WorldWideScience

Sample records for ethnic soups snacks

  1. Irradiation to ensure the safety and quality of some ethnic soups, snacks and Yunan chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawati, Z.; Harsojo; Nurcahya, C.M.; Anas, F.; Natalia, L.

    2009-01-01

    Semi-concentrated black, oxtail, chicken vegetable and chicken sweetcorn soups, precooked spring roll, rissole and croquette snacks, and Yunan chicken were individually packed in a dry laminate pouch of PET 12 μm/LDPE adh.2 μm/Al foil 7 μm /LDPE adh/LLDPE (C4) 50 μm under vacuum followed by freezing for 24 h at -18 deg. C prior to irradiation with doses of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy at cryogenic conditions (-79 deg. C). Both the non-irradiated and irradiated prepared meals were then stored in a refrigerator at 5 ± 2 deg. C. The non-irradiated samples and those samples irradiated at 1 kGy were mostly damaged after a week in storage. Gamma irradiation at doses of 5-7 kGy for soups and snacks, and doses of 3-5 kGy for Yunan chicken can reduce the microbial load by about 2-3 log cycles, respectively, without affecting the physicochemical parameters and palatability over 2-3 months. However, the irradiated spring roll was unable to withstand more than 1 month storage. The D 10 values for potential pathogens on Yunan chicken were 0.28 kGy for Salmonella typhimurium, 0.17 kGy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.12 kGy for Escherichia coli O157, 0.66 kGy for Listeria monocytogenes and 0.09 kGy for Campylobacter jejuni. (author)

  2. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  3. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  6. "Snacks" saludables (Smart Snacks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics presentan algunas buenas ideas de refrigerios o “snacks” que ayudan a mantener al cuerpo con energía.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/29/2011.

  7. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  8. Floating polygon soup

    OpenAIRE

    Colleu , Thomas; Morin , Luce; Pateux , Stéphane; Labit , Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new representation called floating polygon soup for applications like 3DTV and FTV (Free Viewpoint Television). This representation is based on 3D polygons and takes as input MVD data. It extends the previously proposed polygon soup representation which is appropriate for both compression, transmission and rendering stages. The floating polygon soup conserves these advantages while also taking into account misalignments at the view synthesis stage...

  9. Random walk loop soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Ferreras, José A. Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian loop soup introduced in Lawler and Werner (2004) is a Poissonian realization from a sigma-finite measure on unrooted loops. This measure satisfies both conformal invariance and a restriction property. In this paper, we define a random walk loop soup and show that it converges to the Brownian loop soup. In fact, we give a strong approximation result making use of the strong approximation result of Koml\\'os, Major, and Tusn\\'ady. To make the paper self-contained, we include a proof...

  10. Snacks for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Snacks for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Snacks for Toddlers ... overdoing it at snack time. Stick to a Snack Schedule Kids do better with a routine, so ...

  11. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Lauren E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches served either in normal (round, square or shaped (heart, hands, animals form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21. The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack. Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch. Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value  Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits.

  12. Smart Snacks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about some great snacks to munch on that will keep your body moving!  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  13. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging.

  14. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from the web.

  15. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-01-01

    Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from t...

  16. Smarter snack ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for healthy eating Smarter snack ideas Smarter snack ideas Healthier eating doesn’t mean that you ... to cut out fun foods. Here are some snacks to keep your body and your mouth happy: ...

  17. The culture of soup

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Fasloen

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the way in which our cultures influence our occupations. It looks at how a woman's occupation of cooking and distributing soup is influenced firstly by the broader culture of the community in which she lives; secondly, by her religion; and lastly, by the Cape Malay culture to which she belongs. The information for this paper was gained through two unstructured interviews, which were analysed to identify the aspects of the above that influenced her occupational p...

  18. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  19. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  20. Snacking when you have diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy snacking - diabetes; Low blood sugar - snacking; Hypoglycemia - snacking ... When you have diabetes , you need to control your blood sugar. Insulin or diabetes medicines, as well as exercise in general, helps lower ...

  1. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  3. Snacks for adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy snack between meals can also decrease your hunger and keep you from overeating at meal time. ... contain added sugar. Fresh fruit is a healthier choice than a fruit-flavored drink. Foods and drinks ...

  4. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  5. [Fluorescence spectra analysis of the scrophularia soup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-hua; Song, Feng; Han, Juan; Su, Jing; Qu, Fei-fei; Song, Yi-zhan; Hu, Bo-lin; Tian, Jian-guo

    2008-08-01

    The cold-water and boiled-water soaked scrophularia soups have been prepared. The emission and excitation spectra of each scrophularia soup under different conditions have been measured at room temperature. The pH values of the different scrophularia soups have been also detected. There are obvious differences between the cold-water soaked scrophularia soup and the boiled-water soaked scrophularia. For both soups the emission wavelength increases with the wavelength of the excitation, but the peaks of the emission spectra for cold-water and boiled-water soaked scrophularia soup are different, which are 441 and 532 nm, respectively. Excitation spectrum has double peaks in the cold-water soaked scrophularia soup while only one peak with longer wavelength in the boiled-water soaked one. The pH value changes from 5.5 to 4.1. According to the organic admixture fluorescence mechanism we analyzed the reasons of the experimental results. Through heating, the interaction in different fluorescence molecular and the energy transfer process in the same fluorescence molecular become more active, and the conjugate structures and the generation of hydrogen bonds, increase. The fluorescence measurement is of value for the scrophularia pharmacology analysis and provides an analytical method for the quality identification of scrophularia soup.

  6. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  8. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  9. Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Weon; Samant, Shilpa S; Seo, Yoojin; Seo, Han-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly less salty when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Copycat snacks: Can students differentiate between school and store snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna

    2018-02-01

    In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks. Seventy-six middle school students evaluated three different food products offered in schools: Froot Loops, Rice Krispy Treats, and Doritos. Students tasted snacks in a series of triangle tests for difference, one for each snack food, including school and store versions. Students were also presented with packages, school and store versions of the same products, and asked to determine the expected taste, purchase intentions, and perceived healthfulness. Students could determine taste differences between school and store Rice Krispy Treats yet could not differentiate between Froot Loop and Dorito varieties. Students rated store versions of all three snacks with greater expected taste, higher intention to purchase, and as less healthy. While it seems product confusion concerning copycat snacks may not be severe in this sample, snack food brands are still a prominent feature in schools. It is possible that these copycat snacks can confuse students' perceptions of healthy foods. Alternative packaging for school foods or reformation of store versions of snack foods may be viable solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  13. Primordial Evolution in the Finitary Process Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görnerup, Olof; Crutchfield, James P.

    A general and basic model of primordial evolution—a soup of reacting finitary and discrete processes—is employed to identify and analyze fundamental mechanisms that generate and maintain complex structures in prebiotic systems. The processes—ɛ-machines as defined in computational mechanics—and their interaction networks both provide well defined notions of structure. This enables us to quantitatively demonstrate hierarchical self-organization in the soup in terms of complexity. We found that replicating processes evolve the strategy of successively building higher levels of organization by autocatalysis. Moreover, this is facilitated by local components that have low structural complexity, but high generality. In effect, the finitary process soup spontaneously evolves a selection pressure that favors such components. In light of the finitary process soup's generality, these results suggest a fundamental law of hierarchical systems: global complexity requires local simplicity.

  14. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  15. Storing Empty Calories and Chronic Disease Risk: Snack-Food Products, Nutritive Content, and Manufacturers in Philadelphia Corner Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Lucan, Sean C.; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child’s food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, l...

  16. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  17. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, E.J.M.; Geenen, Rinie; Kremers, Stef; Dagnelie, Pieter; Larsen, Junilla

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, age 12.4 - 17.6 years), and their friends, and snack and soft drink availability at schools was measured. In regression analysis, consumption by friends, snack and soft drink availability within sch...

  18. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  19. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  20. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  1. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters; Rinie Geenen; Stef Kremers; Pieter Dagnelie; Junilla Larsen

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys,

  2. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  3. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  4. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  5. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  6. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups.

  7. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  8. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  9. Hadron production from a boiling quark soup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    A thermodynamical quark model is presented which can predict cross sections for particle production in hadronic interactions at high energies. In this model a hadronic collision gives rise to a soup of quarks and antiquarks at some temperature kT approximately 170 MeV. Results for inclusive meson production cross sections look promising in comparison with experiments. A formula for the inclusive cross section is given. (Auth.)

  10. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-sectional analysis of eating patterns and snacking in the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Jacquier, Emma; Eldridge, Alison L

    2017-06-01

    To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula). The percentage of children consuming meals and snacks and their contribution to total energy, the number of snacks consumed per day, energy and nutrients coming from snacks and the most commonly consumed snacks were evaluated by age. A national sample of US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. A total of 2891 children in five age groups: 6-8 months (n 249), 9-11 months (n 256), 12-23 months (n 925), 24-35 months (n 736) and 36-47 months (n 725). Snacks were already consumed by 37 % of infants beginning at 6 months; by 12 months of age, nearly 95 % were consuming at least one snack per day. Snacks provided 25 % of daily energy from the age of 12 months. Approximately 40 % of toddlers and pre-school children consumed fruit and cow's milk during snacks; about 25 % consumed 100 % fruit juice. Cookies were introduced early; by 24 months, 57 % consumed cookies or candy in a given day. Snacking is common, contributing significantly to daily energy and nutrient needs of toddlers and pre-school children. There is room for improvement, however, with many popular snacking choices contributing to excess sugar.

  12. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  13. Secular Trends in Meal and Snack Patterns among Adolescents from 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-02-01

    Linkages between snack patterns, diet, and obesity in adolescents likely depend on the consumption of main meals, how often snacks are prepared away from home, and whether energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods and sugary drinks are frequently consumed. Nutrition-based interventions need to be informed by an understanding of how secular changes in the contribution of snacks to dietary intake may be related to changes in meal frequency as well as how these trends differ by sociodemographic characteristics. To examine secular trends from 1999 to 2010 in meal and snack patterns among adolescents. A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, secondary schools completed classroom-administered surveys and food frequency questionnaires in 1999 (n=2,598) and 2010 (n=2,540). Weekly meal frequencies; number of snacks consumed on school and vacation/weekend days; frequent consumption of snacks prepared away from home (≥3 times/week); and daily servings of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drinks that are commonly consumed at snack occasions. Trends from 1999 to 2010 were examined using inverse probability weighting to control for differences in sociodemographic characteristics in the two samples. Mean frequencies of breakfast and lunch increased modestly in the overall population (both P values snacks consumed on schools days (Psnacks prepared away from home, there was a secular decrease in energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drink consumption (Psnack trends among adolescents suggests the need for targeted efforts to ensure public health messages reach low-income and ethnic/racial minority population subgroups most vulnerable to poor nutrition and the development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Random walk loop soups and conformal loop ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brug, T.; Camia, F.; Lis, M.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk loop soup is a Poissonian ensemble of lattice loops; it has been extensively studied because of its connections to the discrete Gaussian free field, but was originally introduced by Lawler and Trujillo Ferreras as a discrete version of the Brownian loop soup of Lawler and Werner, a

  15. In the Soup: An Integrative Unit. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Virginia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that young children view the world holistically, and thus the social studies curriculum should emphasize the concept of integration. Provides two sample lessons on soup in which students explore geographic concepts, history, economics, and the sociology of soup consumption and production. Includes teaching strategies and learning goals.…

  16. Nutrient and other trace elements in instant soups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Instant soups are a new group of dried foods and will play an important role in the nutrition of people because they fulfill present and future social consumer requirements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work to determine the trace elements cesium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, strontium, silver and zinc in instant and long-time soups from the Greek market. According to our results, instant soups have the same iron content as those reported in the literature for bovine muscle, rice, legumes, porcine muscle and some meat products. Instant soup zinc content is the same as those reported for avian muscle, onions, rice, potatoes and sausages. Moreover the consumption of one plateful of instant soup offers to the human body about 8% of the daily required iron and about 2% of the daily required zinc. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  17. Self-crafting vegetable snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; Kleef, van Ellen; Vet, de Emely

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A

  18. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. PMID:27633103

  19. Gardiner's Soup Festival in Zlataritsa - Development of Cultural Tourism or Pre-Elections Campaign: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamihova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the heritage re-establishment during a gourmet festival. Fieldwork data (2007-2015 have shown that unlike other new gourmet festi-vals in Bulgaria the Gardeners’ soup festival serves to be achieved several very different goals: First of all this is an important part of pre-election campaigns for local authorities and for Parliament. Second – this festival strengthens local identity and integrates different ethnic and religious groups inhabiting the small town nowadays. Despite it was pronounced as gourmet festival and was introduced as a part of local strategy for development of tourism the ethnog-raphy shows that main actors do not promote it as touristic attraction. Thereby Gardeners’ soup festival is not stereotypic small-town festival.

  20. Monosodium Glutamate Analysis in Meatballs Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, D.; Amran, A.; Ulianas, A.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in meatball soup using Cu2+ ion as a MSG complex by UV-Vis spectrophotometry has carried out. Reaction of MSG with Cu2+ ions have formed complex compounds [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ characterized by the color change of Cu2+ ion solution from light blue to dark blue. Maximum of complex absorbance [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ is at 621 nm wavelength. The results showed that, the greatest condition of complex [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ was at pH 10, concentration of Cu2+ 0.01 M, complex time is a 30 minute and stable for 170 minutes. Linear response and detection limit of MSG analysis with Cu2+ ions are 0.0005-0.025 M (R2 = 0.994) and (LOD) 0.0003 M. repeatability and recovery method is quite good (% RSD = 0.89% and %recovery = 93%). The analysis of MSG content in meatball soup with MSG complex method was 0.00372 M in sample A and 0.00370 M in sample B.

  1. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    reduction was investigated.Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups...... and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  2. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  3. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    OpenAIRE

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in s...

  4. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children’s ethnic background. Method Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6–13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions (‘control over eating’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘encouragement to eat’ and ‘instrumental feeding’), parenting style dimensions (‘involvement’ and ‘strictness’) and children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of ‘control over eating’ had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that ‘control over eating’ was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. ‘Encouragement to eat’ was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). ‘Instrumental feeding’ was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion Our results suggest that ‘control over eating’ may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic

  5. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  6. Development and preliminary validation of the Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K K; Blake, C E; Kachurak, A; Lumeng, J C; Coffman, D L; Miller, A L; Hughes, S O; Power, T G; Vaughn, A F; Blaine, R E; Younginer, N; Fisher, J O

    2018-06-01

    Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness). Expert panel evaluation and cognitive interviews were used to refine items and construct definitions. The initial instrument of 105 items was administered to an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 305 parents (92% mothers) of children aged 1-6 y participating in three existing cohort studies. The sample was randomly split into two equal samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first sample to identify snack parenting practices within each parenting dimension, followed by confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample to test the hypothesized factor structure. Internal consistency of sub-scales and associations with existing measures of food parenting practices and styles and child weight status were evaluated. The final P-SNAQ scale included 51 items reflecting 14 snack parenting practices across four parenting dimensions. The factor structure of the P-SNAQ was consistent with prior theoretical frameworks. Internal consistency coefficients were good to very good for 12 out of 14 scales and subscale scores were moderately correlated with previously validated measures. In conclusion, initial evidence suggests that P-SNAQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating a wide range of snack parenting practices in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  9. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-05-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L. (Lu); V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian); W. Jansen (Wilma); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. van Grieken (Amy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Method: Cross-sectional data from the

  11. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  12. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  13. [Snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qinggang; Cao, Keke; Xu, Jiazhang; Yuan, Xueli; Zhuo, Zhipeng; Xu, Jian; Pan, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen. By a multiple stage probability proportionate to size sampling, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion. In the second stage, 30 households were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 2 years or older were invited to take dietary survey. There were 66.1% residents consuming snacks. More girls ate snacks than boys (chi2 = 11.552, P snacks than adults (chi2 = 27.207, P snacks were 107.8 kcal (451.5 kJ), 1.7 g, 0.8 g, 22.0 g, 1.1 g, 23.1 microg, 8.3 mg, 1.1 mg,17.0 mg, 9.3 mg, 21.0 mg, 0.8 mg and 0.4 mg. Food categories the most frequently consumed as snacks were fruit, pastry, milk and products, beverages and grains. It's important to strengthen the diet education among residents in Shenzhen, especially the knowledge how to select snacks correctly and rationally.

  14. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  15. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-11-01

    Consuming soup can enhance satiety and reduce energy intake. Little is known about the influence on energy intake and satiety of varying the form of soup by altering the blending of ingredients. We tested the effects on meal intake of consuming different forms of soup as a preload: broth and vegetables served separately, chunky vegetable soup, chunky-pureed vegetable soup, or pureed vegetable soup. Normal-weight men and women (n = 60) came to the laboratory for lunch once a week for 5 weeks. Each week, one of four compulsory preloads, or no preload, was consumed prior to lunch. A test meal was consumed ad libitum 15 min after the soup was served. Results showed that consuming soup significantly reduced test meal intake and total meal energy intake (preload + test meal) compared to having no soup. When soup was consumed, subjects reduced meal energy intake by 20% (134+/-25 kcal; 561+/-105 kJ). The type of soup had no significant effect on test meal intake or total meal energy intake. Consuming a preload of low-energy-dense soup, in a variety of forms, is one strategy for moderating energy intake in adults.

  16. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...

  17. Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking

  18. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a “snack,” it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between “meals” and “snacks” is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. PMID:27184274

  19. Conformal correlation functions in the Brownian loop soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camia, Federico; Gandolfi, Alberto; Kleban, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We define and study a set of operators that compute statistical properties of the Brownian loop soup, a conformally invariant gas of random Brownian loops (Brownian paths constrained to begin and end at the same point) in two dimensions. We prove that the correlation functions of these operators have many of the properties of conformal primaries in a conformal field theory, and compute their conformal dimension. The dimensions are real and positive, but have the novel feature that they vary continuously as a periodic function of a real parameter. We comment on the relation of the Brownian loop soup to the free field, and use this relation to establish that the central charge of the loop soup is twice its intensity.

  20. Conformal correlation functions in the Brownian loop soup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camia, Federico, E-mail: federico.camia@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gandolfi, Alberto, E-mail: albertogandolfi@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Università di Firenze (Italy); Kleban, Matthew, E-mail: kleban@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We define and study a set of operators that compute statistical properties of the Brownian loop soup, a conformally invariant gas of random Brownian loops (Brownian paths constrained to begin and end at the same point) in two dimensions. We prove that the correlation functions of these operators have many of the properties of conformal primaries in a conformal field theory, and compute their conformal dimension. The dimensions are real and positive, but have the novel feature that they vary continuously as a periodic function of a real parameter. We comment on the relation of the Brownian loop soup to the free field, and use this relation to establish that the central charge of the loop soup is twice its intensity.

  1. Conformal correlation functions in the Brownian loop soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Camia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study a set of operators that compute statistical properties of the Brownian loop soup, a conformally invariant gas of random Brownian loops (Brownian paths constrained to begin and end at the same point in two dimensions. We prove that the correlation functions of these operators have many of the properties of conformal primaries in a conformal field theory, and compute their conformal dimension. The dimensions are real and positive, but have the novel feature that they vary continuously as a periodic function of a real parameter. We comment on the relation of the Brownian loop soup to the free field, and use this relation to establish that the central charge of the loop soup is twice its intensity.

  2. Eating patterns of US adults: Meals, snacks, and time of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this paper is to update knowledge of eating patterns of US adults with sex and ethnicity specific estimates and discuss the implications of reported patterns with respect to current resurgence of interest in the topic. The eating patterns data were from the NHANES 2009-2014 (n = 15,341 adults). Overall, American adults reported 4.96 ± 0.03 eating episodes in the recall. Women were more likely to report each of the three main meals and all three meals plus one or more snacks relative to men (P < 0.0001). Relative to other ethnic groups, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to report each meal or a snack or all three meals, and the foods reported for meals and snacks were higher in energy density (P = 0.0001). Of the three meals, the dinner meal, and among snacks, the after-dinner snack, were reported by the highest percentage of Americans; these two eating episodes provided nearly 45% of the 24-h energy intake. The average dinnertime was 6:24 pm, and the average time of the last eating episode of the 24-h ingestive period was 8:18 pm. Given these findings, adoption of eating patterns that advocate less frequent eating and shift in the time of eating are likely to present a challenge. We know little about the validity of eating patterns determined from 24-h recalls or questionnaire instruments. The extent of within person variability and reporting errors in different eating pattern components also need further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer Lauren E; Laurentz Sara; McCabe George P; Kranz Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches) served either in normal (round, square) or shaped (heart, hands, animals) form to preschoole...

  4. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  6. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  7. Rewarming the Primordial Soup: Revisitations and Rediscoveries in Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    A short history of Campbell's primordial soup: In this essay we try to disclose some of the historical connections between the studies that have contributed to our current understanding of the emergence of catalytic RNA molecules and their components from an inanimate matter. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  9. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  10. Stone Soup Partnership: A Grassroots Model of Community Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Stone Soup Partnership is a collaboration between California State University at Fresno and its surrounding community to address serious problems in a high-crime, impoverished apartment complex near the university. The program involves students in service learning for university credit, and has expanded from a single summer youth program to a…

  11. Free radical interactions between raw materials in dry soup powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-12-01

    Interactions at the free radical level were observed between dry ingredients in cauliflower soup powder, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, which may be of importance for quality deterioration of such dry food products. The free radical concentrations of cauliflower soup powder, obtained by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, rapidly become smaller during storage (40°C and relative humidity of 75%) than the calculated concentrations of free radicals based on the free radical concentrations of the powder ingredients used to make the soup powder and stored separately under similar conditions. Similarly, free radical concentrations decreased faster when any combination of two powder ingredients (of the three major ingredients of the soup powder) were mixed together and stored at 50°C for 1week than when each powder component was stored separately. Furthermore, yeast extract powder was found to play a key role when free radical interactions between powder ingredients occurred. The incubation of rapeseed oil with powder ingredients at 45°C for 24h, indicated the ability of cauliflower powder to increase the concentration of hydroperoxides in rapeseed oil, while yeast extract powder was found to prevent this hydroperoxide formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  13. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  14. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  15. Understanding the influence of the snack definition on the association between snacking and obesity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Foltran, Francesca; Ghidina, Marco; Berchialla, Paola

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand how different definitions of snacking influence the estimated probability of obesity in the presence of concurrent risk factors. Factors influencing obesity were evaluated by reviewing the relevant literature through a PUBMED search. Six different modalities to define snack consumption were identified. A Bayesian network model in which nodes represent the variables that the retrieved studies indicate as affecting the probability of obesity was implemented and used to estimate the individual risk of developing obesity taking into account the concurrent effect of the considered risk factors. For a subject with a given profile of factors, the probability of obesity varies according to the chosen definition of snacking, up to maximum of 70%. The variability of the probability of obesity attributable to the chosen definition of snacking is very high and may threaten any conclusion about the effect of snacking, which may be related to the specific definitions adopted in the study.

  16. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sess...

  17. Evaluation of Australian soup manufacturer compliance with national sodium reduction targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; Crino, Michelle; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Packaged foods dominate Australia's food supply and are important contributors to nutrition-related disease. To help address this problem, the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) was launched in 2009, setting voluntary sodium reduction targets for various categories of packaged foods. The aim of this study was to examine the food industry's progress and compliance with the FHD sodium reduction targets for soup products. Nutritional information was collected from product labels of all soup products available from four major Australian supermarkets annually between 2011 and 2014. Products were assigned to categories in line with those in the FHD. The proportion of soup products meeting sodium reduction targets was examined by (i) soup category; (ii) FHD participant status; and (iii) manufacturer. A 6% reduction in sodium levels in soups overall was found from 2011 to 2014 (P = 0.002). Significant reductions were observed for FHD participants (P < 0.05 for all) but not for non-participants. In 2014, 67% dry soups and 76% of wet soups met national sodium reduction targets. Despite the majority of soup products meeting the sodium reduction targets specified by the FHD, re-evaluation of the targets may be required to further reduce sodium levels in soups. Manufacturers participating in the FHD are likely to be driving sodium reductions in the Australian soup market, further highlighting the need for continued government leadership in this area to ensure all manufacturers are actively involved in the process. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  18. Soups increase satiety through delayed gastric emptying yet increased glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, M E; Ranawana, V; Shafat, A; Henry, C J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the satiating properties of soups compared with solids; however, the mechanisms controlling soup-induced satiety are unknown. This study aimed to understand the physiological mechanisms causing soup to be more satiating. A total of 12 volunteers were tested on three occasions after a solid meal, chunky soup or smooth soup test meal for gastric emptying (GE) using the sodium [1-¹³C] acetate breath test, satiety using visual analog scales (VAS) and glycaemic response (GR) using finger prick blood samples. There was a significant difference in GE half-time (P=0.022) and GE ascension time (P=0.018), with the longest GE times for the smooth soup and the shortest for the solid meal. The GR area under the curve was significantly different between meals (P=0.040). The smooth soup had the greatest GR (87.0 ± 49.5 mmol/l/min), followed by the chunky soup (65.4 ± 48.0 mmol/l/min), with the solid meal having the lowest GR (61.6 ± 36.8 mmol/l/min). Volunteers were fuller after the smooth soup compared with solid meal (P=0.034). The smooth soup induced greater fullness compared with the solid meal because of a combination of delayed GE leading to feelings of gastric distension and rapid accessibility of nutrients causing a greater glycaemic response.

  19. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  20. 20 healthy snacks with 100 calories or less

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 4, 2015. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services website. Healthy snacks: quick tips for parents. healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/nutrition-and-physical-activity/nutrition/healthy-snacks-quick-tips- ...

  1. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  2. 4 Top Healthy Snacks | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... vegetables. Always watch your toddler during meals and snacks. —Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  3. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin

  4. Interrelationships of child appetite, weight and snacking among Hispanic preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...

  5. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  6. Effect of umami taste on pleasantness of low-salt soups during repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roininen, K; Lähteenmäki, L; Tuorila, H

    1996-09-01

    In the present study the effects of the umami substances, monosodium glutamate (0.2%) and 5'-ribonucleotides (0.05%), on the acceptance of low-salt soups in two groups of subjects, one with low-salt (n = 21) and the other with high-salt (n = 23) preferences were assessed. The groups were presented with soups containing 0.3% sodium chloride (low-salt group) and 0.5% sodium chloride (high-salt group). The subjects three times consumed leek-potato or minestrone soup with umami and three times the other soup without umami during six sessions over 5 weeks (sessions 2-7). In addition they tasted these and two other soups (lentil and mushroom soup) during sessions 1 and 8, during which they evaluated the pleasantness, taste intensity, and ideal saltiness of the soups with and without added umami. These ratings were higher when soups contained umami in both the low- and high-salt groups, and they remained higher regardless of which of the soups served for lunch contained umami. The low- and high-salt groups did not differ in pleasantness ratings, although the former rated the taste intensity of their soups higher and ideal saltiness closer to the ideal than did the latter. The pleasantness ratings of soups without umami were significantly lower at the end of the study than at the beginning, whereas those of soups with umami remained unchanged. These data suggest that the pleasantness of reduced-salt foods could be increased by addition of appropriate flavors.

  7. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A Soup Service for Advanced Digestive Cancer Patients with Severe Anorexia in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hideaki; Kakihara, Naoki; Nishitani, Yoko; Asano, Kota; Nose, Mariko; Takanashi, Asami; Kanda, Eiichiro; Nishimura, Masako; Tokunaga, Eiko; Matsurugi, Ayako; Fujimura, Keiko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taga, Chiaki; Ikawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Makiko; Masuda, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    The palliative care team (PCT), nutrition support team (NST), and department of nutrition in our hospital developed a special soup service for patients with terminal cancer. We evaluated the usefulness of this soup service for improving the mood in patients with advanced digestive cancer with severe anorexia. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 18 patients with advanced cancer originating in digestive organs who received soup service at our institution between 2015 and 2016. Members of the PCT, NST, and a licensed cook visited the bedside of each patient and served them a cup of soup twice a week. Fifteen patients (83%) were able to taste the soup with no adverse events, and 11 (73%) of them enjoyed the taste of the soup. In the five patients who died in our hospital during the service, the time between their last soup intake and death ranged from two to seven days (median three days). Even terminally ill patients suffering from advanced digestive cancer with severe anorexia were able to enjoy the taste of the soup served to them. The establishment of special meal service, such as this soup service, may not only relieve their stress but also support the strength of living and help improve their spiritual quality of life.

  9. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Snacking behavior in adolescence: the influence of peer group members and school availability of snacks and soft drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Frequent high caloric intake (snacking) induces overweight. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of social and physical environmental factors on the snacking behavior of adolescents. Design: cross-sectional population based study Method: Snacking behavior of individuals and

  11. [Determination method of polysorbates in powdered soup by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y; Abe, Y; Ishiwata, H; Yamada, T

    2001-04-01

    A method for qualitative and quantitative analyses of polysorbates in powdered soup by HPLC was studied. Polysorbates in samples were extracted with acetonitrile after rinsing with n-hexane to remove fats and oils. The extract was cleaned up using a Bond Elut silica gel cartridge (500 mg). The cartridge was washed with ethyl acetate and polysorbates were eluted with a small amount of acetonitrile-methanol (1:2) mixture. The eluate was treated with cobalt thiocyanate solution to form a blue complex with polysorbate. In order to determine polysorbate, the complex was subjected to HPLC with a GPC column, using a mixture of acetonitrile-water (95:5) as a mobile phase, with a detection wavelength of 620 nm. The recoveries of polysorbate 80 added to powdered soups were more than 75% and the determination limit was 0.04 mg/g. When the proposed method was applied to the determination of polysorbates in 16 commercial samples of powdered soup for instant noodles and seasoning consomme, no polysorbates were detected in any sample.

  12. Intersection local times, loop soups and permanental Wick powers

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Yves Le; Rosen, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Several stochastic processes related to transient Lévy processes with potential densities u(x,y)=u(y-x), that need not be symmetric nor bounded on the diagonal, are defined and studied. They are real valued processes on a space of measures \\mathcal{V} endowed with a metric d. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the continuity of these processes on (\\mathcal{V},d). The processes include n-fold self-intersection local times of transient Lévy processes and permanental chaoses, which are `loop soup n-fold self-intersection local times' constructed from the loop soup of the Lévy process. Loop soups are also used to define permanental Wick powers, which generalizes standard Wick powers, a class of n-th order Gaussian chaoses. Dynkin type isomorphism theorems are obtained that relate the various processes. Poisson chaos processes are defined and permanental Wick powers are shown to have a Poisson chaos decomposition. Additional properties of Poisson chaos processes are studied and a martingale extension is obt...

  13. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  14. The Tongzhou Festival of Dainty Snacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Tongzhou is located at the east end of the 100-li street in Beijing. The area is a hub which links Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. It is also the starting point of the Great Beijing-Hangzhou Canal. A gathering place of merchants since ancient times, Tongzhou’s food culture continues to flourish. The snacks

  15. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  16. Campus-based snack food vending consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle L; Klein, Elizabeth G; Kaye, Gail

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the purchases of university vending machine clientele and to understand what consumers purchase, purchase motivations, and purchase frequency after implementation of a vending policy designed to promote access to healthier snack options. Cross-sectional data collection from consumers at 8 campus vending machines purposefully selected from a list of highest-grossing machines. Vending machines were stocked with 28.5% green (choose most often), 43% yellow (occasionally), and 28.5% red (least often) food items. Consumers were predominately students (86%) and persons aged 18-24 years (71%). Red vending choices were overwhelmingly selected over healthier vending options (59%). Vended snack food selections were most influenced by hunger (42%) and convenience (41%). Most consumers (51%) frequented vending machines at least 1 time per week. Despite decreased access to less healthful red snack food choices, consumers chose these snacks more frequently than healthier options in campus vending machines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Children's snack consumption: role of parents, peers and child snack-purchasing behaviour. Results from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke J C; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-12-01

    Parents and peers are both likely to influence children's dietary behaviour. However, their actual influence may depend on the age and life stage of the individual child. Therefore, this study examined the influence of parents (home snack availability and consumption rules) and peers on 11-year-old children's snack consumption, and whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. It was hypothesized that children are more likely to buy unhealthy snacks if these are not always available at home, if restrictive rules apply to their consumption and if a child is sensitive to peer influence. It was also assumed that children who buy snacks out of their pocket money would consume more snacks. Data were taken from 1203 parent-child dyads who completed a questionnaire in the INPACT study (IVO Physical Activity Child cohorT). Multivariable regression models were used to (i) analyze associations between children's consumption and parents' and peers' influence and (ii) determine whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Of the parental factors, home availability of snacks was associated with higher snack consumption (B = 1.03, P snack-purchasing behaviour were not associated. Children who were sensitive to peer influence consumed more snacks (B = 3ċ07, P snacks out of their pocket money (odds ratio 3.27, P snack-purchasing behaviour explained part (8.6%) of the association between peer influence and children's snack consumption. As these findings indicate that both parents and peers influence children's snack consumption, health promotion may benefit from targeting the broader social environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Chicken soup for teaching and learning ESD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun Young Kim; Seong Woo Jeon; Gwang Ha Kim

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is becoming a popular procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of superficial mucosal lesions, and has the advantage of en bloc resection which yields a higher complete resection and remission rate compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). However, the learning process of this advanced endoscopic procedure requires a lengthy training period and considerable experience to be proficient. A well framed training protocol which is safe, effective, easily reproducible and cost-effective is desirable to teach ESD. In addition, the training course may need to be tailored around settings such as ethnicity, culture, workload, and disease incidence. In Asian countries with a large volume of early gastric lesions which need endoscopic treatment, endoscopists would be able to learn ESD expanding their skills from EMR to ESD under the supervision of experts. Whereas, in Western countries due to the low incidence of superficial gastric tumors, trials have utilized simulator modelsto improve learning. In Korea, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) is playing an important role in training many gastroenterologists who have shown an interest in performing ESD by providing an annual live demonstration and a nationwide tutoring program. The purpose of this article is to introduce our ESD tutoring experience, review the published papers related to this topic, and propose several suggestions for future directions in teaching and learning ESD.

  19. An exploration of adolescent snacking conventions and dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Pedersen, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted...... and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social...... contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. ‘‘in-between meals’’ and ‘‘fun snacks’’, the results of the focus...

  20. Estudo sensorial de sopa-creme formulada à base de palmito Sensorial evaluation of cream soup formulated with heart of palm base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Azevedo Magalhães MONTEIRO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha, foi utilizado sob forma desidratada na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. A análise sensorial dessa sopa-creme foi feita em duas partes. Testou-se a sopa-creme em adultos utilizando-se a escala hedônica variando de 1 a 9 pontos ( 1 -- "desgostei extremamente" e 9 -- "gostei extremamente", e, para crianças, a escala hedônica facial de 1 a 7 pontos ( 1- "desgostei extremamente" e 7 -- "gostei extremamente". Os resultados encontrados na análise sensorial revelaram não haver diferença significativa, quando comparadas as sopas-creme de palmito e coração da palmeira, para adultos; quanto às crianças, a sopa-creme de coração da palmeira alcançou o "gostei moderadamente". Esses podem ser considerados bons resultados, uma vez que o palmito não faz parte do hábito alimentar destas crianças.The utilization of the sub-product of processing of Bactris gasipaes was studied using a dehydration process for processed food (soup-cream to be used in school snacks. The sensorial analysis by a standard-formulation for soup-cream obtained by the early tests was made. An hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 9 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 9- "I extremely liked it" was used for sensorial analysis in adults; and a facial hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 7 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 7- "I extremely liked it" was used for children. The sensorial analysis revealed no diferences between the soup-cream of the heart of palm and that of the palm stipes for adults; for children, the rating of the soup-cream of palm stipes reached "I sort of liked it"> These can be taken as good results since heart of palm is not a common meal for the children in that sample.

  1. Writing and Retelling Multiple Ethnographic Tales of a Soup Kitchen for the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dana L.; Creswell, John W.; Olander, Lisa

    An ethnographic study narrated three tales about a soup kitchen for the homeless and the near-homeless. To provide a cultural, ethnographic analysis, and share fieldwork experiences the study began with realist and confessional tales. These two tales emerged from the initial writing and presenting of the soup kitchen ethnography to qualitative…

  2. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40°C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In the Soup: Integrating and Correlating Social Studies with Other Curriculum Areas: Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Virginia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Demonstrates a thematic approach, using soup as the theme, to integrate and correlate elementary social studies with other subject areas. Outlines four soup activities, presenting goals, materials, strategies, and extensions of each. Stresses how integrated curricula effectively develops skills such as observing, inferring, serial ordering, and…

  5. [Associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-02-01

    To examine associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development. We also investigated whether trends in appetite, snacking, and body type continue through time. Children (n=1313) born between April 2000 and March 2004, in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, were enrolled. Data were collected during health checkups at 18 and 36 months of age. The items used for analysis were the child's appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and gender. The mothers commented on their child's appetite as good, normal, lacking, or irregular. The good and normal responses were grouped under the category good/normal appetite, while lacking and irregular were grouped under the category lacking/irregular appetite. Body types were calculated using an obesity index and classified as underweight, normal, or overweight. Fifteen kinds of snacks at 36 months were classified using cluster analysis. Appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and body type at 18 and 36 months of age were compared using the McNemar test. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the appetite categories. There were 664 boys (50.6%) and 648 girls (49.4%) in the study (missing=1). The response rate was 56.5%. Snacks were classified by content as meal substitutes, snacks and sweet foods, or healthy snacks. There was no change in appetite at 18 and 36 months of age. By 36 months, snack content, snack-eating style had changed (e.g. solitary snacking increased.). The highest risk factor for appetite at 36 months was lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months (OR: 4.70, CI: 3.07-7.19), eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.81, CI: 1.24-2.65), followed by unsupervised snacking (OR: 2.92, CI: 1.45-5.87), and consuming few healthy snacks (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.48-1.00). The risk factors for lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months of age were eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.13-2.49), receiving snacks on-demand (OR: 1

  6. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  7. Adolescent television viewing and unhealthy snack food consumption: the mediating role of home availability of unhealthy snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.

  8. The Blue Soup or What Architecture Comes from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Tokarev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of creating an architectural form, while comparing the arts practiced by the Blue Soup Group and the projects by Architectural School MARCH. One of the means of working on the form is revealing its characteristics through metaphor, comparing with a poetical, artistic and natural image. The essential feature of this approach is translation of a certain image into the language of architecture with the help of fixation of your own feelings and search for appropriate means to create similar feelings among the audience or users.

  9. Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

  10. Preparing Soups. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.10b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with preparing and serving soups. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: thin soups, thick soups, convenience soups,…

  11. Taxing Snack Foods: Manipulating Diet Quality or Financing Information Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Kuchler; Abebayehu Tegene; J. Michael Harris

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' likely response to a proposed tax on snack foods that addresses public health issues generated by rising U.S. obesity rates. We estimate demands for particular snack foods and show they are price inelastic after accounting for quality variation. We calculate impacts of a range of ad valorem taxes on the demand for salty snack food. The impacts on dietary quality are small, and negligible at the lower tax rates. If taxes were earmarked for funding information...

  12. Snacking Behavior and Obesity among Female Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.

  13. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This...

  14. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Talwinder S.; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J.; Chiu, Mei-Chen M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  15. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 min to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children's intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Shenghua soup: a study of the relationships among related knowledge, expected effectiveness, and consumption behavior in postpartum women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hsun; Wang, Hsiao-Ling; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2013-02-01

    Women in Taiwan are concerned about postpartum personal healthcare, and over 90% consume Shenghua soup as part of their postpartum recovery regimen. However, knowledge regarding Shenghua soup is inadequate among this population. Therefore, the correlation between Shenghua soup knowledge and consumption behavior deserves further clarification. The study explores the relationships among Shenghua soup knowledge, expected effectiveness, and consumption behavior in postpartum women. A descriptive and correlational research design recruited a convenience sample of 515 soup consumption behavior. Those with bachelor and master school degrees earned a higher average score than those educated to the senior high school level; (2) Knowledge correlated significantly and positively with expected effectiveness (r = .14, p soup consumption behavior; (4) Principal sources of participant information on Shenghua soup were family members (30.84%), media (26.65%), and medical staff (16.44%); (5) Knowledge scores for over half of participants were in the "wrong" to "no idea" range; and (6) 66.6% of participants took Chinese and Western medicines to help uterine contraction, while 76% had consumed Shenghua soup. Findings indicate that postpartum women in Taiwan have insufficient and incorrect knowledge regarding Shenghua soup; hold positive expectations regarding Shenghua soup effectiveness; and have a high Shenghua soup consumption rate. This study may serve as a postpartum care reference for healthcare professionals to improve the postpartum health of women.

  17. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  18. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  19. Nonequilibrium quantum mechanics: A "hot quantum soup" of paramagnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, H. D.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements of the lifetime (decay width) of paramagnons in quantum antiferromagnet TlCuCl3, we investigate paramagnon decay in a heat bath and formulate an appropriate quantum theory. Our formulation can be split into two regimes: (i) a nonperturbative, "hot quantum soup" regime where the paramagnon width is comparable to its energy; (ii) a usual perturbative regime where the paramagnon width is significantly lower than its energy. Close to the Neel temperature, the paramagnon width becomes comparable to its energy and falls into the hot quantum soup regime. To describe this regime, we develop a new finite frequency, finite temperature technique for a nonlinear quantum field theory; the "golden rule of quantum kinetics." The formulation is generic and applicable to any three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet in the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Specifically, we apply our results to TlCuCl3 and find agreement with experimental data. Additionally, we show that logarithmic running of the coupling constant in the upper critical dimension changes the commonly accepted picture of the quantum disordered and quantum critical regimes.

  20. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  1. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  2. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  3. Effect of preexercise soup ingestion on water intake and fluid balance during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (SOUP throughout the entire trial (treatment effect; p = .04). SOUP before exercise increased ad libitum water intake and may alter kidney function.

  4. Expected satiation after repeated consumption of low- or high-energy-dense soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Stafleu, Annette; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-07-14

    We investigated whether repeated consumption of a low-energy-dense (LED; 208 kJ/100 g) or high-energy-dense (HED; 645 kJ/100 g) soup modifies expectations relating to the satiating capacity of the food, and its subsequent intake. In study 1, participants consumed either a novel-flavoured LED (n 32; 21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·4 (SD 1·6) kg/m(2)) or HED soup (n 32; 21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·3 (SD 1·7) kg/m(2)). Soup was served in a fixed amount on days 1-4 and ad libitum on day 5. 'Expected satiation' was measured on days 1, 2 and 5. Expected satiation did not change after repeated consumption of the LED or HED soup. Ad libitum intake did not differ between the LED (461 (SD 213) g) and HED soup (391 (SD 164) g). Only on day 1, expected satiation was higher for the HED soup than for the LED soup (P = 0·03), suggesting a role for sensory attributes in expected satiation. In study 2, thirty participants (21 (SD 1·6) years, BMI 21·3 (SD 1·7) kg/m(2)) performed a single measurement of expected satiation of the LED and HED soup, and four commercially available types of soup. Ratings on sensory attributes were associated with expected satiation. Results on expected satiation coincided with those of study 1. Thickness and intensity of taste were independently associated with expected satiation. Expectations may initially rely on sensory attributes and previous experiences, and are not easily changed.

  5. Nutrition for homeless populations: shelters and soup kitchens as opportunities for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Katherine A; Bharel, Monica; Henderson, David C

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition is a daily challenge for the homeless population in America. Homeless individuals suffer from a high prevalence of diseases related to poor diet, yet there has been little public health effort to improve nutrition in this population. Shelters and soup kitchens may have an untapped potential to impact food access, choice and quality. We offer ideas for intervention and lessons learned from ten shelters and soup kitchens around Greater Boston, MA, USA. By advancing food quality, education and policies in shelters and soup kitchens, the homeless population can be given an opportunity to restore its nutrition and health.

  6. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors influencing the reinforcing value of fruit and unhealthy snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, L; Clauwaert, A; Vandeweghe, L; Vangeel, J; Van Lippevelde, W; Goossens, L; Huybregts, L; Lachat, C; Eggermont, S; Beullens, K; Braet, C; De Cock, N

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the reinforcing value of healthy and unhealthy snack food in adolescents (n = 108, aged 14-16 years). Moderation by access to different foods, sex and the personality trait reward sensitivity is tested. In a computerized Food Reinforcement Task, adolescents could earn portions of a healthy and an unhealthy snack following an identical progressive reinforcement schedule for both food types. Reinforcing value of food was indexed by the number of button presses for each food type. Participants were allocated randomly to two-order condition: fruit-snack versus snack-fruit. Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Dutch age-downward version of Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale. Results showed that the reinforcing value of an unhealthy snack is higher than that of fruit, with participants making more button presses for unhealthy snacks, M = 1280.40, SD = 1203.53, than for fruit, M = 488.04, SD = 401.45, F(1,48) = 25.37, p present in the snack-fruit condition, not in the fruit-snack condition, indicating that access to food moderates the effect of food type. There is no evidence for moderation by reward sensitivity. Results point to the importance of simultaneously increasing barriers to obtain unhealthy food and promoting access to healthy food in order to facilitate healthy food choices.

  8. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight.This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight.Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations.Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores.No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  9. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  10. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  11. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  12. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  13. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat, sugar and salt) were evaluated. Acceptance of spicy snacks tested were Carrot-Garlic 77%, Broccoli-Garlic 68%, Spinach-Garlic 61% and Red Onion 53%. This is the first report of spicy gluten-free, 50% vegetable...

  14. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization and Fortification of Patin Fish on Extrusion Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Nurilmala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasius sp. is a well cultured freshwater fish. Fortification improves protein level in snack and an effort to vary catfish fish product. The purpose of this study was to determine drying method for fish grit, formulation of snack and its properties. Grit formation by several drying methods and proximate (AOAC and degree of polarization. Snack used based on the physical measurement, namely development ratio. Formulations of grit composition of corn: rice: fish were 70%:30%:0% (K, 65%:25%:10% (A, 62.5%:22.5%:15% (B, 60%:20%:20% (C. Fish addition only effect the color of snack based on sensory analysis. There was no effect on snacks physical properties both 10% and 15% of fish grit added. Chemical measurements comprised water, ash, lipid, protein levels and polarization degree. Statistical analysis showed that fish addition effect the protein level on extrusion snack. In addition, polarization measurement showed that the snack with fish addition of 10% (A and 15%( B are fully gelatinized.Keyword: formulation, patin fish, snack

  16. Implicit action tendencies and evaluations in unwanted snacking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Sharbanee, J.; Vroling, M.S.; Backer, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated automatic/implicit and controlled/explicit processes in snacking behavior. Participants who were bothered by their habit of eating snacks were compared to participants with another habit. A reaction time task was used to assess implicit action tendencies in which

  17. Impact of Math Snacks Games on Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B.

    2016-01-01

    This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a…

  18. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Eline W M; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef P J; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  19. Structuring of expanded snacks based on patato ingredients : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review the current knowledge on the structuring via bubble expansion of starchy snacks, which are formulated on the basis of potato ingredients. These snacks are rarely discussed in scientific literature, but there are a scant number of patents dealing with various formulations and

  20. Effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup similar in palatability and on salt preference after consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption.

  1. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  2. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  3. A polygon soup representation for free viewpoint video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleu, T.; Pateux, S.; Morin, L.; Labit, C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a polygon soup representation for multiview data. Starting from a sequence of multi-view video plus depth (MVD) data, the proposed representation takes into account, in a unified manner, different issues such as compactness, compression, and intermediate view synthesis. The representation is built in two steps. First, a set of 3D quads is extracted using a quadtree decomposition of the depth maps. Second, a selective elimination of the quads is performed in order to reduce inter-view redundancies and thus provide a compact representation. Moreover, the proposed methodology for extracting the representation allows to reduce ghosting artifacts. Finally, an adapted compression technique is proposed that limits coding artifacts. The results presented on two real sequences show that the proposed representation provides a good trade-off between rendering quality and data compactness.

  4. Defining the Core Microbiome in Corals' Microbial Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Agreda, Alejandra; Gates, Ruth D; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2017-02-01

    Corals are considered one of the most complex microbial biospheres studied to date, hosting thousands of bacterial phylotypes in species-specific associations. There are, however, substantial knowledge gaps and challenges in understanding the functional significance of bacterial communities and bacterial symbioses of corals. The ubiquitous nature of some bacterial interactions has only recently been investigated and an accurate differentiation between the healthy (symbiotic) and unhealthy (dysbiotic) microbial state has not yet been determined. Here we review the complexity of the coral holobiont, coral microbiome diversity, and recently proposed bacterial symbioses of corals. We provide insight into coupling the core microbiome framework with community ecology principals, and draw on the theoretical insights from other complex systems, to build a framework to aid in deciphering ecologically significant microbes within a corals' microbial soup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  6. From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a "snack" or "candy" pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for "dessert like foods," such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-10-01

    Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high

  8. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile.

  9. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  10. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-02-27

    Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the

  11. Snacking Patterns and Snack Correlates in Third- and Fourth-Year Nursing and Dietetics Students: An Exploratory Study from the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Monahan, P L; Sheng, Zhaohui; Holbert, Donald

    2016-01-01

    To compare snacking behaviors and psychosocial correlates of third- and fourth-year nursing (n=52) and dietetics (n=48) students. Questionnaires assessed snack choices, awareness of healthy snacks, snack recommendations and beliefs, stage of change and perceived benefits/barriers for healthy snacking, and situational snacking. The snacks purchased most often on and off campus by the nursing students were soft drinks/caffeinated beverages (58%) and chips (42%), and for the dietetics students were chips (35%) and fresh fruit (33%). One-third of the nursing and 8% of the dietetics students believed their snack choices would have an unfavorable effect on their long-term health. Two-thirds of the nursing and 75% of the dietetics students self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Snacks considered healthy and recommended by both samples were fresh fruits/vegetables and granola bars. More than 90% of both samples believed their job responsibilities would include modeling and teaching healthy snacking to patients. The barriers to healthy snacking identified most often by both samples were limited budget and not readily available. On-campus vendors should be approached with suggestions about featuring nutrient-dense snacks at discounted prices and offering smaller snack packs of popular products.

  12. Ethnic differences and parental beliefs are important for overweight prevention and management in children: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Schönbeck, Y.; Henneman, L.; Janssens, C.J.; Detmar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child's outdoor play and snack intake, and

  13. Ethnic differences and parental beliefs are important for overweight prevention and management in children: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Schonbeck, Y.; Henneman, L.; Janssens, A.; Detmar, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their childs outdoor play and snack intake, and

  14. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Psnack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine

    2013-08-01

    We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.

  16. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  17. Predictors of the consistency between healthy snack choice intention and actual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors that affect the intention¿behaviour consistency of healthy snack choices. Intended snack choice was assessed by asking participants (N = 538) to choose a snack on paper, out of 8 snacks (4 healthy, e.g. melon and gingerbread, and 4 unhealthy, e.g. crisps

  18. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. Objective: To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8

  19. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of a healthy vegetable soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, and moringa leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman; Saha, Trissa; Hossain, Md Nur; Haque, Md Zahurul

    2017-07-01

    The research study was conducted to develop a healthy vegetables soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, moringa leaf and compare its nutritional facts with locally available soup powders. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation were done by standard method. In this study, moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, and energy content were ranged from 2.83% to 5.46%, 9.39% to 16.48%, 6.92% to 16.05%, 4.22% to 6.39%, 0.22% to 1.61%, 58.81% to 75.41%, and 337.42 to 386.72 kcal/100 g, respectively. Highest content of vitamin D, minerals, protein, and fiber and lowest content of moisture, fat, and carbohydrate were found in the presently developed soy-mushroom-moringa soup powder compare to locally available soup powders. Vitamin C was also found significantly higher than locally available soup powders S1, S2, and S3. Heavy metals were not found in any of the soup powders. On the sensory and microbiological point of view, the presently developed soup powder was found highly acceptable up to 6 months. So, the developed soy-mushroom-moringa soup powder is nutritionally superior to locally available soup powders and sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.

  1. Nutrient changes and antinutrient contents of beniseed and beniseed soup during cooking using a Nigerian traditional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiang, M A; Umoh, I B; Essien, A I; Eteng, M U

    2010-10-15

    Evaluations of the effect of prolong cooking on the nutrient and antinutrient composition ofbeniseed and beniseed soup were carried out in this study. Proximate, mineral, vitamin A and C and antinutrient compositions of raw beniseed (BS-R), beniseed boiled (BSB) for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and beniseed soup (BSS) cooked for the same intervals of time were assessed. Results of the proximate composition analyses showed that raw and boiled beniseed had lower moisture content (5.39-5.51%) than beniseed soups (10.06-15.20%). Nitrogen-free extract (total carbohydrates), fats and phosphorus contents were improved in both the boiled beniseed and beniseed soup while calcium and potassium were increased in the boiled seeds and soup samples respectively. Moisture (in the raw and boiled beniseed), ash, magnesium, zinc, iron contents in both the seed and soup were unchanged in all the samples. Vitamins A and C levels of both boiled beniseed and beniseed soup samples were reduced with increase in cooking time. Beniseed soup had higher protein contents than both the raw and boiled beniseed which decreased with increase in cooking time. Beniseed samples provided good sources of energy (572.97-666.05 kcal/100 g). Except for phytate, the levels of antinutrients tested were lower in the raw and boiled beniseed than in the soup samples which decreased with increase in cooking time. The results are discussed with reference to the effect of prolonged cooking on the nutrient requirements of consumers.

  2. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  3. [Content analysis of television commercials for snacks and of snack packaging targeted at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-06-01

    To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy

  4. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M; Geller, Alan C; Rimm, Eric B; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-07-21

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012-2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2-12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2-5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52-0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  5. Charge Up! Healthy Meals and Snacks for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits for Better Health Healthy Meals & Snacks for Teens ... Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Power up with lean meats, chicken, seafood, eggs, beans, ...

  6. Retrospective dosimetry using salted snacks and nuts: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansson, M.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using ordinary household table salt for dosimetry is suggested by its high sensitivity to ionising radiation, which generates a readout of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, to exploit this finding for retrospective human dosimetry, it would be needed to find salt in close proximity to the exposed individual. Finding salty snacks frequently tucked into handbags, backpacks or pockets seemed to be a possibility; these items therefore became the test materials of the present study. The aluminium or cardboard packages used to exclude the moisture that makes crisps and nuts go soft and stale also helps to retain the induced OSL signal. Therefore, different snacks, either their salt component alone or mixed with the snack, are exposed to ionising radiation and then were assessed for their dosimetric properties. The results indicate the feasibility of using some salty snacks for dosimetry, with a minimum detectable dose as low as 0.2 mGy (authors)

  7. Food parenting and child snacking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Kachurak, Alexandria; Davison, Kirsten K; Klabunde, Rachel; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2017-11-03

    While the role of parenting in children's eating behaviors has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to its potential association with children's snacking habits. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review to describe associations between food parenting and child snacking, or consuming energy dense foods/foods in between meals. Six electronic databases were searched using standardized language to identify quantitative studies describing associations of general and feeding-specific parenting styles as well as food parenting practices with snacking behaviors of children aged 2-18 years. Eligible peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1980 and 2017 were included. Data were extracted using a standard protocol by three coders; all items were double coded to ensure consistency. Forty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Few studies focused on general feeding (n = 3) or parenting styles (n = 10). Most studies focused on controlling food parenting practices (n = 39) that were not specific to snacking. Parental restriction of food was positively associated with child snack intake in 13/23 studies, while pressure to eat and monitoring yielded inconsistent results. Home availability of unhealthy foods was positively associated with snack intake in 10/11 studies. Findings related to positive parent behaviors (e.g. role modeling) were limited and yielded mixed results (n = 9). Snacking was often assessed using food frequency items and defined post-hoc based on nutritional characteristics (e.g. energy-dense, sugary foods, unhealthy, etc.). Timing was rarely included in the definition of a snack (i.e. chips eaten between meals vs. with lunch). Restrictive feeding and home access to unhealthy foods were most consistently associated with snacking among young children. Research is needed to identify positive parenting behaviors around child snacking that may be used as targets for health promotion. Detailed definitions of snacking

  8. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  9. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Eline W. M.; Schrijvers, Carola; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. Objective: This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack co...

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, CliffordIII; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0?20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As ...

  11. A concept test of novel healthy snacks among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Brunsø, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to test 1) which of eight novel healthy snack concepts based on fresh fruit and vegetables that 10 to 16-year old adolescents in Denmark prefer and intend to buy, and 2) which factors explain preferences and buying intentions. Our results revealed that the ......The purpose of this empirical study was to test 1) which of eight novel healthy snack concepts based on fresh fruit and vegetables that 10 to 16-year old adolescents in Denmark prefer and intend to buy, and 2) which factors explain preferences and buying intentions. Our results revealed...... high need satisfaction will increase both higher preferences and buying intentions. Nevertheless, preferences will increase the more snacks are perceived as cool and the stronger the peer influence is perceived to be, whereas buying intentions will increase the higher the personal importance...... of the snack attributes is perceived to be, the higher the willingness to try new snacks among best friends at school and the lower the willingness to try new snacks among other peers outside school. The findings indicate the importance of considering both preferences and buying intentions in future product...

  12. Severe symptomatic bradycardia after a dinner of spicy oleander soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tampieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides similar to digoxin are produced by different plants in nature. Nerium oleander, commonly grown as an ornamental shrub, can be found worldwide in temperate countries. Intentional or accidental ingestion of any part of the plant can lead to clinically relevant intoxication. A 63-year-old woman came to the emergency department with acute dyspeptic symptoms after eating vegetable soup flavored with unfamiliar flowers she have collected herself. However, the electrocardiography (ECG showed abnormalities that raised suspicions for an overdose of digoxin-like cardiac glycosides. The patient was not on treatment with digoxin and a careful anamnesis revealed that she had eaten oleander leaves. Digoxin specific Fab antibody fragments were administered for marked bradycardia that was not responding to atropine administration, after counseling with the reference toxicology center. The patient was also treated with activated charcoal and magnesium sulphate, intravenous fluids and pantoprazole. Four days later she was discharged as asymptomatic, with normal sinus rhythm. Emergency physicians should be aware of this type of poisoning, especially in cases with typical ECG alterations in patients not treated with digoxin and medical history of plants ingestion. Cardio-active glycosides are present in different plants, often used inappropriately, with potential toxic effects and harmful drug interactions.

  13. Warm p-soup and near extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro; Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    We consider a model of D-dimensional supergravity coupled to elementary p-branes. We use gravitational arguments to deduce the low energy effective theory of N nearly parallel branes. This is a (p + 1)-dimensional scalar field theory, where the scalars represent the positions of the branes in their transverse space. We propose that the same theory in a certain temperature regime describes a ‘soup’ of strongly interacting branes, giving a microscopic description of near extremal black p-branes. We use natural approximations to estimate the energy density of this soup as a function of the physical parameters; N, temperature, brane tension and gravitational coupling. We also characterize the horizon radius, measured in the metric natural to the branes, with the thermal vev of the scalars. For both quantities we find agreement with the corresponding supergravity black brane results. Surprisingly, beyond the physical parameters, we are naturally able to reproduce certain irrational factors such as πs. We comment on how these ideas may explain why black hole thermodynamics arises in gauge theories with holographic duals at finite temperature.

  14. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  15. Spatial Models of Prebiotic Evolution: Soup Before Pizza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, István; Czárán, Tamás; Szabó, Péter; Károlyi, György; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2003-10-01

    The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.

  16. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-09-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  17. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods

  18. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D

    2015-11-03

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named "Bone Marrow (BM) Soup", was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and "deactivated BM Soup" were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the 'deactivated BM Soup' was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies.

  19. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (Psoup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  20. Healthy Snacks: Using Nutrient Profiling to Evaluate the Nutrient-Density of Common Snacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2017-09-01

    To quantify and compare the nutrient-density of commonly consumed snacks using two nutrient-density measures, Nutrient Rich Foods Indices 9.3 (NRF 9.3) and 15.3 (NRF 15.3). Identify commonly consumed categories of snacks and individual snack foods, calculate NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores, rank snacks by category and by individual food based on nutrient density, compare and contrast scores generated by the two NRF Indices. NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores. Averages and standard deviations of nutrient-density scores for each snack category. Vegetables and coffee/tea received the highest category scores on both indices. Cakes/cookies/pastries and sweets had the lowest category scores. NRF 9.3 scores for individual snacks ranged from -46 (soda) to 524 (coffee). NRF 15.3 scores ranged from -45 (soda) to 736 (coffee). If added to food labels, NRF scores could help consumers identify more nutritious choices. The differences between NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores generated for the same foods and the limitations of these indices highlight the need for careful consideration of which nutrient-density measure to include on food labels as well as consumer education. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. [Study on the liver-protective and choleretic effect of zhizi baipi soup and its disassembled prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Luo, Guang-Ming; Li, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Ye; Zeng, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of Zhizi Baipi soup and its disassembled prescription on protecting liver and improving choleresis and explore the regularity of Zhizi Baipi soup composition. The model of mouse liver injury induced by carbon tetraehlofide (CCl4) was used to observe the effects of Zhizi Baipi soup and its disassembled prescription by oral adminstration, the bile volume was determinied by common bile duct drainage. Zhizi Baipi soup and each treatment group with gardenia could significantly inhibit the increased serum ATL and AST activities, reduce liver MDA level, and significantly promote the bile flow and bilirubin in bile in normal rats. Zhizi Baipi soup has effects on protecting liver and increasing bile secretion, its monarch drug, gardenia plays an important role in the decoction, the effect of eliminating dampness and heat are mainly ascribed to the synergic effect of gardenia and phellodendron.

  2. [The anti-tumour effect of Wuxing soup and its mechanism in inducing apoptosis of tumour cells mediated by calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fei; Hu, Jing-Ying; Gan, Yu; Zhao, Yang-Xing; Zhao, Xin-Tai

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of Wuxing soup. Inhibition of cellular growth under Wuxing soup treatment was observed by MTT; Apoptosis was detected by gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy and FACS; The concentration of calcium was measured by fluorescence probe. After SGC-7901 cell being treated by Wuxing soup, it showed that: 1) Wuxing soup could specifically inhibit cancer cells proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner; 2) Typical apoptotic morphological changes and DNA ladder of SGC-7901 cells were observed; 3) calcium inhibitor Bapta AM could reduce the apoptotic rate and protect SGC-7901 cells in a dose dependent manner. Wuxing soup has an effective inhibition on cancer cells, and can induce SGC-7901 cells to apoptosis by calcium.

  3. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-09-28

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms.

  4. Identification of the flavonoids in mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) soup and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Cao, Dongdong; Yi, Jianyong; Cao, Jiankang; Jiang, Weibo

    2012-12-15

    Mung bean soup (MBS) has been traditionally taken as a kind of health food in China. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, antioxidant capacities of the soup prepared with three cultivars of mung bean were measured. The highest DPPH radical scavenging or ferric reducing activity was observed in soup of mung bean cv. Huang. The MBS of cv. Huang and Mao exhibited higher ABTS(+) reducing activities than MBS of cv. Ming. The two major flavonoids in the MBS were purified and identified as vitexin and isovitexin, respectively. Modeling samples containing vitexin and isovitexin at the same levels as them in the MBS were prepared to assess their antioxidant contributions in the MBS. Our results showed that antioxidant capacities of the MBS mainly derived from vitexin and isovitexin, these flavonoids accounted for the most of total DPPH radicals scavenging, ferric reducing and ABTS(+) reducing scavenging activities in MBS of all the three cultivars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, K J; Pereira, R A; Popkin, B M

    2013-08-01

    Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks). In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages. Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.

  6. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Distances for Percolation of Planar Gaussian Free Fields and Critical Random Walk Loop Soups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-06-01

    We initiate the study on chemical distances of percolation clusters for level sets of two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free fields as well as loop clusters generated by two-dimensional random walk loop soups. One of our results states that the chemical distance between two macroscopic annuli away from the boundary for the random walk loop soup at the critical intensity is of dimension 1 with positive probability. Our proof method is based on an interesting combination of a theorem of Makarov, isomorphism theory, and an entropic repulsion estimate for Gaussian free fields in the presence of a hard wall.

  9. Nutrition Value Of Development Of Snack Cireng Cassava And Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Rochimiwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snack are ready-made foods that are self-produced or purchased from sellers or merchants. Snack sellers can be found along the roadside in stalls cake shops around the crowded places like schools offices colleges and so on. The Ministry of Health 2014 states that snack is a given or consumed between two time of meals with an energy value of about 200 Kilocalories and 5 grams of protein. Whereas PMT-US standard Supplementary Feeding of School Children requires 200-300 kilocalories and 5-7 grams of protein. Snacks are sold around the school by unsettled and non-resident sellers in the school stalls or canteens. Various snacks are sold as rice noodles sweet corn fried tempe tofu fried foods meatballs bread cracker potatos jelly cooked rice noodles cimol cilok cireng biscuits milk iced tea iced juices etc Alfid TA Retno I Setho and Yohanes K Bastianus DR Anasari M 2013 The BPOM Food and Drug Supervisory Agency research in Alfid in 2003 stated that from 9465 samples 80 contain harmful ingredients. Snack also has a contribution in the fulfillment of daily nutrition that is energy amounted to 233.11 28.41 Kcal and protein at 6.21 1.39 gram Rachmawati HN 2013. This type of research is experimental with cireng manufacture from cassava and fish cassava cireng Fish and tapioca and cireng original made from tapioca flour. The study aims to determine the taste nutritional value and large of serving portions. The results were obtained for all three products The weighing 50 gram serving portion nutritional value has not reached the standard of the nutritional value of snacks. From the aspect of approaching cireng original flavor is cireng tapioca plus cassava and fish while cireng cassava and fish not like cireng original. It is advisable to develop or further modify in order to achieve nutritional standards of snack and as a healthy and safe snacks and the characteristics of cireng are not lost.

  10. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Blaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2 or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1 almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5 or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1. Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001, keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001, and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001 than parents of older children (6–12 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70–0.99, celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99, or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98. Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  12. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M.; Geller, Alan C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:26197335

  13. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  14. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807

  15. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-07-01

    Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  17. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  18. THE QUALITY OF FRIED SNACKS FORTIFIED WITH FIBER AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tajner Czopek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of fortification of extruded potato pellets, obtained with 5 and 10 % addition of wheat bran, corn bran and corn germ, applied separately and in mixtures with 3 % addition of potato protein concentrate on fat content and physical properties of snacks fried from them. The addition of wheat bran, regardless its dose, did positively influenced on snacks texture. Yet it also caused the increase in fat content and density, as well as darkening of snacks color. The use of corn bran contributed to lower values of snacks density and fat absorption, while the addition of corn germ resulted in lighter, more desired snacks color, but at the same time it brought about increased fat content and made snacks harder. There was not recorded any significant snacks diversity concerning expansion degree, regardless the kind of additive used, as well as snacks moisture. doi:10.5219/54

  19. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  20. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  2. The effects of happiness and sadness on Children's snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2018-04-01

    Children appear to engage in emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to negative and positive emotions), but existing research has predominantly relied on parent-report and child-report, which may not necessarily reflect children's actual emotional eating behaviors. This study examined the effects of happiness and sadness on children's observed snack consumption and examined whether child characteristics (i.e., weight, gender, and age) interact with mood to predict snack consumption. To elicit mood, children (N = 91; M ages  = 6.8 years; 48 boys) were randomly assigned to one of the three mood induction conditions (happy, sad, or neutral); children's snack consumption was observed and measured after mood induction. Findings showed that children in the sad condition consumed more energy from chocolate, followed by children in the happy condition, and then the neutral condition. However, the reverse pattern was observed for goldfish crackers: children in the neutral condition consumed more energy from this savory snack than children in the happy condition, followed by children in sad condition. Child weight status and gender did not interact with mood to predict snack consumption. Child age did interact with mood: older children consumed more chocolates in the sad condition compared to younger children. Child age was not related to snack consumption in the happy and neutral conditions. This study suggests that emotional eating in response to positive and negative emotions is evident during early childhood, but that this is behavior is developing during this period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metal content of tinned soup as a function of storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from soups prior to their preservation in tins. None of the samples showed an increased content of the investigated heavy metals lead and mercury exceeding the amounts normally found in food. Thus it may be considered as certain that the heavy metal content of soups is not adversely affected by technical processes during their preparation. Increase in heavy metal content by metallic residues from tin manufacture is slight and mainly due to tin, whose content is on average increased in the soup by 0.4 mg/kg. For lead the influence is smaller and for mercury it is not significantly demonstrable. The metallic residues from tin manufacture are an irrelevant quantity in terms of nutrition physiology. Within the investigated 4-year storage-period the lead content shows a tendency to increase towards saturation. Cadmium remains essentially constant, the content of mercury has a downward tendency and reaches zero after 2 to 4 years. Consumers' exposure is in a range known for the consumption of other foodstuffs as well. The use of varnished tins to package industrial soups involves no exposure of consumers to heavy metals justifying any apprehension even after prolonged storage.

  4. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  5. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  6. Expected satiation after repeated consumption of low-or high-energy-dense soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether repeated consumption of a low-energy-dense (LED; 208 kJ/100 g) or high-energy-dense (HED; 645 kJ/100 g) soup modifies expectations relating to the satiating capacity of the food, and its subsequent intake. In study 1, participants consumed either a novel-flavoured LED (n 32;

  7. The Primordial Soup Algorithm : a systematic approach to the specification of parallel parsers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Wil; Janssen, W.P.M.; Poel, Mannes; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Zwiers, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    A general framework for parallel parsing is presented, which allows for a unitied, systematic approach to parallel parsing. The Primordial Soup Algorithm creates trees by allowing partial parse trees to combine arbitrarily. By adding constraints to the general algorithm, a large, class of parallel

  8. An approach to SOA development methodology: SOUP comparison with RUP and XP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Svanidzaitė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architecture for distributed applications composed of distributed services with weak coupling that are designed to meet business requirements. One of the research priorities in the field of SOA is creating such software design and development methodology (SDDM that takes into account all principles of this architecture and allows for effective and efficient application development. A lot of investigation has been carried out to find out whether can one of popular SDDM, such as agile methodologies or RUP suits, be adapted for SOA or there is a need to create some new SOA-oriented SDDM. This paper compares one of SOA-oriented SDDM – SOUP – with RUP and XP methodologies. The aim is to find out whether the SOUP methodology is already mature enough to assure successful development of SOA applications. This aim is accomplished by comparing activities, artifacts of SOUP and RUP and emphasizing which XP practices are used in SOUP.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15181/csat.v2i1.77 

  9. Influence of full cream milk powder on the characteristics of sweet potato puree instant cream soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Marleen; Djali, Mohamad; Dwiastuti, Intan Btari

    2018-02-01

    A ready to use food such as instant cream soup become the most suitable choice for those who prefer being practical and also can be applied in any emergency situation such as areas affected by disaster. The adding of milk powder as the main ingredient in cream soup creates a complex bounding of fat and starch which complicates the rehydration process and affects other physical appearance. This research was aimed to find the proper concentration of full cream milk powder concentration to obtain the best characteristics of instant cream soup of dried sweet potato puree. The method used in this research was randomized block design with 6 treatments (12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5% and 25%, with an addition of full cream milk powder) and twice repetition. Instant cream soup with 20% of full cream milk powder concentration gave the best physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical characteristic shows that it has 6% water content, 95.47% rehydration value, 18% protein, 20.7% fat, 1080.25 cP viscosity and 30.5% rendement.

  10. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  11. Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Ines J P; Andrys, Anna; Grundelius, Andrea; Lemmens, Lien; Löfgren, Anders; Buggenhout, Sandy Van; Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc Van

    2011-01-01

    Tomatoes are often processed into shelf-stable products. However, the different processing steps might have an impact on the product quality. In this study, a model tomato soup was prepared and the impact of pilot-scale aseptic processing, including heat treatment and high-pressure homogenization, on some selected quality parameters was evaluated. The vitamin C content, the lycopene isomer content, and the lycopene bioaccessibility were considered as health-promoting attributes. As a structural characteristic, the viscosity of the tomato soup was investigated. A tomato soup without oil as well as a tomato soup containing 5% olive oil were evaluated. Thermal processing had a negative effect on the vitamin C content, while lycopene degradation was limited. For both compounds, high-pressure homogenization caused additional losses. High-pressure homogenization also resulted in a higher viscosity that was accompanied by a decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility. The presence of lipids clearly enhanced the lycopene isomerization susceptibility and improved the bioaccessibility. The results obtained in this study are of relevance for product formulation and process design of tomato-based food products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Expected satiation after repeated consumption of low- or high-energy-dense soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether repeated consumption of a low-energy-dense (LED; 208 kJ/100 g) or high-energy-dense (HED; 645 kJ/100 g) soup modifies expectations relating to the satiating capacity of the food, and its subsequent intake. In study 1, participants consumed either a novel-flavoured LED (n 32;

  13. Children select unhealthy choices when given a choice among snack offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Kyryliuk, Rebecca; Weaver, Robert G; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2014-09-01

    Out-of-school-time programs serve snacks to millions of children annually. State and national snack policies endorse serving more-healthful options, such as fruits, yet often allow less-healthful options, such as cookies and chips, to be served simultaneously. To date, no studies have examined the choices children make when provided with disparate snack options in out-of-school-time programs. An experimental study with randomized exposures was conducted that exposed children (5 to 10 years old) to the following conditions: whole or sliced fruit; whole/sliced fruit, sugar-sweetened snacks (eg, cookies) and flavored salty (eg, nacho cheese-flavored tortilla chips) snacks; and whole/sliced fruit and less-processed/unflavored grain snacks (eg, pretzels), during a 2-week period representing 18 snack occasions (morning and afternoon) during summer 2013. The percentage of children who selected snacks, snack consumption, and percent of serving wasted were calculated and analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustments. A total of 1,053 observations were made. Sliced fruit was selected more than whole fruit across all conditions. Fruit (sliced or whole) was seldom selected when served simultaneously with sugar-sweetened (6% vs 58%) and flavored salty (6% vs 38%) snacks or unflavored grain snacks (23% vs 64%). More children consumed 100% of the sugar-sweetened (89%) and flavored salty (82%) snacks compared with fruit (71%); 100% consumption was comparable between fruit (59%) and unflavored grain snacks (49%). Approximately 15% to 47% of fruit was wasted, compared with 8% to 38% of sugar-sweetened, flavored salty, and unflavored grain snacks. Snack policies that encourage out-of-school-time programs to serve fruit require clear language that limits offering less-healthful snack options simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salty or sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2015-02-01

    Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary age children. The number of days that snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. Programs served desserts and artificially flavored salty snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/week, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages were served 1.8 days/week. Of the children (N = 383) observed, 75% to 100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened beverages. Desserts and salty snacks cost $0.27-$0.32/snack vs $0.38-$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  15. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Huijun

    2008-11-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion. It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.

  16. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  17. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  18. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  20. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  1. Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the workplace: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Ernest; Gorlin, Margarita; Chance, Zoë; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi; Huskey, Kim; Hatzis, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack- the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Association of nutrient-dense snack combinations with calories and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-01-01

    With other factors such as general diet and insufficient exercise, eating non-nutrient dense snack foods such as potato chips contributes to childhood obesity. We examined whether children consumed fewer calories when offered high-nutrient dense snacks consisting of cheese and vegetables than children who were offered non-nutrient dense snacks (ie, potato chips). Two hundred one children (115 girls) entering the third to sixth grades were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 snacking conditions: (1) potato chips only, (2) cheese-only, (3) vegetables only, and (4) cheese and vegetables. Children were allowed to eat snacks freely provided while watching 45-minute TV programs. Satiety was measured before they started eating snacks, in the middle of the study, and 20 minutes after they finished eating the snacks. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding their family environment. Children consumed 72% fewer calories when eating a combined snack compared with when they were served potato chips, P snack needed significantly fewer calories to achieve satiety than those who ate potato chips, P snack conditions on caloric intake were more pronounced among overweight or obese children (P = .02) and those from low-involvement families (P = .049) The combination snack of vegetables and cheese can be an effective means for children to reduce caloric intake while snacking. The effect was more pronounced among children who were overweight or obese and children from low-involvement families.

  4. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…

  5. Relationship between snacking patterns, diet quality and risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking is very common among Americans; the impact of variety of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and weight status is unclear. This study examined the associations of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and weight in U.S. children 2-18 years participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and ...

  6. The Effects of Reinforcer Pairing and Fading on Preschoolers' Snack Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Katherine M.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Layer, Stacy A.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of reinforcement pairing and fading on preschoolers' snack selections were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. Baseline preferences for snack options were assessed via repeated paired-item preference assessments. Edible, social, and activity-based reinforcers were then exclusively paired with a less preferred snack option. Once…

  7. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional Quality, Consumption, and Cost of Snacks Served in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, Robert G.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6?pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks…

  8. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  9. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  10. Characteristic Flavor of Traditional Soup Made by Stewing Chinese Yellow-Feather Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jun; Liu, Deng-Yong; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Xu, Xing-Lian

    2017-09-01

    The traditional recipe for Chinese chicken soup creates a popular taste of particular umami and aroma. The present study investigated the effects of stewing time (1, 2, and 3 h) on the principal taste-active and volatile compounds and the overall flavor profile of traditional Chinese chicken soup by measuring the contents of free amino acids (FAAs), 5'-nucleotides, minerals and volatile compounds and by evaluating the taste and aroma profiles using an electronic nose, an electronic tongue and a human panel. Results showed that the major umami-related compounds in the chicken soup were inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and chloride, both of which increased significantly (P < 0.05) during stewing. The taste active values (TAVs) of the equivalent umami concentration (EUC) increased from 4.08 to 9.93 (P < 0.05) after stewing for 3 h. Although the FAA and mineral contents increased significantly (P < 0.05), their TAVs were less than 1. The volatile compounds were mainly hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonanal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-hexanol, and 2-pentyl furan. With the prolonged stewing time, the aldehydes first increased and then decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while 1-hexanol and 2-pentyl furan increased steadily (P < 0.05). The aroma scores of the chicken soup reached the maximum after stewing for 3 h. The discrepancy in overall flavor characteristics tended to stabilize after 2 h of stewing. In general, stewing time has a positive effect on improving the flavor profiles of chicken soup, especially within the first 2 h. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  12. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of purines in umami soup stock and evaluation of their effects on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuuchi, T; Iyama, N; Yamaoka, N; Kaneko, K

    2018-04-13

    Ribonucleotide flavor enhancers such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) provide umami taste, similarly to glutamine. Japanese cuisine frequently uses soup stocks containing these nucleotides to enhance umami. We quantified 18 types of purines (nucleotides, nucleosides, and purine bases) in three soup stocks (chicken, consommé, and dried bonito soup). IMP was the most abundant purine in all umami soup stocks, followed by hypoxanthine, inosine, and GMP. The IMP content of dried bonito soup was the highest of the three soup stocks. We also evaluated the effects of these purines on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism in HepG2 cells after adding each umami soup stock to the cells. An increase in inosine and hypoxanthine was evident 1 h and 4 h after soup stock addition, and a low amount of xanthine and guanosine was observed in the extracellular medium. The addition of chicken soup stock resulted in increased intracellular and extracellular levels of uric acid and guanosine. Purine metabolism may be affected by ingredients present in soups.

  13. Soup consumption is associated with a reduced risk of overweight and obesity but not metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19-64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The weighted prevalence of soup consumption was 94%, with a seasonal variation in the frequency of soup consumption being found. Non-consumers of soup were at a higher risk of being overweight or obese (adjusted odds ratio = 1.381, P = 0.013, with a higher adjusted prevalence of reduced HDL cholesterol (adjusted odds ratio = 1.280, P = 0.045, but there was no association between soup consumption and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.520. The frequency of soup consumption was inversely associated with covariate-adjusted body mass index and waist circumference (P<0.05, but not with biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, except for a lower fasting insulin level in frequent soup consumers (P = 0.022. Results from the present study suggest soup consumption is not associated with metabolic syndrome. However, there is an inverse relationship between soup consumption and body weight status in US adults, which support laboratory studies showing a potential benefit of soup consumption for body weight management.

  14. Influence of Food Packaging on Children's Energy-dense Snack ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Childhood obesity is a major global public health concern. Rates of obese and overweight children have increased in low- and middle-income countries such as Guatemala. This research will study the influence of food packaging on Guatemalan preschool and school-aged children's energy-dense snack (EDS) food ...

  15. The influence of food packaging on children's snack food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    especially in the advertisement and packaging of high- calorie snack foods. ... marketing is one of the policy strategies proposed to address obesity in children. In order to ... explore the views of school-aged children toward child- oriented food ...

  16. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  17. Improving snacking patterns in overweight Mexican American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle school students are known to eat at times other than regular meals, preferring to snack between classes or after school. These eating episodes often include high calorie foods with little nutritional value. Assisting adolescents to alter these patterns may be beneficial for weight management....

  18. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable savory snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of savory snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. Composition of the base formulation (BF) as is basis was brown rice flour (45%), sorghum flour (20%), tapioca flour (7%), mashed potato (8%), canola oil (6%), guar gum (2%), baking pow...

  19. Making Health Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-07

    Instead of candy bars and chips, see how one employee is making healthier snack choices with the help of new vending machines.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  20. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Renes, R.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate

  1. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  2. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on ...

  3. Whole grain Gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. Composition of the base mix was brown rice flour 45%, sorghum flour 20%, tapioca flour 17%, mashed potato 8%, canola oil 6%, guar gum 2%, baking powder 1.5%, salt 0.5% and cayenne peppe...

  4. Impact of a Short-Term Nutrition Education Child Care Pilot Intervention on Preschool Children's Intention To Choose Healthy Snacks and Actual Snack Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laura S; Gorin, Amy A; Mobley, Stacey L; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Novel interventions within child care settings are needed for childhood obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a short-term nutrition education pilot intervention on preschool-age children's snack food choices. Children ages 3-5 years (n = 49) from one child care setting participated in a short-term nutrition education intervention (nine 30-minute interactive lessons) taught over a 2-week period. Pre-post assessments included snack knowledge and snack preference questionnaires and an observed snack selection trial to allow children to choose between a healthy and unhealthy snack choice similar to the current food environment. Children's height and weight were measured and BMI z-scores calculated. Parental reports of demographics and child's food preferences were also collected at baseline. Children significantly improved their preference of healthier snacks (p = 0.03) and the ability to distinguish them (p = 0.03) from other snacks. However, they did not significantly improve (p > 0.05) their snack choice between a healthy and unhealthy choice immediately after the short-term nutrition education program. Children who were younger (p = 0.003) or who had higher nutrition knowledge scores (p = 0.002) were more likely to select the healthy snack after the intervention. This study provides evidence that a short-term nutrition education program improves preschool children's knowledge about healthy snacks, but does not translate to immediate healthier snack selections for all children. Future research should investigate the optimal duration of a nutrition education program in a child care setting and other external influences (parents, policy) most influential on snack choice and eventual obesity risk.

  5. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  6. Sensitivity to reward is associated with snack and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Vangeel, Jolien; Maes, Lea; Eggermont, Steven; Braet, Caroline; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Goossens, Lien; Beullens, Kathleen; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-06-01

    High intake of palatable foods, such as energy-dense snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), is common among adolescents. An individual's sensitivity to reward (SR) may influence these intakes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between SR and both snack and SSB intake among adolescents. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 14- to 16-year-olds (mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 50.9 % boys; 18.0 % overweight) in Flanders. Daily intakes were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. SR was assessed using the behavioral activation system (BAS) scales. Multilevel regression analyses (two level: adolescent school) were conducted using STATA version 13. BAS drive was positively associated with daily intakes of SSBs (13.79 %, p snacks (5.42 %, p snacks (p snacks (3.85 %, p snacks (6.41 %, p snacks. Interaction effects of gender and BAS RR (p snacks (6.48 %, p snacks (7.22 %, p snack and SSB consumption in adolescents, especially in girls. These findings suggest that SR should be taken into account when designing interventions to improve the snack and SSB intake of adolescents.

  7. Peer influence on youth's snack purchases: a laboratory analog of convenience store shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Nitecki, Lauren A; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two experiments using a laboratory analog to examine the influence of taxes and subsidies on youth's snack food purchases when alone (Experiment 1) and when in the presence of a same-gender peer (Experiment 2). Adolescents (12-14-years-old) completed a purchasing task, during which prices of snack foods were manipulated, either alone in Experiment 1 (N=37) or in the presence of an unfamiliar peer in Experiment 2 (N=52). In both experiments, purchases of unhealthy snacks decreased and purchases of healthy snacks increased when the price of unhealthy snacks were taxed (increased). In Experiment 1 (alone), participants did not purchase more healthy snacks when the price of these snacks were subsidized (decreased). However, in Experiment 2 (when participants were in the presence of a peer), participants purchased more healthy snacks when these snacks were subsidized. Taxes and subsidies affect adolescents' snack purchasing, as does the presence of peers. The results of this study highlight factors that influence healthy and unhealthy snack purchasing behavior in young adolescents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  9. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  10. Working harder to obtain more snack foods when wanting to eat less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Janneke C A H; Havermans, Remco C; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Strafaci, Silvana; Jansen, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates individual differences in the reinforcing value of snack food. More specifically, it was investigated whether differences in restraint status are associated with differences in working for high-caloric snack food. Thirty-six unrestrained non-dieters, twenty restrained non-dieters and fifteen current dieters performed a concurrent schedules task in which they had the option to work for points for either snack food or fruit and vegetables. By progressively increasing the "price" of the snack foods (i.e., the amount of work required to obtain extra snack points) the relative reinforcing value of snack food was determined. As hypothesized, restrained non-dieters worked harder and current dieters worked less hard to obtain snack food as compared to unrestrained non-dieters.

  11. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  12. Development by extrusion of soyabari snack sticks: a nutritionally improved soya-maize product based on the Nigerian snack (kokoro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omueti, O; Morton, I D

    1996-01-01

    A nutritionally improved local snack compared to existing kokoro has been developed by extrusion cooking of different formulations of maize, soybean and condiments such as pepper, onion, salt, palm oil, plantain and banana. The improved snack was named as the 'soyabari snack stick'. The chemical composition of representative extruded products indicates a high level of crude protein, fat, energy, available lysine and improved in vitro digestibility compared to the usual maize-based products. The level of stachyose and raffinose were greatly reduced in the extruded products compared to raw soya. Formulations using various additives yielded products suitable for different consumers' preferences such as hot, sweet, bland, gritty or crispy and acceptable to taste assessors. Soyabari snack sticks were equally acceptable as Bombay mix, a product on the market in London. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences in the two products but the crude fibre content of Bombay mix was higher while the protein was slightly lower than for soyabari sticks. Local ingredients can produce acceptable extrudates.

  13. Protein-enhanced soups: a consumer-accepted food for increasing dietary protein provision among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth; Crowe, Kristi Michele; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2015-02-01

    Protein-enhanced soups (PES) may improve protein intake among older adults. This study examined sensory attributes (aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptability) and preferences of PES (chicken noodle and cheddar broccoli) compared with flavor-matched control soups (FCS) among older adults (≥65 years) and evaluated dietary profile changes of a standard menu based on the substitution of one PES serving/d for a standard soup. Modified paired preference tests and 5-point facial hedonic scales were administered to participants (n = 44). No significant differences in sensory attributes between either PES compared with FCS were identified, but significant gender- and age-related differences (p preferred protein-enhanced chicken noodle soup while only 38% preferred protein-enhanced cheddar broccoli soup to their respective FCS. Substituting one PES serving for one non-fortified soup serving per day resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.001) protein profile. Results suggest that all attributes of PES were consistent with sensory expectations and PES substitution could improve protein provision.

  14. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  15. Soup Consumption Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Overweight and Obesity but Not Metabolic Syndrome in US Adults: NHANES 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19–64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The weighted prevalence of soup consumption was 94%, with a seasonal variation in the frequency of soup consumption being found. Non-consumers of soup were at a higher risk of being overweight or obese (adjusted odds ratio = 1.381, P = 0.013), with a higher adjusted prevalence of reduced HDL cholesterol (adjusted odds ratio = 1.280, P = 0.045), but there was no association between soup consumption and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.520). The frequency of soup consumption was inversely associated with covariate-adjusted body mass index and waist circumference (Psoup consumers (P = 0.022). Results from the present study suggest soup consumption is not associated with metabolic syndrome. However, there is an inverse relationship between soup consumption and body weight status in US adults, which support laboratory studies showing a potential benefit of soup consumption for body weight management. PMID:24098709

  16. Soup consumption is associated with a reduced risk of overweight and obesity but not metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19-64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The weighted prevalence of soup consumption was 94%, with a seasonal variation in the frequency of soup consumption being found. Non-consumers of soup were at a higher risk of being overweight or obese (adjusted odds ratio = 1.381, P = 0.013), with a higher adjusted prevalence of reduced HDL cholesterol (adjusted odds ratio = 1.280, P = 0.045), but there was no association between soup consumption and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.520). The frequency of soup consumption was inversely associated with covariate-adjusted body mass index and waist circumference (Psoup consumers (P = 0.022). Results from the present study suggest soup consumption is not associated with metabolic syndrome. However, there is an inverse relationship between soup consumption and body weight status in US adults, which support laboratory studies showing a potential benefit of soup consumption for body weight management.

  17. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  18. A Cohort Mortality Study of Workers in a Second Soup Manufacturing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Ndetan, Harrison; Jadhav, Supriya; Johnson, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    The authors previously reported on mortality among workers in a Baltimore soup plant. Increased mortality was observed for cancers of the floor of the mouth, rectosigmoid colon/rectum/anus, epilepsy, and chronic nephritis. Here, the authors report on mortality on a second soup plant in the same locality. Excess mortality was similarly recorded for cancers of the tonsils/oropharynx, rectosigmoid colon/rectum/anus, and lung and myelofibrosis. Excess risk from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, kidney, and infectious diseases was also observed. These 2 studies are important because firstly, to the authors' knowledge, they are the only reports of mortality in this occupational group in spite of their having a potential for exposure to hazardous carcinogenic agents. Secondly, there is no information on any exposure assessment in this industry. These 2 reports will draw attention to the need to conduct more detailed exposure and mortality investigations in this little-studied group.

  19. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. College cafeteria snack food purchases become less healthy with each passing week of the semester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Cao, Ying; Saini, Prerna; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Just, David R

    2013-07-01

    Snacks, stress and parties all contribute to the weight gain – the elusive ‘Freshman 15’ – that some college-goers unfortunately experience. The present study examines how a` la carte snack choice changes on a university campus during each progressing week of the academic calendar. How a` la carte snack choices change on a university campus with each progressing week of the academic calendar was examined. The data were collected from three large cafeterias (or dining halls) on Cornell University’s campus during four semesters (Fall 2006, Spring 2007, Fall 2007 and Spring 2008), for 18 weeks in each semester. After the a` la carte snack items were divided into healthy snacks and unhealthy snacks, the percentage share for each food category was calculated. Within each semester, the unhealthy snack food choices increased consistently by 0?4% per week (b50?00418, P,0?01). Furthermore, a sharp (8 %) increase occurred in the final two weeks of the semester. In contrast, healthy snack food choices decreased by almost 4% (b520?0408, P,0?01) in the final two weeks during the fall semester. These results demonstrate an increased demand for hedonic, or unhealthy, snack foods as the college semester progresses and in particular at the very end of the semester. To counter this tendency towards unhealthy snacking, cafeterias and stores should make extra effort to promote healthy alternatives during the later weeks of the semester.

  1. Snacking Patterns in Children: A Comparison between Australia, China, Mexico, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dantong; van der Horst, Klazine; Jacquier, Emma F; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-02-11

    Snacking is common in children and influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to provide insight of both common and country-specific characteristics of snacking among 4-13 year old children. We analyzed snacking prevalence, energy and nutrient contributions from snacking across diverse cultures and regions, represented by Australia, China, Mexico, and the US using data from respective national surveys. We found that the highest prevalence of snacking was in Australia and the US (over 95%) where snacking provided one-third and one-quarter of total energy intake (TEI), respectively, followed by Mexico (76%, provided 15% TEI) and China (65%, provided 10% TEI). Compared to 4-8 year-olds, the consumption of fruits and milk was lower in 9-13 year-old children, with a trend of increasing savory snacks consumption in China, Mexico, and the US. The nutrient density index of added sugars and saturated fat was higher, especially in Australia, Mexico, and the US. Results suggested that snacking could be an occasion to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in all countries, especially for older children. Snacking guidelines should focus on reducing consumption of snacks high in saturated fat and added sugars for Australia, Mexico, and the US, whereas improving dairy consumption is important in China.

  2. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Djin G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour. Two conditions were designed: 1 a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2 a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption.

  3. The Nutrient Density of Snacks: A Comparison of Nutrient Profiles of Popular Snack Foods Using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Rao, Goutham; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data) in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3), milk (52.5), and fruit (30.1) emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (-4.4), pies and cakes (-11.1), and carbonated soft drinks (-17.2) emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  4. Effect of a barley-vegetable soup on plasma carotenoids and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tullii, Domenico; Masciangelo, Simona; Gesuita, Rosaria; Skrami, Edlira; Brugè, Francesca; Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Tiano, Luca; Ferretti, Gianna

    2015-07-01

    Functional foods that provide benefits beyond their traditional nutritional value have attracted much interest. Aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional and the functional properties of a frozen ready-to-eat soup containing barley and pigmented vegetables. Both glycaemic index and the glyceamic load of ready-to-eat soup were evaluated in vivo. Moreover the bioavailability of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and the effect on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were studied in 38 volunteers whose diet was supplemented for two weeks with a daily portion (250 g) of the ready-to-eat soup. Plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and plasma total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the levels of lipids (total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and of markers of lipid peroxidation (oxidized low density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxides) in plasma of all subjects. The glyceamic index of the product was 36, therefore it could be considered a low glyceamic index food. An accurate selection of vegetable foods results in a palatable and healthy product that provides benefits on plasma lipids and lipid peroxidation (Protocol number 211525).

  5. "Submesoscale Soup" Vorticity and Tracer Statistics During the Lateral Mixing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, A.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Lee, C. M.; Molemaker, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed view of upper-ocean velocity, vorticity, and tracer statistics was obtained by a unique synchronized two-vessel survey in the North Atlantic in winter 2012. In winter, North Atlantic Mode water region south of the Gulf Stream is filled with an energetic, homogeneous, and well-developed submesoscale turbulence field - the "submesoscale soup". Turbulence in the soup is produced by frontogenesis and the surface layer instability of mesoscale eddy flows in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream. This region is a convenient representation of the inertial range of the geophysical turbulence forward cascade spanning scales of o(1-100km). During the Lateral Mixing Experiment in February-March 2012, R/Vs Atlantis and Knorr were run on parallel tracks 1 km apart for 500 km in the submesoscale soup region. Synchronous ADCP sampling provided the first in-situ estimates of full 3-D vorticity and divergence without the usual mix of spatial and temporal aliasing. Tracer distributions were also simultaneously sampled by both vessels using the underway and towed instrumentation. Observed vorticity distribution in the mixed layer was markedly asymmetric, with sparse strands of strong anticyclonic vorticity embedded in a weak, predominantly cyclonic background. While the mean vorticity was close to zero, distribution skewness exceeded 2. These observations confirm theoretical and numerical model predictions for an active submesoscale turbulence field. Submesoscale vorticity spectra also agreed well with the model prediction.

  6. Soup kitchen users' social representations of healthy eating associated with their household food security status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina BENTO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.

  7. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  9. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  10. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P soup.

  11. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  12. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Location influences snacking behavior of US infants, toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Emma F; Deming, Denise M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-06-13

    Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS. Significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. The main outcome measures of the analyses were the percent of children consuming snacks by location (at home, away from home) and snacking period (morning, afternoon and evening), energy and food groups consumed during snacks. Snacking at home was more prevalent than snacking away from home (toddlers, 73% vs 27%; preschoolers, 67% vs 33%). Away-from-home snacks provided about 50 additional calories per day for toddlers (346 vs 298 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) and preschoolers (371 vs 326 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) versus snacks consumed at home. Caregivers made similar snack choices for toddlers and preschoolers (milk/milk products, fruit/juice, grains and sweets) but differed in frequency of consumption by location. Among toddlers, milk/milk products were the most frequently consumed snacks at home (66%), while sweets were the top snacks consumed away from home (69%). Among preschoolers, sweets were the top snacks both at home (60%) and away (83%). Location is an important factor influencing snacking patterns of young children and should be considered when developing feeding guidelines. This data may be of use in the upcoming development of dietary guidelines in the U.S. for the population aged 0-2 years.

  14. Effects of Offering Look-Alike Products as Smart Snacks in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Hyary, Maia; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, USDA established nutrition standards for snack foods sold in schools. Many manufacturers reformulated products to meet these Smart Snacks standards, but continue to advertise unhealthy versions of the same brands. Furthermore, Smart Snack packaging often looks similar to less nutritious versions sold outside of schools (look-alike products). This practice may confuse consumers about the nutritional quality of Smart Snacks and raise concerns about schools selling them. An online experiment with 659 students (13-17 years) and 859 parents (children ages 10-13) was performed. Participants randomly viewed information about snacks sold at a hypothetical school, including (1) look-alike Smart Snacks; (2) existing store versions of the same brands; (3) repackaged Smart Snacks (highlighting differences versus unhealthy versions); or (4) consistent brands (i.e., Smart Snack versions also sold in stores). They then rated the individual snacks offered and the school selling them. As hypothesized, students and parents rated look-alike and store versions similarly in taste, healthfulness, and purchase intent, while considering repackaged Smart Snacks as healthier, but less tasty. Most participants also inaccurately believed they had seen look-alike products for sale in stores. Furthermore, they rated schools offering look-alike Smart Snacks and store versions as less concerned about students' health and well-being than schools in the other two conditions. The nutritional quality of snacks sold in schools has improved, but many Smart Snacks are virtually indistinguishable from less nutritious versions widely sold outside of schools. This practice likely benefits the brands, but may not improve children's overall diet and undermines schools' ability to teach good nutrition.

  15. Knowledge of healthy foods does not translate to healthy snack consumption among exercise science undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.

  16. BCAA-enriched snack improves nutritional state of cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yutaka; Okita, Kiwamu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Miwa, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Okuda, Hiroaki; Onji, Morikazu; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Kato, Shinzo; Kaito, Masahiko; Watanabe, Akiharu; Habu, Daiki; Ito, Susumu; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Kawamura, Naohiro; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-02-01

    A late evening snack improves the catabolic state in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. We tested whether long-term (3 mo) late evening snacking that included a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched nutrient mixture produces a better nutritional state and better quality of life than ordinary food in patients with hepatitis C virus-positive liver cirrhosis. In a multicenter, randomized study, 48 patients with liver cirrhosis received late-evening supplementation with the BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture or ordinary food, such as a rice ball or bread, for 3 mo. During the study period, each patient was instructed on energy and protein intake. Blood biochemical data, nitrogen balance, respiratory quotient, and health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 questionnaire) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total and late-evening energy intakes were similar in the two groups at 3 mo. Serum albumin level, nitrogen balance, and respiratory quotient were significantly improved by the BCAA mixture but not by ordinary food. The parameters of the Short Form 36 did not statistically significantly improve over 3 mo in either group. Long-term oral supplementation with a BCAA mixture is better than ordinary food in a late evening snack at improving the serum albumin level and the energy metabolism in patients with cirrhosis.

  17. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community.

  19. Supradural inflammatory soup in awake and freely moving rats induces facial allodynia that is blocked by putative immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler, Julie; Ellis, Amanda; McFadden, Andrew; Stone, Kendra; Brown, Kimberley; Cady, Sara; Bastos, Leandro F; Sprunger, David; Rezvani, Niloofar; Johnson, Kirk; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-06-01

    Facial allodynia is a migraine symptom that is generally considered to represent a pivotal point in migraine progression. Treatment before development of facial allodynia tends to be more successful than treatment afterwards. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of facial allodynia may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying migraine. Migraine facial allodynia is modeled by applying inflammatory soup (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2) over the dura. Whether glial and/or immune activation contributes to such pain is unknown. Here we tested if trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) glial and/or immune cells are activated following supradural inflammatory soup, and if putative glial/immune inhibitors suppress the consequent facial allodynia. Inflammatory soup was administered via bilateral indwelling supradural catheters in freely moving rats, inducing robust and reliable facial allodynia. Gene expression for microglial/macrophage activation markers, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α increased following inflammatory soup along with robust expression of facial allodynia. This provided the basis for pursuing studies of the behavioral effects of 3 diverse immunomodulatory drugs on facial allodynia. Pretreatment with either of two compounds broadly used as putative glial/immune inhibitors (minocycline, ibudilast) prevented the development of facial allodynia, as did treatment after supradural inflammatory soup but prior to the expression of facial allodynia. Lastly, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist (+)-naltrexone likewise blocked development of facial allodynia after supradural inflammatory soup. Taken together, these exploratory data support that activated glia and/or immune cells may drive the development of facial allodynia in response to supradural inflammatory soup in unanesthetized male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of incorporation of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented healthy soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajan, Suman; Orchy, Tania N; Farzana, Tasnim

    2018-05-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented soup which could be used as a protein-supplemented ready-to-eat food. In this study, corn flour was supplemented with soy flour at different levels such as 20% (T4), 15% (T3), 10% (T2), and 5% (T1), and without soy flour was kept as control (T0). Fixed amount of mushroom and moringa leaf powder was added in all soup powders. Soup powders were analyzed for functional, nutritional, and sensory parameters. Bulk density (0.82-0.74 g/ml), dispersibility (82.1%-75.9%), pH (6.17-6.13), swelling capacity (3.98-3.65 ml/g), and viscosity were decreased, while water absorption capacity (70%-94%) was increased with increasing of soy flour percentages. Protein content of all the treatment groups increased from 10.66% to 19.97% along with a significant increased in fat (1.43%-6.97%), fiber (1.10%-2.30%), ash (15.77%-16.40%), and energy value (328.38-353.21 kcal/100 g) while decreased in moisture and carbohydrate content. On sensory evaluation, soup powders with 10% (T2) level of soy flour incorporation had highest scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that soy flour has effect on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of soup powders and 10% supplementation of soy flour is suitable for ready-to-eat soup formulation. Besides these, use of mushroom and moringa leaf may also increase its nutritional value. Soup developed in this way may be sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.

  1. Teacher Ethnicity, Student Ethnicity, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2015-01-01

    A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…

  2. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men

  4. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  5. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Blake, Christine E.; Blaine, Rachel E.; Younginer, Nicholas A.; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A.; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P.; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92 % mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit care...

  7. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study background: Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods: Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years, and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years. This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample and liking (elderly and children samples of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [‘like extremely’ (1 to ‘dislike extremely’ (10] and children through a five-point facial scale [‘dislike very much’ (1 to ‘like very much’ (5]. Results: After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150, and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160 and elderly (p=0.860. Conclusions: A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly.

  9. The effect of ginger and garlic addition during cooking on the volatile profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Lin; Tu, Zong-Cai; Zhang, Lu; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hui; Pang, Juan-Juan; Tang, Ping-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ginger and garlic have long been used in Asian countries to enhance the flavor and to neutralize any unpleasant odors present in fish soup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the amount of volatile components present in fish soup compared to boiled water solutions of ginger and garlic. The fish soup was prepared by boiling oil-fried grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) with or without ginger and/or garlic. Generally, boiling garlic and ginger in water led to a decrease in the amount of the principal volatile constituents of these spices, together with the formation of some new volatiles such as pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal. The results showed that 16 terpenes present in raw ginger, predominantly camphene, β -phellandrene, β -citral, α -zingiberene, and ( E )-neral, were detected in fish soup with added ginger and thus remained in the solution even after boiling. Similarly, 2-propen-1-ol and three sulfur compounds (allyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide) present in raw garlic, were present in trace amounts in the boiled garlic solution, but were present in considerably larger amounts in the boiled fish solution with garlic or garlic plus ginger. In conclusion, the effect of adding spices on the volatile profile of grass carp soup can be attributed to the dissolution of flavor volatiles mainly derived from raw spices into the solution, with few additional volatiles being formed during boiling. In addition, boiling previously fried grass carp with spices led to enhanced volatile levels compared to boiled spice solutions.

  10. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale ['like extremely' (1) to 'dislike extremely' (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale ['dislike very much' (1) to 'like very much' (5)]. After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly.

  11. The power of habits: unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2012-11-01

    Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community sample (N= 1,103). To test our hypothesis that habits are crucial when explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, their role was compared to the 'Power of Food', a related construct that addresses sensitivity to food cues in the environment. Moreover, the relation between Power of Food and unhealthy snacking habits was assessed. A prospective design was used to determine the impact of habits in relation to intention, Power of Food and a number of demographic variables. One month after filling out the questionnaire, including measures of habit strength and Power of Food, participants reported their unhealthy snacking behaviour by means of a 7-day snack diary. Results showed that habit strength was the most important predictor, outperforming all other variables in explaining unhealthy snack intake. The findings demonstrate that snacking habits provide a unique contribution in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, stressing the importance of addressing habit strength in further research and interventions concerning unhealthy snacking behaviour. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. SMEs Development Strategy for Competitive and Sustainable Typical Local Snacks of Banten Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2015-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for snacks in Indonesia currently has a good growth rate on one hand; but on the other hand, its level of competition is also quite high.  Growth in sales volume of the Indonesian snack industry, both in modern and traditional markets in 2012, was recorded at 10-15 percent far beyond the growth of other manufacturing industries.  However, the level of competition in the snack industry is also relatively high. Business people in the snacks sector do not only com...

  13. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Jeffery, R W; Story, M; Breitlow, K K; Baxter, J S; Hannan, P; Snyder, M P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines. METHODS: Low-fat snacks were added to 55 vending machines in a convenience sample of 12 secondary schools and 12 worksites. Four pricing levels (equal price, 10% reduction, 25% reduction, 50% reduction) and 3 promotional conditions (none, low-fat label, low-fat label plus promotional sign) were crossed in a Latin square design. Sales of low-fat vending snacks were measured continuously for the 12-month intervention. RESULTS: Price reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% on low-fat snacks were associated with significant increases in low-fat snack sales; percentages of low-fat snack sales increased by 9%, 39%, and 93%, respectively. Promotional signage was independently but weakly associated with increases in low-fat snack sales. Average profits per machine were not affected by the vending interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both adult and adolescent populations. PMID:11189801

  14. Assessment of Snacks Consumption among High School Students of Tehran during 2010-2011 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Eating snacks during the day can lead to energy distribution and improvement of the health status of students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of snack consumption among high school students in region 8 of Tehran. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed on 300 high school students in district 8 of Tehran educational board during 2010-2011. Cluster sampling was done as a random method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman, Pearson and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.2±0.9. 64.6% of students ate snacks everyday and 10.1% of them didn’t use any snack at school. Most students (14.8% ate sandwich as snack prepared by school’s buffet every day. Tea (12.4%, fruits (12%, cheese bread (10% and home -made sandwiches (7.9% were also used as snacks. Results showed that among food consumed as snack, sandwich consumption was negatively associated to the grade of previous semester. Moreover, the consumption of blowgun and cakes were increased in children with more educated fathers. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the consumption of snacks during school attendance is good in terms of quantity, but the quality and usefulness of food still need more attention Keyword: Snack, High school, Average, Student

  15. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p consumption of a premeal snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  17. Sorption isotherms modeling approach of rice-based instant soup mix stored under controlled temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of rice-based instant soup mix at temperature range 15–45°C and relative humidity from 0.11 to 0.86 were determined using the standard gravimetric static method. The experimental sorption curves were fitted by five equations: Chung-Pfost, GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin. The sorption isotherms of soup mix decreased with increasing temperature, exhibited type II behavior according to BET classification. The GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The isosteric heat of sorption of water was determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures. It decreased as moisture content increased and was found to be a polynomial function of moisture content. The study has provided information and data useful in large-scale commercial production of soup and have great importance to combat the problem of protein-energy malnutrition in underdeveloped and developing countries.

  18. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M; Kok, F J; de Graaf, C

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density. In total, 16 men and 66 women (mean age 21.9 years (s.d. 0.3 year), mean body mass index 20.7 kg m(-2) (s.d. 0.2 kg m(-2))) were randomly assigned to one of four parallel groups in a 2 x 2 design: snacks consumed with or between meals and snacks having a low (12 kJ g(-1)) energy density. For 8 weeks, subjects consumed mandatory snacks that provided 25% of energy requirements on each day. Body weight, body composition, physical activity level (PAL) and energy intake were measured in week 1 and week 8. There were no differences in changes in body weight between the four groups. Moment of consumption (P=0.7), energy density (P=0.8) and interaction (P=0.09) did not influence body weight. Similarly, there were no differences in changes in body composition, PAL and energy intake between the four groups. Body weight after 8 weeks of snack consumption was not affected by moment of consumption and energy density of snacks. This finding suggests that consuming snacks that are high or low in energy density does not necessarily contribute to weight gain. Healthy, nonobese young adults may be able to maintain a normal body weight through an accurate compensation for the consumption of snacks.

  19. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  1. Japanese traditional miso soup attenuates salt-induced hypertension and its organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mariko; Toda, Natsuko; Tamura, Yuki; Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term miso soup drinking on salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats were divided into four groups that consumed 1) water, 2) a 0.9% NaCl solution, 3) a 1.3% sodium NaCl solution, or 4) miso soup containing 1.3% NaCl. They were followed for 8 wk. Systolic blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage were determined. Systolic blood pressure increased in an age- and dose-dependent manner in Dahl S rats drinking salt solutions. The systolic blood pressure increase was significantly less in the Dahl S rats that drank miso soup, although the ultimate cumulative salt loading was greater than that in the Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. This blood pressure decrease was associated with a morphologic attenuation of glomerular sclerosis in the kidney and collagen infiltration in the heart. Urinary protein excretions were less in the miso group than in the rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. The fractional excretion of sodium was increased and that of potassium was decreased in Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution, and these effects were reversed in rats given miso soup toward the values of the control. We found that long-term miso soup drinking attenuates the blood pressure increase in salt-induced hypertension with organ damage. This may be caused by a possible retardation of sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or by the direct effects of nutrients in the miso soup from soybeans. The decrease was associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Misuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. METHODS: Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents ("BM Soup" were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. RESULTS BM SOUP: restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. CONCLUSION: BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment.

  3. Turtle soup, Prohibition, and the population genetic structure of Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Paul E; Kuchta, Shawn R; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Roosenburg, Willem M

    2017-01-01

    Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) were a popular food item in early twentieth century America, and were consumed in soup with sherry. Intense market demand for terrapin meat resulted in population declines, notably along the Atlantic seaboard. Efforts to supply terrapins to markets resulted in translocation events, as individuals were moved about to stock terrapin farms. However, in 1920 the market for turtle soup buckled with the enactment of the eighteenth amendment to the United States' Constitution-which initiated the prohibition of alcoholic drinks-and many terrapin fisheries dumped their stocks into local waters. We used microsatellite data to show that patterns of genetic diversity along the terrapin's coastal range are consistent with historical accounts of translocation and cultivation activities. We identified possible instances of human-mediated dispersal by estimating gene flow over historical and contemporary timescales, Bayesian model testing, and bottleneck tests. We recovered six genotypic clusters along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts with varying degrees of admixture, including increased contemporary gene flow from Texas to South Carolina, from North Carolina to Maryland, and from North Carolina to New York. In addition, Bayesian models incorporating translocation events outperformed stepping-stone models. Finally, we were unable to detect population bottlenecks, possibly due to translocation reintroducing genetic diversity into bottlenecked populations. Our data suggest that current patterns of genetic diversity in the terrapin were altered by the demand for turtle soup followed by the enactment of alcohol prohibition. In addition, our study shows that population genetic tools can elucidate metapopulation dynamics in taxa with complex genetic histories impacted by anthropogenic activities.

  4. Properties of extruded snacks supplemented with amaranth grain grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev Miroslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food, supplement in breakfast cereals, or as raw material for further processing. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends, containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits, were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded, hence rheological properties were examined. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage.

  5. Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG-)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy p...

  6. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  7. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  8. Selected properties of the potato snacks expanded in the microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrus Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of the selected properties of the extruded potato pellets and snacks expanded in the microwave field are presented in the paper. The potato pellets with the addition of the baking soda were prepared with a single screw extruder TS-45. The snacks were obtained by pellets expansion in a conventional microwave oven. The expansion index and the hardness of the pellets and the snacks, as well as, the texture properties of the snacks were evaluated during this study. The results showed that baking soda addition reduced the potato pellet expansion during their extrusion. This was an effect of a smaller thickness of the obtained pellets. The addition of baking soda had positive influence on potato snacks expansion in microwave radiation. The higher content of the soda additive resulted in lower hardness of pellets during cutting tests. The opposite effect was observed during texture measurements of the snacks. The addition of baking soda increased hardness of the expanded snacks. Soda addition lowers crispness and fragilityof the potato snacks expanded in the microwave radiation.

  9. Math Snacks: Using Animations and Games to Fill the Gaps in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiz, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Wiburg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Math Snacks animations and support materials were developed for use on the web and mobile technologies to teach ratio, proportion, scale factor, and number line concepts using a multi-modal approach. Included in Math Snacks are: Animations which promote the visualization of a concept image; written lessons which provide cognitive complexity for…

  10. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. Objective: This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. Design: In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3–5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Results: Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218. PMID:23902783

  11. The longitudinal link between mothers' and adolescents' snacking: The moderating role of television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, N. van den; Larsen, J.K.; Verhagen, M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Burk, W.J.; Vink, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of adolescents eats too many energy-dense snacks, which is detrimental for their current and future health. To understand how to promote healthy dietary behaviors in adolescents, we need to identify factors that affect their snacking. While previous cross-sectional work has shown

  12. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.

  13. The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking: how powerful are habits in adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Stok, F.M.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome

  14. The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking : How powerful are habits in adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Stok, F Marijn; De Wit, John B F; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome

  15. Iranian Female Adolescent’s Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account. PMID:23113027

  16. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.

  17. Is Field of Study or Location Associated with College Students' Snacking Patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. McArthur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare on- and off-campus snacking patterns among college students pursuing degrees in health-related fields (HRFs and nonhealth-related fields (NHRFs. Materials and Methods. Snack frequency questionnaire, scales measuring barriers, self-efficacy, and stage of change for healthy snacking, and a snack knowledge test (SKT. Participants. 513 students, 46% HRFs, and 54% NHRFs. The students' mean±SD BMI was 24.1±4.3 kg/m2 (range 14.6 to 43.8, and 32.2% were overweight/obese. Results. Softdrinks (on-campus, lowfat milk (off-campus, and sports drinks were popular among HRFs and NHRFs. Cost and availability were barriers to healthy snacking, students felt least confident to choose healthy snacks when emotionally upset, and 75% (65% of HRFs (NHRFs self-classified in the action stage of change for healthy snacking. The HRFs scored higher on the SKT. Conclusions. Neither location nor field of study strongly influenced snacking patterns, which featured few high-fiber foods.

  18. Reasons for eating 'unhealthy' snacks in overweight and obese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleobury, L; Tapper, K

    2014-08-01

    Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and 'healthy' snacks in overweight and obese participants. Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study). Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes. These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Targeting implicit approach reactions to snack food in children; Effects on intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, Frans; Veling, Harm; Hoeken, J.A.L.

    Objective: Implicit approach reactions to energy-dense snack food can facilitate unhealthy eating in children. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test whether modifying implicit reactions to snack food by means of a go/no-go task can reduce consumption of this food. The effectiveness of this

  20. Sensory specific satiety and intake: The difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Liem, D.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects

  1. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  2. A novel approach to improving writing skills: ClimateSnack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mathew

    2014-05-01

    Writing is a huge part of any research career. We can think of writing as a research tool we find in any research laboratory. Much like any research tool, we have to understand how to calibrate, adjust and apply it in order to achieve the very best experimental outcomes. We can learn how to use this tool with advice from writing workshops, online writing courses, books and so on. Unfortunately, when it comes to working with this tool, we often have to do it alone. But, like in any laboratory, the most rewarding way to learn and to achieve the best results is to interact with others. Through this interaction, we can improve our writing and remain motivated. ClimateSnack aims to help early career scientists understand how they can use writing as an effective research tool. We encourage the formation of writing groups at different universities and institutes. Members write short popular science articles and read them aloud at group meetings. The group uses knowledge from different learning resources to discuss the articles and give feedback. The author then improves their writing further before publishing on the ClimateSnack website. If early-career scientists can successfully increase their control of writing, they will more likely write memorable high-impact scientific articles, and confidently communicate their science via varied media to varied audiences.

  3. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, E M; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers' perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Vadukapuram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20% into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05 different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P>0.05 in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  7. Effects of a healthier snack on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a 6-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Rush, Elaine C

    2016-12-01

    Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the bars as the main snack for 6 weeks (n 14) or receipt of the bars was delayed for 6 weeks (n 14) following a stepped-wedge design. All participants had HbA1c concentrations measured at weeks -1, 0, 4, 6, 10 and 12. A short dietary habits questionnaire was self-completed at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Participants consumed the bars they received instead of other snacks, and found that the healthier snack bar was acceptable as part of their daily dietary pattern. Over the 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in intake of biscuits, cakes and pies (approximately 2 servings/week, Psnack intervention and a trend towards a favourable effect on glucose homoeostasis. Habitual snacking behaviour has the potential to be improved through changes in the food supply, and in the longer term may reduce the impact of poor nutrition on public health.

  8. The addition of peanuts to habitual diets is associated with lower consumption of savory non-core snacks by men and sweet non-core snacks by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jayne A; Stojanovski, Emilija; Moran, Lisa J; Howe, Peter R C; Coates, Alison M

    2017-05-01

    Snacking is associated with intakes of non-core foods which may predispose to obesity. Peanuts have potential satiety benefits and may assist with weight management; we hypothesized that peanut consumption would reduce intake of non-core snack foods due to compensation. We investigated the effects of adding peanuts to a habitual diet on snacking habits and energy intake. Sixty-one healthy participants (65±7years, body mass index 31±4kg/m 2 ) consumed their habitual diet with or without peanuts (56g/d for 32 women, 84g/d for 29 men) for 12weeks each in a randomized crossover design. Food diaries were analyzed at baseline and after each 12-week period for meal and snack content and timing. Total energy intake was higher (17% for men [PSnacking occasions increased during the peanut phase (53% for men [P=.001], 14% for women [P=.01]). Servings of other snack foods did not change during the peanut phase (P=.6) compared with control. However, sex-specific analysis revealed that men and women consumed less savory (Psnacks, respectively, during the peanut phase. Despite increased energy intake and snacking frequency, peanuts may improve the diet through sex-specific reductions of non-core foods; for optimal energy balance, peanuts should be substituted rather than added to the diet. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrition Quality of US School Snack Foods: A First Look at 2011-2014 Bid Records in 8 School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Claire; Hsiao, Amber; Chamberlin, Peter; Largay, McKenzie; Archibald, Abbie; Malone, Andrew; Stevelos, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background:As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant…

  10. U.S. adults and child snacking patterns among sugar sweetened beverage drinkers and non-drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide national estimates of snack patterns for sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) drinkers and non-SSB drinkers among U.S. children and adults. Methods We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 among children (ages 2 to 19) and adults (aged 20 and older) (N = 46,932). Results For children and adults, SSB drinkers were significantly more likely than non-SSB drinkers to consume snacks (children: salty – 60% vs. 50%; sweet – 69% vs. 65%; adults: salty – 64% vs. 58%; sweet – 64% vs. 58%), calories from snacks (children: salty snacks – 258 vs. 213 kcal; sweet snacks – 322 vs. 291 kcal; adults: salty snacks – 261 vs. 236 kcal; sweet snacks – 370 vs. 350 kcal), and total calories (children: 2098 vs. 1804 kcal; adults: 2329 vs. 2049 kcal) (p snack consumers than Whites and Hispanics (SSB consumers: White – 79%; Black – 86%, Hispanic – 82%; salty snack consumers: White – 56%; Black – 62%, Hispanic – 54%; p snacks at home (p snack and consume more calories from snacks than non-SSB drinkers, particularly Black adolescents and young adults. PMID:25584987

  11. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  12. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert Glenn; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies call on afterschool programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community-partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods Four large-scale ASPs (serving ∼500 children aged 6-12 years each day) and a single local grocery store chain participated in the study. The nutritional quality of snacks served was recorded pre-intervention (18 weeks spring/fall 2011) and post-intervention (7 weeks spring 2012) via direct observation, along with cost/child/snack/day. Results Pre-intervention snacks were low-nutrient-density salty snacks (eg, chips, 3.0 servings/week), sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, powdered-lemonade, 1.9 servings/week), and desserts (eg, cookies, 2.1servings/week), with only 0.4 servings/week of fruits and no vegetables. By post-intervention, fruits (3.5 servings/week) and vegetables (1.2 servings/week) increased, while sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. Snack expenditures were $0.26 versus $0.24 from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Partnership savings versus purchasing snacks at full retail cost was 24.5% or $0.25/serving versus $0.34/serving. Conclusions This innovative partnership can serve as a model in communities where ASPs seek to identify low-cost alternatives to providing nutritious snacks. PMID:25040123

  13. Effect of ingredients on the quality characteristics of gluten free snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monika; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2017-11-01

    Grain-based fabricated snacks from non-wheat grains (amaranth, finger millet, sorghum and black gram) were used to prepare puffed snacks employing the method of hot air toasting. The functional characteristics and sensory attributes of the snack were determined by varying the moisture content and time of toasting. The quality attributes of the snacks like the instrumental color parameters, peak force and puff thickness of the snack correlated well with the sensory attributes (appearance/color, texture and overall acceptability). A snack made from amaranth showed a bright reddish brown colour at a moisture content of 20-40%; the product had a good puffing and high overall acceptability. The moisture content of all the snacks was around 3% and had a fat content of 1-2%; protein and dietary fiber contents were in the ranges of 22-23 and 10-11%, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) accounted for a total of 89.6% variation. The PCA biplot showed that sensory appearance, sensory texture and sensory overall acceptability were closely related to the puff thickness. The microstructure of the snack indicated the presence of air cells to offer a porous structure. On toasting, the flakes increased their thickness creating a porous microstructure such that the toasted snacks were crispy having a brittle texture. Popped sorghum and gelatinized starch added doughs exhibited good puffing when toasted at 20-30% moisture content while popped amaranth samples required higher moisture content (30-40%). The grain based gluten-free snacks with improved sensory and nutritional characteristics can be prepared by using different ingredients.

  14. Physical activity-equivalent label reduces consumption of discretionary snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Isabella E; Keast, Russell Sj; Liem, Dijn G

    2018-03-01

    The present research aimed to investigate the impact of the physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) front-of-pack label on consumption, prospective consumption and liking of familiar and unfamiliar discretionary snack foods. In a within-subject randomised design, participants tasted and rated liking (9-point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9-point category scale) of four different snack foods with four different labels (i.e. blank, fake, PACE, PACE doubled) and four control snack foods. The twenty snack foods were presented during two 45 min sessions (i.e. ten snack foods per session) which were separated by one week. The amount participants sampled of each snack food was measured. The study was conducted in the Centre for Advanced Sensory Sciences laboratory at Deakin University, Australia. The participants were 153 university students (126 females, twenty-seven males, mean age 24·3 (sd 4·9) years) currently enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition degree at Deakin University. When the PACE label was present on familiar snack foods, participants sampled 9·9 % (22·8 (sem 1·4) v. 25·3 (sem 1·5) g, P=0·03) less than when such label was not present. This was in line with a decreased prospective snack food consumption of 9·1 % (3·0 (sem 0·2) v. 3·3 (sem 0·2) servings, P=0·03). Such pattern was not seen in unfamiliar snacks. The PACE label appears to be a promising way to decrease familiar discretionary snack food consumption in young, health-minded participants.

  15. Tourism and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Azeredo Grünewald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant issues confronting studies in the anthropology of tourism is that of cultural change precipitated in host societies as a result of an influx of tourists. Many times those changes are accompanied by a reorganization of the host population along ethnic lines, that is, by the creation of tourism- oriented-ethnicities. This article's purpose is to examine the relationship between tourism and ethnicity in theoretical terms and to contribute to a better academic understanding of ethnic tourism.

  16. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sumeet; Das, Madhusweta

    2015-09-01

    Barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix (BFSM) was developed from whole barely flour (46.296%), roasted flaxseed powder (23.148%) and the seasoning (30.555%) comprising several flavoring compounds and anticaking agent, using simple processing technique. Developed BFSM was nutritious. On dry matter basis it contained: protein (14.31%), carbohydrate excluding crude fiber (54.70%), fat (8.70%), ash (17.45%) and crude fiber (4.84%). It was low glycemic soup, free of antinutritional risk and had calorific value of 319.77 kcal/100 g (wet or sample basis, sb) estimated from its composition. 100 g (sb) of BFSM contained 4.36 g β-glucans and 8.08 g total lipid of which 25.6% was ω-3 fatty acids. Different extracts of BFSM revealed the presence of total phenols (0.57-1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, sb) with antioxidants equivalence of DPPH (20.69-39.07%) and FRAP (120-331 μm Fe (II)/g, sb).

  17. Price and healthfulness of snacks in 32 YMCA after-school programs in 4 US metropolitan areas, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M; Wiecha, Jean L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations of healthful snacks and of beverage and food groups with price (n = 1,294 snack-days). We identified repeatedly served healthful snacks consistent with Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines and reimbursement rate ($0.74/snack). On average, healthful snacks were approximately 50% more expensive than less healthful snacks ($0.26/snack; SE, 0.08; P = .003). Compared to water, 100% juice significantly increased average snack price, after controlling for other variables in the model. Similarly, compared to refined grains with trans fats, refined grains without trans fat significantly increased snack price, as did fruit and canned or frozen vegetables. Fresh vegetables (mostly carrots or celery) or whole grains did not alter price. Twenty-two repeatedly served snacks met nutrition guidelines and the reimbursement rate. In this sample of after-school programs, healthful snacks were typically more expensive than less healthful options; however, we identified many healthful snacks served at or below the price of less healthful options. Substituting tap water for 100% juice yielded price savings that could be used toward purchasing more healthful foods (eg, an apple). Our findings have practical implications for selecting snacks that meet health and reimbursement guidelines.

  18. Experimental inflammation following dural application of complete Freund's adjuvant or inflammatory soup does not alter brain and trigeminal microvascular passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundblad, Cornelia; Haanes, Kristian A; Grände, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    , following dural application of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or inflammatory soup (IS) on brain and trigeminal microvascular passage. METHODS: In order to address this issue, we induced local inflammation in male Sprague-Dawley-rats dura mater by the addition of CFA or IS directly on the dural surface...

  19. Comparing methods for measuring consumer willingness to pay for a basic and an improved ready made soup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for a basic chilled soup product and for an improved, self-heating version was measured by methods experimentally varied according to a 2 x 3 design, varying the basic measurement approach (contingent valuation, experimental auction, conjoint analysis) and the use of real...

  20. Dural administration of inflammatory soup or Complete Freund's Adjuvant induces activation and inflammatory response in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukács, M; Haanes, K A; Majláth, Zs

    2015-01-01

    induces inflammatory activation in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: We performed topical administration of inflammatory soup (IS) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto an exposed area of the rat dura mater in vivo for 20 min. The window was closed and the rats were sacrificed after 4 h and up to 7...

  1. Optimal timing and frequency of bone marrow soup therapy for functional restoration of salivary glands injured by single-dose or fractionated irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dongdong; Shang, Sixia; Liu, Younan; Bakkar, Mohammed; Sumita, Yoshinori; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D

    2018-02-01

    Injections of bone marrow (BM) cell extract, known as 'BM soup', were previously reported to mitigate ionizing radiation (IR) injury to salivary glands (SGs). However, the optimal starting time and frequency to maintain BM soup therapeutic efficacy remains unknown. This study tested the optimal starting time and frequency of BM soup injections in mice radiated with either a single dose or a fractionated dose. First, BM soup treatment was started at 1, 3 or 7 weeks post-IR; positive (non-IR) and negative (IR) control mice received injections of saline (vehicle control). Second, BM soup-treated mice received injections at different frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 5 weekly injections). Third, a 'fractionated-dose radiation' model to injure mouse SGs was developed (5 Gy × 5 days) and compared with the single high dose radiation model. All mice (n = 65) were followed for 16 weeks post-IR. The results showed that starting injections of BM soup between 1 and 3 weeks mitigated the effect of IR-induced injury to SGs and improved the restoration of salivary function. Although the therapeutic effect of BM soup lessens after 8 weeks, it can be sustained by increasing the frequency of weekly injections. Moreover, both single-dose and fractionated-dose radiation models are efficient and comparable in inducing SG injury and BM soup treatments are effective in restoring salivary function in both radiation models. In conclusion, starting injections of BM soup within 3 weeks post-radiation, with 5 weekly injections, maintains 90-100% of saliva flow in radiated mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Protein and Gene Expression in Salivary Glands of Sjogren’s-Like Disease NOD Mice Treated by Bone Marrow Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuno, Kaori; Khalili, Saeed; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Younan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. Methods Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents (“BM Soup”) were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs) between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. Results BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. Conclusion BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment. PMID:24489858

  3. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gary P; Wolffram, Siegfried; de Vos, Ric; Bovy, Arnaud; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that those who consume a diet rich in quercetin-containing foods may have a reduced risk of CVD. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo studies have observed the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation by quercetin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of quercetin ingestion from a dietary source on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling. A double-blind randomised cross-over pilot study was undertaken. Subjects ingested a soup containing either a high or a low amount of quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations and platelet aggregation and signalling were assessed after soup ingestion. The high-quercetin soup contained 69 mg total quercetin compared with the low-quercetin soup containing 5 mg total quercetin. Plasma quercetin concentrations were significantly higher after high-quercetin soup ingestion than after low-quercetin soup ingestion and peaked at 2.59 (sem 0.42) mumol/l. Collagen-stimulated (0.5 mug/ml) platelet aggregation was inhibited after ingestion of the high-quercetin soup in a time-dependent manner. Collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of a key component of the collagen-signalling pathway via glycoprotein VI, Syk, was significantly inhibited by ingestion of the high-quercetin soup. The inhibition of Syk tyrosine phosphorylation was correlated with the area under the curve for the high-quercetin plasma profile. In conclusion, the ingestion of quercetin from a dietary source of onion soup could inhibit some aspects of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling ex vivo. This further substantiates the epidemiological data suggesting that those who preferentially consume high amounts of quercetin-containing foods have a reduced risk of thrombosis and potential CVD risk.

  4. Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D; Khalili, Saeed; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Younan; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents ("BM Soup") were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs) between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment.

  5. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  6. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  7. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.

  8. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ledochowski

    Full Text Available Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.

  9. Snack patterns are associated with biomarkers of glucose metabolism in US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Song, SuJin; Krumhar, Kim; Song, Won O

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have made distinctions between dietary intake from meals and snacks in relating them to biomarkers. We aimed to examine if snack patterns are associated with biomarkers of glucose metabolism, specifically hemoglobin A1c and HOMA-IR in US adults. Using 24-h dietary recall data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2007-2008, we derived snack patterns using factor analyses. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for biomarkers of glucose metabolism by quintiles of snack pattern scores. Men in the highest quintile of dairy and sugary snack pattern had higher risk of having hemoglobin A1c ≥ 6.5% (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.20-3.51) and HOMA-IR > 3.0 (AOR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01-2.95) than did those in the lowest quintile. No significant association was found in women between snack patterns and biomarkers of glucose metabolism. Dairy and sugary snack patterns of US men had the greatest association with poor control of glucose metabolism.

  10. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. USDA Snack Policy Implementation: Best Practices From the Front Lines, United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Chriqui, Jamie; Chavez, Noel; Odoms-Young, Angela; Handler, Arden

    2016-06-16

    The Smart Snacks in Schools interim final rule was promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (PL 111-296) and implementation commenced beginning July 1, 2014; however, in the years leading up to this deadline, national studies suggested that most schools were far from meeting the USDA standards. Evidence to guide successful implementation of the standards is needed. This study examined snack policy implementation in exemplary high schools to learn best practices for implementation. Guided by a multiple case study approach, school professionals (n = 37) from 9 high schools across 8 states were recruited to be interviewed about perceptions of school snack implementation; schools were selected using criterion sampling on the basis of the HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) database. Interview transcripts and internal documents were organized and coded in ATLAS.Ti v7; 2 researchers coded and analyzed data using a constant comparative analysis method to identify best practice themes. Best practices for snack policy implementation included incorporating the HUSSC: SL award's comprehensive wellness approach; leveraging state laws or district policies to reinforce snack reform initiatives; creating strong internal and external partnerships; and crafting positive and strategic communications. Implementation of snack policies requires evidence of successful experiences from those on the front lines. As federal, state, and local technical assistance entities work to ensure implementation of the Smart Snacks standards, these best practices provide strategies to facilitate the process.

  12. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of cassava and corn flour utilization on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava leaves snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Endrasari, R.; Oktaningrum, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    Cassava leaves are nutritious vegetable, but often regarded as an inferior commodity. One of the efforts increasing in the benefit of cassava leaves is through processing it into snack. In order to support the food diversification program and to reduce the dependence on imported commodities, the development of cassava leaves snack could be accompanied by optimizing the use of local materials to minimize the use of wheat flour. The aim of this assessment was to learn the effects of cassava and corn flour substitution on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of local flour (cassava and corn) on the snack production was carried on three levels at 15, 30, and 45%. A control treatment was using 100% wheat flour. The results showed that cassava and corn flour were potential to substitute wheat flour for making cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of cassava and corn flour as much as 45% was able to produce crispy products with a brighter color. The substitution of corn flour was resulting in snacks with the lower content of lipid than the other substitution snacks.

  14. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p snack food portion sizes (p snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  15. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

  16. Pengaruh variasi pemberian Snack bar ubi jalar kedelai hitam terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyono Ayustaningwarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans is low GI, fat and calorie snack which haveantioxidant content, such as β-carotene, anthocyanin, isoflavone, and antioxidant activity, so can be an alternativesnack for patients with DM type 2. Antioxidants intake can prevent the oxidative stress that lead micro- and macrovascularcomplications in DM type 2. Antioxidant intake may preserve endogen antioxidant capacity, which is can bedetermined by analyzing SOD concentration.Objective: analyze effect variety of Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans consume to SOD concentration.Methods: experimental post-pretest research used 3 varieties of sweet potato’s color (red, yellow, and purpleinterventions. SOD concentration was analyzed by colorimetric. Statistic data was analyzed by dependent t-test andOne Way Anova.Results: No different between groups interventions Snack bar from purple, yellow or red sweet potatoes (p=0,122.Group with snack bar from purple sweet potatoes intervention has lowest SOD decreasing percentage among otherintervention groups.Conclusion: Consume snack bar form purple sweet potatoes and black soybeans can preserve SOD concentrationbetter than consume snack bar form yellow or red sweet potatoes and black soybeans

  17. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  18. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.

  19. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A or before (B extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were greater than those of snack A. The color parameter a measured on snack B was greater than the verified for snack A, whereas the opposite was observed for parameter b. Initial β-carotene content was higher in the snack A with significant reduction in both snacks during storage. β-carotene reduction from 15 to 60 days was less pronounced in the snack A as compared to snack B. The flavoring and fortification methods affected the shear strength, color parameters and β-carotene contents of the snacks.

  20. The relationship between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes: a population study in Chilean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Orellana, Yasna; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes in students from the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Chile). Cross-sectional population-based study. We measured the nutritional quality of snacks at school using an FFQ, and accounting for the amounts of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, and academic outcomes using national standardized test scores in Language and Mathematics. Multivariate regression analyses modelled the relationship between unhealthy snacking at school (exposure), potential confounders and performance in Mathematics and Language (outcomes). Random sample of 1073 students (13.1 (SD 2.3) years old) attending public, partially subsidized and private schools. Fifty-six per cent of students ate items at snack time that were high in fat, sugar, salt and energy, and thus were considered to have unhealthy snaking. Thirty-six per cent and 8% were considered to have poor-to-fair and healthy snacking, respectively. Unhealthy snacking significantly lowered the odds of good academic performance in both domains. Students having unhealthy snacks were 56% less likely to pass in Language (fully adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and 66% less likely to pass in Mathematics (fully adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.64) compared with students having healthy snack items. Schoolchildren eating unhealthy foods at snack time had worse academic performance in Language and Mathematics, as measured by a standardized test. Although association does not imply causation, these findings support the notion that academic and health-related behaviours are linked. More research is needed on the effect of school health programmes on educational outcomes.

  1. Raisins compared with other snack effects on glycemia and blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Weiter, Kathy M; Christian, Amber L; Ritchey, Michelle B; Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    To compare effects of raisin snacks with conventional snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial compared 3-times-a-day consumption of raisins with intake of processed snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. Men and women were randomized to snacks (n = 15) or raisins (n = 31). Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly affected by intake of raisins or snacks. Mean subject post prandial glucose levels were significantly reduced by raisin intake at 12 weeks; changes with raisin intake were -13.1 mg/dL (P = 0.003 vs baseline; P = 0.03 vs snacks). Eating raisins significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (-0.12%; P = 0.004), a significantly greater level decrease than seen with snack intake (P = 0.036). Snack intake did not significantly affect subject systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP). Raisin intake was associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks with mean changes of -6.0 to 10.2 mmHg; all these changes were statistically significant (P = 0.015 to 0.001). Raisins were associated with significantly greater changes in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks than snacks (P < 0.05). Body weight did not significantly change within or between groups. Regular consumption of raisins may reduce glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors, including BP rate.

  2. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  3. 'Snack' versus 'meal': The impact of label and place on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Wood, Chloe; Payne, Elise; Fouracre, Hollie; Lammyman, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour is influenced by both cognitions and triggers in the environment. The potential difference between a 'snack' and a 'meal' illustrates these factors and the way in which they interact, particularly in terms of the label used to describe food and the way it is presented. To date no research has specifically explored the independent and combined impact of label and presentation on eating behaviour. Using a preload/taste test design this experimental study evaluated the impact of label ('snack' vs. 'meal') and place ('snack' vs. 'meal') of a preload on changes in desire to eat and subsequent food intake. Eighty female participants consumed a pasta preload which labelled as either a 'snack' or a 'meal' and presented as either a 'snack' (standing and eating from a container) or a 'meal' (eating at a table from a plate), generating four conditions. The results showed main effects of label and place with participants consuming significantly more sweet mass (specifically chocolate) at the taste test when the preload had been labelled a 'snack' and more total mass and calories when the preload had been presented as a 'snack'. No label by place interactions were found. The results also showed a combined effect of both label and place with those who had eaten the preload both labelled and presented as a 'snack' consuming significantly more in terms of nearly all measures of food intake than those in the other conditions. To conclude, label and presentation influence subsequent food intake both independently and combined which is pertinent given the increase in 'snacking' in contemporary culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  5. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children′s television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word “child”. We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as “healthy” or “less-healthy” according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. Results We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as “less-healthy”. Conclusion In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic. PMID:24139325

  6. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  8. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Okkels, Signe Loftager; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that meals containing less meat are more sustainable, but little is known about snack-meals, which typically do not contain meat. This study investigates the diversity in environmental impacts associated with snack production based on 20 common recipes optimized for protein content......, energy content and sensory aspects for older adults. The purpose is to improve sustainability of public procurement by serving more sustainable snack-meals. Public procurement serves Danish older adults over millions of snack-meals every year, and millions more are served in countries with a similar...... social service. The environmental impact of snack production was estimated by consequential life cycle assessment. The average impact of producing the 10 least environmentally harmful snacks was 40% less than the average impact of producing the 10 most harmful snacks. This is true whether the functional...

  10. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  11. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  12. Plants traditionally used to make Cantonese slow-cooked soup in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Liu, Qi; Li, Ping; Xing, Deke; Hu, Huagang; Li, Lin; Hu, Xuechen; Long, Chunlin

    2018-01-15

    Lǎo huǒ liàng tāng (Cantonese slow-cooked soup, CSCS) is popular in Guangdong, China, and is consumed by Cantonese people worldwide as a delicious appetizer. Because CSCS serves as an important part of family healthcare, medicinal plants and plant-derived products are major components of CSCS. However, a collated record of the diverse plant species and an ethnobotanical investigation of CSCS is lacking. Because of globalization along with a renewed interest in botanical and food therapy, CSCS has attracted a growing attention in soup by industries, scientists, and consumers. This study represents the first attempt to document the plant species used for CSCS in Guangdong, China, and the associated ethnomedical function of plants, including their local names, part(s) used, flavors, nature, preparation before cooking, habitats, and conservation status. In 2014-2017, participatory approaches, open-ended conversations, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 63 local people and 48 soup restaurant owners (111 interviews) to better understand the biocultural context of CSCS, emphasizing ethnobotanical uses of plants in Guangdong Province, China. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Mention Index (QI), frequency of use index (FUI), and economic index (EI) were adopted to evaluate the significance of each plant in the food supply. A total of 97 plant species belonging to 46 families and 90 genera were recorded as having been used in CSCS in the study area. Recorded menus consisted of one or several plant species, with each one used for different purposes. They were classified into 11 functions, with clearing heat being the most common medicinal function. Of the 97 species, 19 grew only in the wild, 8 species were both wild and cultivated, and 70 species were cultivated. Roots and fruits were the most commonly used plant parts in the preparation of CSCS. According to the national evaluation criteria, six of these

  13. ESR based detection method for irradiated dry fish, tomato soup powder and sweet-meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brij Bhushan; Warrier, S.B.; Sharma, Arun

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiation Processing is increasingly being accepted as one of the most effective and economic method to treat agricultural and horticultural commodities for hygienization and disinfestation purposes and also in overcoming strict quarantine barriers in international trade. At present there is a growing concern about the presence of insecticides and pesticides and their residues in various foods, we consume. In view of this, irradiation, being a physical and cold process, emerges as the best bet towards having an uninterrupted supply of safe and quality food. The process has been endorsed as safe by several international and national bodies. A suitable detection method is however required to meet the basic requirements of consumers and law enforcement authorities, regulating the trade. Dried, sliced Pollack and File fishes were subjected to radiation dose of 4 kGy for elimination of coliforms and for improvement in quality standards during storage. Bones separated served as sample source for ESR based detection method of the radiation treatment. Bones with hard crystalline matrix served as trap for free radicals and facilitated evolution of an ESR based detection method. It showed a linear dose response curve at γ=2.0037, whereas, those from non-irradiated fish fillets failed to show any ESR signal. Re-irradiation helped in calculation of dose delivered to dried fishes. Sachets -containing tomato soup ingredients, including sugars exposed to 0.25 to 2 kGy gamma radiation doses for hygienization and quarantine purposes were used in the experiments. In-pack sugar crystals served as free radicals trap for ESR based detection method for radiation hygienized tomato soup powder. Similarly, it was observed that radiation hygienization of sugar bearing sweet-meats, like Peda (an evaporated milk preparation), Petha (a sugar syrup soaked vegetable preparation) and dry fruits like raisins could be detected using ESR. Suitable methodology was developed to detect

  14. PERILAKU GIZI IBU, POLA ASUH MAKAN, KONTRIBUSI SNACK, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK USIA PRASEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Habibah Wardah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aimed of this study were to analyze mother’s nutritional behavior, parenting eating pattern, snack contribution and their correlations toward preschool children’s nutritional status. The design of this study was a cross-sectional in Labschool IPB-ISFA, involved 20 subjects of preschool children. The result of this study showed that 45% of mothers had moderate nutritional knowledge. Most of mother’s nutritional attitude and practice were categorized as good (35% and poor (35%. Snack had the highest contribution to protein adequacy (58.6%. The contribution of snack to energy, fat, carbohydrate, and natrium adequacy were 41.8%, 44.2%, 45.5%, and 53.6% respectively. Most of subjects had normal nutritional status (80%. Mother’s nutritional knowledge and mother’s nutritional attitude was having significant correlation (p<0.05. Mother’s nutritional practices had significant correlation with eating parenting pattern. There were a significant correlations between carbohydrate and protein from snack with nutritional status (p<0.05, whereas energy and fat from snack had no correlation with nutritional status (p>0.05.Keywords: nutritional behavior, parenting pattern, snackABSTRAKTujuan umum penelitian adalah menganalisis perilaku gizi ibu, pola asuh makan, dan kontribusi snack serta hubungannya dengan status gizi anak usia prasekolah. Desain penelitian adalah cross sectional study dengan 20 subjek anak usia prasekolah di Labschool Pendidikan Karakter IPB-ISFA. Sebagian besar pengetahuan gizi ibu masuk kategori sedang (45,0%. Sikap dan praktik gizi ibu subjek paling banyak termasuk dalam kategori baik (35,0% dan kurang (35,0%. Kontribusi energi dari snack terhadap tingkat kecukupan adalah 41,8%, lemak 44,2%, karbohidrat 45,5%, dan natrium sebesar 53,6%. Kontribusi konsumsi snack terhadap kecukupan protein paling besar yaitu sebesar 58,6%. Sebanyak 80,0% subjek memiliki status gizi normal. Perilaku gizi ibu yang mempunyai hubungan

  15. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  16. Eating on nightshift: A big vs small snack impairs glucose response to breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Centofanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. Food choice may play a role, however simply eating at night when the body is primed for sleep may have implications for health. This study examined the impact of consuming a big versus small snack at night on glucose metabolism. N = 31 healthy subjects (21–35 y; 18 F participated in a simulated nightshift laboratory study that included one baseline night of sleep (22:00 h-07:00 h and one night awake with allocation to either a big snack (2100 kJ or small snack (840 kJ group. The snack was consumed between 00:00–00:30 h and consisted of low fat milk, a sandwich, chips and fruit (big snack or half sandwich and fruit (small snack. Subjects ate an identical mixed meal breakfast (2100 kJ at 08:30 h after one full night of sleep and a simulated nightshift. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously during the entire study using Medtronic Continual Glucose Monitors. Only subjects with identical breakfast consumption and complete datasets were analysed (N = 20. Glucose data were averaged into 5-minute bins and area under the curve (AUC was calculated for 90 min post-breakfast. Pre-breakfast, glucose levels were not significantly different between Day1 and Day2, nor were they different between snack groups (p > 0.05. A snack group by day interaction effect was found (F1,16 = 5.36, p = 0.034 and post-hocs revealed that in the big snack group, AUC response to breakfast was significantly higher following nightshift (Day2 compared to Day1 (p = 0.001. This translated to a 20.8% (SEM 5.6 increase. AUC was not significantly different between days in the small snack group. Consuming a big snack at 00:00 h impaired the glucose response to breakfast at 08:30 h, compared to a smaller snack. Further research in this area will inform dietary advice for shift workers, which could include recommendations on how much to eat as well as content.

  17. Suplementasi Tepung Putih Telur untuk Memperbaiki Nilai Nutrisi Snack Ekstrusi Berbahan Grits Jagung

    OpenAIRE

    Budiman, C; Wulandari, Z; Suryati, T

    2009-01-01

    Snack is popular for children and adult. It could be made by extrusion process. Snack is low in protein content because it is made up of cereal such as rice and corn. On the basis of nutritional and functional properties, egg was used in food industries. The objectives of the research were to analyze the nutrient content and in vitro digestibility of extruded snack from corn grits which was supplemented by egg white powder as a protein source. Randomized complete block design was used in this...

  18. Ethnic differences and parental beliefs are important for overweight prevention and management in children: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child’s outdoor play and snack intake, and to the parents’ intention to monitor these behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) at primary schools, sampled from Youth Health Care registers. Results Native Dutch parents observed more outdoor play and lower snack intake in their child and had stronger intentions to monitor these behaviours than parents of Turkish descent. In the multivariate analyses, the parents’ attitude and social norm were the main contributing factors to the parental intention to monitor the child’s outdoor play and snack intake. Parental perceived behavioural control contributed to the child’s outdoor play and, in parents who perceived their child to be overweight, to snacking behaviour. The associations between parents’ behavioural cognitions and overweight related preventive behaviours were not modified by ethnicity, except for perceived social norm. The relationship between social norm and intention to monitor outdoor play was stronger in Dutch parents than in Turkish parents. Conclusions As the overweight related preventive behaviours of both children and parents did differ between the native and ethnic minority populations of this study, it is advised that interventions pay attention to cultural aspects of the targeted population. Further research is recommended into parental behavioural cognitions regarding overweight prevention and management for different ethnicities. PMID:23057582

  19. Ethnic differences and parental beliefs are important for overweight prevention and management in children: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocken Paul L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is highest among ethnic minority groups in Western countries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of ethnicity and beliefs of parents about overweight preventive behaviours to their child’s outdoor play and snack intake, and to the parents’ intention to monitor these behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks at primary schools, sampled from Youth Health Care registers. Results Native Dutch parents observed more outdoor play and lower snack intake in their child and had stronger intentions to monitor these behaviours than parents of Turkish descent. In the multivariate analyses, the parents’ attitude and social norm were the main contributing factors to the parental intention to monitor the child’s outdoor play and snack intake. Parental perceived behavioural control contributed to the child’s outdoor play and, in parents who perceived their child to be overweight, to snacking behaviour. The associations between parents’ behavioural cognitions and overweight related preventive behaviours were not modified by ethnicity, except for perceived social norm. The relationship between social norm and intention to monitor outdoor play was stronger in Dutch parents than in Turkish parents. Conclusions As the overweight related preventive behaviours of both children and parents did differ between the native and ethnic minority populations of this study, it is advised that interventions pay attention to cultural aspects of the targeted population. Further research is recommended into parental behavioural cognitions regarding overweight prevention and management for different ethnicities.

  20. Snack and beverage consumption and preferences in a sample of Chinese children - Are they influenced by advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yu, Yang; King, Lesley; Li, Mu

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China. The study consisted of two components, a recall survey on the snack and beverage consumption and preferences of 9-11 years old school children; and recording snack and beverage advertisements on three popular television channels. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to estimate the likelihood of children selecting particular snack and beverages as their top three choices according to whether their preferences were influenced by television advertisements. The majority of children consumed non-core snacks (100%) and beverages (80%) in the four weeks prior to the survey. Nearly 40% of television food advertisements were for non-core snacks and beverages. Non-core snacks (OR of 1.13) and non-core beverages (OR of 1.23) were more likely chosen as children's top three snack/beverage choices, particularly, "puffed food and tubers" snack and carbonated beverages (OR of 1.31 and 1.45, respectively). The snack and beverage preferences appeared to be influenced by television advertisements in this sample of Chinese children, highlighting the potential health and nutritional value of policy to reduce advertising of non-core foods in China.

  1. MyFoodAdvisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pot Salad Dressings & Condiments Sandwiches Sauces Sides Snacks Vegan Vegetarian Salads Lunch Dinner Soup My Likes Ingredients ... Pot Salad Dressings & Condiments Sandwiches Sauces Sides Snacks Vegan Vegetarian Salads Lunch Dinner Soup Apply Cancel Reset ...

  2. Germanium soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Troy A.; Alexay, Christopher C.

    2006-05-01

    This paper addresses the variety and impact of dispersive model variations for infrared materials and, in particular, the level to which certain optical designs are affected by this potential variation in germanium. This work offers a method for anticipating and/or minimizing the pitfalls such potential model variations may have on a candidate optical design.

  3. HPI Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ethan S.; Ruggles, Julie L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of human performance improvement, an outgrowth of instructional systems design and programmed instruction that emerged after World War II. Discusses the contributing disciplines (behaviorism, analytical systems, organizational learning, organizational development, systems theory, management development) and the major…

  4. Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, Joachim A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphing functions is an important topic in algebra and precalculus high school courses. The functions that are usually discussed include polynomials, rational, exponential, and trigonometric functions along with their inverses. These functions can be used to teach different aspects of function theory: domain, range, monotonicity, inverse…

  5. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as a space food sterilized by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality

  6. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 ± 1 K and 293 ± 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  7. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as a space food sterilized by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Yeon [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality.

  8. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  9. Image motion compensation on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Duncan, D. W.; Finch, M. L.; Spence, G.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2 includes a 30 cm visible light telescope and focal plane package mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Scientific goals of the experiment dictate pointing stability requirements of less than 0.05 arcsecond jitter over periods of 5-20 seconds. Quantitative derivations of these requirements from two different aspects are presented: (1) avoidance of motion blurring of diffraction-limited images; (2) precise coalignment of consecutive frames to allow measurement of small image differences. To achieve this stability, a fine guider system capable of removing residual jitter of the IPS and image motions generated on the IPS cruciform instrument support structure has been constructed. This system uses solar limb detectors in the prime focal plane to derive an error signal. Image motion due to pointing errors is compensated by the agile secondary mirror mounted on piezoelectric transducers, controlled by a closed-loop servo system.

  10. Daling transvetzuren, maar niet in alle grootverbruikproducten: vetzuursamenstelling van spijsvetten, koek en snacks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Deze vetzuren hebben een ongunstige invloed op het lipoproteineprofiel in het bloed. In een tabel is de vetzuursamenstelling van geselecteerde koek en snacks weergegeven. Tegenwoordig bevatten de margarines, bak- en braadvetten aanzienlijk minder verzadigd vet

  11. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  12. Residency and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Weight Status and Lifestyle Behaviors Among US Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated risk for obesity is found in rural environments and in some minority populations. It is unclear whether living in rural or nonmetropolitan areas and being a minority compound the risk of obesity beyond that of either factor acting alone. Our purpose was to examine adolescent obesity in light of the potential concomitant influences of race/ethnicity, residency, and obesity-related lifestyle behaviors. Methods We assessed obesity prevalence, physical activity, consumption of fatty snack foods, and screen time in 8,363 US adolescents based on variation in race/ethnicity and residency. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics were used to: (1) calculate race- and residency-based rates of obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and (2) generate race- and residency-based obesity odds ratios as a function of those same behaviors. Findings The results indicated that nonmetropolitan black youth had the highest risk of obesity (26%), rate of consuming fatty snack foods on more than 2 days/week (86%), and rate of spending more than 2 hours/day in screen time (91%) compared to white metropolitan youth. Compared to their metropolitan counterparts, black nonmetropolitan youth had greater odds of being obese if they exercised less than daily (1.71 times), ate fatty snack foods on more than 2 days/week (1.65 times), or spent more than 2 hours/day in screen time (1.64 times). Conclusions Race/ethnicity and residency may have a compounding effect on the risk of obesity. Prevention and intervention must be viewed in a socioecological framework that recognizes the importance of culture and community on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:24383488

  13. Television Viewing and Snacking Behaviors of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Schoolchildren in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...

  14. Investigating sex differences in psychological predictors of snack intake among a large representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; Verhoeven, Aukje A C; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-03-01

    It is often assumed that there are substantial sex differences in eating behaviour (e.g. women are more likely to be dieters or emotional eaters than men). The present study investigates this assumption in a large representative community sample while incorporating a comprehensive set of psychological eating-related variables. A community sample was employed to: (i) determine sex differences in (un)healthy snack consumption and psychological eating-related variables (e.g. emotional eating, intention to eat healthily); (ii) examine whether sex predicts energy intake from (un)healthy snacks over and above psychological variables; and (iii) investigate the relationship between psychological variables and snack intake for men and women separately. Snack consumption was assessed with a 7d snack diary; the psychological eating-related variables with questionnaires. Participants were members of an Internet survey panel that is based on a true probability sample of households in the Netherlands. Men and women (n 1292; 45 % male), with a mean age of 51·23 (sd 16·78) years and a mean BMI of 25·62 (sd 4·75) kg/m2. Results revealed that women consumed more healthy and less unhealthy snacks than men and they scored higher than men on emotional and restrained eating. Women also more often reported appearance and health-related concerns about their eating behaviour, but men and women did not differ with regard to external eating or their intentions to eat more healthily. The relationships between psychological eating-related variables and snack intake were similar for men and women, indicating that snack intake is predicted by the same variables for men and women. It is concluded that some small sex differences in psychological eating-related variables exist, but based on the present data there is no need for interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating to target different predictors according to sex.

  15. Influence of product placement in children's movies on children's snack choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Matherne, Camden E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Howard, Janna B; Ravanbakht, Sophie N; Skinner, Asheley C; Wood, Charles T; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Brown, Jane D; Perrin, Andrew J; Levine, Cary; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Media exposure affects health, including obesity risk. Children's movies often contain food placements-frequently unhealthy foods. However, it is not known if these cues influence children's food choices or consumption after viewing. We explored whether children's snack choices or consumption differs based on: 1) recent exposure to movies with high versus low product placement of unhealthy foods; and 2) children's weight status. Children ages 9-11 were assigned to watch a high ("Alvin and the Chipmunks," n = 54) or low ("Stuart Little," n = 60) product-placement movie. After viewing, participants selected a snack choice from each of five categories, several of which were specifically featured in "Alvin." Uneaten snacks from each participant were weighed upon completion. Snack choice and amount consumed by movie were compared by t-tests, and differences in snack choices by movie were tested with logistic regression. Participants consumed an average of 800.8 kcal; mean kcal eaten did not vary by movie watched. Participants who watched the high product-placement movie had 3.1 times the odds (95% CI 1.3-7.2) of choosing cheese balls (most featured snack) compared to participants who watched the low product-placement movie. Children who were overweight or obese consumed a mean of 857 kcal (95% CI: 789-925) compared to 783 kcal (95% CI: 742-823, p = 0.09) for children who were underweight or healthy weight. Children's weight status did not significantly affect their choice of snack. Branding and obesogenic messaging in children's movies influenced some choices that children made about snack foods immediately following viewing, especially food with greatest exposure time in the film, but did not affect total calories consumed. Future studies should examine how the accumulation of these messages affects children's long-term food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxing Snack Foods: What to Expect for Diet and Tax Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Tegene, Abebayehu; Harris, James Michael

    2004-01-01

    Health researchers and health policy advocates have proposed levying excise taxes on snack foods as a possible way to address the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the United States. Some proposals suggest higher prices alone will change consumers' diets. Others claim that change will be possible if earmarked taxes are used to fund an information program. This research examines the potential impact of excise taxes on snack foods, using baseline data from a household survey of fo...

  17. Assessment of Snacks Consumption among High School Students of Tehran during 2010-2011 Years

    OpenAIRE

    F Jafari; M Aminzadeh; F Gitinavard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Eating snacks during the day can lead to energy distribution and improvement of the health status of students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of snack consumption among high school students in region 8 of Tehran. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed on 300 high school students in district 8 of Tehran educational board during 2010-2011. Cluster sampling was done as a random method. Data were collected by a researcher-...

  18. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6?23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscui...

  19. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioecono...

  20. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  1. Development and validation of a quantitative snack and beverage food frequency questionnaire for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, N; Van Camp, J; Kolsteren, P; Lachat, C; Huybregts, L; Maes, L; Deforche, B; Verstraeten, R; Vangeel, J; Beullens, K; Eggermont, S; Van Lippevelde, W

    2017-04-01

    A short, reliable and valid tool to measure snack and beverage consumption in adolescents, taking into account the correct definitions, would benefit both epidemiological and intervention research. The present study aimed to develop a short quantitative beverage and snack food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the reliability and validity of this FFQ against three 24-h recalls. Reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of the FFQ administered 14 days apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2) in a convenience sample of 179 adolescents [60.3% male; mean (SD) 14.7 (0.9) years]. Validity was assessed by comparing FFQ1 with three telephone-administered 24-h recalls in a convenience sample of 99 adolescents [52.5% male, mean (SD) 14.8 (0.9) years]. Reliability and validity were assessed using Bland-Altman plots, classification agreements and correlation coefficients for the amount and frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks, healthy snacks, unhealthy beverages, healthy beverages, and for the healthy snack and beverage ratios. Small mean differences (FFQ1 versus FFQ2) were observed for reliability, ranking ability ranged from fair to substantial, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges. For the validity, mean differences (FFQ1 versus recalls) were small for beverage intake but large for snack intake, except for the healthy snack ratio. Ranking ability ranged from slightly to moderate, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges. Reliability and validity of the FFQ for all outcomes were found to be acceptable at a group level for epidemiological purposes, whereas for intervention purposes only the healthy snack and beverage ratios were found to be acceptable at a group level. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Studies on the Utilization of Deboned Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Frames in Fish Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Snack food development studies were conducted to iii utilize trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) frames, a by-product of the filleting operation, using extrusion and conventional technology. Twin screw extrusion studies were conducted to study the effect of fish mince, non-fat dry milk, process temperature, and moisture content on the physicochemical properties of the extruded snack food. Response surfaces were plotted to understand the effects of the independent variables on dependent variables such...

  3. Protective Effects of Mouse Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Soup on Staurosporine Induced Cell Death in PC12 and U87 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zhaleh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs soup is promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. mBMSCs soup is easily obtained and is capable of transplantation without rejection. We investigated the effects of mBMSC soup on staurosporine-induced cell death in PC12 and U87 cells lines. The percentage of cell viability, cell death, NO concentration, total neurite length (TNL and fraction of cell differentiation (f% were assessed. Viability assay showed that mBM soup (24 and 48h in time dependent were increased cell viability (p<0.05 and also cell death assay showed that cell death in time dependent were decreased, respectively (p<0.05. TNL and fraction of cell differentiation significantly were increased compared with treatment1 (p<0.05. Our data showed that mBM Soup protects cells, increases cell viability, suppresses cell death and improvement the neurite elongation. We concluded that Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell soup plays an important protective role in staurosporine-induced cell death in PC12 and U87 cell lines.

  4. Emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption of European adolescents: Results from the I.Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Juul M J; Danner, Unna N; Intemann, Timm; De Decker, Annelies; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Hunsberger, Monica; Moreno, Luis A; Russo, Paola; Stomfai, Sarolta; Veidebaum, Toomas; Adan, Roger A H; Hebestreit, Antje

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption in 1039 European adolescents aged 12-18 years. During the cross-sectional examination in 2013/2014, complete information was collected on: emotion-driven impulsiveness (using the negative urgency subscale from the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation seeking, and Positive urgency (UPPS-P) Impulsive Behaviour Scale) and snacking behaviour operationalised as 1) consumption frequency of daily snacks, 2) consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (both measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire) and 3) usual energy intake of food consumed per snacking occasion in calories. The latter was measured using online self-administered 24-h dietary recalls and was estimated based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Method. Anthropometric variables were measured and BMI z-score (zBMI) calculated. Age, sex, highest education level of the family and country of residence were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were separately conducted for each snacking behaviour outcome with emotion-driven impulsiveness as the exposure. After controlling for zBMI, age, sex, country and socioeconomic status, emotion-driven impulsiveness was positively associated with daily consumption frequency of snacks (β = 0.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.02, 0.12]) and consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (β = 0.25, 95% CI [0.19, 0.31]), but not with usual energy intake of food per snacking (β = 2.52, 95% CI [-0.55, 5.59]). Adolescents with a stronger emotion-driven impulsiveness tendency reported a higher snacking frequency and specifically more energy-dense snacks, whereas the energy intake of snack food seemed less important. These findings have implications for obesity prevention and treatment as they indicate the importance of targeting emotion-driven impulsiveness as a strategy to avoid excessive snacking. Copyright © 2018

  5. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  6. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı, Sibel

    2017-04-01

    In this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11-23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3-5 × 10 2 kPa) and processing time (3-11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated. The physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content. The most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 10 2 kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. SNACK BAR TINGGI SERAT BERBASIS TEPUNG AMPAS TAHU (OKARA DAN TEPUNG UBI UNGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Rachmayani 1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced dietary consumption, lack of dietary fiber intake and low physical activity could lead to excessive nutrients resulting in obesity. This research aims to create high-fiber snack food in the form of snack bar made from pulp of tofu flour (okara, purple sweet potato flour, and cornstarch. The experimental design was a complete factorial randomized design with two variables and two replications. Two variables tested were the ratio between purple sweet potato flour and cornstarch of 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w, and the addition okara of 20, 25, and 30%. As a control, a snack bar was made from wheat flour. The analysis performed include sensory and physicochemical analysis. The recommended high-fiber healthy snack bar was the snack bar made from 20% okara, with a ratio of purple sweet potato flour to cornstarch of 1:2 (w/w. This snack bar had a sensory score of 4.31 on the overall attribute which means neutral. The anthocyanin level of the cookies was 1.97 mg/100 g (db and dietary fiber level was 13.87% (db, therefore they can be categorized as high fiber okara food according to the head of BPOM regulation number HK 03.1.23.11.11.09909 year 2011.

  10. Introduction of a school fruit program is associated with reduced frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bere, Elling

    2012-11-01

    A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks. The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status. Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program. From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P snack consumption in children of parents without higher education (from 7.8 to 4.0 times/wk; P = 0.004). The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 2001 to 2008 in schoolchildren in Norway. The decrease was most evident among children at schools participating in the national free school fruit program and in children with a low socioeconomic status.

  11. The ubiquity of energy-dense snack foods: a national multicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Baker, Erin T; Futrell, Lauren; Rice, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the availability and accessibility of energy-dense snacks in retail stores whose primary merchandise was not food and whether these varied by store type, region, or socioeconomic factors. We conducted systematic observations of 1082 retail stores in 19 US cities and determined the availability and accessibility of 6 categories of energy-dense snack foods. Snack food was available in 41% of the stores; the most common forms were candy (33%), sweetened beverages (20%), and salty snacks (17%). These foods were often within arm's reach of the cash register queue. We observed snack foods in 96% of pharmacies, 94% of gasoline stations, 22% of furniture stores, 16% of apparel stores, and 29% to 65% of other types of stores. Availability varied somewhat by region but not by the racial or socioeconomic characteristics of nearby census tracts. Energy-dense snack foods and beverages, implicated as contributors to the obesity epidemic, are widely available in retail stores whose primary business is not food. The ubiquity of these products may contribute to excess energy consumption in the United States.

  12. Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertéus Forslund, H; Klingström, S; Hagberg, H; Löndahl, M; Torgerson, J S; Lindroos, A K

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted. In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year. Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase (-1.1 vs +0.4 snacks/day, respectively, Ptreatment (3M vs 3+3M=-4.1+/-6.1 vs -5.9+/-9.4 kg; P=0.31). Changes in metabolic variables did not differ between the groups, except for high-density lipoprotein that increased in the 3M group but not in 3+3M group (Psnacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss.

  13. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  14. Parenteral nutrition combined with rice soup can be a safe and effective intervention for congenital chylous ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Yan, Weihui; Lu, Lina; Tao, Yijing; Lu, Wei; Chen, Yingwei; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital chylous ascites in the neonatal period is a rare entity. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), medium chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet, octreotide and repeated paracentesis are regarded as appropriate medical treatment for congenital chylous ascites, and surgery is recommended when conservative therapy has failed. We present two cases in which ascites were confirmed via an abdominal sonogram and diagnostic paracentesis. In our clinical experience, rice soup combined with PN can be a safe and effective intervention.

  15. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    -treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0...

  16. Multiscale analysis of structure development in expanded starch snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R. G. M.; Broeze, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we perform a multiscale analysis of the food structuring process of the expansion of starchy snack foods like keropok, which obtains a solid foam structure. In particular, we want to investigate the validity of the hypothesis of Kokini and coworkers, that expansion is optimal at the moisture content, where the glass transition and the boiling line intersect. In our analysis we make use of several tools, (1) time scale analysis from the field of physical transport phenomena, (2) the scale separation map (SSM) developed within a multiscale simulation framework of complex automata, (3) the supplemented state diagram (SSD), depicting phase transition and glass transition lines, and (4) a multiscale simulation model for the bubble expansion. Results of the time scale analysis are plotted in the SSD, and give insight into the dominant physical processes involved in expansion. Furthermore, the results of the time scale analysis are used to construct the SSM, which has aided us in the construction of the multiscale simulation model. Simulation results are plotted in the SSD. This clearly shows that the hypothesis of Kokini is qualitatively true, but has to be refined. Our results show that bubble expansion is optimal for moisture content, where the boiling line for gas pressure of 4 bars intersects the isoviscosity line of the critical viscosity 106 Pa.s, which runs parallel to the glass transition line.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil and nisin against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium in commercial barley soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shahbazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of nisin (250 and 500 IU/mL, Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (0.1 and 0.2% and their combination against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium in commercial barley soup during refrigerated storage. Based on our findings, the population of pathogens was reduced with the addition of the essential oil and nisin, increased concentration of the added antibacterial agents and the longer storage time of commercial barley soup. The group treated with the essential oil at 0.2% and nisin at 500 IU/mL showed the most rapid decrease in the number of S. Typhimurium and B. subtilis. By the end of seven and five days, populations of S. Typhimurium and B. subtilis in overall concentrations of the essential oil with nisin were totally inhibited, respectively. Our findings suggest the possibility of utilising commercial barley soup with a mixture of Z. clinopodioides essential oil and nisin for the reduction of B. subtilis and S. Typhimurium.

  18. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  19. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T; Torab, T; Yen, D; Boyland, EJ; Halford, JCG

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults’ snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of sna...

  20. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortinau, Laura C; Culp, Julie M; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160?kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eat...

  1. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR; Rosana Aparecida Manolio SOARES; Thaís de Campos CARDENAS; Suzana Cristina de Toledo Camacho LIMA; José Alfredo Gomes ARÊAS

    2012-01-01

    A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A) or before (B) extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were...

  2. The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children, 1997-98

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Naeini SM; Jazayeri SA; Moghaddam Banaem N; Afrooz Gh.A; Behboodi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of taking snacks on the learning ability and educational achievement of elementary school children in district 18 of Tehran educational organization were examined in the school year 1997-98. Other factors such as grade, nutritional status, breakfast eating habits and snack eating habits in the school were also studied. For this purpose 236 boys were selected by random sampling in 4 different schools. The children were randomly assigned to a group, with a low calorie snack (119 sub...

  3. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  4. Snacks en frisdrank op de middelbare school: Evaluatie van het proces en de implementatie van het automatenexperiment [Snacks and softdrinks in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassa-Dafesh, Z.; Buijs, G.J.; Kesteren, N. van; Snel, J.; Kocken, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Op middelbare scholen werd een experiment uitgevoerd om het aanbod van snacks- en frisdrankautomaten gezonder te maken. Niet alleen het assortiment in de automaten werd veranderd, ook werd geëxperimenteerd met het bieden van productinformatie en verlaging van de prijzen van minder calorierijke

  5. Positive effects of a healthy snack (fruit) versus an unhealthy snack (chocolate/crisps) on subjective reports of mental and physical health: a preliminary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew Paul; Rogers, Rosannagh

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown associations between type of snack and wellbeing. These studies have been cross-sectional and the aim of the present research was to examine this topic using an intervention study. A between-subjects intervention study was carried out. Volunteers (100 students, mean age = 19.00 years; 27 male, 73 female) completed online questionnaires measuring anxiety and depression, fatigue, somatic symptoms, cognitive difficulties, and distress at baseline. They were then randomly assigned to one of two snacking conditions - chocolate/crisps or fruit. Volunteers consumed one snack item in the mid-afternoon each day for 10 days. At the end of the intervention, the volunteers completed the questionnaires again. Analyses of the baseline data confirmed that consumption of chocolate was associated with greater emotional eating and depression. Analyses of covariance, with the baseline data as covariates, were carried out on the post-intervention responses. The results showed that consumption of fruit was associated with lower anxiety, depression, and emotional distress than consumption of crisps/chocolate. Similarly, scores for somatic symptoms, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue were greater in the crisps/chocolate condition. These results extend findings from cross-sectional studies and give a clearer indication of causal effects of different types of snacks on wellbeing.

  6. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2009-07-01

    Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.

  7. A randomized, controlled, crossover study of appetite-related sensations after consuming snacks made from buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Danielle M; Petkau, Jay C; Gregor, Terri; Blewett, Heather

    2018-02-01

    With the rising incidence of overweight and obesity in developed countries, there is an interest in developing food products that may aid in satiety and reduce energy intake. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a gluten-free edible seed that has been previously shown to induce changes in postprandial concentrations of satiety hormones; however, subjective measures of appetite-related sensations and objective measures of energy intake at subsequent meals following buckwheat consumption have not been measured. Thirty-eight healthy adults were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial with the main objective to determine if consuming snacks made from buckwheat would increase satiety and reduce energy intake compared with snacks comparable in serving size, physical characteristics, and nutrient composition. Water was included as a no-kilocalorie control. Participants received each of the treatments once separated by at least 7 days. Appetite related sensations were assessed using visual analog scales at fasting and after consuming the snack at 30-min intervals for 180 min. Lunch was provided at the clinic and the amount of food consumed was weighed. Participants recorded food intake for the rest of the day. Consuming buckwheat groats (32 g serving; 141 kcal) or pita bread made from buckwheat flour (50 g serving; 135 kcal) was not associated with changes in appetite related sensations or energy consumption compared with reference snack products made from corn or rice flour. Sensory questionnaires revealed that snacks made from buckwheat were liked to a similar degree or more as reference snack products, which shows commercial promise for developing buckwheat-containing snacks.

  8. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  9. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  11. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Henrik; Loftager Okkels, Signe; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2017-12-06

    It is well known that meals containing less meat are more sustainable, but little is known about snack-meals, which typically do not contain meat. This study investigates the diversity in environmental impacts associated with snack production based on 20 common recipes optimized for protein content, energy content and sensory aspects for older adults. The purpose is to improve sustainability of public procurement by serving more sustainable snack-meals. Public procurement serves Danish older adults over millions of snack-meals every year, and millions more are served in countries with a similar social service. The environmental impact of snack production was estimated by consequential life cycle assessment. The average impact of producing the 10 least environmentally harmful snacks was 40% less than the average impact of producing the 10 most harmful snacks. This is true whether the functional unit was mass, energy, or protein content, and whether the environmental impact was measured as global warming potential or the monetized value of 16 impact categories. We conclude that large-scale public procurement of snack-meals by private and municipal kitchens can be reduced by up to 40% if the kitchens evaluate the environmental impact of all their snacks and serve the better half more frequently.

  13. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Saxe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that meals containing less meat are more sustainable, but little is known about snack-meals, which typically do not contain meat. This study investigates the diversity in environmental impacts associated with snack production based on 20 common recipes optimized for protein content, energy content and sensory aspects for older adults. The purpose is to improve sustainability of public procurement by serving more sustainable snack-meals. Public procurement serves Danish older adults over millions of snack-meals every year, and millions more are served in countries with a similar social service. The environmental impact of snack production was estimated by consequential life cycle assessment. The average impact of producing the 10 least environmentally harmful snacks was 40% less than the average impact of producing the 10 most harmful snacks. This is true whether the functional unit was mass, energy, or protein content, and whether the environmental impact was measured as global warming potential or the monetized value of 16 impact categories. We conclude that large-scale public procurement of snack-meals by private and municipal kitchens can be reduced by up to 40% if the kitchens evaluate the environmental impact of all their snacks and serve the better half more frequently.

  14. Effect of the consumption of a fruit and vegetable soup with high in vitro carotenoid bioaccessibility on serum carotenoid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tomás, Rebeca; Larqué, Elvira; González-Silvera, Daniel; Sánchez-Campillo, María; Burgos, María Isabel; Wellner, Anna; Parra, Soledad; Bialek, Lucy; Alminger, Marie; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of the daily intake of a fruit & vegetable soup with high in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids on β-carotene and lycopene serum concentrations. Fourteen healthy young men (24 ± 1 years) received 300 mL/day of a carrot, tomato, and broccoli soup, containing 3.9 mg β-carotene and 4 mg lycopene, for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The serum carotenoid response and oxidative markers were analyzed after 3 and 4 weeks of soup consumption and after a 4-week washout. The in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene and lycopene was 55 and 43%, respectively, in the soup. Serum β-carotene concentrations were significantly higher than baseline (0.33 ± 0.05 μmol/L) after 3 weeks (0.69 ± 0.06 μmol/L) and 4 weeks (0.78 ± 0.10 μmol/L) of soup consumption (P soup supplementation compared with baseline, while superoxide dismutase was significantly lower only after 3 weeks. Glutathione reductase, lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative markers remained unchanged. The soup contributed to increasing the concentration of each carotenoid by more than 100% after 3 and 4 weeks of consumption, the maximum increase being observed after 4 weeks. Oxidative markers did not show any variation except for GPx. Serum lycopene half-life was longer than that of β-carotene, which may be important for studies evaluating both carotenoids.

  15. Food insecurity among the elderly: cross-sectional study with soup kitchen users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda do Nascimento Jacinto de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether food insecurity is associated with the demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health conditions of the elderly. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 427 elderly (³60 years from Campinas, São Paulo; half were users of a government-run soup kitchen and the others, their neighbors of the same sex. Food insecurity was measured by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Univariate multinomial logistic regression was used for calculating the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to measure the association between the independent variables and food insecurity. Variables with p<0.20 were included in a multinomial model, and only those with p<0.05 remained. RESULTS: Most respondents (63.2% were males; 15.2% and 6.6% were experiencing mild and moderate/severe food insecurity, respectively. The final model, adjusted for sex and age, showed that elderly with a total family income ≤2 minimum salaries (OR=3.41, 95%CI=1.27-9.14, who did not have a job (OR=2.95, 95%CI=1.23-7.06, and who were obese (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.04-3.87 were more likely to be mildly food insecure. Elderly with cancer (OR=4.13, 95%CI=1.21-14.0 and those hospitalized in the past year (OR=3.16, 95%CI=1.23-8.11 were more likely to be moderately/severely food insecure. Finally, elderly living in unfinished houses (OR=2.71; and OR=2.92 and who did not consume fruits (OR=2.95 and OR=4.11 or meats daily (OR=2.04 and OR=3.83 were more likely to be mildly and moderately/severely food insecure. CONCLUSION: Food insecure elderly are more likely to have chronic diseases, poor nutritional status, and poor socioeconomic condition. Therefore, the welfare programs should expand the number of soup kitchens and develop other strategies to assure adequate nutrition to these elderly.

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  17. The relation between ethnic classroom composition and adolescents’ ethnic pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leszczensky, Lars; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Munniksma, Anke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how students? ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) were tested among 13- to 14-year-old ethnic majority and minority

  18. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is snack consumption associated with meal skipping in children and adolescents? The CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Safiri, Saeid; Ardalan, Gelayol; Keikhah, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Heshmat, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The present inquiry set to assess the relationship between snack consumption and meal skipping in Iranian children and adolescents. Overall, 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected via multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. A validated questionnaire of food behaviors including questions on snacks consumption and taking/skipping meals was completed. Consuming and skipping meals and their related factors were reported in both crude and adjusted models. Overall, 13,486 students with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years completed the study (90.6% participation rate). Among them, 32.08, 8.89, and 10.90% skipped breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Compared to their counterpart groups, the frequency of meal skipping was higher in girls, urban inhabitants, and students in higher school grades (P Snack consumption was associated with an increased odds ratio of meal skipping in many types of snack groups. Meal skipping and snack consumption were frequent among Iranian children and adolescents. Evidence based interventions are proposed to improve the students' eating habits.

  20. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates.

  1. Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Cosmai, Lucrezia; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants. The OLE addition significantly reduced the forced oxidative degradation during oven test, as evidenced by a decrease of 27% in oxidation-related volatile compounds and of 42% in triacylglycerol oligopolymers compared to control snacks (CTR) without OLE. Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR (i.e. hexanal 165.49 vs 38.31 μg g -1 in OLE-added). The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (pPrice (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (psnack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, S; Codella, R; Caumo, A; Marangoni, F; Luzi, L

    2011-02-01

    The last decade has seen much debate on ghrelin as a potential target for treating obesity. Despite a close connection between snack food intake and obesity, snacking is controversially reviewed as a good habit in a healthy nutritional regimen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a different nutrient composition influences postprandial ghrelin levels and glucose increments induced by 6 isoglucidic snack food. 20 healthy individuals (10 M/10 F; BMI 23.1 ± 0.5; age 33 ± 0.67 years, mean and SE) from H San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Milan University were enrolled. The subjects underwent OGTT (50 g) and 6 isoglucidic test-meal loads to assess the ghrelin circulating levels and the area under glycemic curves induced by 6 commercial snacks. 3 h after hazelnut chocolate intake, ghrelin was significantly lower than with wafer chocolate intake (psnacks, the glycemic curves were not different even though hazelnut chocolate showed the lowest glycemic curve. Moreover, snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated to 3-h plasma ghrelin levels (psnack food administered in equivalent glucidic loads elicits postprandial ghrelin suppression and satiety ratings in different ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin as hunger-hormone in the regulation of energy balance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  6. The impact of coaches providing healthy snacks at junior sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belski, Regina; Staley, Kiera; Keenan, Stephen; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; Donaldson, Alex; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; O'Neil, Stacey; Nicholson, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Sports clubs provide an opportunity to tackle childhood obesity rates through targeted interventions. Our study aimed to investigate if coaches providing healthy snacks to participants before junior netball sessions at five clubs in Melbourne, Australia, increased consumption of healthy foods and influenced coach perceptions of participants' attention/participation levels. Coaches provided healthy snacks to participants before each netball session for one school term. Children's food consumption was observed at one session before, during and after the intervention. Parents attending the observed session completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Coaches rated participants' attention/participation at the observed sessions before and during the intervention, and completed a questionnaire post-intervention. Baseline: Ice cream and cake were the most frequently consumed snacks. During intervention: Fruit, cheese and crackers and vegetables were the most frequently consumed snacks. Coaches ratings of participants' attention/participation increased significantly (baseline: 6.4 ± 0.17, intervention: 7.5 ± 0.36; p=0.02) where the same coach undertook ratings at both time points. Coaches providing healthy snacks before sessions at sports clubs increased consumption of nutrient-dense foods at the session, and may have positively affected participants' attention/participation. Implications for public health: This study highlights how a simple intervention could improve the diet of Australian children. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  8. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  9. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kasprzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.

  10. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  11. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  12. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  13. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  14. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  15. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  16. A corporate water footprint case study: The production of Gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivas Ibáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the water footprint (WF for 1 L of gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup produced by an agrifood company located in south-eastern Spain, one of the driest regions in Europe. An overview of the main environmental impacts of its WF was carried out by identifying hotspots (high risks areas based on a Water Stress indicator. The total WF calculated for 1 L gazpacho is 580.5 L, which mostly stems from the supply chain (99.9%, olive oil being the major contributor to total WF despite the very low amount used (2%. Most of the WF comes from green water (69%, 23% from blue and 8% represents the grey water. Pollution due to micropollutants such as pesticides, which are not yet regulated, has been taken into account in the WF calculation, pointing out that new regulation of micropollutants is needed to avoid their exclusion in the operational grey WF.

  17. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 °C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food.

  18. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  19. Wound fluid in diabetic foot ulceration: more than just an undefined soup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Markus W; Schuster, Heiko; Bühler, Sarah; Beckert, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Valid and reproducible sampling techniques as well as processing protocols are required for the assessment of biomarkers and mediators contained in wound exudate. Moreover, the ideal technique should be easy to use even in daily clinical routine. This is challenging since wound fluid represents an inhomogeneous mixture of different exogenous and endogenous sources. Analyzing wound fluid, however, may facilitate clinical decision making. Many techniques for obtaining wound fluid have been described. There is very little validation data, and the array of different techniques appears confusing. Structuring and new standards are needed to avoid wound fluid sampling yielding an "undefined soup." A lot of wound fluid parameters have been analyzed, although none of them have made its way into clinical practice. Nevertheless, basic principles of wound healing have been established from wound fluid analysis. With adequate techniques suitable for daily practice, basic research might foster our clinical understanding of wound healing with implications for new therapies. So far, research has mainly concentrated on analyzing available sample material with respect to either a wide variety of analytes or comparing acute with chronic wound exudate. Clinical endpoints such as healing or wound infection as well as longitudinal data may indeed be more valuable for clinical practice, enabling the discovery of meaningful biomarkers using a suitable technique.

  20. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution

  1. Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG-)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy protein) on rated appetite and ad libitum intake of a test meal in thirty-five low-restraint male volunteers using a within-participant design. Protein-rich preloads significantly reduced intake at the test meal and resulted in more accurate energy compensation than did carbohydrate-rich preloads. This energy compensation was stronger in the MSG+ protein conditions when compared with MSG+ carbohydrate conditions. No clear differences in rated appetite were seen in MSG or the macronutrient conditions alone during preload ingestion or 45 min after intake. Overall, these findings indicate that MSG may act to further improve energy compensation when provided in a protein-rich context.

  2. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-11-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  3. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  4. Associations between the intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.

  5. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Functional extruded snacks with lycopene and soy protein Snacks extrusados funcionais com licopeno e proteína de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Pinto da Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of thermoplastic extrusion process parameters (raw material moisture content and temperature and the addition of functional ingredients (lycopene and soy protein on quality characteristics of a base-formulation for extruded corn snacks were studied, with the objective of developing an easy-to-eat functional product. A single-screw Labor PQ 30 model Inbramaq extruder was used for extrusion and a central composite rotational design (CCRD was followed. The independent variables were: i percentage of soy protein isolate (0-30%; ii percentage of lycopene preparation (0-0.1%; iii raw material moisture content (20-30%; and iv 5th zone temperature (100-150 °C. The expansion index reached maximum values with the lowest raw material moisture content (20% and intermediate temperatures (approximately 125 °C. Instrumental hardness was higher with high moisture and low temperature; however, increasing the percentage of soy protein was beneficial for the texture of the product, reducing hardness. The red color intensity increased with the increase in lycopene content and moisture, and with the reduction of temperature. Sensory acceptance tests were carried out for two products, with maximum percentages of the functional ingredients, 20% moisture and temperatures of 125 and 137 °C, with greater acceptance for the product extruded at 125 °C.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a influência de parâmetros do processo de extrusão termoplástica (umidade da matéria-prima e temperatura e da adição de ingredientes funcionais (licopeno e proteína de soja sobre características de qualidade de uma formulação-base para snacks extrusados de milho, com o objetivo de desenvolver um alimento funcional de fácil consumo. Utilizou-se um extrusor monorrosca Inbramaq, modelo Labor PQ 30, e seguiu-se um planejamento experimental com as seguintes variáveis independentes: i teor de isolado proteico de soja (0 a 30%; ii teor de preparado de licopeno (0

  7. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  8. Distal and proximal predictors of snacking at work: A daily-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Pundt, Alexander; Venz, Laura

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive. The health motive, in turn, predicted consuming more fruits and more cereal bars and less sweet snacks; the affect-regulation motive predicted consuming more sweet snacks. Findings highlight the importance of a health-promoting eating climate within the organization and point to the potential harm of high self-control demands at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The association between pregame snacks and exercise intensity, stress, and fatigue in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Rasmussen, Helen M; Hall, Meghan M; Kafka, Tamar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Economos, Christina D

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between pregame snacks varying in macronutrient content and exercise intensity, physiological stress, and fatigue in young soccer players. One hour before a 50-min soccer game, children (n = 79; 9.1 ± 0.8 y) were randomly assigned to consume a raisin-, peanut-butter-, or cereal-based snack. Body mass index, blood glucose, and salivary measures of stress (cortisol and immunoglobulin A-IgA) were measured pre- and post-game. Exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and fatigue. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between pregame snacks and biochemical outcomes. Postgame glucose and cortisol increased [12.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL (p fatigue (p fatigue but not changes in blood sugar or stress biomarkers following a soccer game in children.

  10. Sedentary leisure time behavior, snacking habits and cardiovascular biomarkers: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a populat......Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow...... non-significant in men (ß = 0.9924, [0.9839; 1.0011]) and women (ß = 0.9932, [0.8605; 1.0014]). Conclusion: SLTB appears to be an independent CVD risk factor, regardless of snacking habits and physical activity....

  11. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  12. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention...... contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested...... that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal...

  13. INFLUENCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS AND THEIR CHELATES CONNECTIONS ON MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CARCASSES AND TASTING ESTIMATION OF MEAT AND CLEAR SOUP GOT FROM THE ANIMALS OF BLACK-GRAY BREED

    OpenAIRE

    FARIONIK T.V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the investigational are described tasting estimation of meat and clear soup of got from experimental animals on food of scarce trace elements and them indifferent connections (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co). During adding to the ration of animals of scarce trace elements additions found out really the best organoleptic indexes of meat and clear soup.

  14. Firm maternal parenting associated with decreased risk of excessive snacking in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Boutelle, Kerri N; Jelalian, Elissa; Barnes, Richard; Dickstein, Susan; Wing, Rena R

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n = 79, parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers' general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI, 0.28, 0.93). Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand the direction of these

  15. Feasibility and impact study of a reward-based mobile application to improve adolescents' snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vangeel, Jolien; Notebaert, Melissa; Beullens, Kathleen; Eggermont, Steven; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Goossens, Lien; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Vervoort, Leentje; Braet, Caroline; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Lachat, Carl

    2018-04-02

    Adolescents' snacking habits are driven by both explicit reflective and implicit hedonic processes. Hedonic pathways and differences in sensitivity to food rewards in addition to reflective determinants should be considered. The present study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a mobile phone-delivered intervention, incorporating explicit reflective and implicit rewarding strategies, on adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents (n 988; mean age 14·9 (sd 0·70) years, 59·4 % boys) completed a non-randomized clustered controlled trial. Adolescents (n 416) in the intervention schools (n 3) were provided with the intervention application for four weeks, while adolescents (n 572) in the control schools (n 3) followed the regular curriculum. Outcomes were differences in healthy snacking ratio and key determinants (awareness, intention, attitude, self-efficacy, habits and knowledge). Process evaluation data were collected via questionnaires and through log data of the app. No significant positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio (b=-3·52 (se 1·82), P>0·05) or targeted determinants were observed. Only 268 adolescents started using the app, of whom only fifty-five (20·5 %) still logged in after four weeks. Within the group of users, higher exposure to the app was not significantly associated with positive intervention effects. App satisfaction ratings were low in both high and low user groups. Moderation analyses revealed small positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio in high compared with low reward-sensitive boys (b=1·38 (se 0·59), P<0·05). The intervention was not able to improve adolescents' snack choices, due to low reach and exposure. Future interventions should consider multicomponent interventions, teacher engagement, exhaustive participatory app content development and tailoring.

  16. Self-crafting vegetable snacks: testing the IKEA-effect in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; van Kleef, Ellen; de Vet, Emely

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al. , 2012) - better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others - can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. A between-subjects experiment was conducted at an after school care facility. In total, 86 children aged four to six either crafted a peacock with vegetables or with non-food objects following an example. After the task, children ate snack vegetables ad libitum, and rated their liking for the vegetables and pride in crafting the peacock. No significant main effect of the vegetable snack creation on consumption and liking was observed. Also, perceived pride did not mediate the effect of self-crafting vegetable snacks on consumption of and liking for vegetables. Vegetable consumption did not differ between children who were either simply exposed to vegetable snacks while crafting or those who were crafting the vegetable snacks themselves. The equal consumption might suggest that this is caused by simple exposure, but more research is needed comparing self-crafting and exposure to a condition where there is no initial exposure to vegetables. Although the IKEA-effect has been demonstrated in adults, this is one of the first studies evaluating the IKEA-effect in children and as a means to increase liking for a generally disliked product in this target group, i.e. vegetables. The IKEA-effect could not be replicated under these more stringent conditions, where the experimental set-up enabled disentangling exposure and crafting effects.

  17. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  18. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  19. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  20. Incorporating a Healthy Reimbursable Snack in an Afterschool Homework Program for Middle School Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Olaleye, Temitope M.; Wang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the feasibility and acceptability of adding a reimbursable snack that meets the Institute of Medicine nutrition recommendations to an afterschool homework program for middle school students. Methods: Snack menu was developed and administered to students attending an afterschool homework program over 12 weeks. In…