in New Zealand. This gradient is largely driven by European females with the RRMS/SPMS phenotype. These results indicate that the environmental factors that underlie the latitudinal gradient act differentially by gender, ethnicity and MS phenotype...
Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H
Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).
Closson, Rosemary B.; Henry, Wilma J.
In this article the authors wonder--why has the academic community not stepped through the looking glass to see what diversity looks like and what might be learned when Whites are in the minority? They believe there is much to be learned from exploring the experience of White college students and their perceptions of race and racism when they…
Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Wilder, Lynn K.; Triscari, Robert
The authors have completed a pilot study of the state of diverse faculty in higher education in the United States. Inquiries included the areas of belonging (if and how they developed a sense of belonging), professional respect (how colleagues regarded their achievements), and the role of cultural broker (how they functioned as cultural brokers in…
Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane
This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joanne McVeigh, Rebecca Meiring
Full Text Available Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03, while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05 whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001, White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001. The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05, and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0.05. Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%, and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%. Regardless of ethnicity, children who
Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín
Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.
Nairn, Stuart; Hardy, Carolyn; Harling, Martyn; Parumal, Logan; Narayanasamy, Melanie
This paper is a report on a qualitative study which considered the issue of how lecturers feel about teaching and managing the topic of culture and racism within their role as nurse educators. The issue of cultural diversity and the related issue of racism within nursing and society more generally means that the problem cannot be ignored since one of the central tenets of nursing is that care should be delivered in non-discriminatory ways. We interviewed a group of lecturers within a UK university to explore their views on the topic. We produced six themes: Culture; the existence of racism within nursing; challenging racism; political correctness; strategies adopted to address issues in the classroom and the presence of cultural diversity within the curriculum. We identified that the lecturers in our study were keen to address the issue but were also very concerned about their own abilities and confidence in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jennifer D. Allen
Full Text Available Objective: To describe parents' knowledge, attitudes, and decision-making with regard to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their daughters. Methods: White, Black, and Hispanic parents of daughters who were age eligible to receive the HPV vaccine (9–17 years were recruited from community settings to participate in focus groups. Parents were asked about knowledge and awareness of HPV, decision-making about HPV vaccine, as well as preferred and actual sources of HPV information. Results: Seven focus groups (=64 participants were conducted. Groups were segmented by gender (women=72% and race/ethnicity (Black=59%; White=23%; Hispanic=19%. Prevalent themes included: insufficient information to make informed decisions; varied preferences for involvement in decision-making; concerns about vaccine safety; mistrust of medical providers and pharmaceutical companies; and mismatch between actual and preferred sources of information. Discussion: Improving communication between providers and caregivers and helping parents to access information necessary for informed decision-making, while alleviating concerns about vaccine safety, may help to improve vaccine acceptance.
Njoku, Mary Gloria C; Jason, Leonard A; Torres-Harding, Susan R
The present study focused on coping strategies among African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF). The coping strategies examined were measured by using the COPE Scales, which assess Seeking Emotional Social Support, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Acceptance, Denial, Turning to Religion, Behavioral Disengagement, and Focusing on and Venting Emotions. In addition, the four coping strategies specifically designed for people with CFS, including maintaining activity, accommodating to the illness, focusing on symptoms, and information-seeking, were used in this study. It was hypothesized that African Americans and Latinos in comparison to European Americans would be more likely to use religious coping, behavioral disengagement, and denial. As predicted, African Americans were significantly more likely to turn to religion than European Americans, and Latinos and African Americans used denial significantly more often than European Americans. An additional finding was that focusing on symptoms was associated with greater fatigue and more physical disability among African Americans. Within the Latino sample, acceptance was related to greater fatigue and less physical disability, and greater optimism predicted less mental disability. Among European American participants, maintaining activity was related to less mental disability, whereas accommodating to the illness predicted more physical disability. These results indicate that coping varies among various ethnic groups with CFS and ICF; however, denial is consistently related to less adaptive outcomes. Therefore, healthcare professionals should find ways to reduce patient use of denial and promote alternative strategies for managing life events.
Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.
Tomov, Martin L; Olmsted, Zachary T; Dogan, Haluk; Gongorurler, Eda; Tsompana, Maria; Otu, Hasan H; Buck, Michael; Chang, Eun-Ah; Cibelli, Jose; Paluh, Janet L
The realization of personalized medicine through human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology can be advanced by transcriptomics, epigenomics, and bioinformatics that inform on genetic pathways directing tissue development and function. When possible, population diversity should be included in new studies as resources become available. Previously we derived replicate iPSC lines of African American, Hispanic-Latino and Asian self-designated ethnically diverse (ED) origins with normal karyotype, verified teratoma formation, pluripotency biomarkers, and tri-lineage in vitro commitment. Here we perform bioinformatics of RNA-Seq and ChIP-seq pluripotency data sets for two replicate Asian and Hispanic-Latino ED-iPSC lines that reveal differences in generation of contractile cardiomyocytes but similar and robust differentiation to multiple neural, pancreatic, and smooth muscle cell types. We identify shared and distinct genes and contributing pathways in the replicate ED-iPSC lines to enhance our ability to understand how reprogramming to iPSC impacts genes and pathways contributing to cardiomyocyte contractility potential.
Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel
This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of
Henze, Rosemary C.
"People would like to see our race problem disappear. And the way they think it's going to disappear is by not talking about it. But the real way you make it disappear is by talking about it, learning about it, and understanding it, and then you'll see a change, not just by ignoring it." – a 12th grade student The Leading for Diversity research project emerged from a Principals' Forum developed by ARC Associates in 1995. Participating principals expressed a need for successful strate...
Iqbal, Humera; Neal, Sarah; Vincent, Carol
This article explores how children make, manage, or avoid friendships in super-diverse primary school settings. We draw on interviews and pictorial data from 78 children, aged 8–9 years across three local London primary schools to identify particular friendship groupings and the extent to which they followed existing patterns of social division. Children in the study did recognise social and cultural differences, but their friendship perceptions, affections, conflicts and practices meant that the way in which difference impacted relationships was partial and unstable. Friendship practices in the routine settings of school involved interactions across difference, but also entrenchments around similarity. PMID:28232774
Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Kim, Giyeon
This is the first study of the measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Anxiety short forms in a large ethnically diverse sample. The psychometric properties and differential item functioning (DIF) were examined across different racial/ethnic, educational, age, gender and language groups. Methods These data are from individuals selected from cancer registries in the United States. For the analyses of race/ethnicity the reference group was non-Hispanic Whites (n = 2,263), the studied groups were non-Hispanic Blacks (n = 1,117), Hispanics (n = 1,043) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (n = 907). Within the Hispanic subsample, there were 335 interviews conducted in Spanish and 703 in English. The 11 anxiety items were from the PROMIS emotional disturbance item bank. DIF hypotheses were generated by content experts who rated whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to several comparison groups. The primary method used for DIF detection was the Wald test for examination of group differences in item response theory (IRT) item parameters accompanied by magnitude measures. Expected item scores were examined as measures of magnitude. The method used for quantification of the difference in the average expected item scores was the non-compensatory DIF (NCDIF) index. DIF impact was examined using expected scale score functions. Additionally, precision and reliabilities were examined using several methods. Results Although not hypothesized to show DIF for Asians/Pacific Islanders, every item evidenced DIF by at least one method. Two items showed DIF of higher magnitude for Asians/Pacific Islanders vs. Whites: “Many situations made me worry” and “I felt anxious”. However, the magnitude of DIF was small and the NCDIF statistics were not above threshold. The impact of DIF was negligible. For education, six items were identified with consistent DIF across methods: fearful
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido
Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vicuña, Belinda; Delaney, Harold D; Flores, Kristina G; Ballinger, Lori; Royce, Melanie; Dayao, Zoneddy; Pal, Tuya; Kinney, Anita Y
Until recently, genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer has primarily focused on pathogenic variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes. However, advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made simultaneous testing for multiple genes possible. We examined correlates of interest in multigene panel testing and risk communication preferences in an ethnically diverse sample of women who tested negative for BRCA mutations previously but remain at high risk based on their family history (referred to as "BRCA-uninformative") and their at-risk female family members. Two-hundred and thirteen women with a previous breast cancer diagnosis and a BRCA-uninformative test result and their first-degree relatives completed a survey on interest in multigene panel testing, communication preferences, and sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical factors. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with testing interest. Chi-square analyses were used to test differences in risk communication preferences. Interest in multigene panel testing was high (84%) and did not considerably differ by cancer status or ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with interest in genetic testing were having had a mammogram in the past 2 years (odds ratio (OR) = 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80-9.02) and high cancer worry (OR = 3.77, 95% CI 1.34-10.60). Overall, the most commonly preferred genetic communication modes were genetic counselors, oncologists, and print materials. However, non-Hispanic women were more likely than Hispanic women to prefer web-based risk communication (p testing. Cancer-related emotions and communication preferences should be considered in developing targeted genetic risk communication strategies.
Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H
Smoking and poor nutrition are 2 leading preventable causes of death. This study investigated associations between smoking and indicators of individual- and neighborhood-level food distress among racially and ethnically diverse urban adults. We analyzed data from a health interview survey and a food environment assessment collected in 2013 and 2014 in Schenectady, New York. We constructed logistic regression models for current smoking with 6 indicators of food distress as exposure variables and sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, alcohol binge drinking, and disability as covariates. The analytic sample consisted of 1,917 adults; 59.4% were female, more than half were racial/ethnic minorities (26.2% non-Hispanic black, 10.3% Hispanic, 10.9% Guyanese, 4.0% multiracial and other), and 37.1% were current smokers. All indicators of food distress remained in the parsimonious final model: consuming 0 or 1 serving of fruits and vegetables daily more than doubled the odds of smoking, compared with consuming 5 or more servings (odds ratio [OR], 2.05). Food insecurity (OR, 1.77), receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits (OR, 1.79), using a food pantry (OR, 1.41), living in a neighborhood with low access to healthy food (OR, 1.40), and shopping for food often at a store with limited healthy food choices (OR, 1.38) were also associated with significantly higher odds of smoking. Recognizing that smoking and food distress are independently associated would lead to innovative public health intervention strategies. We suggest stronger collaboration between tobacco and nutrition public health professionals to synergistically reduce tobacco use and improve nutrition behavior and food environments in communities.
This study explores the pace of severe disability onset with an emphasis on the role of race/ethnicity and education. More specifically, this research examines whether race/ethnicity and educational attainment are independent predictors of progressive and accelerated disability onset. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Waves 2 to 10 (1994-2010), a series of discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models with multiple competing events were created to ascertain whether respondents developed progressive or accelerated disability in subsequent waves. Black and Hispanic respondents were at an increased risk of developing progressive disability. Respondents without a high school degree were more likely to experience progressive or accelerated disability. Low educational attainment was a particularly strong predictor of accelerated disability onset and may represent an acute lack of resources over the life course. Race and ethnicity were important predictors of progressive disability onset, which may reflect racial/ethnic variations in the disabling process.
Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.
Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Mabachi, Natabhona; Lee, Jaehoon; Pacheco, Christina; Greiner, K Allen; Geana, Mugur
The popularity and usage of social media networks or SNS (social networking sites) among American Internet users age 50 and over doubled between 2009 and 2010 and has steadily climbed. Part of this increased access may be the result of older adults who are living with a chronic disease and are reaching out for online support. Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is among those concerns, particularly among middle-age and older minority populations where disparities exist. This exploratory study investigates information seeking behavior related to cancer factors (e.g. testing for colon cancer, cancer fatalism) and current social media usage among racial and ethnic minority groups (African American and Latinos) and Whites age 50 and older. The secondary data from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was analyzed to compare these populations. Results show that African Americans and Latinos were only slightly more likely to use social network sites to seek out cancer information compared to Whites. However, Whites were more likely to use the Internet to seek health information compared to African Americans and Latinos. In this sample, Whites were also more likely to be informed by a physician about CRC testing (p social media networks, Internet sites) have increased among older Americans and can serve as critical channels for cancer information and education.
The US racial profile is changing rapidly, yet the nursing and midwifery professions are not evolving accordingly. The lack of racial and ethnic diversity within these health professions negatively affects efforts to eliminate persistent health disparities. To address this issue, the Midwives of Color Committee (MOCC) of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a national online mentoring program in 2011 to support midwifery students of color. An evaluation of the program is reported here. This was a descriptive study conducted via online surveys mailed to 44 mentors and 42 mentees who participated in the program during 2012. Categorical survey responses were compared between groups, and open-ended responses were evaluated for common themes. Response rates differed across groups. Half of the mentors responded (50%), while only 38.1% of the mentees responded. The majority of mentors and mentees rated the program as either excellent or good and felt the program should continue. Both mentors and mentees shared similar positive ratings about the effectiveness of the application, speed with which matching occurred, and satisfaction with mentee-mentor match; they also share less favorable ratings regarding frequency of communication, impact of geographic proximity, and academic support need and response. Both groups desired to live closer to one another and communicate more. This study suggests that the online mentoring program for student midwives of color currently being offered should continue but with enhancements to improve the face-to-face mentoring experience, including the use of computer-based technology. Other program improvements are also recommended. To be truly effective, mentoring programs must meet the needs of mentors and mentees; future evaluations should clarify their potential as an important tool for increasing diversity. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Saunders, Jessica F; Frazier, Leslie D; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin A
Disordered eating patterns, particularly binge eating, are prevalent in Hispanic samples, yet the biopsychosocial risk factors remain understudied in minority populations. The relationship between diet self-efficacy and bulimic symptoms has been established in non-Hispanic white samples but not yet in Hispanics. This study sought to identify the direct role of diet self-efficacy on eating disorder risk and symptomology in a multicultural Hispanic sample, and to investigate the potential indirect relations among diet self-efficacy, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and eating disorder risk and symptomology in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. The present study surveyed 1339 college students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Participants completed four standardized scales to assess acculturation, diet self-efficacy, global self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomology and risk. Self-reported height and weight were used for BMI calculations, and the data were analyzed in a robust maximum-likelihood structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. The findings highlighted diet self-efficacy as a predictor of eating disorder risk and symptomology. Diet self-efficacy partially explained the covariation between self-esteem and eating disorder risk and symptomology, and between BMI and eating disorder risk and symptomology for the entire sample. Diet self-efficacy emerged as an important construct to consider in developing eating disorder prevention and treatment models.
Lawrence, Jean M; Liu, In-Lu A; Towner, William J
To describe the trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing during pregnancy from 1997 through 2006, and the demographic, clinical, and health system correlates of being tested in a diverse insured population. Health plan members who had one or more births at > or = 20 weeks gestation from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2006 in Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals were included in this retrospective analysis. Data were obtained from the infants' birth certificate, and administrative and laboratory databases. Multiple log binomial regression analyses were used to generate adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each characteristic. Of the 240,575 women with 302,246 pregnancies, the proportion tested for HIV during pregnancy increased from 77.6% in 1997 to 91.0% in 2006 (P (trend) /=30, having more than a high school education, and residing in census blocks with the highest income tertile. Additionally, women were less likely to be tested after their first birth, if enrolling in prenatal care in the third trimester, or if they had a gap in insurance during their pregnancy. Of the 53,566 women with two sequential pregnancies, 78.5% were tested during both pregnancies. In an insured racially/ethnically patient population, the testing rate exceeded 90% in 2006. Achieving and sustaining these high testing levels has public health implications.
Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle; Mani, Hamidreza; Patel, Naina; Levy, Miles; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women's experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group. Women with PCOS were recruited from an ethnically diverse UK community. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was underpinned by the constant comparative approach and involved the identification and exploration of key themes. Participants reported a range of symptoms linked with PCOS, including problems relating to menstruation and weight difficulties. Hirsutism was reported as the most distressing symptom. Emergent themes included perceptions about symptoms and delays in receiving a diagnosis; psychological distress; practical implications of living with the condition; coping with PCOS and perceived support needs. Some findings were specific to cultural backgrounds. Participants were supportive of the idea of group education for women with PCOS and suggested a need to provide education within the community and health care providers. Women with PCOS experience high psychological distress and difficulties with coping with their condition. Suggested strategies to reduce the negative psychological impact include education at various levels. © 2017 The authors.
Bauer, Katherine W; Marcus, Marsha D; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Severe obesity among adolescents, also known as class 2 and 3 obesity, is increasing in prevalence, yet, little is known about adolescents with severe obesity. The objective of this study was to identify the socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral correlates of severe obesity among an ethnically/racially diverse sample of US adolescents. A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the EAT 2010 study (n = 2706) was conducted. Adolescents completed in-class surveys, and height and weight were measured. Severe obesity was defined as a BMI ≥120% of the 95th percentile or ≥35 kg/m(2); class 1 obesity as a BMI ≥95th percentile but below severe obesity cut points, overweight as a BMI 5th percentile. General linear models were used to identify differences between adolescents by weight status, adjusted for covariates. Nine percent of adolescents had severe obesity. Compared with peers of other weight statuses, a greater proportion of adolescents with severe obesity reported parental encouragement to diet and peer weight teasing. Adolescents with severe obesity also reported lower self-esteem and body satisfaction. Binge eating was three times as prevalent among adolescents with severe obesity compared with peers of normal weight and twice as prevalent as among peers with class 1 obesity. Adolescents with severe obesity report several unique socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral concerns that may diminish quality of life and may predict increased weight gain over time.
Chiu, Catherine; Feuz, Mariko A.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Miao, Yinghui; Sudore, Rebecca L.
Context Culturally diverse older adults may prefer varying control over medical decisions. Decision control preferences (DCPs) may profoundly affect advance care planning (ACP) and communication. Objectives To determine the DCPs of diverse, older adults and whether DCPs are associated with participant characteristics, ACP, and communication satisfaction. Methods A total of 146 participants were recruited from clinics and senior centers in San Francisco. We assessed DCPs using the Control Preferences Scale: doctor makes all decisions (low), shares with doctor (medium), makes own decisions (high). We assessed associations between DCPs and demographics; prior advance directives; ability to make in-the-moment goals of care decisions; self-efficacy, readiness, and prior asked questions; and satisfaction with patient-doctor communication (on a 5-point Likert scale), using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Results Mean age was 71±10 years, 53% were non-white, 47% completed an advance directive, and 70% made goals of care decisions. Of the sample, 18% had low DCPs, 33% medium, and 49% high. Older age was the only characteristic associated with DCPs (low: 75 years ±11, medium: 69±10, high: 70±9, P=0.003). DCPs were not associated with ACP, in-the-moment decisions, or communication satisfaction. Readiness was the only question-asking behavior associated (low: 3.8±1.2, medium: 4.1±1.2, high: 4.3±1.2, P=0.05). Conclusion Nearly one-fifth of diverse, older adults want doctors to make their medical decisions. Older age and lower readiness to ask questions were the only demographic variables significantly associated with low DCPs. Yet, older adults with low DCPs still engaged in ACP, asked questions, and reported communication satisfaction. Clinicians can encourage ACP and questions for all patients, but should assess DCPs to provide the desired amount of decision support. PMID:26342727
Van Boekel, L.C.; Peek, S.T.M.; Luijkx, K.G.
Background: As for all individuals, the Internet is important in the everyday life of older adults. Research on older adults’ use of the Internet has merely focused on users versus nonusers and consequences of Internet use and nonuse. Older adults are a heterogeneous group, which may implicate that
Haustein, Sonja; Marin-Lamellet, Claude
Against the background of an ageing population, the management of older people's safe mobility is becoming an increasingly important issue. Mobility is vital for older people's quality of life and several examples of good practice that support older people's safe mobility already exist. However, ...
Extensive research has demonstrated that neighbourhood ethnic diversity is negatively associated with intra-neighbourhood social capital. This study explores the role of segregation and integration in this relationship. To do so it applies three-level hierarchical linear models to two sets of data from across Great Britain and within London, and examines how segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested impacts trust amongst neighbours. This study replicates the increasingly ubiquitous finding that neighbourhood diversity is negatively associated with neighbour-trust. However, we demonstrate that this relationship is highly dependent on the level of segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested. Increasing neighbourhood diversity only negatively impacts neighbour-trust when nested in more segregated wider-communities. Individuals living in diverse neighbourhoods nested within integrated wider-communities experience no trust-penalty. These findings show that segregation plays a critical role in the neighbourhood diversity/trust relationship, and that its absence from the literature biases our understanding of how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion.
Michos, Erin D.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L.; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R. Graham; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Greenland, Philip; David R Jacobs; Post, Wendy
Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT), and reduced ankle brachial indices (ABI) are markers of subclinical vascular disease strongly associated with aging. We identified factors associated with low levels of subclinical vascular disease in 1824 participants ≥70 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. 452 had low CAC (
Chang, Edward C; Banks, Kira Hudson
To clarify and extend Snyder's (1994, 2002) hope theory to a more diverse population, this study examined variations in agentic and pathways thinking, and their relations with social problem solving, affect, and with life satisfaction across a college student sample of 46 European Americans, 30 African Americans, 33 Latinos, and 46 Asian Americans. Although comparative results indicated variations in levels of hope components across the 4 racial/ethnic groups, correlational results indicated that the manner in which hope components related to measures of behavior and adjustment were similar across groups. Regression results indicated similarities and differences in predictors of hope components across the different racial/ethnic groups. Potential implications for promoting hope in working with diverse college students are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Donnelly, Rachel; Springer, Andrew
This study assessed levels of child-reported parent and family social support associated with physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) by ethnicity among a lower-income sample of US elementary school students. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data of an elementary school-based study from fall, 2010. Nineteen schools in a large urban school district in central Texas. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (n = 581) and their parents. Child-reported parental and family social support, 7-day PA, previous day FVC, and weight status. Child-reported social support, PA, and FVC using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, chi-square tests, and multiple linear regressions were examined. Child-reported parent and family social support varied by ethnicity (P energy-balance related behaviors examined (P energy balance-related behaviors across ethnic groups, lower perceived parental and family social support for Hispanic children may represent an important opportunity for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farah, Deqa; Vuniqi, Valentina
Purpose: Our purpose is to study how language proficiency and cross-cultural adaptation affect ethnically diverse teams in their cross-cultural communication competence. Methodology: The data was collected through six interviews of team members working in a product development project in a multinational company. The interviews were conducted in March of 2012. The data analysis followed an interpretative thematic analysis inspired by Boyatzis (1998). To analyze the data we have utilized some s...
Full Text Available Based on the case of Montreal, the author reviews the set of experiences of public intervention in the area of management of ethnic-religious diversity, which has led to the formulation of new debates with regard to the fit of this plurality in the urban space. The challenges posed by the incorporation of these new religious references in the configuring of the urban fabric also opens up questions on the meaning of cohabitation in increasingly plural neighbourhoods.
Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E
We examined the relationship of cognitive, medical, psychological, and behavioral factors with everyday functioning in a racially diverse older community population recruited from health service agencies. Everyday functioning was characterized as a latent variable composed of 15 instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The mean (SD) age of the participants (N = 237) was 78.3 (8.1) years; 67% were women, 34% were African-American, 18 (7.6%) met criteria for a depressive disorder, and 61 (27.0%) met criteria for dementia. Worse verbal memory, older age, depression, and number of medical conditions were independently associated with worse IADL ability. The final model explained 60% of the variability. As the population ages and the prevalence of impaired cognition and disability rises, identifying cognitive and noncognitive determinants of disability becomes increasingly important. Interventions to optimize episodic memory, medical status, and treatment of depression may slow down the pathway to disability in older persons.
Moradi, Bonnie; Neimeyer, Greg J.
Scholars have highlighted the importance of recruitment, retention, and promotion of racial-ethnic minority faculty for the field of counseling psychology. This study examines the specialty's progress by chronicling the racial-ethnic composition of faculty in counseling psychology programs across time. The findings summarized begin to reveal the…
Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents' perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least 2 siblings. Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St Paul Minnesota. Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned Parents' perceptions of feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making 1 meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (eg, food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beatty Moody, Danielle L; Chang, Yuefang; Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Matthews, Karen A
Everyday discrimination may contribute to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the United States and related racial/ethnic differences in MetS. The study investigated whether everyday discrimination predicted MetS in a diverse sample. A longitudinal, cohort study of 2132 women (mean [standard deviation] = 45.8 [2.7] years) who self-reported as black (n = 523), white (n = 1065), Chinese (n = 194), Japanese (n = 227), or Hispanic (n = 123) at baseline drawn from seven cities across the United States was conducted. MetS was defined in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Everyday Discrimination scale was used to assess exposure to and level of everyday discrimination. Everyday discrimination exposure at baseline predicted a 33% greater incidence of MetS during the 13.89-year (standard deviation = 3.83, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.64, p = .001) follow-up in the full sample and was most pronounced in black, Hispanic, and Japanese women. Each 1-point increase in the continuous everyday discrimination score (HR = 1.03, 95% CI =1.01-1.05, p = .001) predicted a 3% greater incidence of MetS and, specifically, blood pressure (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.03, p = .04), waist circumference (HR = 1.05, 95% CI =1.03-1.06, p level (HR = 1.02, 95% CI =1.00-1.04, p = .01). These associations were independent of risk factors including physical activity, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Everyday discrimination contributes to poorer metabolic health in midlife women in the United States. These findings have clinical implications for the development of MetS and, ultimately, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and intervention strategies to reduce these outcomes.
Winsler, Adam; Hutchison, Lindsey A; De Feyter, Jessica J; Manfra, Louis; Bleiker, Charles; Hartman, Suzanne C; Levitt, Jerome
Concern about kindergarten retention is on the rise within the current climate of high-stakes testing and escalating kindergarten expectations. Kindergarten retention has been linked in previous research to various risk factors such as poverty, low maternal education, single parent status, minority status, English language learner (ELL) status, and male gender. However, these factors are also associated with poor school readiness and low kindergarten performance--the very reasons children are retained in the 1st place. This study teases apart unique and combined predictors of delayed entry into kindergarten and kindergarten retention with a large (n = 13,191) ethnically diverse, at-risk sample of children. Delayed kindergarten entry was rare for this sample but more likely among boys, native English speakers, those with poorer school readiness, less maternal education, and greater resources, and those who attended childcare rather than public school prekindergarten (pre-K) at age 4 years. Boys were more likely to be retained in kindergarten, but only because of their poorer school readiness. After strong effects for age 4 school readiness were controlled, only poverty, ELL status, and preschool program attendance predicted retention. ELL students were less likely to be retained than were native speakers, and those who attended public school pre-K programs were less likely to be retained, compared with those in childcare at age 4 years. After controlling for children's actual performance in kindergarten their 1st time, Caucasian children and children with lower language and social skills at age 4 years were more likely to repeat kindergarten. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Hebert, Paul L; Sisk, Jane E; Wang, Jason J; Tuzzio, Leah; Casabianca, Jodi M; Chassin, Mark R; Horowitz, Carol; McLaughlin, Mary Ann
Randomized, controlled trials have shown that nurse-led disease management for patients with heart failure can reduce hospitalizations. Less is known about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led disease management intervention over 12 months, implemented in a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial. Cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomized trial. Medical costs from administrative records, and self-reported quality of life and nonmedical costs from patient surveys. Patients with systolic dysfunction recruited from ambulatory clinics in Harlem, New York. 12 months. Societal and payer. 12-month program that involved 1 face-to-face encounter with a nurse and regular telephone follow-up. Quality of life as measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 and EuroQol-5D and cost-effectiveness as measured by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Costs and quality of life were higher in the nurse-managed group than the usual care group. The ICERs over 12 months were $17,543 per EuroQol-5D-based quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and $15,169 per Health Utilities Index Mark 3-based QALY (in 2001 U.S. dollars). From a payer perspective, the ICER ranged from $3673 to $4495 per QALY. Applying national prices in place of New York City prices yielded a societal ICER of $13,460 to $15,556 per QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves suggest that the intervention was most likely cost-effective for patients with less severe (New York Heart Association classes I to II) heart failure. The trial was conducted in an ethnically diverse, inner-city neighborhood; thus, results may not be generalizable to other communities. Over 12 months, the nurse-led disease management program was a reasonably cost-effective way to reduce the burden of heart failure in this community.
Duprez, Daniel A.; Jacobs, David R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bluemke, David A; Brumback, Lyndia C.; Polak, Joseph F.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Greenland, Philip; Kronmal, Richard A.
Functional biomarkers like large artery elasticity (LAE) and small artery elasticity (SAE) may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events beyond blood pressure. The authors examined the prognostic value of LAE and SAE for clinical CVD events among 6,235 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were initially aged 45–84 years and without symptomatic CVD. LAE and SAE were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. During a median 5.8 years of follow-up between 2000 and 2008, ...
Williams, Allison; Sethi, Bharati; Duggleby, Wendy; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Peacock, Shelley; Ghosh, Sunita
A little-studied issue in the provision of care at home by informal caregivers is the increase in older adult patients with chronic illness, and more specifically, multiple chronic conditions (MCC). We know little about the caregiving experience for this population, particularly as it is affected by social location, which refers to either a group's or individual's place/location in society at a given time, based on their intersecting demographics (age, gender, education, race, immigration status, geography, etc.). We have yet to fully comprehend the combined influence of these intersecting axes on caregivers' health and wellbeing, and attempt to do this by using an intersectionality approach in answering the following research question: How does social location influence the experience of family caregivers of older adults with MCC? The data presented herein is a thematic analysis of a qualitative sub-set of a large two-province study conducted using a repeated-measures embedded mixed method design. A survey sub-set of 20 survey participants per province (n = 40 total) were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. In the first stage of data analysis, Charmaz's (2006) Constructivist Grounded Theory Method (CGTM) was used to develop initial codes, focused codes, categories and descriptive themes. In the second and the third stages of analysis, intersectionality was used to develop final analytical themes. The following four themes describe the overall study findings: (1) Caregiving Trajectory, where three caregiving phases were identified; (2) Work, Family, and Caregiving, where the impact of caregiving was discussed on other areas of caregivers' lives; (3) Personal and Structural Determinants of Caregiving, where caregiving sustainability and coping were deliberated, and; (4) Finding Meaning/Self in Caregiving, where meaning-making was highlighted. The intersectionality approach presented a number of axes of diversity as comparatively more important
Cox, Sharon; Kriho, Keely; De Klerk, Storm; van Dijk, Monique; Rode, Heinz
The aim was to investigate hand surface as a percentage of body surface area from infancy to 13 years of age using physical measurement and digital planimetry and establish the influence of age, gender, BMI for age and ethnicity, specifically in the South African population. A secondary aim included the development of a template for burn size measurement. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Demographic information was obtained from each participant. Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were determined using several established formulas. The hand area was measured using a standard physical measurement method and a digital planimetry method. All data was presented in an Excel and SPSS spreadsheet and the calculations performed with SPSS 24.0. Three-hundred and sixty-eight burn patients and 150 children from a nearby primary school were enrolled. The age ranged from 1 month to 13 years. The hospital patient group was significantly younger, included more boys and had a lower BMI by age. Most patients (98.7%) were African or mixed race compared to the school children who were primarily Caucasian (pformulas to determine the BSA were highly comparable with Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.997 (95% CI 0.996-0.998). Actual hand surface area measured ranged from 22.44cm(2) to 164.9cm(2). The mean measured and digital percentage HSA of TBSA for all participants was 0.929% with a SD of 0.088. Male children, had a larger HSA as a proportion of TBSA by 0.036%. Generally, as the child gets older from toddler to late childhood, the hand becomes relatively smaller by a factor of approximately 0.08%. As the BMI increased, the hand got relatively smaller. The potential value of the physical measurement method is that it lends itself to direct measurement during examination of the burnt child. The study showed that there are minor differences between racial groups, gender, BMI and age variations. The clinical relevance of these variations is
Li Min Lim
Full Text Available Polypharmacy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the older population.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in a cohort of urban community-dwelling older adults receiving chronic medications in Malaysia.This was a baseline study in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research cohort. The inclusion criteria were individuals aged ≥55years and taking at least one medication chronically (≥3 months. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications taken were reviewed. Health outcomes assessed were frequency of falls, functional disability, potential inappropriate medication use (PIMs, potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs, healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QoL. Risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy (≥5 medications including dietary supplements were determined using multivariate regression models.A total of 1256 participants were included with a median (interquartile range age of 69(63-74 years. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 45.9% while supplement users made up 56.9% of the cohort. The risk factors associated with increasing medication use were increasing age, Indian ethnicity, male, having a higher number of comorbidities specifically those diagnosed with cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as supplement use. Health outcomes significantly associated with polypharmacy were PIMS, PDDIs and increased healthcare utilisation.A significant proportion of older adults on chronic medications were exposed to polypharmacy and use of dietary supplements contributed significantly to this. Medication reviews are warranted to reduce significant polypharmacy related issues in the older population.
Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
Although one-third of enrolled U.S. undergraduate college students are non-White, little is known about risk factors for suicidal behavior among racial and ethnic minority students. Thus, we set out to determine psychosocial factors associated with recurrent suicidal ideation among racially and ethnically diverse college students with a history of suicide attempt. From 2012-2013, 1,734 racially and ethnically diverse college students completed an on-line survey of suicidal behavior and associated factors. Depression, hopelessness, rejection sensitivity, and mindfulness, as well as past-year discrimination, ethnic identification, and acculturative stress were measured using well-validated self-report instruments. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was used to assess current suicidal ideation. A subsample of 118 college students who self-reported a past suicide attempt were selected for the current analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to test associations between risk factors and the presence of suicidal ideation, and linear regression analysis was used to test factors associated with suicidal ideation severity among those who reported current suicidal ideation. Depression was significantly related to both the presence and severity of current suicidal ideation. Mindfulness, and in particular awareness of present moment experience, was also inversely associated with ideation severity. We found depression and mindlessness were associated with suicidal ideation severity among a sample of diverse college students at high risk for suicidal behavior due to a past suicide attempt. Factors unique to the minority experience, such as acculturative stress, were not associated with current suicidal ideation. Implications for suicide prevention are discussed.
Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Hoffman, Hadas; Preiss, Rachel; Koifmann, Keren; Greenbaum, Lior; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M; Leroith, Derek; Sano, Mary; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal
The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype has been associated with cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Because ethnicity/culture has been associated with both cognitive function and Hp genotype frequencies, we examined whether it modulates the association of Hp with cognitive function. This cross-sectional study evaluated 787 cognitively normal older individuals (>65 years of age) with type 2 diabetes participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Interactions in two-way analyses of covariance compared Group (Non-Ashkenazi versus Ashkenazi Jews) on the associations of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1 versus non- Hp 1-1) with five cognitive outcome measures. The primary control variables were age, gender, and education. Compared with Ashkenazi Jews, non-Ashkenazi Jews with the Hp 1-1 phenotype had significantly poorer cognitive function than non-Hp 1-1 in the domains of Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.035) and Executive Function (p = 0.023), but not in Language/Semantic Categorization (p = 0.432), Episodic Memory (p = 0.268), or Overall Cognition (p = 0.082). After controlling for additional covariates (type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, Mini-mental State Examination, and extent of depressive symptoms), Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.038) and Executive Function (p = 0.013) remained significant. Older individuals from specific ethnic/cultural backgrounds with the Hp 1-1 phenotype may benefit more from treatment targeted at decreasing or halting the detrimental effects of Hp 1-1 on the brain. Future studies should examine differential associations of Hp 1-1 and cognitive impairment, especially for groups with high prevalence of both, such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bliss, Donna Z; Gurvich, Olga; Savik, Kay; Eberly, Lynn E; Harms, Susan; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F; Garrard, Judith; Virnig, Beth
The objective of this study was to assess whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in the time to development of a pressure ulcer and number of pressure ulcer treatments in individuals aged 65 and older after nursing home admission. Multi-level predictors of time to a pressure ulcer from three national surveys were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression for White Non-Hispanic residents. Using the Peters-Belson method to assess for disparities, estimates from the regression models were applied to American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, Blacks, and Hispanics separately resulting in estimates of expected outcomes as if they were White Non-Hispanic, and were then compared with their observed outcomes. More Blacks developed pressure ulcers sooner than expected. No disparities in time to a pressure ulcer disadvantaging other racial/ethnic groups were found. There were no disparities in pressure ulcer treatment for any group. Reducing disparities in pressure ulcer development offers a strategy to improve the quality of nursing home care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R; Judd, Suzanne E; Gower, Barbara A; Locher, Julie L
The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person=6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: (1) chicken (of any kind), (2) collard greens, (3) cornbread, (4) green or string beans, (5) fish (fried catfish is implied), (6) turnip greens, (7) potatoes, (8) apples, (9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and (10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M
The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.
Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747
Grant Robert L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current international interest in well-being indicators among governmental agencies means that many quality of life scales are potential components of such national indicator sets. Measuring well-being in minority groups is complex and challenging. Scales are available that have been validated in specific parts of the population, such as older people. However, validation among combinations of minority groups, such as older adults of ethnic minority backgrounds, is lacking. Findings We pooled data from two surveys of older adults in Great Britain: one conducted among White British people, and one among four ethnic minority groups. Quality of life was measured by the Older People's Quality of Life (OPQOL; Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation, Pleasure (CASP-19; and World Health Organization Quality of Life scale for older people (WHOQOL-OLD. We found differences, some significant, between groups in terms of self-reported importance of various aspects of quality of life. A regression model of each total quality of life scale revealed greater unexplained variability in the White British group than the others. Principal components analysis within each ethnic group's data showed considerable differences in the correlation structures. Conclusions There are differences between ethnic groups that are consistent across the three scales and are not explained by a battery of predictor variables. If scales such as these are used to compare quality of life between ethnic groups, or equivalently between geographical regions, the different results in each group are liable to bias any comparison which could lead to inequitable policy decisions.
Sheffet, Alice J; Howard, George; Sam, Albert; Jamil, Zafar; Weaver, Fred; Chiu, David; Voeks, Jenifer H; Howard, Virginia J; Hughes, Susan E; Flaxman, Linda; Longbottom, Mary E; Brott, Thomas G
We report patient enrollment and retention by race and ethnicity in the CREST (Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stent Trial) and assess potential effect modification by race/ethnicity. In addition, we discuss the challenge of detecting differences in study outcomes when subgroups are small and the event rate is low. We compared 2502 patients by race, ethnicity, baseline characteristics, and primary outcome (any periprocedural stroke, death, or myocardial infarction and subsequent ipsilateral stroke up to 10 years). Two hundred forty (9.7%) patients were minority by race (6.1%) or ethnicity (3.6%); 109 patients (4.4%) were black, 32 (1.3%) Asian, 2332 (93.4%) white, 11 (0.4%) other, and 18 (0.7%) unknown. Ninety (3.6%) were Hispanic, 2377 (95%) non-Hispanic, and 35 (1.4%) unknown. The rate of the primary end point for all patients was 10.9%±0.9% at 10 years and did not differ by race or ethnicity (Pinter>0.24). The proportion of minorities recruited to CREST was below their representation in the general population, and retention of minority patients was lower than for whites. Primary outcomes did not differ by race or ethnicity. However, in CREST (like other studies), the lack of evidence of a racial/ethnic difference in the treatment effect should be interpreted with caution because of low statistical power to detect such a difference. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00004732. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Halanych, Jewell H; Wang, Fei; Miller, Donald R; Pogach, Leonard M; Lin, Hai; Berlowitz, Dan R; Frayne, Susan M
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) databases are used extensively to study racial/ethnic disparities; however, these databases may not capture all care received by VHA patients. We examined the extent to which accounting for non-VHA care changed conclusions about racial/ethnic disparities for VHA patients with diabetes. Using a cross-sectional observational study, we analyzed a national sample of noninstitutionalized Hispanic (n = 5931), black (n = 24,670), and white (n = 149,222) VHA patients with diabetes who were at least 65 years of age for receipt of annual HbA1c testing, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol testing, or eye examination from VHA and Medicare administrative files. In VHA alone data, adjusting for patient characteristics, Hispanic and black patients were as likely as white patients to receive HbA1c testing (odds ratio 1.06 [95% confidence interval 0.99-1.13] and 1.04 [1.00-1.07], respectively), and more likely to receive eye examinations (1.31 [1.24-1.38] and 1.33 [1.29-1.37], respectively). Hispanic patients were equally likely (1.01 [0.95-1.07]) and black patients were less likely (0.81 [0.79-0.84]) to receive LDL testing versus white patients. In VHA plus Medicare data, Hispanic and black patients were less likely than white patients to receive HbA1c (0.76 [0.71-0.82] and 0.83 [0.80-0.87], respectively) and LDL testing (0.84 [0.79-0.90] and 0.70 [0.68-0.72], respectively), and equally likely to receive eye examinations (0.91 [0.86-0.96]) and 0.98 [0.95-1.01]), respectively). Accounting for VHA facility had little effect on results. Restricting to VHA data masks racial/ethnic disparities in care of VHA patients. VHA researchers must be aware and supplement VHA data with other sources whenever possible.
Trofholz, Amanda C; Thao, Mai See; Donley, Mia; Smith, Mireya; Isaac, Hassan; Berge, Jerica M
Having frequent family meals has consistently been associated with better health outcomes in children/adolescents. It is important to identify how intergenerational transmission of family meal practices occurs to help families benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Limited studies exist that explore the intergenerational transmission of family meal practices, particularly among racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant populations. This study explores how parents describe differences and similarities between meals "then" and "now", lessons they learned as children about family meals, lessons they passed onto their children, the challenges of carrying out family meals, and how families handle the barriers/challenges to intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. The study was conducted with a sample of African American, Native American, Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families (25/category). Qualitative themes were explored with the overall sample, by race/ethnicity, immigrant status, and by time in the United States (US) as an immigrant. Parents overwhelmingly reported learning as children that family meals were important and conveying this message to their own children. Differences existed among racial/ethnic groups and time in the US as an immigrant. For example, Somali parents frequently endorsed having no challenges with intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. Immigrant parents in the US for a longer period of time were more likely to endorse learning/teaching about family meal importance, that the food eaten now is different than growing up, that a chaotic environment is a challenge to having family meals, and that they accommodate family member's schedules when planning family meals. Results demonstrate that exploring a parent's early family meal experiences may be important when intervening with parents from diverse racial/ethnic and immigrant populations when trying to improve or increase family meal practices
Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M
Undue influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge-eating disorder (BED). This study examined overvaluation of shape/weight in ethnically diverse obese patients with BED seeking treatment in primary care. Participants were a consecutive series of 142 (105 female and 37 male) participants with BED; 43% were Caucasian, 37% were African-American, 13% were Hispanic-American, and 7% were of "other" ethnicity. Participants categorized with overvaluation (N=97; 68%) versus without clinical overvaluation (N=45; 32%) did not differ significantly in ethnicity/race, age, gender, body mass index, or binge-eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating disorder psychopathology, poorer psychological functioning (higher depression, lower self-esteem), and greater anxiety disorder co-morbidity than the group who did not overvalue their shape/weight. The greater eating disorder and psychological disturbance levels in the overvaluation group relative to the non-overvaluation group persisted after controlling for psychiatric co-morbidity. Our findings, based on an ethnically diverse series of patients seeking treatment in general primary care settings, are consistent with findings from specialist clinics and suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concerns commensurate with being obese or with frequency of binge-eating, but is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lanza, H Isabella; Teeter, Heather
Prevalence rates of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; i.e., e-cigarette/vape) use has grown exponentially in the past few years. College students present a particularly vulnerable group for ENDS use. The current study sought to expand the literature by examining the context in which college students use ENDS, co-occurring health risks beyond traditional tobacco use, and the role of ethnicity in ENDS use. Health-risk behavior survey data was collected from 452 undergraduates attending a large, public urban university during the 2015-2016 academic year. Ever ENDS users vs. non-ENDS users were compared across potential demographic, health-risk, and other health-related correlates. Almost 40% of participants reported lifetime use of ENDS. No ethnic or sex differences were found. The primary source for obtaining ENDS was friends and ENDS were most often used with friends vs. alone or with others not considered friends. Participants engaging in risky alcohol use and cigarette smoking had a higher likelihood of endorsing ENDS use. Conclusions/Importance: The current study indicated that a large proportion of college students have tried ENDS irrespective of ethnicity or sex. An increasingly normative social context may inform the popularity of ENDS use across ethnicity and sex, but additional research using ethnically diverse samples is warranted. Risky alcohol use appears to be a significant correlate of ENDS use, even after accounting for the robust relationship between ENDS use and cigarette smoking. The robust relationship between alcohol and tobacco use likely extends to ENDS use.
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children’s own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3,000 6th grade students (52% female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type—reciprocal, desired, and undesired—and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends’ victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children’s own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends’ victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority. PMID:27272516
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.
Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Lutsey, Pamela L; Bluemke, David A; Brumback, Lyndia C; Polak, Joseph F; Peralta, Carmen A; Greenland, Philip; Kronmal, Richard A
Functional biomarkers like large artery elasticity (LAE) and small artery elasticity (SAE) may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events beyond blood pressure. The authors examined the prognostic value of LAE and SAE for clinical CVD events among 6,235 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were initially aged 45-84 years and without symptomatic CVD. LAE and SAE were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. During a median 5.8 years of follow-up between 2000 and 2008, 454 adjudicated CVD events occurred, including 256 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), 93 strokes, and 126 heart failures (multiple diagnoses were possible). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, clinic, height, heart rate, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications, smoking, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diabetes, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, the hazard ratio for any CVD per standard-deviation increase in SAE was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.83; P < 0.0001). The lowest (stiffest) SAE quartile had a hazard ratio of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.36) versus the highest (most elastic) quartile. The net reclassification index, conditional on base risk, was 0.11. SAE was significantly associated with future CHD, stroke, and heart failure. After adjustment, LAE was not significantly related to CVD. In asymptomatic participants free of overt CVD, lower SAE added prognostic information for CVD, CHD, stroke, and heart failure events.
Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S; Durette, Robert T
This study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body image during sexual activity in American female college students of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latina descent (N=1174). Responses to self-report questionnaires indicated that body surveillance and body shame were significantly positively correlated with contextual body concern during sexual activities for women of all ethnic groups. Examination of direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling indicated that body shame partially mediated the relationship between body surveillance and contextual body image during sexual activity for the sample as a whole. However, multiple-group analyses (i.e., path invariance tests) showed that some of these relationships differed by ethnic group, with European American women reporting the strongest relationships. Study results generally support the mediational role of body shame, but highlight that the strength of these relationships and means may differ across ethnic groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sparks, David M.
The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments
Dogra, Nisha; Vostanis, Panos; Abuateya, Hala; Jewson, Nick
The aim of this study was to explore Gujarati parents' and adolescents' perceptions of child and adolescent mental health services and how these should be improved to best meet their needs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 15 parents and 15 young people, recruited from a community centre. Overall, the quality of the service appeared more important than its responsiveness to culture or ethnicity for both young people and their parents. These findings indicate the need for further evidence and debate on whether Black and ethnic minority families should be treated as though they are a homogenous group.
Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar
Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…
Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Alegría, Margarita
Purpose Limited research in health valuation analyzes samples with high proportions of racial/ethnic minorities within the United States. The primary objective was to explore patterns of health valuation across race/ethnicity using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. A secondary objective was to analyze whether mental health disorder and immigrant status were associated with these estimates. Methods Health valuation questions using different metrics (time and money) were analyzed. Ordered logit models stratified across poor and moderate health tested differences by race/ethnicity, with mental health disorder and immigrant status as covariates. Results Asians in moderate health and Latinos were willing to pay more for health than non-Latino whites. Asians in moderate health were willing to trade more time for health. Latinos in poor health were less willing to trade time and gave disproportionate zero-trade responses. Lifetime history of anxiety disorder was positively associated with both metrics. Immigrant status confounded money valuation for Asians in moderate health, and time valuation for Latinos in poor health. Conclusions Health valuation estimates vary across race/ethnicity depending upon the metric. Time valuation scenarios appear less feasible for Latinos in poor health. More research is necessary to understand these differences and the role of immigrant status in health valuation. PMID:20680690
Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen
Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…
Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel
The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…
Pels, T.V.M.; van Rooij, F.; Distelbrink, M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) profoundly affects multiple life domains for the people involved. We report on the experiences of Dutch mothers of various ethnic backgrounds regarding their parenting during and after IPV, their perceptions of the influence of IPV on their parenting, as well as their
Pels, T.; van Rooij, F.B.; Distelbrink, M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) profoundly affects multiple life domains for the people involved. We report on the experiences of Dutch mothers of various ethnic backgrounds regarding their parenting during and after IPV, their perceptions of the influence of IPV on their parenting, as well as their
Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel
The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in
Gerke, Clarice K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Kliewer, Wendy
Objective: The goals of this study were to examine the role of dissociation and depression as possible mediators of the relationship between several forms of childhood trauma and bulimic symptomatology and to explore potential ethnic differences in these relationships. Method: Four hundred seventeen female undergraduates participated in this…
Early, Jessica Singer; DeCosta-Smith, Meredith; Valdespino, Arturo
This article describes a writing workshop that took place with 41 low-income, multi-ethnic 12th-grade students who received instruction on specific genre features for writing college admission essays. As a result, students improved the quality of their college admission essays and demonstrated greater confidence with this writing task. This…
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui
Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…
Sordillo, Joanne E; Zhou, Yanjiao; McGeachie, Michael J; Ziniti, John; Lange, Nancy; Laranjo, Nancy; Savage, Jessica R; Carey, Vincent; O'Connor, George; Sandel, Megan; Strunk, Robert; Bacharier, Leonard; Zeiger, Robert; Weiss, Scott T; Weinstock, George; Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A
The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact on allergic disease risk. We sought to determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at age 3 to 6 months, who were enrolled in Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 333 infants' stool samples. Microbial diversity was computed using the Shannon index. Factor analysis applied to the top 25 most abundant taxa revealed 4 underlying bacterial coabundance groups; the first dominated by Firmicutes (Lachnospiraceae/Clostridiales), the second by Proteobacteria (Klebsiella/Enterobacter), the third by Bacteriodetes, and the fourth by Veillonella. Scores for coabundance groups were used as outcomes in regression models, with prenatal/birth and demographic characteristics as independent predictors. Multivariate analysis, using all microbial community members, was also conducted. White race/ethnicity was associated with lower diversity but higher Bacteroidetes coabundance scores. C-section birth was associated with higher diversity, but decreased Bacteroidetes coabundance scores. Firmicutes scores were higher for infants born by C-section. Breast-fed infants had lower proportions of Clostridiales. Cord blood vitamin D was linked to increased Lachnobacterium, but decreased Lactococcus. The findings presented here suggest that race, mode of delivery, breast-feeding, and cord blood vitamin D levels are associated with infant gut microbiome composition, with possible long-term implications for immune system modulation and asthma/allergic disease incidence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heredia, Natalia I; Ranjit, Nalini; Warren, Judith L; Evans, Alexandra E
Parents play an important role in providing their children with social support for healthy eating and physical activity. However, different types of social support (e.g., instrumental, emotional, modeling, rules) might have different results on children's actual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the different types of social support with children's physical activity and eating behaviors, as well as to examine whether these associations differ across racial/ethnic groups. We surveyed 1169 low-income, ethnically diverse third graders and their caregivers to assess how children's physical activity and eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake) were associated with instrumental social support, emotional social support, modeling, rules and availability of certain foods in the home. We used sequential linear regression to test the association of parental social support with a child's physical activity and eating behaviors, adjusting for covariates, and then stratified to assess the differences in this association between racial/ethnic groups. Parental social support and covariates explained 9-13% of the variance in children's energy balance-related behaviors. Family food culture was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, with availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in the home also associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Instrumental and emotional support for physical activity were significantly associated with the child's physical activity. Results indicate that the association of various types of social support with children's physical activity and eating behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups. These results provide considerations for future interventions that aim to enhance parental support to improve children's energy balance-related behaviors.
Sufrinko, Alicia M; Valrie, Cecelia R; Lanzo, Lauren; Bond, Kayzandra E; Trout, Krystal L; Ladd, Rebecca E; Everhart, D Erik
There is a need for brief, psychometrically sound instruments to assess adolescent sleep, particularly for ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged adolescents. A 10-item short version of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale was recently proposed based upon exploratory factor analysis with primarily Caucasian healthy adolescents from middle- to high-income families. The aim of this study was to expand the utility of the short version of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale by investigating the empirical and construct validity of the measure on an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from an economically disadvantaged community. Participants included 467 adolescents (40% African American, 35.5% Caucasian, 16.5% Latino, and 7.9% multiethnic), aged 12-18 years (mean = 15.27 years, SD = 1.96 years), who completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with Mplus 7 based on the three-factor solution proposed by Essner et al. (2014). CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was a good fit for the data (χ(2) (29) = 52.053, p = 0.005, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, standardized root mean residuals (SRMR) = 0.03), and factor loadings for each item were >0.40. Cronbach's alphas by ethnicity indicated that the scale has acceptable reliability (0.70 ≤ α ≤ 0.90) for African American, Caucasian, and multiethnic adolescents, but not for Latino adolescents. Our results support the use of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale short form for the majority of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natalia I. Heredia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in providing their children with social support for healthy eating and physical activity. However, different types of social support (e.g., instrumental, emotional, modeling, rules might have different results on children’s actual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the different types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors, as well as to examine whether these associations differ across racial/ethnic groups. Methods We surveyed 1169 low-income, ethnically diverse third graders and their caregivers to assess how children’s physical activity and eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were associated with instrumental social support, emotional social support, modeling, rules and availability of certain foods in the home. We used sequential linear regression to test the association of parental social support with a child’s physical activity and eating behaviors, adjusting for covariates, and then stratified to assess the differences in this association between racial/ethnic groups. Results Parental social support and covariates explained 9–13% of the variance in children’s energy balance-related behaviors. Family food culture was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, with availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in the home also associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Instrumental and emotional support for physical activity were significantly associated with the child’s physical activity. Results indicate that the association of various types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions These results provide considerations for future interventions that aim to enhance parental support to improve children’s energy balance-related behaviors.
Harty, Seth C; Ivanov, Iliyan; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M
To examine late adolescent substance use outcomes in relation to childhood conduct disorder (CD) and psychostimulant treatment in urban youth found to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Ninety-seven adolescents, evaluated during childhood, were seen for follow-up on average 9.30 (SD = 1.65) years later along with a well-matched never-ADHD control group. Stimulant treatment history was coded: Never (n = 28), up to 1 year (n = 19), 1 to 5 years (n = 28), and greater than 5 years (n = 22). Substance use at outcome was coded dimensionally for severity (frequency × intensity) and categorically for substance use disorders (SUDs). Individuals with ADHD+CD in childhood had significantly higher rates of SUD and substance use severity than those with childhood ADHD and controls. The ADHD and control groups did not differ significantly. Among those with childhood ADHD, there were no significant differences in SUD status or substance use severity as a function of medication history. Within an ethnically diverse urban sample, the increased rate of substance use associated with ADHD was fully accounted for by the presence of CD. These results extend previous findings indicating little impact of psychostimulant treatment on later substance use to an ethnically diverse urban sample and to individuals who received treatment for up to 12 years.
Kimberly A. Griffin
Full Text Available While researchers, institutional leaders, and policymakers have made significant progress towards increasing undergraduate student diversity in the United States, diversity in graduate education has been less often studied and a more challenging goal on which to make progress. This qualitative study explores the roles and work of graduate diversity officers (GDOs in student recruitment activities with a focus on how race and issues of diversity manifest and influence this process. Interviews with fourteen GDOs at 11 different research universities in the United States highlight the phases in the graduate recruitment process, the manner in which diversity is considered at each stage, and GDOs’ perceptions of their ability to shape this process. Findings suggest that GDOs are important institutional agents in diversification efforts; however, faculty engagement and broad institutional commitment are required to increase diversity in graduate education due to GDOs’ often limited involvement in the admissions stage of the recruitment process, where race becomes the most salient in decision making.
Pels, Trees; van Rooij, Floor Barbera; Distelbrink, Marjolijn
Intimate partner violence (IPV) profoundly affects multiple life domains for the people involved. We report on the experiences of Dutch mothers of various ethnic backgrounds regarding their parenting during and after IPV, their perceptions of the influence of IPV on their parenting, as well as their need for and experiences with support services. We conducted qualitative interviews with 100 mothers in the Netherlands who had experienced IPV. Most reported negative experiences with parenting (both during and after the IPV), a strong effect of the IPV on their parenting, as well as circumstances that aggravated this effect. The mothers had used multiple sources of formal and informal support. Although most evaluated the support that they had received positively, some also mentioned mixed or negative experiences. Many were still in need of support. Relationships with ethnic background and the severity of IPV are discussed.
Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan
Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, α-³·⁷ and -α⁴·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α-³·⁷ deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α-³·⁷ deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α⁺ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α⁰ thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.
Full Text Available Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567 were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, ––SEA, ––THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, α–3.7 and –α4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana, Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring. A high incidence of α–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the ––SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.
Full Text Available We aimed to whether the abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ level in the brain among apparently healthy elders is related with subtle cognitive deficits and/or accelerated cognitive decline.A total of 116 dementia-free participants (mean age 84.5 years of the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed 18F-Florbetaben PET imaging. Positive or negative cerebral Aβ deposition was assessed visually. Quantitative cerebral Aβ burden was calculated as the standardized uptake value ratio in pre-established regions of interest using cerebellar cortex as the reference region. Cognition was determined using a neuropsychological battery and selected tests scores were combined into four composite scores (memory, language, executive/speed, and visuospatial using exploratory factor analysis. We examined the relationship between cerebral Aβ level and longitudinal cognition change up to 20 years before the PET scan using latent growth curve models, controlling for age, education, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype.Positive reading of Aβ was found in 41 of 116 (35% individuals. Cognitive scores at scan time was not related with Aβ. All cognitive scores declined over time. Aβ positive reading (B = -0.034, p = 0.02 and higher Aβ burden in temporal region (B = -0.080, p = 0.02 were associated with faster decline in executive/speed. Stratified analyses showed that higher Aβ deposition was associated with faster longitudinal declines in mean cognition, language, and executive/speed in African-Americans or in APOE ε4 carriers, and with faster memory decline in APOE ε4 carriers. The associations remained significant after excluding mild cognitive impairment participants.High Aβ deposition in healthy elders was associated with decline in executive/speed in the decade before neuroimaging, and the association was observed primarily in African-Americans and APOE ε4 carriers. Our results suggest that measuring cerebral Aβ may give us
Lyons, Suzi M; O'Keeffe, Frances M; Clarke, Anna T; Staines, Anthony
Ireland has seen an expansion of new migrant communities over the past decade and the country has struggled to cope with this new multi-culturalism, especially within the health services. The maternity services in particular have seen an increase in deliveries from ethnic minority women. Little research has been done exploring this issue with maternity service providers. Using a grounded theory approach, this study sought to explore the experiences, understanding and perspectives of maternity service providers when working with ethnic minority women in the Dublin maternity services during 2002 and 2003. Four themes emerged from the study: Communication difficulties, knowledge and use of services, cultural differences and 'Them and Us'. These encompassed a variety of issues including inadequacy of interpretation services, childcare issues, coping with labour, identification as different and racism. Ethnic minority women are expected to adapt to the system rather than the maternity services being responsive or adapting to the new multi-cultural population. These issues were relevant a decade ago internationally and are still pertinent today for not only Irish services but also for other European countries. There is an opportunity to improve the services for all women by learning from the experience of Dublin maternity service providers.
Tan, C A; del Gaudio, D; Dempsey, M A; Arndt, K; Botes, S; Reeder, A; Das, S
Primary Autosomal Recessive Microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by congenital microcephaly usually without additional clinical findings. The most common gene implicated in MCPH is ASPM and a large percentage of mutations described have been homozygous and in consanguineous families primarily of East Asian and Middle Eastern origin. ASPM sequencing was performed on 400 patients between the years 2009 and 2012. Seventy of the patient samples were also analyzed for copy number changes in the ASPM gene. Forty protein truncating mutations, including 29 novel mutations, were identified in 39 patients with MCPH. Approximately one third of patients were compound heterozygotes, indicative of non-consanguinity in these patients. In addition, 46 non-synonymous variants were identified and interpreted as variants of uncertain significance. No deletion/duplication in ASPM was identified in the patients analyzed. A wide ethnic distribution was observed, including the first reported patients with ASPM-related MCPH of Hispanic descent. Clinical information was collected for 26 of the ASPM-positive patients and 41 of the ASPM-negative patients. As more individuals are identified with MCPH, we anticipate that we will continue to identify ASPM mutation-positive patients from all ethnic origins supporting the occurrence of this genetic condition beyond that of consanguineous families of certain ethnic populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.
Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774
Divya A. Parikh
Full Text Available Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code, and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p=0.006, age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p=0.014, and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p<0.0001. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...
Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.
Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…
Karnes Jason H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1 variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups, and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls. The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88 or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2 of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13ins
Maynard, Maria; Baker, Graham; Harding, Seeromanie
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. Schools and places of worship that reflected the ethnic and religious diversity of inner city London populations (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) were targeted. Telephone invitations to 12 schools achieved recruitment of five schools (42% response); 181 invitations to 94 places of worship, recruited eight organisations (9%). Multi-strategy approaches were required to build relationships with faith organisations. Sixty-five children aged 8-13 years participated in the testing of measures. High completion rates were achieved for 24 h recalls, diet and PA self-efficacy questionnaires (ranging from 89% to 100%), with more consistent quality in schools. Dietary assessment highlighted inadequacies in composition data for minority ethnic foods. Intervention sessions were tested among 155 children in all five schools, and 33 children in a church, temple and mosque. Evaluation coverage was more consistent in these places of worship than in schools. Schools may logistically be more straightforward settings for delivery of interventions but, despite complex issues (engagement strategies; cultural foodways), places of worship provide opportunities for effective reach of children, families and communities. We suggest community based participatory research between researchers, schools and community organisations to harness culturally-specific support.
Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S
Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008–2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. Schools and places of worship that reflected the ethnic and religious diversity of inner city London populations (Hindus, Muslims and Christians were targeted. Telephone invitations to 12 schools achieved recruitment of five schools (42% response; 181 invitations to 94 places of worship, recruited eight organisations (9%. Multi-strategy approaches were required to build relationships with faith organisations. Sixty-five children aged 8–13 years participated in the testing of measures. High completion rates were achieved for 24 h recalls, diet and PA self-efficacy questionnaires (ranging from 89% to 100%, with more consistent quality in schools. Dietary assessment highlighted inadequacies in composition data for minority ethnic foods. Intervention sessions were tested among 155 children in all five schools, and 33 children in a church, temple and mosque. Evaluation coverage was more consistent in these places of worship than in schools. Schools may logistically be more straightforward settings for delivery of interventions but, despite complex issues (engagement strategies; cultural foodways, places of worship provide opportunities for effective reach of children, families and communities. We suggest community based participatory research between researchers, schools and community organisations to harness culturally-specific support.
Thai, Julie N; Barnhart, Caroline E; Cagle, John; Smith, Alexander K
Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) for informal caregivers of disabled older adults aged 65+ with diverse backgrounds. Forty-two caregivers were interviewed in English and Cantonese about their caregiving experiences, their recollections of QoL over time, and the factors influencing their appraisals. Overall, 52% of caregivers experienced a decline in QoL. Factors associated with decreased QoL were less time for self, competing financial demands, and the physical and emotional impact of the patient's illness. Factors associated with no change in QoL were minimal caregiving responsibilities, a sense of filial duty, and QoL being consistently poor over time. Factors associated with improved QoL were perceived rewards in caregiving, receiving institutional help, and increased experience. Chinese caregivers were more likely to cite filial duty as their motivator for continued caregiving than were Caucasian caregivers. In conclusion, informal caregivers take on a huge burden in enabling older adults to age in the community. These caregivers need more support in maintaining their QoL. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.
Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; Zhao, Juanjuan; Lang, Maria
School-based health programs have a unique and powerful potential to meet the health needs of children because students spend more time in schools than in any other environment away from home. We conducted a participatory needs assessment called a Group Level Assessment (GLA) in collaboration with an economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse school to facilitate the students' identification of and subsequent action toward important health needs. A total of 68 students in Kindergarten through eighth grade participated in the GLA. Four major themes emerged: the desire for more sports and after-school activities, better school lunches, enjoyment of friends and families, and overall happiness. Other health issues identified by the students included limited health/medical care, stress resulting from schoolwork and grades, positive self-image, and the desire for more art opportunities. The salient themes identified by students are consistent with many factors identified in the academic literature as important in child socioemotional functioning.
Evans, Alexandra E; Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Martin H; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M
The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence rates of 5 types of beverage consumption by sociodemographic factors among 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-grade public school students in Texas. This study is based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the 2004-2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a comprehensive surveillance study of energy balance-related behaviors and behavioral antecedents in a state-representative sample of 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-grade public school students in Texas (N = 23,190). Previous-day beverage consumption prevalence estimates were calculated for 5 types of beverages (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, regular sodas, diet sodas, milk, and 100% fruit juice) by grade level, gender, ethnicity, school-level socioeconomic status, and metropolitan status. Logistic regression estimates of consumption prevalence were obtained for important sociodemographic indicators, including sex, grade, and ethnicity. Adjusted Wald tests were used to derive significance tests for sex differences in consumption, as sex emerged as a key determinant of consumption prevalence and varied systematically by type of beverage. The most commonly consumed beverage by all participants was milk. However, more than 50% of students also reported regular soda and fruit-flavored drink consumption during the previous day. Milk and fruit juice consumption showed a steady decline with grade level, while consumption of regular soda increased with grade level. By 11th grade, the prevalence of any beverage consumption, including milk and juice, was significantly greater among boys. Ethnic differences in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were most prevalent in 8th and 11th grades, with the highest estimated prevalence of sugar-sweetened beverages (i.e., fruit-flavored drink and regular soda) consumption among African Americans. Differences in beverage consumption by school-level socioeconomic status and metropolitan status were small. These findings indicate that a
Miller Joan W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a major risk factor for glaucoma in many populations throughout the world. Using a U.S. clinic-based case control sample with broad ethnic diversity, we show that three common SNPs in LOXL1 previously associated with pseudoexfoliation in Nordic populations are significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Methods Three LOXL1 SNPs were genotyped in a patient sample (206 pseudoexfoliation, 331 primary open angle glaucoma, and 88 controls from the Glaucoma Consultation Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The SNPs were evaluation for association with pseudeoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and primary open angle glaucoma. Results The strongest association was found for the G allele of marker rs3825942 (G153D with a frequency of 99% in pseudoexfoliation patients (with and without glaucoma compared with 79% in controls (p = 1.6 × 10-15; OR = 20.93, 95%CI: 8.06, 54.39. The homozygous GG genotype is also associated with pseudoexfoliation when compared to controls (p = 1.2 × 10-12; OR = 23.57, 95%CI: 7.95, 69.85. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with primary open angle glaucoma. Conclusion The pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a common cause of glaucoma. These results indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is significantly associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in an ethnically diverse patient population from the Northeastern United States. Given the high prevalence of pseudooexfoliation in this geographic region, these results also indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is a significant risk factor for adult-onset glaucoma in this clinic based population.
Arslan, Alan A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Katz, Joseph; Levitz, Mortimer; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Toniolo, Paolo
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a full-term pregnancy may affect maternal risk of breast cancer later in life. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare circulating levels of maternal hormones affecting breast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin and prolactin) and proliferation [alpha-fetoprotein, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and estradiol] between women at a low to moderate risk (Asians and Hispanics), as compared with women at a high risk for breast cancer (Caucasians and African-Americans). Between May 2002 and December 2004, a total of 586 pregnant women were approached during a routine prenatal visit. Among them, 450 women (206 Caucasian, 126 Asian, 88 Hispanic, and 30 African-American) met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent. Only singleton pregnancies were considered. Blood samples were drawn during the second trimester of pregnancy. Laboratory analyses were done using the IMMULITE 2000 immunoassay system. Gestational age standardized mean levels of estradiol, IGF-I, and prolactin were significantly higher in Hispanic women compared with Caucasian women. Mean concentration of IGF-I was significantly higher in African-American women compared with Caucasian and Asian women. No significant differences in pregnancy hormone levels were observed between Caucasian and Asian (predominantly second-generation Chinese) women in this study. Irrespective of ethnicity, women who had their first pregnancy had substantially higher mean levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol, and prolactin compared with women who previously had at least one full-term pregnancy. These data suggest that circulating pregnancy hormone levels may explain some of the ethnic differences in breast cancer risk.
Fong, Cristian; Menzel, Stephan; Lizarralde, María Alejandra; Barreto, Guillermo
Fetal hemoglobin is an important factor in modulating the severity of sickle cell anemia. Its level in peripheral blood underlies strong genetic determination. Associated loci with increased levels of fetal hemoglobin display population-specific allele frequencies. We investigated the presence and effect of known common genetic variants promoting fetal hemoglobin persistence (rs11886868, rs9399137, rs4895441, and rs7482144) in 60 Colombian patients with sickle cell anemia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and the use of the TaqMan procedure. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) from these patients was quantified using the oxyhemoglobin alkaline denaturation technique. Genotype frequencies were compared with frequencies reported in global reference populations. We detected genetic variants in the four SNPs, reported to be associated with higher HbF levels for all four SNPs in the Colombian patients. Genetic association between SNPs and HbF levels did not reach statistical significance. The frequency of these variants reflected the specific ethnic make-up of our patient population: A high prevalence of rs7482144-'A' reflects the West-African origin of the sickle cell mutation, while high frequencies of rs4895441-'G' and rs11886868-'C' point to a significant influence of an Amerindian ethnic background in the Colombian sickle cell disease population. These results showed that in the sickle cell disease population in Colombia there is not a unique genetic background, but two (African and Amerindian). This unique genetic situation will provide opportunities for a further study of these loci, such as fine-mapping and molecular-biological investigation. Colombian patients are expected to yield a distinctive insight into the effect of modifier loci in sickle cell disease.
Perkins, Molly M; Ball, Mary M; Whittington, Frank J; Hollingsworth, Carole
Consistent with Western cultural values, the traditional liberal theory of autonomy, which places emphasis on self-determination, liberty of choice, and freedom from interference by others, has been a leading principle in health care discourse for several decades. In context to aging, chronic illness, disability, and long-term care, increasingly there has been a call for a relational conception of autonomy that acknowledges issues of dependency, interdependence, and care relationships. Although autonomy is a core philosophy of assisted living (AL) and a growing number of studies focus on this issue, theory development in this area is lagging and little research has considered race, class, or cultural differences, despite the growing diversity of AL. We present a conceptual model of autonomy in AL based on over a decade of research conducted in diverse facility settings. This relational model provides an important conceptual lens for understanding the dynamic linkages between varieties of factors at multiple levels of social structure that shape residents' ability to maintain a sense of autonomy in this often socially challenging care environment. Social and institutional change, which is ongoing, as well as the multiple and ever-changing cultural contexts within which residents are embedded, are important factors that shape residents' experiences over time and impact resident-facility fit and residents' ability to age in place.
Ohr, Seok; Jeong, Sarah; Saul, Peter
To explore specific cultural and religious beliefs and values concerning death and dying, truth telling, and advance care planning, and the preferences for end-of-life care among older persons from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Whilst literature indicates that culture impacts on end-of-life decision-making significantly, there is limited evidence on the topic. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 171 community older persons who make regular visits to 17 day care centres expressed in a questionnaire their; (1) beliefs about death and dying, truth telling, and advance care planning, and (2) preferences for end-of-life care. More than 92% of respondents believed that dying is a normal part of life, and more than 70% felt comfortable talking about death. Whilst respondents accepted dying as a normal part of life, 64% of Eastern Europeans and 53% of Asia/Pacific groups believed that death should be avoided at all costs. People from the Asia/Pacific group reported the most consensual view against all of the life-prolonging measures. Cultural and religious beliefs and values may have an impact on preferences for treatment at end-of-life. The study offers nurses empirical data to help shape conversations about end-of-life care, and thus to enhance their commitment to help people 'die well'. Information acquisition to extend understanding of each individual before proceeding with documentation of advance care planning is essential and should include retrieval of individuals' cultural and religious beliefs and values, and preferences for care. An institutional system and/or protocol that promote conversations about these among nurses and other healthcare professionals are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnson, Julene K; Nápoles, Anna M; Stewart, Anita L; Max, Wendy B; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Freyre, Rachel; Allison, Theresa A; Gregorich, Steven E
.... The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a community choir program (Community of Voices) on health and well-being and to examine its costs and cost-effectiveness in a large sample of diverse, community-dwelling older adults...
Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman’s perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%, discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.
Laganà, Luciana; Bloom, David William; Ainsworth, Andrew
Urinary Incontinence (UI) affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman's perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%), discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.
George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista
This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, PBody Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.
M.Ed. Since 1994, South African schools are increasingly becoming more diverse due to the implementation of new legislation to foster democratization in schools. Many schools whose communities were until 1994 defined along racial lines are increasingly becoming mixed in terms of learner, staff and parent bodies. Other external factors such as the increasing movement of people across the globe as a consequence of increasing globalization may also be contributing to the apparently growing di...
Brieger, W R; Oke, G A; Otusanya, S; Adesope, A; Tijanu, J; Banjoko, M
Guinea-worm eradication has been progressing internationally and efforts at case containment have begun in most endemic countries. Case containment rests on the assumption that in previous phases of eradication most if not all endemic settlements have been identified. Experiences in the predominantly Yoruba communities of Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, however, have shown that the settlements of ethnic minority groups may be overlooked during initial case searches and subsequent programmes of village-based reporting. The migrant cattle-herding Fulani are found throughout the savannah and sahel regions of West Africa. Nearly 3000 live in 60 settlements in Ifeloju. An intensive case search identified 57 cases in 15 settlements. The assumption that village-based health workers (VBHWs) in neighbouring Yoruba farm hamlets would identify cases in the Fulani settlements, known as gaa, proved false. Only 5 endemic gaa were located next to a Yoruba hamlet that had a VBHW, and even then the VBHW did not identify and report the cases in the gaa. Efforts to recruit VBHWs for each endemic gaa are recommended, but only after LGA staff improve the poor relationship between themselves and the Fulani, whom they view as outsiders. The results also imply the need for Guinea worm eradication staff in neighbouring LGAs, states and countries to search actively for the disease among their minority populations.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Walsh, B. Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C.; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina
Objective The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Method 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N=26), placebo (N=27), shCBT+sibutramine (N=26), or shCBT+placebo (N=25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Results Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Discussion Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to
Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina
The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in
Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L
Food quality is a measure of food security in vulnerable groups. The elderly are often nutritionally vulnerable, but how much of this is reflected in food quality and determined by financial status is unclear. We determined whether expenditure on dietary quality challenges food security in the aged. We used the representative Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan during 1999-2000 (n=1783), and evaluated dietary quality by a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS, range: 0-6) based on a 24-h dietary recall. Monthly mean national food prices were used to estimate food expenditure. In general, it was found to cost more to achieve a greater DDS. The food expenditure of subjects whose DDS=6 was 2.20 times greater than the DDS ≤3 group, after controlling for covariates. Elders of lower socioeconomic status tended to choose foods which would have cost less. However, a sub-group of elders who achieve the highest DDS with limited money offer approaches to food-money management. Nutrition policy directed to food insecure groups, like the aged, could employ health promotion strategies which reduce financial barriers to healthy eating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
D'Orazio, Lina M.; Korst, Lisa M.; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, Thomas M.
Abstract Background Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), a pregnancy-related condition marked by extreme nausea and vomiting, has been considered a psychosomatic illness associated with long-standing personality characteristics (e.g., hysteria). In this pilot study, we examined personality, somatic, and psychological variables with ethnically diverse samples of women with HG and women with typical levels of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Methods Personality (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index-2 [MMPI-2] and MMPI-2RF), somatic (MMPI-2RF), and psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II] and NVP-related quality of life) variables collected during the first trimester of pregnancy were compared between 15 women with HG and 15 women with normal levels of NVP matched for age, education, marital status, insurance source, and race/ethnicity. A secondary analysis was performed comparing these variables among a group of 9 asymptomatic pregnant women to the HG and NVP groups. Results No significant differences were found between the HG and NVP groups on any personality, somatic, or psychological variables. Both groups had clinically significant elevations on the MMPI-2 hypochondriasis scale, which incorporates somatic symptoms. The NVP group had a clinically significant elevation on the MMPI-2RF gastrointestinal complaints scale. Both groups had significantly higher means on the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2RF scales than the asymptomatic group. Predominantly Spanish speakers appeared particularly vulnerable to psychological distress associated with somatic complaints. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that research with HG patients is feasible and that psychological distress expressed by women with HG and NVP may reflect reactions to somatic symptoms. No evidence was found to support an association between HG and personality characteristics. Recommendations for future research are provided, such as examining the potential benefits of translation services
Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien
European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities...... in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...
Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?
Full Text Available Larry Brooks,1 Joseph Hadi,2 Kyle T Amber,1 Michelle Weiner,3 Christopher L La Riche,4 Tamar Ference1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, 2Anesco Interventional Pain Institute, Margate, 3Miami Pain and Diagnostics, Miami, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Florida International University Wertheim College of Medicine, University Park, FL, USABackground: This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM (n=219 and a control group women with chronic pain (CP without FM (n=116. The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort.Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010.Results: Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01 and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05 were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic
Background Self-harm is prevalent in adolescence. It is often a behaviour without verbal expression, seeking relief from a distressed state of mind. As most adolescents who self-harm do not seek help, the nature of adolescent self-harm and reasons for not disclosing it are a public health concern. This study aims to increase understanding about how adolescents in the community speak about self-harm; exploring their attitudes towards and experiences of disclosure and help-seeking. Methods This study involved 30 qualitative individual interviews with ethnically diverse adolescents aged 15–16 years (24 females, 6 males), investigating their views on coping with stress, self-harm and help-seeking, within their own social context in multicultural East London. Ten participants had never self-harmed, nine had self-harmed on one occasion and 11 had self-harmed repeatedly. Verbatim accounts were transcribed and subjected to content and thematic analysis using a framework approach. Results Self-harm was described as a complex and varied behaviour. Most participants who had self-harmed expressed reluctance to talk about it and many had difficulty understanding self-harm in others. Some participants normalised self-harm and did not wish to accept offers of help, particularly if their self-harm had been secretive and ‘discovered’, leading to their referral to more formal help from others. Disclosure was viewed more positively with hindsight by some participants who had received help. If help was sought, adolescents desired respect, and for their problems, feelings and opinions to be noticed and considered alongside receiving treatment for injuries. Mixed responses to disclosure from peers, family and initial sources of help may influence subsequent behaviour and deter presentation to services. Conclusions This study provides insight into the subjective experience of self-harm, disclosure and help-seeking from a young, ethnically diverse community sample. Accounts
Klineberg, Emily; Kelly, Moira J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Bhui, Kamaldeep S
Self-harm is prevalent in adolescence. It is often a behaviour without verbal expression, seeking relief from a distressed state of mind. As most adolescents who self-harm do not seek help, the nature of adolescent self-harm and reasons for not disclosing it are a public health concern. This study aims to increase understanding about how adolescents in the community speak about self-harm; exploring their attitudes towards and experiences of disclosure and help-seeking. This study involved 30 qualitative individual interviews with ethnically diverse adolescents aged 15-16 years (24 females, 6 males), investigating their views on coping with stress, self-harm and help-seeking, within their own social context in multicultural East London. Ten participants had never self-harmed, nine had self-harmed on one occasion and 11 had self-harmed repeatedly. Verbatim accounts were transcribed and subjected to content and thematic analysis using a framework approach. Self-harm was described as a complex and varied behaviour. Most participants who had self-harmed expressed reluctance to talk about it and many had difficulty understanding self-harm in others. Some participants normalised self-harm and did not wish to accept offers of help, particularly if their self-harm had been secretive and 'discovered', leading to their referral to more formal help from others. Disclosure was viewed more positively with hindsight by some participants who had received help. If help was sought, adolescents desired respect, and for their problems, feelings and opinions to be noticed and considered alongside receiving treatment for injuries. Mixed responses to disclosure from peers, family and initial sources of help may influence subsequent behaviour and deter presentation to services. This study provides insight into the subjective experience of self-harm, disclosure and help-seeking from a young, ethnically diverse community sample. Accounts highlighted the value of examining self-harm in the
Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.
The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.
Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S.; Derby, Carol A.; Katz, Mindy J.; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel
This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age = 81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical…
Ishikawa, Eiji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Fujimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Koichi; Watanuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ryuichiro
The composition of the human gut microbiota is related to host health, and it is thought that dietary habits may play a role in shaping this composition. Here, we examined the population size and prevalence of six predominant bacterial genera and the species compositions of genus Bifidobacterium (g-Bifid) and Bacteroides fragilis group (g-Bfra) in 42 healthy Belgian adults by quantitative PCR (qPCR) over a period of one month. The population sizes and prevalence of these bacteria were basically stable throughout the study period. The predominant g-Bifid species were Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum ss. longum, and the predominant g-Bfra species were Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and Bacteroides ovatus. The Belgian gut microbiota data were then compared with gut microbiota data from 46 Japanese subjects collected according to the same protocol (Matsuki et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 167-173, 2004). The population size and prevalence of Bifidobacterium catenulatum group were significantly lower in the Belgian gut microbiota than in the Japanese gut microbiota (P diversity of gut microbiota among ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.
Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc
The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.
Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa
Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.
He, Steven Y; McCulloch, Charles E; Boscardin, W John; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Linos, Eleni; Arron, Sarah T
Fitzpatrick skin phototype (FSPT) is the most common method used to assess sunburn risk and is an independent predictor of skin cancer risk. Because of a conventional assumption that FSPT is predictable based on pigmentary phenotypes, physicians frequently estimate FSPT based on patient appearance. We sought to determine the degree to which self-reported race and pigmentary phenotypes are predictive of FSPT in a large, ethnically diverse population. A cross-sectional survey collected responses from 3386 individuals regarding self-reported FSPT, pigmentary phenotypes, race, age, and sex. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine variables that significantly predict FSPT. Race, sex, skin color, eye color, and hair color are significant but weak independent predictors of FSPT (Ppigmentary phenotypes are inaccurate predictors of sun sensitivity as defined by FSPT. There are limitations to using patient-reported race and appearance in predicting individual sunburn risk. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the association of travel mode to school and non-school destinations with objectively assessed health markers and physical activity in an ethnically diverse sample of inner-city UK schoolchildren. Methods We used data from the Camden Active Spaces project (n = 450 children aged 9.1 yrs to examine associations of school travel mode and frequency of active travel to non-school destinations with daily and out-of-school physical activity, sedentary time and health markers; whilst controlling for appropriate covariates including objectively measured route length. Results High frequency of active travel to non-school destinations was associated with more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during out-of-school periods (3.8, 0.8–6.9 min/d and greater out-of-school (738, 197.4–1278.6 steps/d and daily step counts (588.1, 51.6–1124.6 steps/d. No associations were observed between school travel mode, health outcomes and activity levels. Conclusion High frequency of active travel to non-school destinations is associated with higher levels of physical activity. These findings highlight the contribution of travel to non-school destinations to overall physical activity levels in schoolchildren.
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison M; Rawson, Helen; Redley, Bernice
Death anxiety is a known phenomenon in older people of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CALD) hospitalised for end-of-life (EOL) care . Little is known about how nurses assuage death anxiety in this population. To investigate strategies used by nurses to assuage death anxiety and facilitate a good death in older CALD Australians hospitalised for EOL care. Advanced as a qualitative descriptive inquiry, a purposeful sample of 22 nurses was recruited from four Victorian healthcare services. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis processes. Nurses used three key strategies: recognising death anxiety; delineating its dimensions; and initiating conventional nursingcaring behaviours to help contain it. Contrary to expectations, cultural similarities rather than differences were found in the strategies used. Nursing strategies for recognising, delineating, and managing death anxiety in older CALD people hospitalised at the EOL is an important component of quality EOL care.
Feng, Z.; Boyle, P.; Van Ham, M.; Raab, G.M.
Although developed societies are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse, relatively little research has been conducted on geographies of mixed-ethnic unions (married or cohabiting). There is some recent evidence from the US that mixed-ethnic couples are more likely to be found in mixed-ethnic
Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…
Full Text Available This paper's analysis is based on the narration of M, a Xinjiang-born Mongolian student. The analysis which applied domestic and foreign theories such as Acculturation Theory and Theory of Pattern of Pluralistic Unity of Chinese Ethnicities suggests that the Chinese cultural tradition of valuing harmony and the China's pattern of pluralistic unity of ethnicities is contributive for minority college students to come up to the harmonious construction of ethnic and national identities, and that the inter-ethnic cultural interaction in China affects minority college students' ethnic identity in a complex manner, and the cultural diversity interaction within an ethnic group, especially its introethnic dialectical difference, are significant to the ethnic identity construction of a minority college student.
Keane, Elaine; Heinz, Manuela
Diversifying the teaching population is of international concern. Ireland has experienced significant socio-demographic change in the last decades, but we lack adequate data on the backgrounds of student teachers, especially in relation to nationality and ethnicity. In this paper, we examine the nationality/ies, ethnicity/ies and experiences with…
Medora, Nilufer P.; Wilson, Stephan; Larson, Jeffry H.
Presents a study that examined: (1) preferences for certain parenting styles; (2) the potential for child abuse; and (3) relationships between parenting strategies affected by ethnic differences. Indicates no significant differences in parenting styles or potential for child abuse due to ethnic differences. Includes references. (CMK)
Rautaharju, Pentti M; Zhang, Zhu-ming; Gregg, Richard E; Haisty, Wesley K; Z Vitolins, Mara; Curtis, Anne B; Warren, James; Horaĉek, Milan B; Zhou, Sophia H; Soliman, Elsayed Z
Substantial new information has emerged recently about the prognostic value for a variety of new ECG variables. The objective of the present study was to establish reference standards for these novel risk predictors in a large, ethnically diverse cohort of healthy women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study. The study population consisted of 36,299 healthy women. Racial differences in rate-adjusted QT end (QT(ea)) and QT peak (QT(pa)) intervals as linear functions of RR were small, leading to the conclusion that 450 and 390 ms are applicable as thresholds for prolonged and shortened QT(ea) and similarly, 365 and 295 ms for prolonged and shortened QT(pa), respectively. As a threshold for increased dispersion of global repolarization (T(peak)T(end) interval), 110 ms was established for white and Hispanic women and 120 ms for African-American and Asian women. ST elevation and depression values for the monitoring leads of each person with limb electrodes at Mason-Likar positions and chest leads at level of V1 and V2 were first computed from standard leads using lead transformation coefficients derived from 892 body surface maps, and subsequently normal standards were determined for the monitoring leads, including vessel-specific bipolar left anterior descending, left circumflex artery and right coronary artery leads. The results support the choice 150 μV as a tentative threshold for abnormal ST-onset elevation for all monitoring leads. Body mass index (BMI) had a profound effect on Cornell voltage and Sokolow-Lyon voltage in all racial groups and their utility for left ventricular hypertrophy classification remains open. Common thresholds for all racial groups are applicable for QT(ea), and QT(pa) intervals and ST elevation. Race-specific normal standards are required for many other ECG parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein
A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M
The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N = 24) or UC (N = 24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mai H Oushy
Full Text Available Cancer health disparities research depends on access to biospecimens from diverse racial/ethnic populations. This multimethodological study, using mixed methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of survey results, assessed barriers, concerns, and practices for sharing biospecimens/data among researchers working with biospecimens from minority populations in a 5 state region of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The ultimate goals of this research were to understand data sharing barriers among biomedical researchers; guide strategies to increase participation in biospecimen research; and strengthen collaborative opportunities among researchers.Email invitations to anonymous participants (n = 605 individuals identified by the NIH RePORT database, resulted in 112 responses. The survey assessed demographics, specimen collection data, and attitudes about virtual biorepositories. Respondents were primarily principal investigators at PhD granting institutions (91.1% conducting basic (62.3% research; most were non-Hispanic White (63.4% and men (60.6%. The low response rate limited the statistical power of the analyses, further the number of respondents for each survey question was variable.Findings from this study identified barriers to biospecimen research, including lack of access to sufficient biospecimens, and limited availability of diverse tissue samples. Many of these barriers can be attributed to poor annotation of biospecimens, and researchers' unwillingness to share existing collections. Addressing these barriers to accessing biospecimens is essential to combating cancer in general and cancer health disparities in particular. This study confirmed researchers' willingness to participate in a virtual biorepository (n = 50 respondents agreed. However, researchers in this region listed clear specifications for establishing and using such a biorepository: specifications related to standardized procedures
Association between Satisfaction with State of Health and Meals, Physical Condition and Food Diversity, Health Behavior, and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Older People Living Alone in Japan.
Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Takemi, Y; Fukuda, Y; Nakaya, T; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N
This study aimed to examine perceptions of shopping difficulty, and the relationships with satisfaction with state of health and meals, physical condition, food diversity and health behavior in older people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectional, multilevel survey was designed. The questionnaire was distributed by mail and self-completed by participants. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample of older people living alone, by proximity to a supermarket. In total, 2,346 older people (827 men and 1,519 women) completed the questionnaire. The dependent variable was whether shopping was easy or difficult. A logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and proximity of residence to a supermarket using stepwise variable analyses. The response rate was 67.8%. Overall, 14.5% of men and 21.7% of women considered shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the factors most strongly related to shopping difficulty were a subjective feeling of poor health (men: OR = 3.01, women: OR = 2.16) and lack of satisfaction with meals (men: OR = 2.82, women: OR = 3.69). Other related physical condition and dietary factors were requiring nursing care (men: OR = 3.69, women: OR = 1.54), a high level of frailty, measured using the frailty index score (women: OR = 0.36) and low food diversity score (men: OR = 1.84, women: OR = 1.36). The study found that older people's assessment of their shopping difficulty was related to satisfaction aspects, including a subjective feeling of poor health, and lack of satisfaction with meals, as well as physical condition. These have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than income in both sexes, and proximity to a supermarket in women.
Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.
Cristina Carla Sacramento
Full Text Available This study aims to examine, from a historical perspective, the relations between ethnic-racial diversity in Brazil and didactic-pedagogic treatment of Afro-Brazilian history and culture in two books, concerning History Brazil, issued in the first half of the twentieth century, assuming that these teaching materials also exercised in that period the function of transmitting values and behaviors desirable to that society. Moreover, it is important to highlight the complaints of the black movement in relation to the absence of school discussions about the African-Brazilian question and the reproduction of prejudices that contribute to alienate black people while restricting their access to material and cultural goods. This initiative culminated in the implementation of affirmative action policies by the government, in order to promote the recognition and appreciation of the many ethnic groups that make up Brazilian society.
Brittian, Aerika S.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.
This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants’ ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse. PMID:22905967
Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L
This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.
Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of genetic loci for body mass index in the diverse ancestral populations of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study reveals evidence for multiple signals at established loci.
Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Gong, Jian; Haessler, Jeffrey; Franceschini, Nora; Graff, Mariaelisa; Nishimura, Katherine K; Wang, Yujie; Highland, Heather M; Yoneyama, Sachiko; Bush, William S; Goodloe, Robert; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Buzkova, Petra; Tao, Ran; Isasi, Carmen; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Daviglus, Martha; Mackey, Rachel H; Houston, Denise; Gu, C Charles; Ehret, Georg; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H; Lewis, Cora E; Leppert, Mark; Irvin, Marguerite R; Lim, Unhee; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Lu, Yingchang; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J L; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Guo, Xiuqing; Lee, Wen-Jane; Hai, Yang; Hung, Yi-Jen; Absher, Devin; Wu, I-Chien; Taylor, Kent D; Lee, I-Te; Liu, Yeheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Quertermous, Thomas; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Rotter, Jerome I; Assimes, Themistocles; Hsiung, Chao A; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Prentice, Ross; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, JoAnn E; Kooperberg, Charles; Smokowski, Paul; Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Li, Rongling; Hindorff, Lucia; Buyske, Steven; Matise, Tara C; Peters, Ulrike; North, Kari E
Most body mass index (BMI) genetic loci have been identified in studies of primarily European ancestries. The effect of these loci in other racial/ethnic groups is less clear. Thus, we aimed to characterize the generalizability of 170 established BMI variants, or their proxies, to diverse US populations and trans-ethnically fine-map 36 BMI loci using a sample of >102,000 adults of African, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, European and American Indian/Alaskan Native descent from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study. We performed linear regression of the natural log of BMI (18.5-70 kg/m2) on the additive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at BMI loci on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.), adjusting for age, sex, population stratification, study site, or relatedness. We then performed fixed-effect meta-analyses and a Bayesian trans-ethnic meta-analysis to empirically cluster by allele frequency differences. Finally, we approximated conditional and joint associations to test for the presence of secondary signals. We noted directional consistency with the previously reported risk alleles beyond what would have been expected by chance (binomial p < 0.05). Nearly, a quarter of the previously described BMI index SNPs and 29 of 36 densely-genotyped BMI loci on the MetaboChip replicated/generalized in trans-ethnic analyses. We observed multiple signals at nine loci, including the description of seven loci with novel multiple signals. This study supports the generalization of most common genetic loci to diverse ancestral populations and emphasizes the importance of dense multiethnic genomic data in refining the functional variation at genetic loci of interest and describing several loci with multiple underlying genetic variants.
Loos, E.; Ekström, M.
Television commercials and advertising often represent the generation of older consumers as eternally youthful, active and rich. Representations of senior citizens as fragile people needing services and products to help them to survive are also used, but less frequently. As individual differences
Loos, Eugène; Ekström, M.
Television commercials and advertising often represent the generation of older consumers as eternally youthful, active and rich. Representations of senior citizens as fragile people needing services and products to help them to survive are also used, but less frequently. As individual differences
Loos, Eugène; Ekström, M.
Television commercials and advertising often represent the generation of older consumers as eternally youthful, active and rich. Representations of senior citizens as fragile people needing services and products to help them to survive are also used, but less frequently. As individual differences
Study protocol of "Worth the Walk": a randomized controlled trial of a stroke risk reduction walking intervention among racial/ethnic minority older adults with hypertension in community senior centers.
Kwon, Ivy; Choi, Sarah; Mittman, Brian; Bharmal, Nazleen; Liu, Honghu; Vickrey, Barbara; Song, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa; Oh, Sang-Mi; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine
Stroke disproportionately kills and disables ethnic minority seniors. Up to 30 % of ischemic strokes in the U.S. can be attributed to physical inactivity, yet most Americans, especially older racial/ethnic minorities, fail to participate in regular physical activity. We are conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test a culturally-tailored community-based walking intervention designed to reduce stroke risk by increasing physical activity among African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors with hypertension. We hypothesize that the intervention will yield meaningful changes in seniors' walking levels and stroke risk with feasibility to sustain and scale up across the aging services network. In this randomized single-blind wait-list control study, high-risk ethnic minority seniors are enrolled at senior centers, complete baseline data collection, and are randomly assigned to receive the intervention "Worth the Walk" immediately (N = 120, intervention group) or in 90 days upon completion of follow-up data collection (N = 120, control group). Trained case managers employed by the senior centers implement hour-long intervention sessions twice weekly for four consecutive weeks to the intervention group. Research staff blinded to participants' group assignment collect outcome data from both intervention and wait-list control participants 1 and 3-months after baseline data collection. Primary outcome measures are mean steps/day over 7 days, stroke knowledge, and self-efficacy for reducing stroke risk. Secondary and exploratory outcome measures include selected biological markers of health, healthcare seeking, and health-related quality of life. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups using standard analytic methods for randomized trials. We will conduct a formal process evaluation to assess barriers and facilitators to successful integration of Worth the Walk into the aging services network and to calculate estimated costs to sustain
Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Huang, Yi-Chen; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Fen; Lee, Meei-Shyuan
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and function (sarcopenia) are associated with poor health outcomes and an economic burden on health care services. An appropriate diet and physical activity have been proposed for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Nevertheless, the effects on medical service utilization and costs remain unclear. This study determined the effects of SMM in conjunction with diet quality and physical activity on medical service utilization and expenditure in community-dwelling older Taiwanese. In total, 1337 participants from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were enrolled. An SMM index [SMMI, calculated by dividing SMM (kg) by height (m(2))] was used as the marker of sarcopenia. Participants with the lowest SMMI quartiles (diversity: low and high) and physical activity (low and moderate) were obtained at baseline. Annual medical service utilization and expenditure were calculated from National Health Insurance claims until December 31, 2006. Generalized linear models were used to determine the association between the SMMI and annual medical service utilization and costs in conjunction with dietary diversity or physical activity. After 8 follow-up years, regardless of gender, participants in the high-risk group reported significantly more hospitalization (days and expenditure) and total medical expenditure. Participants in the high-risk group who had low dietary diversity made fewer annual outpatient (14%), preventive care (19%), and dental (40%) visits, but exhibited longer hospitalization (102%) than did those who had a low SMMI and high dietary diversity. Similar patterns were observed in the corresponding medical expenditures. The findings were similar when considering physical activity. Being in the low-risk group in conjunction with having high dietary diversity or more physical activity was associated with the lowest annual adjusted mean hospitalization days with expenditure, and also total
Paweł J. Zawadzki
Full Text Available The oral cavity environment may be colonized by polymicrobial communities with complex, poorly known interrelations. The aim of this study was to determine oral microbiota diversity in order to prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms that are risk factors for human health complications in patients requiring treatment due to various disabilities. The study examined Polish adults aged between 40 and 70 years; parasitological, microbiological, and mycological data collected before treatment were analyzed. The diversity of oral microbiota, including relatively high prevalences of some opportunistic, potentially pathogenic strains of bacteria, protozoans, and fungi detected in the patients analyzed, may result in increasing risk of disseminated infections from the oral cavity to neighboring structures and other organs. Increasing ageing of human populations is noted in recent decades in many countries, including Poland. The growing number of older adults with different oral health disabilities, who are more prone to development of oral and systemic pathology, is an increasing medical problem. Results of this retrospective study showed the urgent need to pay more attention to the pretreatment examination of components of the oral microbiome, especially to the strains, which are etiological agents of human opportunistic infections and are particularly dangerous for older adults.
Al Abed, Naser A; Davidson, Patricia M; Hickman, Louise D
To explore the healthcare needs of older Arab migrants, focussing on Arab-Australians and their socio-cultural characteristics. Disparities in accessing healthcare services and addressing healthcare needs are evident among ethnic minorities including Arab migrants, particularly, older people. Racial stereotyping can also affect their ability to use these services. Arabs are a populous and diverse group with a long history of global migration. Australia is one of the most multicultural societies in the world, and Arab-Australians constitute an important ethnic minority group. Systematic review. The electronic databases Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), MEDLINE (Ovid), Ageline, ProQuest, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO and Google Scholar were searched from 1990-October 2012. Search terms included health care needs, aged care, ethnic, cultural, linguistics, social, ethnic groups, culturally and linguistically diverse, nonEnglish speaking, ageing, elderly, Arabs, Arabic-speaking and Australia. Eight articles reviewing the healthcare issues of Australians from Arabic-speaking background were identified using the search strategy. An additional eight articles were identified through hand searching. Racial stereotyping can alter health-seeking behaviours and healthcare treatment. Increasing the understanding of specific cultural attributes of Arab-Australians will contribute to improving health outcomes. Healthcare providers and policymakers need to adopt more effective ways of communication with Arab-Australians to provide more culturally competent care and achieve better health outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; De Maagd-Rodriguez, Megan
Depression and anxiety are significant mental health issues that affect urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women disproportionately. This study sought to identify social determinants of mental health and barriers to help-seeking for this population. Using community based participatory research and focus groups, sixty-one Black, Hispanic, and White women identified economic, family, cultural, and neighborhood issues as perceived determinants of their depression/anxiety. They identified practical, psychosocial, and cultural barriers to their help-seeking behavior. These results can promote women's health by fostering an understanding of social factors as perceived determinants of depression/anxiety and shaping practice and policy initiatives that foster positive aggregate outcomes. © 2013.
Paula J. Caplan
Full Text Available The Voices of Diversity project’s goal was to explore which experiences of students of color and women students on campuses of predominantly white institutions make them feel welcomed, accepted, supported, and encouraged, and which make them feel the opposite. This was to address (1 the frequent claim that African American and Latino/a students’ lower graduation rates are unrelated to anything that transpires on campus and (2 the increased subtlety of many expressions of bias against members of historically mistreated groups. At each institution, between 51 and 54 students of color participated, as well as three white women and three white men, each completing a questionnaire about demographic information and campus experiences and being interviewed about what has been helpful and hurtful to them on campus. Manifestations of racism, sexism, and the two combined were reported on all campuses in both overt and microaggression forms. Recommendations for change were made in individual reports to each institution, and at one, major changes were made immediately and ongoing, and at another, work was begun on comprehensive action plans.
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes
This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…
A few days into the new school year, the author's female students invariably beg, plead, and cajole her in the hopes of watching Disney's "Pocahontas" in class. Toddlers when the film was released in 1995, doubtless they have seen it already dozens of times; more importantly, the author cringes at the ethnic and gender stereotypes sometimes…
Burt, Brian A.; Knight, Alexander; Robeson, Justin
Despite a growing body of work on the experiences of Black collegians, the higher education knowledge base lacks scholarship focused on Black men in graduate programs who are foreign-born and/or identify ethnically as other than African American. In this article, we provide a domain-specific investigation (i.e., based on students' field of study),…
Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....
Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.
Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael
Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in
de Souza Barbosa, Juliana Fernandes; Zepeda, Mario Ulises Perez; Béland, François; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira
The aims of this study were to compare cut points for weakness proposed by Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project with cut points estimated with our own data; to assess the prevalence of clinically relevant handgrip strength (HGS) weakness according to published criteria across distinct populations of older adults; to estimate the ability of HGS weakness to identify slowness. This is a cross-sectional analysis of International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) involving 1935 community-dwelling older adults, between 65 and 74 years, who completed HGS and gait speed assessment. We used baseline data from Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). Weakness was defined according to sex-specific HGS cut points associated with slowness proposed by FNIH Sarcopenia Project. Slowness was defined as gait speed <0.8 m/s. IMIAS cut points for clinical weakness had good agreement with those proposed by FNIH. Weakness prevalence across the research sites ranged from 1.1 % (Saint-Hyacinthe) to 19.2 % (Manizales) among men. Women from Manizales (13.5 %) and Natal (19.3 %) had higher prevalence of weakness than their counterparts. FNIH cut points had a strong association with slowness, for both sexes. The IMIAS population generated cut points which were close to those proposed by FNIH. There was large variability in prevalence of weakness across our research sites. The HGS cut points for weakness proposed by FNIH performed well in IMIAS populations, providing a useful tool for screening older adults at risk for functional problems.
Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.
Tandi E Matsha
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.
Geraets, Daan T; Grünberg, Antoon W; van der Helm, Jannie J; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Quint, Koen D; Sabajo, Leslie O A; de Vries, Henry J C
Cervical cancer is caused by carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination in Suriname, we performed a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of and determinants for genital carcinogenic HPV infections. Women were recruited at a family planning (FP) clinic and a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Vaginal swabs were used for HPV genotyping by the SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 system. Logistic regression was used to identify determinants for carcinogenic HPV infection. The prevalence of any HPV was 54.2% and of carcinogenic HPV was 27.9% among 813 women attending the FP clinic. Among the 188 women attending the STI clinic, the prevalence of any HPV (76.1%) and of carcinogenic HPV (40.4%) was significantly higher. HPV52 was the most prevalent genotype in both clinics. The prevalence of HPV16 and/or 18 was 6.4% in the FP clinic and 12.2% in the STI clinic. The following determinants were independently associated with carcinogenic HPV infection among women visiting the FP clinic: ≥2 recent partners (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.06), Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.70), disassortative ethnic sexual mixing (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.99) and ethnic group (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.85 for Creole and OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62 for mixed ethnicity, both compared with Hindustani). No independent determinants were found among women visiting the STI clinic. Carcinogenic HPV is highly prevalent among women in Suriname, and not equally distributed among ethnic groups. These data provide a baseline to assess possible shifts in the prevalence of HPV genotypes following vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita
This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…
Copeland, KL; Brown, JS; Creasman, JM; Van Den Eeden, SK; Subak, LL; Thom, DH; Ferrara, A.; Huang, AJ
Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, but its effect on female sexual function is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of diabetes to sexual function in middle-aged and older women. Sexual function was examined in a cross-sectional cohort of ethnically diverse women aged 40-80 years using self-administered questionnaires. Multivariable regression models compared self-reported sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, overall sexual satisf...
Freire, Aline Nascimento; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Alvarado, Beatriz; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria
To assess the validity and reliability of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) in adults 65 to 74 years old, capable in all basic activities of daily living (ADL), in Quebec and Brazil. Participants were recruited in St. Bruno (Quebec) by local advertisements (n = 60) and in Santa Cruz (Brazil) by random sampling (n = 64). The SPPB includes tests of gait, balance, and lower-limb strength. Disability status was categorized as intact mobility, limited mobility, and difficulty in any of ADL. There was a graded decrease in mean SPPB scores with increasing limitation of lower limbs, disability, and poor health. Using the test-retest reliability the authors evaluated the intraclass correlation coefficient, which was high in both samples: .89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.93) in St. Bruno and .83 in Santa Cruz (95% CI: 0.73, 0.89). This study provides evidence for the validity and reliability of SPPB in diverse populations.
Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations; significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) Research Group
Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P.; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W.H. Linda; Abboud, Hanna E.; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G.; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L.
Background Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Results Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population. PMID:19795399
Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations-significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes Research Group.
Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W H Linda; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon G; Arar, Nedal H; Bowden, Donald W; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I; Goddard, Katrina A B; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Parekh, Rulan S; Rich, Stephen S; Chen, Yii-Der I; Saad, Mohammed F; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Taylor, Kent D; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L
Previous studies have shown that in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals [N] = 1004), American Indian (AI; N = 883), European American (EA; N = 537), and Mexican American (MA; N = 1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Non-parametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 4q21.1 (LOD = 3.13; genome-wide p = 0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of 11 regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD > 1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD = 2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD = 2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD = 2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD = 2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD = . 2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD > 1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA; 6p in EA; 2p in AI; and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
Pedersen, Bodil Maria
as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...... approaches/methodology so they may to be discussed and developed further in our forum. Such issues will touch upon the preceding ones and may contribute to inspire research on gendered violence in general....
Remler, Dahlia K.; Jeanne A. Teresi; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Ramirez, Mildred; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Silver, Stephanie; Shea, Steven
Caring for persons with diabetes is expensive, and this burden is increasing. Little is known about service use, behaviors, and self-care of older individuals with diabetes who live in underserved communities. Information about self-care, informal care, and service utilization in urban (largely Latino, n = 695) and rural (mostly white, n = 819) Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes living in federally designated medically underserved areas was collected using computer-aided telephone interview...
Queiroz, Maria Alice Freitas; Laurentino, Rogério Valois; da Silva Graça Amoras, Ednelza; Araújo, Mauro Sérgio Moura de; Gomes, Samara Tatielle Monteiro; Lima, Sandra Souza; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme polymorphisms seem to significantly influence the variability of the responses to certain antiretroviral drugs and their toxicity levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the CYP2B6 G516T polymorphism on hepatic, renal, immunological, and viral marker changes in HIV-1-positive patients receiving treatment in an ethnically diverse region of the Amazon. CYP2B6 G516T genotyping was performed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in samples from 185 patients. Urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell counts, and HIV-1 plasma viral load were measured. The polymorphic CYP2B6 G516T allele frequency was 0.36, which is different from the frequencies in other ethnic groups. The polymorphic genotype was associated with changes in the urea and ALT levels, although the median values were within the normal range. The TT genotype was also associated with significantly lower CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients using efavirenz. The CYP2B6 G516T polymorphism seems to affect the response to efavirenz treatment by reducing CD4(+) T-cell counts in patients with a high degree of miscegenation who use this antiretroviral agent. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%, A*0201 (12.50%, A*0301 (10.10%; HLA-B*5101(8.17%, B*3501(6.73%, B*5001 (6.25%; HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%, DRB1*1501 (8.65% and DRB1*0301 (7.69%. The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%, A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%; HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14% and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%. The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%. Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. CONCLUSIONS
When the struggle is over money, taxes, wage levels, business regulations, social welfare, infrastructural investments, or similar issues, the gains and losses are divisible in a variety of .... up opportunities for the smaller ethnic groups in order to contain the disintegrative tendencies inherent in Nigeria's cultural diversity ...
Phillips, Karon L; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri
Preliminary studies have revealed an association between cultural competence and an improvement in the quality of healthcare services, increased patient satisfaction, and increased effectiveness of services. This study examined factors that helped to explain patients' perceptions of their providers' interpersonal sensitivity - one component of cultural competence. The respondents were 2075 racially/ethnically diverse adults, aged 50 years and older, who responded to a national telephone survey. Results indicate that one of the main factors predicting interpersonal sensitivity is self-rated physical health: those who reported better health were more likely to see their provider as exhibiting higher levels of sensitivity. This was true for Hispanic/Latino patients. The results also suggest that having a provider of the same race/ethnicity was a significant factor only for Hispanic/Latino patients. Despite findings from previous research, racial/ethnic concordance may not be universally effective in improving interpersonal sensitivity in healthcare settings for all racial/ethnic groups.
Peterson, David A.; Masunaga, Hiromi
Outlines policy needs in older adult education: encouraging involvement, broadening diversity, developing organizations focused on older adults, developing guidance for program evaluation, preparing and credentialing instructors, funding, and encouraging long-term commitment. (SK)
Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188
Auais, Mohammad; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Garcia, Angeles; Ylli, Alban; Deshpande, Nandini
Fear of falling (FoF) is a common health problem among older adults. Although the relationship between FoF and limitation in daily activities has been reported, FoF's relationship to mobility disability, a transitional phase to end-stage disability, is not yet understood. We examined the relationship between FoF and mobility disability among community-dwelling older adults and explored the differences in this relationship among socio-culturally diverse sites. Cross-sectional study. Community. 1875 participants (65-74 years) were recruited from five sites and included in the analysis (Kingston, Canada: 394; St-Hyacinthe, Canada: 397; Tirana, Albania: 359; Manizales, Colombia: 341; and Natal, Brazil: 384). FoF was quantified using the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I, range: 16-64). Mobility disability was defined as difficulty climbing a flight of stairs or walking 400m without assistance. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported high FoF (FES-I>27). The average FoF scores were significantly different between the sites (pdisability. The distribution of mobility disability was significantly different at the five study sites (ranged from 19.8% at Kingston, Canada to 50.7% at Tirana, Albania, pdisability, respectively, compared to those with no/low FoF. FoF was significantly associated with risk of mobility disability across the sites. The strength of this relationship appears to be different between the five sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rath, J.; Swagerman, A.
European cities are increasingly faced with the challenge of integrating people from very diverse backgrounds. As migrant populations increase, so do the opportunities for new business, job creation and international competitiveness. This report shows that ethnic entrepreneurs, however small their
Cook, Erica J; Randhawa, Gurch; Large, Shirley; Guppy, Andy; Chater, Angel M; Pang, Dong
NHS Direct, a leading telephone healthcare provider worldwide, provided 24/7 health care advice and information to the public in England and Wales (1998-2014). The fundamental aim of this service was to increase accessibility, however, research has suggested a disparity in the utilisation of this service related to ethnicity. This research presents the first national study to determine how the diverse population in England have engaged with this service. NHS Direct call data from the combined months of July, 2010 October, 2010, January 2011 and April, 2011 was analysed (N = 1,342, 245) for all 0845 4647 NHS Direct core service calls in England. Expected usage of NHS Direct was determined for each ethnic group of the population by age and gender and compared by actual usage using Chi-square analysis. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine variations of uptake by ethnic group and Index for Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 rank. Results confirmed that all mixed ethnic groups (White and Black Caribbean, White and Black African, White and Asian) had a higher than expected uptake of NHS Direct which held consistent across all age groups. Lower than expected uptake was found for Black (African/Caribbean) and Asian (Bangladeshi/Indian/Chinese) ethnic group which held consistent by age and gender. For the Pakistani ethnic group usage was higher than expected in adults aged 40 years and older although was lower than expected in younger age groups (0-39). Findings support previous research suggesting a variation in usage of NHS Direct influenced by ethnicity, which is evidenced on a national level. Further research is now required to examine the underlying barriers that contribute to the ethnic variation in uptake of this service.
Hesser, Phillip, Ed.
For people concerned with the future of diversity in the United States, the month of June 2003 was a momentous watershed. Nearly four decades earlier, President Lyndon B. Johnson first advocated affirmative action as a means to "seek not just freedom, but opportunity." June 2003 also saw the 25th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's…
Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria
To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.
Josey, E. J.
Examines what is being done to implement cultural diversity in libraries. Topics addressed include affirmative action; defining cultural diversity, including the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace; problems in implementing cultural diversity; and examples of successful implementation programs. (Contains three…
Stock, N. M.
Around the world, men and women of all cultures and ethnicities are being exposed to Western appearance ideals. Paired with a lack of representation of black and minority ethnic (BME) men and women in the mainstream media, the public's appreciation of ethnic diversity is being threatened. Nicola Stock examines the growing trend of appearance-altering practice among those from BME communities.
Gavin R. Jenkins
Full Text Available This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT, all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009 in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits.
Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Rose, Emily J; Maher, Amy I; Gregory, Kristina C; Cotton, Megan E
This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT), all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city) in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009) in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits.
Chung-Do, Jane J; Goebert, Deborah A; Hamagani, Fumiaki; Chang, Janice Y; Hishinuma, Earl S
Interpersonal youth violence is a growing public health concern in the United States. Having a high sense of school connectedness has been found to be a protective factor for youth violence. A high school course that aims to enhance school connectedness was developed and evaluated to investigate the students' sense of school connectedness and its association with violent attitudes and behaviors. Survey data from 598 students from a predominately Asian and Pacific Islander student body were analyzed to assess their level of school connectedness and violent attitudes and behaviors. Analysis of Variance was used to identify differences in the school connectedness and violence scores related to students' demographic characteristics. The role of school connectedness in the relationship between student demographic characteristics and violent attitudes and behaviors was examined with structural equation modeling. Overall, students reported a moderately high sense of school connectedness. School connectedness was found to be negatively associated with violent attitudes but not self-reported violent behaviors. Multiple-group analyses were conducted across the ethnic groups, which found differential associations between the school connectedness and violence variables. These results highlight the value of disaggregating the Asian and Pacific Islander category and the need for future research to further contextualize and clarify the relationship between school connectedness and interpersonal youth violence. This will help inform the development of evidence-based strategies and prevention programming that focus on school connectedness to address disparities in interpersonal youth violence outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian
This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity......, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has become hegemonic in policy initiatives and legal documents. This hegemony is achieved by understanding ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversions from established norms in terms of deprivation. In this way,educational institutions and ‘majority society...
Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie
The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840
Soeria-Atmadja, Sandra; Österberg, Emma; Gustafsson, Lars L; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Eriksen, Jaran; Rubin, Johanna; Navér, Lars
Approximately 2.6 million children live with HIV globally, and efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most widely used antiretroviral agents for HIV treatment in children and adults. There are concerns about the appropriateness of current EFV dosing and it has been discussed whether EFV dosing should be adapted according to genotype in children as suggested for adults. To investigate if pediatric EFV dosing should be guided by genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes rather than by body weight. EFV plasma concentrations measured for clinical purposes from all children less than 18 years old at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, treated with EFV were collected retrospectively. They were genotyped for eleven polymorphisms in genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes and P-glycoprotein, of potential importance for EFV disposition. Data on country of origin, sex, age, weight, HIV RNA, viral resistance patterns, CD4 cells, adherence to treatment, subjective health status and adverse events were collected from their medical records. Thirty-six patients and 182 (mean 5 samples/patient) EFV plasma concentration measurements from children of African, Asian and Latin American origin were included. EFV plasma concentration varied 21-fold between measurements (n = 182) (0.85-19.3 mg/L) and 9-fold measured as mean EFV plasma concentration across the subjects (1.55-13.4 mg/L). A multivariate mixed-effects restricted maximum likelihood regression model, including multiple gene polymorphisms, identified CYP2B6*6 T/T (p EFV plasma concentration in HIV-infected children in a multi-ethnic outpatient clinic. Knowledge about individual variants in key drug metabolizing enzyme genes could improve clinical safety and genotype directed dosing could achieve more predictable EFV plasma concentrations in HIV-infected children.
Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Meigs, James B; North, Kari E; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Bůžková, Petra; Franceschini, Nora; Haessler, Jeffrey; Goodloe, Robert; Spencer, Kylee L; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Howard, Barbara V; Jackson, Rebecca; Kolonel, Laurence N; Liu, Simin; Manson, JoAnn E; Monroe, Kristine R; Mukamal, Kenneth; Dilks, Holli H; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Nato, Andrew; Wan, Peggy; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Ambite, José Luis; Buyske, Steven; Florez, Jose C; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Haiman, Christopher A; Peters, Ulrike; Pankow, James S
Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) within European populations have implicated common genetic variants associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. In contrast, few studies have been conducted within minority groups, which carry the highest burden of impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in the U.S. As part of the 'Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium, we investigated the association of up to 10 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genetic regions with glucose or insulin concentrations in up to 36,579 non-diabetic subjects including 23,323 European Americans (EA) and 7,526 African Americans (AA), 3,140 Hispanics, 1,779 American Indians (AI), and 811 Asians. We estimated the association between each SNP and fasting glucose or log-transformed fasting insulin, followed by meta-analysis to combine results across PAGE sites. Overall, our results show that 9/9 GWAS SNPs are associated with glucose in EA (p = 0.04 to 9 × 10-15), versus 3/9 in AA (p= 0.03 to 6 × 10-5), 3/4 SNPs in Hispanics, 2/4 SNPs in AI, and 1/2 SNPs in Asians. For insulin we observed a significant association with rs780094/GCKR in EA, Hispanics and AI only. Generalization of results across multiple racial/ethnic groups helps confirm the relevance of some of these loci for glucose and insulin metabolism. Lack of association in non-EA groups may be due to insufficient power, or to unique patterns of linkage disequilibrium.
This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...... in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...
Jæger, Kirsten; Jensen, Annie Aarup
are related to recent contributions to diversity management theory and intercultural communication theory, calling for a strengthened focus on the historical, political, and social dimensions of intercultural contact. In continuation of these trends, an alternative, theoretical framework......Focussing on the cultural encounter between nurses and ethnic minority patients in Danish hospitals, this paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of nursing discourses on cultural difference and intercultural contact. Articles from the Danish professional journal ‘The Nurse......', published in the period from 2000 to 2008, pertaining to cultural contact and intercultural understanding have been analyzed in order to uncover nurses' experience of ethnic and cultural diversity and the ways, in which these experiences challenge their cultural and professional expertise. Results...
Shea, Steven; Kothari, Dhruva; Teresi, Jeanne A; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P; Lantigua, Rafael A; Palmas, Walter; Weinstock, Ruth S
We examined the social impact of the telemedicine intervention effects in lower- and higher-socioeconomic status (SES) participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) study. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care, with blinded outcome evaluation, in 1665 Medicare recipients with diabetes, aged 55 years or older, residing in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. The primary trial endpoints were hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels. HbA1c was higher in lower-income participants at the baseline examination. However, we found no evidence that the intervention increased disparities. A significant moderator effect was seen for HbA1c (P = .004) and systolic blood pressure (P = .023), with the lowest-income group showing greater intervention effects. Lower-SES participants in the IDEATel study benefited at least as much as higher-SES participants from telemedicine nurse case management for diabetes. Tailoring the intensity of the intervention based on clinical need may have led to greater improvements among those not at goal for diabetes control, a group that also had lower income, thereby avoiding the potential for an innovative intervention to widen socioeconomic disparities.
proportion of variability in EFV plasma concentration in HIV-infected children in a multi-ethnic outpatient clinic. Knowledge about individual variants in key drug metabolizing enzyme genes could improve clinical safety and genotype directed dosing could achieve more predictable EFV plasma concentrations in HIV-infected children.
Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Padukkage, Priyanwada; Baik, Nah Yeon Tina; Kim, Duhee; Fussell, Andrew; Hutchinson, Sarah; Ragupathy, Rajan
Detecting and eliminating ethnic disparities in access to and outcomes of healthcare relies on accurate ethnicity recording. Studies have shown that there are inaccuracies in ethnicity data in New Zealand and elsewhere. This study examined coverage and accuracy of ethnicity data for three Asian ethnic groups. Student researchers from, or with links to, the ethnic groups concerned worked with communities to recruit participants. Names and dates of birth, length of residence in New Zealand and immigration status were recorded. Names and dates of birth were sent to the New Zealand Health Information Service, which attempted to link them with National Health Index ethnicity data. Only 72% of participants could be linked to an NHI number, and only 48% of those had their ethnicity recorded accurately. Linkage odds were lower for older people, and accuracy was higher for Chinese people compared to the other ethnicities. Length of residence and immigration status did not affect either coverage or accuracy. Most participants who could be linked had their ethnicity recorded in the broader category of "Asian", but accuracy was poor at the sub-group level. Extreme caution should be applied when examining data about sub-groups within the 'Asian' category.
This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...... adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...
Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte
The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...
Lichter, Daniel T
Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now.