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Sample records for ethnic humour ch

  1. The language of humour: the humour of language irony and humour in interpersonal verbal encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Ajtony

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of verbal humour and irony is approached from a sociolinguistic perspective, starting from the Semantic Script Theory of Humour (Raskin 1985, which establishes that all humour involves a semantic-pragmatic process. Humour should be understood and appreciated shared socio-cultural knowledge; a common code should exist between speaker and recipient. As humour is subjective, this is especially true for the humour of nations, the root of which is hiding in national or ethnic stereotypes, in close relationship with ethnic and national prejudices. All these theoretical issues are put into practice in the analysis of G.B. Shaw’s humour as displayed in Caesar and Cleopatra. Concentrating on the target as one of the knowledge resources, it is concluded that choice of the target person has an effect on the identity of the person uttering the humorous remark.

  2. Humour in advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Melounová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis Humour in advertisement is focused on creating humorous advertisements. The Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is about advertisement, psychology of advertisement, emotions and emotional appeals that are used in advertising, primarily appeal humour. The practical part includes analysis of the survey focused on the effectiveness of humour in advertisements, analysis of selected campaign and the results of own survey.

  3. Holiness and humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Houck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Christian spirituality includes a long tradition of suspicion of humour, humour can express and further holiness in several ways. Humour serves holiness in religious satire; it can also communicate the self-transcendent perspective of holy women and men. Humour and holiness can also illuminate each other because both are inherently relational. Christian holiness consists primarily in right relationship to the Holy One and, thus, to others. Humour’s complex relational nature is examined with the help of Ted Cohen’s analysis of joke-telling and evolutionary and cognitive research. Humour and its primary expression, laughter, are inherently ambiguous, capable of expressing and creating a range of attitudes and relationships; consequently, they can both conduce to and hinder holiness. Finally, humour can contribute to the religious imagination, and thus to holiness, by challenging established images of the holy, inviting fresh theological reflection, and inspiring ethical action. Both holiness and humour require openness to that which is beyond us and agility in responding to the other.

  4. On humour in prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molding, Malene

    2011-01-01

    This paper unravels the presence of humour in prison as an institutionalized aspect of prison life. The analysis shows how officers use humour to manage their relationships with prisoners and other staff, and how they make use of humour to establish a collective understanding of the officer job......, but the implications are real. The officer–prisoner joking relationship fosters conflict avoidance, smooth daily interactions, service provision for prisoners and transgression of officer norms for camaraderie. In contrast, the staff–staff joking relationship grants officers a sense of power vis-à-vis other staff...... and an opportunity to articulate hostility where staff solidarity is required. As a communication device with ambiguous qualities, humour unites the real and the unreal, shapes social structure, interaction and positioning and is suitable for identity work in prison....

  5. Humour helps’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronglan, Lars Tore; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    To date, humour’s role in sport settings has hardly received scholarly attention. However, reflecting on future research within the sociology of sports coaching (Jones, Ronglan, Potrac, & Cushion, 2011), it was suggested that ‘the multi-functional use of humour, its intent, manifestation, and eff...

  6. Humour as EFL Learning-Teaching Strategy

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    Al-Duleimi, Abbas Deygan Darweesh; Aziz, Rana Naji

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that humour is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between teachers and students, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study attempts to test some assumptions about humour as a pedagogical tool. Results have indicated that using humour to teach material…

  7. Samuel Beckett’s Humour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    where does Beckett take his inspiration for his tragicomic characters and plots? Is it possible to talk about humour at all? This essay shows the textual evidence of Beckett using archetypes from different forms for comedy as circus, comic film, pantomime, Irish comedy.......where does Beckett take his inspiration for his tragicomic characters and plots? Is it possible to talk about humour at all? This essay shows the textual evidence of Beckett using archetypes from different forms for comedy as circus, comic film, pantomime, Irish comedy....

  8. Making Humour Work: Creativity on the Job

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    Holmes, Janet

    2007-01-01

    There is a long research tradition associating humour with creativity, although relatively little research which focuses on the use of humour among professionals in particular workplaces. Addressing this gap, this paper analyses ordinary everyday workplace interaction in a range of New Zealand white collar organizations in order to examine claims…

  9. The neural basis of humour comprehension and humour appreciation: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren W; Wallace, Marc G; Modirrousta, Mandana; Polimeni, Joseph O; McKeen, Nancy A; Reiss, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Psychological well-being and social acumen benefit from the recognition of humourous intent and its enjoyment. The enjoyment of humour requires recognition, but humour recognition is not necessarily accompanied by humour enjoyment. Humour recognition is crucial during social interactions, while the associated enjoyment is less critical. Few neuroimaging studies have explicitly differentiated between the neural foundations of humour comprehension and humour appreciation. Among such studies, design limitations have obscured the specification of neural correlates to humour comprehension or appreciation. We implemented a trichotomous response option to address these design limitations. Twenty-four participants rated 120 comics (90 unaltered with humourous intent and 30 caption-altered without humourous intent) as either funny jokes (FJ), not funny jokes but intended to be funny (NFJ), or not intended to be funny or non-jokes (NJ). We defined humour comprehension by NFJ minus NJ and humour appreciation by FJ minus NFJ. We measured localized blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) neural responses with a 3T MRI scanner. We tested for BOLD responses in humour comprehension brain regions of interest (ROIs), humour appreciation ROIs, and across the whole-brain. We found significant NFJ-NJ BOLD responses in our humour comprehension ROIs and significant FJ-NFJ BOLD responses in select humour appreciation ROIs. One key finding is that comprehension accuracy levels correlated with humour-comprehension responses in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). This finding represents a novel and precise neural linkage to humour comprehension. A second key finding is that the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was uniquely associated with humour-appreciation. The SFG response suggests that complex cognitive processing underlies humour appreciation and that current models of humour appreciation be revised. Finally, our research design provides an operational distinction between humour

  10. Humour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Paaske, Kristian Jul; Rasmussen, Vivian L.

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff–patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic......; and the use of (d) “inadequacy humor: the staff–human approach,” characterized by the use of inadequacy—humor referring to, for example, patients’ physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed....

  11. Humour in Prison: Brendan Behan Confesses

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    Enrico Terrinoni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the comical aspects of Behan’s autobiographical writings. It focuses on how humour, especially black humour, often flourishes wherever we find conflicts and contrasts. Humour is always born out of oppositions, and it can be argued that it always functions as an act of resistance to outside tragedy. Brendan Behan, a writer of slum and working class background, is one of the leading Irish prison writers. He is in many ways an exponent of an Irish republican tradition based on the idea of prison endurance. Given Behan’s notoriously flamboyant personality and his own talking gifts, it is not hard to imagine that the worst aspect of prison confinement might have been for him compulsory solitude and silence. His exuberant language and larger-than-life personality can be considered perhaps as a reaction to such partial deprivation of interpersonal relationships during his youth. In this context, where fictional and autobiographical truth are kept apart by an unstable divide increased by the abundance of comical interludes and jokes, the core of the essay analyses the second chapter of Confessions of an Irish Rebel in order to discuss the way in which Behan alternates funny accounts and tragedy in his own autobiographical reports.

  12. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

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    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  13. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HUMOUR IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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    SIOW C. LIM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that humour has an implication on the process of teaching and learning. However, there is still limited study done on the implication of humour in teaching and learning engineering courses. This paper studies the perception and experience of engineering lecturers and students towards the incorporation of sense of humour in the teaching and learning of engineering courses. Online and offline surveys were conducted on the students and lecturers from the school of engineering, Taylors’ University respectively. Several interesting insights were drawn from the responses with the general consensus from both students and lecturers that humour helps in enhancing the teaching and learning process. Real case examples of how the lecturers deliver their lectures with humour were also presented.

  14. Gender, Humour and Transgression in Canadian Women’s Theatre

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    Meisner Natalie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Are humour and laughter gender-specific? The simple answer, like most everything that is ideological, is “yes”. Many feminists in recent years have grappled with the question of humour and how it is often the site of much contestation when it comes to women using it as a tool of transgression. This paper probes the seemingly timeless antipathy between humour and representations of femininity through recourse to performance and theories of the body. This article holds the term “woman” up to scrutiny while simultaneously examining the persistence of both critical and philosophical recalcitrance and the way humour continues to function in both gendered and violent ways. How does gender “do” or “undo” humour? Laughter is no simple matter for women, due to the legacy of profoundly polarized and hyper-sexualized historical ambivalence between femininity and laughter. Acknowledging the problematic nature of the category “woman”, and after clearing some terminological distinctions (comedy, humour, irony, satire, and parody, this article investigates humour’s complicated and volatile relationship to gender and the way the laughing body of women on stage presents a fascinating double helix of sexual aggression and power

  15. Is Education for Using Humour in Nursing Needed? (Slovenian Case Study on Sociological and Ergonomic Aspects of the Impact of Humour on Nursing Professionals

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    Goriup Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although there has been considerable discussion regarding the presence of therapeutic aspects of humour in the nurse educational programme and syllabus, little is known about the use of humour in the nurse - patient relationship and the needed topics in the Slovene educational system for nurses. From educational and medical perspectives, humour is anything that evokes laughter and it has been proven that laughter contributes to physical health. A sense of humour in nursing has a conformist, quantitative and productive importance which is manifested through the essential elements of humour: meta-communication sensitivity, personal affection for humour and emotional admissibility. As nurses spend a lot of time with patients, humour adds to the quality of their work as well as to the nurses’ satisfaction with their work with patients. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of humour in nursing both for the employees and for the patients and to discuss humour within the framework of nursing profession in Slovenia. The specific objective of our study is to explore the attitudes of Slovenian nurses towards humour and their actual use of humour during their interaction with patients. Methods: For the purpose of this study, a quantitative research methodology was adopted. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the topic and a set of statistical analyses (frequency distribution method, the χ2 and Spearman rank correlation test was performed on the data obtained. Results: Our study shows that Slovenian nurses are prone to the use of humour in their work and they welcome it as an integral part of their work with patients. We found that humour also enhances their sense of belonging to the nursing profession and serves as a tool for socialization. Discussion: Humour, employed in nursing can help overcome certain difficulties which nurses face in the workplace as they also try to fulfil some

  16. Chinese teachers' use of humour in coping with stress.

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    Wu, Joseph; Chan, Raymond M C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mentality of Chinese teachers regarding their use of humour in coping with stress. Specifically, the study investigated their frequency of use of humour in coping with stress as compared to other coping styles and their perceptions about the relationship of humour with other coping styles. Data were collected from a sample of 789 Chinese teachers holding teaching posts at local Hong Kong secondary schools. Based on responses made to the COPE questionnaire, there was evidence that Chinese teachers had a lower frequency of use of humour as compared to other coping styles. As suggested by the results of a factor analysis, there was a perception among Chinese teachers that the use of humour was related more closely to escaping and/or avoidance as coping strategies, but more differentiable from problem-focused/task-oriented and emotional/social coping. It is interesting to find that the results of our study echoed those of a previous crosscultural comparison between Chinese and Canadian university students, in which the Chinese university students reported less use of humour in coping with stress than did their Canadian counterparts. These results have provided some empirical support for the notion that "humor has been traditionally given little respect in Chinese culture mainly due to the Confucian emphasis on keeping proper manners in social interactions" (Yue, 2010, p. 403). As teachers in Chinese societies are regarded as persons who are full of wisdom and capable of problem-solving, it is expected that they should act as role models to their students. These social expectations on Chinese teachers could further mould their perceptions on the use of humour in coping with stress.

  17. Self-construal as moderator in the relationship between self-esteem and humour style

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Clinical Psychology) Humour serves various intrapersonal and interpersonal functions. The affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive and self-defeating humour styles are employed by individuals throughout their interactions and can influence their and others’ intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. Humour styles have been related to positive attributes, such as self-esteem and optimism. Individual differences in the type of humour style displayed could furthermore be influenced by ...

  18. Examine of Mobbing via Humour Styles of Lecturers at Schools of Physical Education and Sport

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    Cengiz, Recep; Sunay, Hakan; Yasar, Onur Mutlu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the mobbing via humour of the lecturers at Schools of Physical Education and Sport. The sample of the study consisted of 470 lecturers dutied at those schools. In order to analyze the lecturers' perception levels about mobbing via humour behaviours, the "Scale of Humour Behaviours" was used. T-test and…

  19. An Analysis of the Language of Humour in Chinua Achebe's "A Man of the People"

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    Adjei, Daniel Oppong

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how humour is deployed in Achebe's "A Man of the People" by analysing the make-up of the various instances of humour as well as their significance in attaining the desired effects. To Veatch (1998), humour contains two incongruous elements; one element is socially normal while the other is a violation of the…

  20. Reconciling the good patient persona with problematic and non-problematic humour: a grounded theory.

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    McCreaddie, May; Wiggins, Sally

    2009-08-01

    Humour is a complex phenomenon, incorporating cognitive, emotional, behavioural, physiological and social aspects. Research to date has concentrated on reviewing (rehearsed) humour and 'healthy' individuals via correlation studies using personality-trait based measurements, principally on psychology students in laboratory conditions. Nurses are key participants in modern healthcare interactions however, little is known about their (spontaneous) humour use. A middle-range theory that accounted for humour use in CNS-patient interactions was the aim of the study. The study reviewed the antecedents of humour exploring the use of humour in relation to (motivational) humour theories. Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions and their respective peer groups in a country of the United Kingdom. An evolved constructivist grounded theory approach investigated a complex and dynamic phenomenon in situated contexts. Naturally occurring interactions provided the basis of the data corpus with follow-up interviews, focus groups, observation and field notes. A constant comparative approach to data collection and analysis was applied until theoretical sufficiency incorporating an innovative interpretative and illustrative framework. This paper reports the grounded theory and is principally based upon 20 CNS-patient interactions and follow-up data. The negative case analysis and peer group interactions will be reported in separate publications. The theory purports that patients' use humour to reconcile a good patient persona. The core category of the good patient persona, two of its constituent elements (compliance, sycophancy), conditions under which it emerges and how this relates to the use of humour are outlined and discussed. In seeking to establish and maintain a meaningful and therapeutic interaction with the CNS, patients enact a good patient persona to varying degrees depending upon the situated context. The good patient persona needs to be maintained within the

  1. Using a Linguistic Theory of Humour in Teaching English Grammar

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    Abdulmajeed, Rufaidah Kamal; Hameed, Sarab Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Teachers who teach a new language grammar do not usually have the time and the proper situation to introduce humour when starting a new topic in grammar. There are many different opinions about teaching grammar. Many teachers seem to believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and practical exercises. Other…

  2. [Neurology of laughter and humour: pathological laughing and crying].

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    Arias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Laughter, which is usually a healthy biological phenomenon, may be also a symptom of several severe brain pathologies. To review the neurobiological bases of laughter and humour, as well as those of pathological laughing and crying syndrome. At the mesencephalic-pontine junction there is a central coordinator of the nuclei that innervate the muscles involved in laughter (facial expression, respiratory and phonatory). This centre receives connections from three systems: inhibitory (pre-motor and motor cortex), excitatory (temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus) and modulator (cerebellum). Humour is a complex phenomenon with a range of components: the perception of the unexpected incongruence (occipitotemporal area, prefrontal cortex), emotional (reward circuit) and volitional (temporal and frontal cortex). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies do not reveal a markedly prominent role of the right frontal lobe in processing humour, as had been suggested in the classical studies. The causes of pathological laughing and crying syndrome can be classified in two groups: altered behaviour with unmotivated happiness (Angelman syndrome, schizophrenia, manias, dementia) and interference with the inhibitory/excitatory mechanisms (gelastic epilepsy, fou rire prodromique in strokes, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Parkinson-plus, traumatic injuries, tumours). Serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, levodopa, lamotrigine and the association of dextromethorphan/quinidine can be effective in certain cases of pathological laughing and crying. As human neurobiological phenomena, laughter and humour also belong to the field of clinical neurology; their processing is affected in a number of different diseases and, in certain cases, effective treatment can be established.

  3. Sense of humour and adolescents' cognitive flexibility | Esterhuyse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A correlational research design was used in which pupils were asked to complete the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale to assess their sense of humour. In order to determine the cognitive flexibility of the sample group, Martin and Rubin's Cognitive Flexibility Scale was applied. Setting and subjects: The ...

  4. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

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    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  5. The politics of humour in the public sphere: cartoons, power and modernity in the first transnational humour scandal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the Danish ‘cartoon crisis’ as a transnational ‘humour scandal’. While most studies conceptualize this crisis as a controversy about free speech or international relations, this article addresses the question why the crisis was sparked by cartoons. First, the article discusses

  6. Humour Use Between Spouses and Positive and Negative Interpersonal Behaviours During Conflict

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    Lorne Campbell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the relation between the use of positive, negative and instrumental humour in the context of romantic relationships and relational well-being as assessed by positive and negative patterns of conflict resolution behaviour. A sample of 116 heterosexual married couples completed scales of relational humour use as well as conflict resolution behaviour. Behaviour of couples while attempting to resolve a relationship based conflict was also coded by independent raters. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM analyses showed patterns of actor and partner effects for each type of humour use. Specifically, positive humour use of both partners predicted more positive conflict resolution, whereas negative humour use of both partners predicted less positive conflict resolution. Additionally, instrumental humour use of both partners seemed to predict greater apathy during conflict resolution. Implications for considering couple humor use, assessed for both partners of the dyad, for understanding relational well-being are discussed.

  7. Laughter in the Old Testament: A hotchpotch of humour, mockery and rejoicing?

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    Hennie A.J. Kruger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of humour appearing in society, religion, literature and speech have been discussed. The article investigated in particular the current tendency to interpret certain passages in the Bible as evidence of humorous traits. In these cases humour is taken as an interpretative key. A prerequisite to provide a hermeneutical basis for reading the Old Testament in terms of humour has been discussed. A few texts that present Yahweh as laughing have been considered.

  8. Relationships among Humour, Self-Esteem, and Social Support to Burnout in School Teachers

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    Ho, Sammy K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the total, direct, and indirect effects of humour on burnout among 539 school teachers. As predicted, those with high humour reported significantly lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation but higher levels of personal accomplishment. Self-esteem consistently explained parts of the associations between humour…

  9. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

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    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  10. Why did the proton cross the road? Humour and science communication.

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    Riesch, Hauke

    2015-10-01

    The use of humour in public discourse about science has grown remarkably over the past few years, and when used in science communication activities is being seen as a great way to bring science to the public through laughter. However, barely any research has been published either on the often-assumed beneficial learning effects of humour in informal science education, or on the wider social functions and effects of humour about science and how humorous public discourse about science can influence the public understanding of science and the science-society relationship. This research note reviews some of the literature on the psychology and sociology of humour and comedy and tries to apply some of its insights to the effects humour might have when used in science communication. Although not intended to be anti-humour, this note attempts at least to start a more critical conversation on the value of humour in the communication of science. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Using humour in teaching English as a foreign language at more advanced levels

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    Prodanović-Stankić Diana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of humour make it a valuable tool in the process of teaching and acquiring English as a foreign language, especially when more advanced courses at the university level are concerned. In the first place, using humour based on language play (involving different aspects of linguistic structure in a variety of teaching materials can be very beneficial to helping students improve their ability with language structures. Moreover, it is important that students develop an awareness of humour that is related to culture in order to achieve better command of English. In order to determine the effect humour has on students’ level of attainment, a small-scale study was conducted at the English Department, University of Novi Sad in the course Integrated Language Skills. In the study, humour was used both as a tool, to improve the learning environment, and as a resource for teaching new vocabulary or revising grammatical structures. The results of the study indicate that humour can be applied to teaching a foreign language and improving students’ proficiency level. Moreover, using humour both as a tool and as a resource affected students’ motivation and willingness to study.

  12. Frightfully funny : Combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour.

  13. Use of humour in primary care: different perceptions among patients and physicians.

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    Granek-Catarivas, M; Goldstein-Ferber, S; Azuri, Y; Vinker, S; Kahan, E

    2005-02-01

    (1) To explore the frequency with which humorous behaviour and statements occur in family medicine practice in Israel, and (2) to quantitatively assess the correlation between the subjective perceptions of humour in medical encounters between patients and physicians. In a cross sectional study, two populations (doctors and patients) were surveyed with paired structured questionnaires completed immediately after primary care practice visits. Two hundred and fifty consecutive encounters from 15 practices were sampled. The physician questionnaire was self administered, and patient questionnaire was administered by a trained research assistant. A mean of 16.7 questionnaires was completed per physician (range 6-20). The physicians reported having used some humour in only 95 encounters (38%), whereas almost 60% of patients agreed with the statement, "The doctor used some humour during the visit". At the same time, for specific encounters, the agreement between patients' perception and physicians' perceptions on the use of humour, although not completely by chance (p = 0.04), is low (kappa = 0.115). Patient characteristics (age, education, gender, family status, mother tongue, self perceived heath status, stress, mood, and expectations) were not related to the degree of agreement between the patients' and physicians' perceptions. Humour was used in a large proportion of encounters, independently of patient characteristics. Patients seem to be more sensitised to humour than physicians, probably because of their high stress level during medical encounters. Cultural differences may also play a part. Physicians should be made aware of this magnifying effect, and the issue should be discussed in medical schools.

  14. Frightfully funny: combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour. Male and female participants were exposed to a health message stressing the negative consequences of binge drinking (Experiment 1; N = 209) or caffeine consumption (Experiment 2; N = 242), that did or did not contain a funny visual metaphor (Experiment 1) or a slapstick cartoon (Experiment 2). Message evaluation, message attention, and attitudes and intentions towards the behaviour were measured. Results showed that health messages were more persuasive when communicated with humour, although humour played a different role for men and women. Whereas men responded more in line with message goals when the message combined high threat with humour, women preferred the low threat humour messages. By uncovering the moderating role of gender as a key audience characteristic, this research contributes to designing effective future health campaigns and provides important insights for future studies investigating the underlying mechanisms responsible for the different effects of threat and humour appeals for men and women.

  15. Aqueous humour dynamics and biometrics in the ageing Chinese eye.

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    Guo, Tao; Sampathkumar, Sruthi; Fan, Shan; Morris, Nathan; Wang, Fang; Toris, Carol B

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates ocular biometrics and aqueous humour dynamics (AHD) in healthy Chinese volunteers to determine how the various ocular parameters interact to maintain physiological intraocular pressure (IOP) at all ages. Sixty-nine volunteers enrolled in this cross-sectional study and were categorised into young (20-30 years) and old (≥50 years) groups. Measurements included IOP, ocular biometrics and AHD. Data were analysed using mixed model with random sampling to account for both eyes from the same individual. Spearman's rank correlation with bootstrap resampling was used to find associations between parameters. Compared with young subjects, old subjects had significantly (p<0.05) thinner corneas (CCT; 549.7±5.7 vs 530.6±5.3 µm; mean±SEM), shallower anterior chambers (3.14±0.05 vs 2.37±0.05 mm) and slower aqueous flow (Fa; 3.0±0.1 vs 2.7±0.1 µL/min). Uveoscleral outflow slowed (Fu; 1.0±0.2 vs 0.7±0.1) but not significantly. A positive linear association between IOP and episcleral venous pressure was found (young: R 2 =0.16; old: R 2 =0.08). Negative correlation between Fa and CCT (R 2 =0.06) and positive correlation between Fa and outflow facility (R 2 =0.08) was found in old participants. In the healthy ageing Chinese eye, IOP remains unchanged, while Fa slows, which is counterbalanced by slowing of Fu. Aqueous humour exits the eye preferentially through the trabecular route at all ages. Ageing is also associated with shallowing of the anterior chamber and thinning of the cornea. A slower Fa with lower outflow facility supports existence of autoregulatory mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Enjoyable learning: the role of humour, games, and fun activities in nursing and midwifery education.

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    Baid, Heather; Lambert, Nicky

    2010-08-01

    Education that captures the attention of students is an essential aspect of promoting meaningful, active learning. Rather than standing at the front of a group of learners simply speaking about a topic, teachers have the opportunity of livening up their teaching with humour, games, and other fun activities. This article critically evaluates the benefits and limitations of humour within nursing education as well as the use of games and fun activities as teaching strategies. Examples of various games and interactive activities are also provided. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The social meaning and function of humour in physiotherapy practice: An ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Di

    2010-01-01

    An ethnographic study was undertaken over a period of 8 months to explore the social meaning and function of humour in the practice of a team of physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service hospital. Interviews were carried out following the observations to gain the therapists' perspectives in an open critical exploration of assumptions and ideas. The analysis was iterative and followed a systematic recognised ethnographic approach. The findings revealed explicit and implicit meanings of the team's humorous interactions. Explicitly, they appeared light-hearted and enhanced camaraderie but implicitly they demonstrated the team leadership and management skills of the most senior member of the team who had an authoritative influence on the other members, and facilitated this explicit marker of membership. By hiding their concerns in humour, the team members were able to avoid a real confrontation with issues of authority and hierarchy that underscored these activities. Humour, in this instance, was used as a stabilising force to give the team a sense of certainty juxtaposed by the prevailing unpredictability of their daily activities; it was part of their professional culture to allow them to handle stressful situations and to build up a socialisation process. By creating a collective identity, the individual members came to understand the team's underlying philosophy of practice. As a resource, humour was seen to be used as a vehicle of negotiation and a catalyst for change.

  18. Influence of prilocaine in the interchange of 131I between aqueous humour and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbex, S.T.; Neder, A.C.; Mattos Filho, T.R. de; Ramos, A.O.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1981-01-01

    The experiment had two groups: Group I - (six dogs) - 131 I was injected into the aqueous humour and the radioactivity was measured in the blood at 1,2,4,8,16,32,64 and 128 minutes after the administration. Group II - (eight animals) - 131 I was injected intravenously and the radioactivity was measured in the aqueous humour at 5 and 10 minutes after the administration. Each group was subdivided in two sub-groups, one of them besides the 131 I received 5 mg/Kg of prilocaine. 131 I in the iodite form was always injected in 0.1 ml volumes, corresponding to 312.5 μCi. The radioactivity was measured and the results were as follows: a) Group I - the prilocaine markedly decreased the radioactivity in the blood, suggesting a smaller passage of 131 I from the aqueous humour to the blood. b) Group II - the prilocaine increased the radioactivity in the aqueous humour, suggesting an accumulation of iodite in that compartment. (Author) [pt

  19. Humour, beauty, and culture as personal health resources: experiences of elderly Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssén, Annika S K

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of elderly women used humour, beauty, and cultural activities to maintain physical and mental well-being. The paper reports on one aspect of a qualitative study on women's work and health in a lifetime perspective. Interviews with 20 strategically selected Swedish women, aged 63 to 83 years, were audiotaped and analysed according to a phenomenological approach. During the interview process, the researchers became increasingly aware that the women had clear ideas about what enabled them to feel well and healthy - even when actually quite diseased. Creating and enjoying humour, beauty, and culture formed part of such strategies. Joking with workmates made hard, low-status jobs easier, helped them endure pain, and helped balance marital difficulties. Creating a nice and comfortable home gave pleasure and a little luxury in a life filled with necessities. Making articles for everyday use more beautiful was regarded as worthwhile, because it gave delight to them and their families. Gains from cultural activities were social, aesthetic, and existential - the latter through a feeling of self-recognition and being heard. Humour, beauty, and culture formed a greater part of these women's survival strategies than expected. Making everyday life more aesthetic is an undervalued aspect of women's health-creating work in the family. Through their lifelong experience as carers and homemakers, elderly women possess special knowledge regarding what may promote health, a knowledge that should be tapped. When supplying elderly women with social care, their needs for humour, beauty, and culture should be respected.

  20. Lactate Dehydrogenase and Oxidative Stress Activity in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Aqueous Humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and lactate are some of the hypoxy biochemical parameters. Extracellular activity of this enzyme increases under the condition of oxidative stress, since the cell integrity can be disrupted during the lipid peroxidation process. Subsequently that leads to the increase level of the lactic acid and lactic acid salts. The objective of this investigation is establishing the level of LDH, LDH1 (HBDH and the lactate concentration in aqueous humour in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Biochemical analysis have been made by enzymatic-colometric method (lactate and UV-kinetic method (LDH and HBDH in aqueous humour of 30 patients (42 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and 30 patients (40 eyes with cataract (the control group.The increased values of lactate and the activity of LDH and HBDH enzyme in aqueous humour of POAG patients in correlation with the control group are the results not only of oxidative stress but also of hypoxy and the mitochondry oxidative function (p<0,001.The increased activity of the examined biochemical parameters in the aqueous humour of the POAG patients points to the fact that other mechanisms, besides IOP, have a role in glaucoma pathogenesis.

  1. Molecular Changes Observed In Aqueous Humour Of Eye Following Exposure To Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The response of proteins to different forms of stress is considered a topic of major interest, especially with the proliferation of electromagnetic devices which have detrimental effects on human health. In the present study, the effect of electric field on proteins of eye aqueous humour was studied. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to electric field of intensities 1, 3 and 5 kV/m at 50 Hz for two months. After recovery period of 45 days, the late effect of electric field was also studied after exposure to the dose 5 kV/m. The change in the molecular structure of aqueous humour proteins was detected through the use of gel permeation chromatography, estimation of total protein content and electrophoretic mobility. The results indicated that there was increase in the molecular weight of the aqueous humour proteins for the exposed rats, decrease in total protein content reached to 42% at exposure to 5 kV/m and change in electrophoretic mobility. Moreover, the late effect following the recovery period showed that the processes of damage to the aqueous humour were still propagating which indicate that exposure to electric field can cause progressive changes to the eye even after release of electric field. In conclusion, exposure to electromagnetic field with low frequency could induce health hazards.

  2. Interviews with the dead: using meta-life qualitative analysis to validate Hippocrates' theory of humours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretion, F; Conjur, G S; Attitude, S P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hippocrates devised his theory of the 4 humours (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) 24 centuries ago. Since then, medicine has evolved into a complex body of confusing and sometimes contradictory facts. The authors, seeing a need to determine the validity of his theory, hired a psychic. METHODS: The psychic interviewed 4 eminent ancient physicians, including Hippocrates. A randomized double-blind cross-over design was used for this meta-life qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All of the interviewees agreed that the theory of humours is an accurate model to explain disease and personality. INTERPRETATION: Hiring a psychic to conduct after-death interviews with key informants is a useful way to validate scientific theories. PMID:9875254

  3. Vitreous humour - routine or alternative material for analysis in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, Joanna; Szopa, Monika; Zawadzki, Marcin; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Biological materials used in toxicological analyses in forensic medicine traditionally include blood, urine and vitreous humour. Forensic use of the vitreous body is mostly due to the need to assess the endogenous concentration of ethyl alcohol in the process of human body decomposition. The vitreous body is an underestimated biological material, even though its biochemical properties and anatomical location make it suitable for specific forensic toxicology tests as a reliable material for the preparation of forensic expert opinions. Based on the available literature the paper gathers information on the biochemical structure of the vitreous body, ways to secure the material after collection and its use in postmortem diagnostics. Specific applications of the vitreous humour for biochemical and toxicological tests are discussed, with a focus on its advantages and limitations in forensic medical assessment which are attributable to its biochemical properties, anatomical location and limited scientific studies on the distribution of xenobiotics in the vitreous body.

  4. International Misrecognition: The Politics of Humour and National Identity in Israel’s Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Tsinovoi, Alexei

    2018-01-01

    Recognition, or the lack of it, is a central concern in International Relations. However, how states cope with international misrecognition has so far not been thoroughly explored in International Relations scholarship. To address this, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding...... international misrecognition by drawing on discursive and psychoanalytical theories of collective identity formation and humour studies. The article conceptualises international misrecognition as a gap between the dominant narrative of a national Self and the way in which this national Self is reflected...... in the ‘mirror’ of the international Other. We argue that humour offers an important way of coping with misrecognition by ridiculing and thereby downplaying international criticism. The significance for international relations is illustrated through an analysis of the public diplomacy campaign ‘Presenting Israel...

  5. Frightfully funny: Combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour. Design: Male and female participants were exposed to a health message stressing the negative consequences of binge drinking (Experiment 1; N = 209) or caffeine consumption (Experiment 2; N = 242), that ...

  6. Laughter in the Old Testament: A hotchpotch of humour, mockery and rejoicing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie A. J. Kruger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of humour appearing in society, religion, literature and speech have been discussed.The article investigated in particular the current tendency to interpret certain passages inthe Bible as evidence of humorous traits. In these cases humour is taken as an interpretative key. A prerequisite to provide a hermeneutical basis for reading the Old Testament in terms of humour has been discussed. A few texts that present Yahweh as laughing have been considered. Lag in die Ou Testament: ’n Mengelmoes van humor, bespotting en vreugde? Aspekte van humor wat in die gemeenskap, godsdiens, literatuur en omgangstaal voorkom, word bespreek. Die artikel gee veral aandag aan die huidige neiging om sekere tekste in die Bybel as voorbeelde wat humoristiese trekke vertoon, te verstaan. In sulke gevalle word die humorbegrip as ’n interpretasiesleutel hanteer. Die voorvereiste vir ’n hermeneutiese basis om die humorbegrip in die Ou Testament te verstaan, word bespreek. Enkele tekste waarin verwys word na die Here wat lag, word ook ondersoek.

  7. The aqueous humour antioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žorić Lepša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress results from increased oxidative processes, decreased antioxidative protection, or both processes simultaneously. Photooxidative stress, as a form of oxidative stress, induced by the energy of solar radiation, today is considered as crucial in the age-related cataractogenesis. Other known and unknown, endogenous and egsogenous factors that contribute to the oxidative stress intensity, can influence the cataract type and brunescence. Thus the oxidative stress intensity and its form might determine the cataract type and brunescence, and also make the efforts in cataract prevention more complex. Hence, the objective of the present paper was to investigate the current amount of antioxidative capacity in aqueous humour during the cataract genesis of different types and pigmentation of cataract. Methods. Transversal review of 80 samples of humour aqueous obtained during extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueouses were analyzed by tiobarbituric acid (TBA method for the total antioxidant activity estimation, expressed as %iMDA, and by using 0.1 ml of aqueous. Results. The mixed type of cataract showed the statistically significantly lower values of the intensities of antioxidative protection in aqueous humour compared to cortical and nuclear cataracts (p < 0.001, respectively. Between pure nuclear and cortical cataracts we found the small differences of the investigated parameter, but they pointed to the decreased level of antioxidative protection, i.e. the increased intensity of the aqueous humour oxidative stress in the cortical cataract type. A significant correlation between the cortical cataract maturation and the %iMDA (p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions. The role of the oxidative stress, here expressed as the antioxidative capacity of aqueous humour, could not be the same for all the cataract types. The lower level of antioxidative protection of aqueous in brunescent and mixed cataracts may point to the higher

  8. Terapias complementarias en los cuidados: Humor y risoterapia Complementary therapies in the cares: humour and laugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Ruiz Gómez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las terapias complementarias, la utilización de la risoterapia aporta beneficios tanto en la salud como en las situaciones de enfermedad, siendo un "instrumento de cuidados" barato y sin efectos secundarios. La tendencia actual hacia todo lo natural, las corrientes sobre cuidados de salud de las distintas culturas, unidas a las recomendaciones de la OMS a los enfermeros sobre la necesidad de utilizar los "métodos tradicionales y complementarios" para conseguir mejorar la salud de la población, hacen que la risoterapia sea una alternativa como instrumento opcional de cuidados. Planteamos una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de conocer la aplicación de la risoterapia en la salud y más concretamente en los cuidados enfermeros. Del análisis de los resultados podemos concretar que la risa se trabaja en diferentes ámbitos profesionales, no sólo en el sanitario. Es en el campo de la comunicación donde más se divulga esta terapia. Hemos encontrado pocas publicaciones de enfermería, pero muy valiosas ya que trabajan en el terreno de la investigación y de la docencia. Sería interesante que los profesionales de enfermería utilizaran esta terapia que mejora la calidad de los cuidados y ofrece un campo independiente propicio para la investigación.Related to complementary therapies, humour and laugh contribute to enhance health status and diminish illness situations. Humour as a therapy is an inexpensive tool in the patient care and it has not secondary effects in most cases. Current tendencies, either about natural ways to health or believes on health care of popular cultures, and who recommendations to patients in the use of traditional and complementary methods to improve population health, make humour and laugh an alternative therapy as an optional care tool. We have reviewed the literature with the aim of recognize the application of humour therapy on health and more specifically on nurse cares.On the basis of the review

  9. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  10. LC-ESI-MSD fast determination of residual mitomycin C in hen aqueous humour after corneal refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Martín, M T; Bernal, J; Torres, R M; Merayo, J

    2006-01-23

    A simple, fast and reliable method has been developed for the assay of traces of mitomycin C (MMC) in hen aqueous humour samples. The determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection. In isocratic elution analysis, the mobile phase was a mixture of water-acetonitrile (78:22, v/v) and the chromatographic column was C(18) at 35 degrees C. The method has been validated over a range from 0.1 to 250 microg L(-1) in hen aqueous humour with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for MMC based in signal to noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively, were 20 and 71 ng L(-1). The developed method allows the analysis of MMC in hen aqueous humour samples obtained at different times and conditions in order to evaluate and compare the efficacy of the drug administration.

  11. Black Humour Spaces in Cinema and Literature: Yorgos Lanthimos' The Lobster and Tom McCarthy's Satin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maggitti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maggitti’s essay is focused on two different expressions of black humour in today’s film and literature. After commenting on a recent proposal, by the British writer Jonathan Coe, on the whereabouts of contemporary humour, the author examines a film  (The Lobster by YorgosLanthimos and a novel (Satin Island by T. McCarthy, both portraying the present world through humorous lenses, with a disrespectful attitude to an ecologically correct behaviour. In The Lobster hunting is claimed a universal role in man to animal relation whereas Tom McCarthy turns environmental disasters into acts of worthy ecologism. In his approach to humour, Maggitti draws on its anthropological turn as its most estranging function.

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as a psycho-physiological basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shportun O.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the psycho-physiological peculiarities of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as the basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour. The analysis of the impact of the functional brain hemispheric asymmetry on emotional, intellectual and physiological features of development of sense of humour in ontogeny is conducted. Analysis of studies of inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the brain makes it possible to ascertain the impact of the functioning of each hemisphere on the formation of the perception of humour. Studies show that in the process of developing of sense of humour, two functional hemispheres of the brain are involved. As the emotion of humour – is an intellectual emotion, and in the development of intelligence a lot of mental processes are involved, in the formation of humour two hemispheres of the brain are functioned. The right hemisphere is responsible for the emotional nature of humour (intonation, sound level of language, speed of response to a joke ..., the left hemisphere – for processing verbal information (content of the joke, category, purpose, content analysis .... After analysing the research of hemispheric functional asymmetry of the human brain, its psycho-physiological and neurochemical characteristics, it can be assumed that people with more developed left hemisphere in perceiving humour are more prone to displays of gelotophilia and “right hemisphere” people – show signs of gelotophobia and katagelasticism. Examining gender differences of hemisphere asymmetry of the brain, it can be argued that diagnosing sense of humour is important to take into account gender-specific functioning of hemispheres, because men have more clearly functioning the left hemisphere, and women – the right one. This fact of sexual peculiarities of functioning of inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the brain allows diagnosing objectively sense of humour, as well as different variations

  13. Humour in Experiential Marketing Campaigns and its Perception by Czech University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Navrátilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is necessary to monitor marketing communication strategy connected to actual customers’ needs and requirements. At the same time, there is important to respect gender of customers. The paper provides an overview of current marketing communication trends of the companies. Based on the theoretical data there are applied statistical methods, which should be achieved of main aim of the paper. The main aim of the paper is to find connections between communication and gender from point of view of humour. To support this approach theoretical information from the area of marketing communication connected with data from primary research were used. Success companies know customers’ needs for long-term strategic development of relationship marketing with customers. That is necessary to reach the customers’ emotion and their irrationality of purchase decision. For this contact companies try to use experiential marketing full of humour elements as the way to increase own turnover. Adequate communication campaigns could create acceptable background for effective marketing. The article is focused on dependency between genders and used marketing communication tools. The objective of this research is to verify intensity dependence of marketing communication in connection with respondents’ gender and to identify impacts of the marketing communication and to describe communication trend. The research was aimed in random chosen group of young people in the Czech Republic. It was made data processing by statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 to obtain relevant answers.

  14. Analysis of aqueous humour in uveitis by high performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, P. I.; Hoekzema, R.; Luyendijk, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous humour from patients with Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) and other types of uveitis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using HPLC, the number of peaks and their respective elution times

  15. Kadurumba, CH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kadurumba, CH. Vol 33, No 3 (2014) - Research papers. Kinematics and Dynamic Evaluation of the Screw Conveyor of a Cassava Centrifuge Dewatering Machine Abstract PDF · Vol 33, No 3 (2014) - Research papers. Performance Optimization of a Cassava Pelleting Machine Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African ...

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as a psycho-physiological basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour.

    OpenAIRE

    Shportun, O. N.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the psycho-physiological peculiarities of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as the basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour. The analysis of the impact of the functional brain hemispheric asymmetry on emotional, intellectual and physiological features of development of sense of humour in ontogeny is conducted. Analysis of studies of inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the brain makes it possible to ascertain the impact of the functio...

  17. Among pasta-loving Mafiosos, drug-selling Columbians and noodle-eating Triads – Race, humour and interactive ethics in Grand Theft Auto III

    OpenAIRE

    Dymek, Mikolaj

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the intersection of race, humour and interactivity in GTA3. Interactivity has been extensively researched, race issues in games have been scarcely studied (Leonard 2003), but hitherto no research has focused on humour aspects of games despite the popularity of this subject in non-academic discussions on the Internet (BBC News 2001; Perry 2001). Previously, content analysis of games has been focused on narrative aspects (Aarseth 1997; Murray 1998) or psychological links bet...

  18. Laughter and humour interventions for well-being in older adults: A systematic review and intervention classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonot-Schoupinsky, F N; Garip, G

    2018-06-01

    To assess the potential of laughter and humour interventions to increase well-being in a general population of adults aged 60 plus; and to develop a classification to compare approaches and potential benefits of different intervention types. A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, PsychInfo, AMED, and PsychArticles used inclusive terms relating to laughter and humour interventions. A realist synthesis approach enabled heterogeneous interventions to be compared pragmatically. Five laughter interventions, and one humour intervention, using one or more outcome related to well-being, were considered for inclusion after screening 178 primary research papers. The five laughter interventions, representing a sample of 369 participants, were retained. Well-being related outcome measures reported in each intervention informed efficacy; Joanna Briggs Institute tools appraised design; and a realist approach enabled heterogeneous interventions to be measured on their overall potential to provide an evidence base. Well-being related measures demonstrated at least one significant positive effect in all interventions. Confounding factors inherent in the intervention types were observed. Individual participant laughter was not reported. Laughter and humour interventions appear to enhance well-being. There is insufficient evidence for the potential of laughter itself to increase well-being as interventions contained a range of confounding factors and did not measure participant laughter. Interventions that isolate, track, and measure the parameters of individual laughter are recommended to build evidence for these potentially attractive and low-risk interventions. The classification proposed may guide the development of both evidence-oriented and population-appropriate intervention designs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluid dynamics simulation of aqueous humour in a posterior-chamber phakic intraocular lens with a central perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2012-06-01

    A modified implantable collamer lens (ICL) with a central hole (diameter, 0.36 mm), a "Hole-ICL", was created to improve aqueous humour circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fluid dynamic characteristics of aqueous humour in a Hole-ICL using computational fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics simulation using an ICL was performed with thermal-hydraulic analysis software FloEFD V5 (Mentor Graphics Corp.). For the simulation, three-dimensional eye models based on a modified Liou-Brennan model eye with conventional ICL (Model ICM, STAAR SURGICAL) and a Hole-ICL were used. Both ICLs were -9.0 diopters (D) and 12.0 mm in length, with an optic of 5.5 mm. The vaulting was 0.50 mm. The quantity of aqueous humour produced by the ciliary body was set at 2.80 μl/min. Flow distribution between the anterior surface of the crystalline lens and the posterior surface of the ICL was also calculated, and trajectory analysis was performed. The flow velocity 0.25 mm in front of the centre of the crystalline lens was 1.52 × 10(-1) mm/sec for the Hole-ICL and 1.21 × 10(-5) mm/sec for the conventional ICL. Outward flow from the hole in the Hole-ICL was confirmed by trajectory analysis. These results suggest that Hole-ICLs improve the circulation of aqueous humour to the anterior surface of the crystalline lens.

  20. Cytokine concentration in aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Tao, Yong; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    To measure the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The clinical interventional study included a study group of 18 patients with exudative AMD and a control group of 20 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Age did not vary significantly (p = 0.36) between study group (80.8 ± 6.4 years) and control group (77.0 ± 9.9 years), nor did gender (p = 0.75). During the interventions, aqueous humour samples were obtained, in which the concentration of cytokines was measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Macular thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the study group as compared to the control group, significantly higher concentrations were measured for epithelial growth factor (EGF) (p = 0.017), human growth factor (HGF) (p= 0.048), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) (p = 0.028), interleukin 12p40 (IL12p40) (p = 0.009), interleukin 1a2 (IL1a2) (p = 0.01), interleukin 3 (IL3) (p = 0.02), interleukin 6 (IL6) (p = 0.006), interleukin 8 (IL8) (p = 0.02), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.048), monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) (p = 0.016), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) (p = 0.004) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) (p = 0.006). Macular thickness was significantly associated with the concentrations of EGF (p = 0.001), HGF (p = 0.02), ICAM1 (p = 0.001), interleukin 12p40 (p = 0.006), IL 1a2 (p = 0.002), MIG (p = 0.001), MMP9 (p < 0.001) and PAI1 (p = 0.01). Interleukin 6 and MCP-1 showed significant associations with the height of retinal pigment epithelium detachment. Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of exudative AMD. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. YouTubers as satirists: Humour and remix in online video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dias da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the role humour plays in politics, particularly in a media environment overflowing with user-generated video. We start with a genealogy of political satire, from classical to Internet times, followed by a general description of “the Hitler meme,” a series of videos on YouTube featuring footage from the film Der Untergang and nonsensical subtitles. Amid video-games, celebrities, and the Internet itself, politicians and politics are the target of twenty-first century caricatures. By analysing these videos we hope to elucidate how the manipulation of images is  embedded in everyday practices and may be of political consequence, namely by deflating politicians' constructed media image. The realm of image, at the centre of the Internet's technological culture, is connected with decisive aspects of today's social structure of knowledge and play. It is timely to understand which part of “playing” is in fact an expressive practice with political significance.

  2. Constructing Local Identities via/for Humour: A Cretan-Greek Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villy Tsakona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common functions of humour is the construction of identity, usually achieved by including certain individuals in a group sharing specific values and views, and by excluding others representing different values and views (Archakis and Tsakona, 2005. The aim of the present study is to investigate how online interactants create a local identity via the production of digital humorous texts, thus forming a group of people with common perceptions on a specific event reported by the media. In particular, Facebook participants formed communities supporting the right of a crocodile -non endemic to Greece- to live on the loose in a lake in Crete, Greece, and opposing local authorities wishing to capture the animal. Interlocutors draw on, and reframe, popular -and even stereotypical- aspects of the Cretan identity involving, among other things, a passionate love of freedom, resistance to official authorities, rebelliousness, and heroism (Herzfeld, 1985. Such cultural traits seem to be attributed to the crocodile so as not only to bolster the interlocutors’ own perspective, but also to create a humorous effect.

  3. Ascorbic acid as a free radical scavenger in porcine and bovine aqueous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Carl; Nau-Staudt, Kerstin; Flammer, Josef; Nau, Werner

    2004-01-01

    To study the antioxidant activity, UV absorption, concentration and stability of ascorbic acid (AA) in porcine and bovine aqueous humour (AH). Porcine and bovine AH was taken within 5 min after death and frozen at -70 degrees C. The characteristic UV absorption band of AA and the concentration of AA in AH was determined by UV spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of AA to serve as a free radical scavenger in AH has been determined by using a novel fluorescent probe for antioxidants, the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO). The fluorescence lifetime and intensity of this probe reflect the concentration of dissolved antioxidants. The time-resolved fluorescence of DBO (laser excitation at 351 nm) in AH and in a neutral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing only the natural amount of AA as an additive were measured. The characteristic UV absorption band of AA has its maximum at 266 nm in AH. The concentration of AA in porcine and bovine AH was found to be 0.547 +/- 0.044 and 1.09 +/- 0.16 mM, respectively, by spectrophotometry. The fluorescence lifetime of the probe DBO was reduced from 320 +/- 5 ns in pure aerated PBS to 205 +/- 5 ns in porcine AH and 165 +/- 3 ns in bovine AH. A detailed kinetic analysis of the lifetime shortening suggests that AA contributes approximately 75 and 85% to the antioxidant activity of porcine and bovine AH, respectively. Our experiments suggest that AA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of porcine and bovine AH. The role of AA to serve as an antioxidant in AH is discussed. In addition, UV spectrophotometry is established as an alternative method to determine the concentration of AA in AH. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Deconstructive humour: subverting Mexican and Chicano stereotypes in ‘Un Día Sin Mexicanos’

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    a long time, US cinema developed unshakeable stereotypes of Mexican ‘otherness’, with characters of Mexican cultural and ethnic heritage stigmatised as criminals or as sensual objects of desire. Filmmakers in Mexico, meanwhile, treated Mexican Americans as misfits who belonged nowhere, or ignored them and their complex experience completely. The emergence of a distinct ‘Chicano cinema’ in the 1960s allowed for the development of a more powerful set of images of Mexican Americans, exploiting t...

  5. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  6. "THE EXTRAVAGANT HUMOUR OF STOCK-JOBBING” AND THE MEMBERS OF THE ENGLISH BODY POLITIC, 1690-1720

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title of a 1697 pamphlet about London’s stock-jobbers referred to the “extravagant humour of stock-jobbing,” using the imagery of contemporary medical knowledge to suggest that stock-jobbers represented a potentially unbalancing element within the English body-politic. Members of different social orders, however, perceived differently the threat stock-jobbers allegedly posed. Landowners, merchants, craftworkers, bureaucrats, and the officers of joint-stock companies all saw the stock-jobbers perils specific to their own social statuses and ambitions. The few defenders of the stock-jobbers therefore also sought to demonstrate the benefits that dealings joint-stock companies could offer to the body-politic as a whole as well as to all its members in particular.

  7. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 × 10(-4) m s(-1). The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  8. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10 -4 m s -1 . The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  9. SearCh for humourIstic and Extravagant acroNyms and Thoroughly Inappropriate names For Important Clinical trials (SCIENTIFIC): qualitative and quantitative systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, Anton; Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Hansen, Morten Rix; Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Meegaard, Peter Martin; Meegaard, Line Haugaard Vrdlovec; Horneberg, Henrik; Gils, Charlotte; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Aagaard, Lise; Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Hallas, Jesper; Damkier, Per

    2014-12-16

    To describe the development of acronym use across five major medical specialties and to evaluate the technical and aesthetic quality of the acronyms. Acronyms obtained through a literature search of Pubmed.gov followed by a standardised assessment of acronym quality (BEAUTY and CHEATING criteria). Randomised controlled trials within psychiatry, rheumatology, pulmonary medicine, endocrinology, and cardiology published between 2000 and 2012. Prevalence proportion of acronyms and composite quality score for acronyms over time. 14,965 publications were identified, of which 18.3% (n=2737) contained an acronym in the title. Acronym use was more common among cardiological studies than among the other four medical specialties (40% v 8-15% in 2012, P<0.001). Except for within cardiology, the prevalence of acronyms increased over time, with the average prevalence proportion among the remaining four specialties increasing from 4.0% to 12.4% from 2000 to 2012 (P<0.001). The median combined acronym quality score decreased significantly over the study period (P<0.001), from a median 9.25 in 2000 to 5.50 in 2012. From 2000 to 2012 the prevalence of acronyms in trial reports increased, coinciding with a substantial decrease in the technical and aesthetic quality of the acronyms. Strict enforcement of current guidelines on acronym construction by journal editors is necessary to ensure the proper use of acronyms in the future. © Pottegård et al 2014.

  10. SearCh for humourIstic and Extravagant acroNyms and Thoroughly Inappropriate names For Important Clinical trials (SCIENTIFIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Haastrup, M. B.; Stage, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of acronym use across five major medical specialties and to evaluate the technical and aesthetic quality of the acronyms. DESIGN: Acronyms obtained through a literature search of Pubmed.gov followed by a standardised assessment of acronym quality (BEAUTY...

  11. Humour production may enhance observational learning of a new tool-use action in 18-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseily, Rana; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Somogyi, Eszter; O'Regan, Kevin John; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that making children laugh enhances certain cognitive capacities such as attention, motivation, perception and/or memory, which in turn enhance learning. However, no study thus far has investigated whether laughing has an effect on learning earlier in infancy. The goal of this study was to see whether using humour with young infants in a demonstration of a complex tool-use task can enhance their learning. Fifty-three 18-month-old infants participated in this study and were included either in a humorous or a control demonstration group. In both groups infants observed an adult using a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach toy. What differed between groups was that in the humorous demonstration group, instead of playing with the toy, the adult threw it on the floor immediately after retrieval. The results show that infants who laughed at the demonstration in the humorous demonstration group reproduced significantly more frequent target actions than infants who did not laugh and those in the control group. This effect is discussed with regard to individual differences in terms of temperament and social capacities as well as positive emotion and dopamine release.

  12. Teacher Ethnicity, Student Ethnicity, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2015-01-01

    A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…

  13. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  14. Development and validation of UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS for carteolol in aqueous humour: Stability, stress degradation and application in pharmacokinetics of nanoformulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeduzzafar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carteolol (CRT is currently under development as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of open angle glaucoma. The purpose of the present work is to develop and validate a stability indicating assay method and its application to estimate CRT in aqueous humour and study the pharmacokinetic parameters. An ultra performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of CRT in rabbit aqueous humour, using propranolol as the internal standard (I.S.. Aqueous humour samples were prepared by a simple liquid–liquid extraction technique (LLE. The analyte and internal standard were separated by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100.0 × 2.1 mm; 1.7 μm column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile – 2 mM (milli mole ammonium acetate (90/10, v/v over 3 min of retention time. Detection was based on the multiple reactions monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 293.2 → 237.12 for CRT and m/z 260.09 → 183.04 for I.S. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines on the bio-analytical method validation. The method developed was linear (r2 = 0.999 over the concentration range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of CRT as per ICH prescribed stress conditions, such as acid, base, oxidative and photolytic to show the forced of the method. Significant degradation was observed during basic stress condition. The pharmacokinetic study of CRT solution and nanoparticles in aqueous humour of rabbit eye was performed and results showed that CRT nanoparticles enhance the ocular bioavailability by 5.61-fold as compared to CRT-solution.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry of CH3CH2OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Bjørn Svendsen, Sissel; Østerstrøm, Freja From

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of methyl ethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH3, was examined using FT-IR/relative-rate methods. Hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom rate coefficients of k(CH3CH2OCH3+OH) = (7.53 ± 2.86) × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k(CH3CH2OCH3+Cl) = (2.35 ± 0.43) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were...

  16. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  17. Tourism and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Azeredo Grünewald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant issues confronting studies in the anthropology of tourism is that of cultural change precipitated in host societies as a result of an influx of tourists. Many times those changes are accompanied by a reorganization of the host population along ethnic lines, that is, by the creation of tourism- oriented-ethnicities. This article's purpose is to examine the relationship between tourism and ethnicity in theoretical terms and to contribute to a better academic understanding of ethnic tourism.

  18. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  19. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  1. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  2. Jokes and Humour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏

    2003-01-01

    A father was trying to teach his young sonthe evils of alcohol. He put one worm in a glass of water andanother worm in a glass of whiskey.The wromin the water lived,while the one in the whiskeycurled up and died.

  3. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  4. Estudio del CH interestelar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  5. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  6. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  7. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  8. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  9. CH2 molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.A.R.; Grosser, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular beam source of CH 2 is described. Coaxial beams of methylene halide and alkali metal react and the mixture is formed into a molecular beam. Passage through a mechanical velocity selector rotating at a suitably high speed purifies the beam, separating light, fast CH 2 from heavier, slower contaminating species

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes 'shipping categories' that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the 'General Case,' which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Close-Proximity Shipments' (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for 'Controlled Shipments

  16. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-09-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  17. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-05-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  18. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-02-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  19. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  20. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-10-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  1. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  2. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codesand corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  3. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-12-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  4. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  5. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-01-18

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  6. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-10-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  7. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  8. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  9. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-12-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-11-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-30

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-06-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  16. The relation between ethnic classroom composition and adolescents’ ethnic pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leszczensky, Lars; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Munniksma, Anke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how students? ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) were tested among 13- to 14-year-old ethnic majority and minority

  17. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift

  18. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  19. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  20. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  1. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  2. [Dynamics of riboflavin level in aqueous humour of anterior chamber of experimental animals under standard stroma saturation by ultraviolet corneal cross-linking solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, M M; Shevchuk, N E; Khalimov, A R; Bikbova, G M

    To evaluate the dynamics of riboflavin changes in the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber (AHAC) of rabbits' eyes during standard ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking with account to the area of corneal debridement. Forty two rabbits were studied sequentially. The following solutions of riboflavin were used for cornea saturation: IR - 0.1% isosmotic riboflavin, D - Dextralink (0.1% riboflavin with 20% dextran), R - 0.1% riboflavin with 1.0% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Each solution was evaluated in 3 groups that differed in the diameter of corneal debridement: group 1 - Epi-Off 3 mm (IR-3, D-3, P-3), group 2 - Epi-Off 6 mm (IR-6, D-6, R-6), and group 3 - Epi-Off 9 mm (IR-9, D-9, R-9). Aqueous humour sampling (252 samples in total) was performed in 10-minute intervals within a 60 minute period. Riboflavin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ID-Vit microbiological test system; Immundiagnostik, Germany). Stable growth rates of riboflavin level in the AHAC (with maximum values reached at 30-40 min) were observed for solutions D and R, regardless of the variant of corneal debridement. Moreover, throughout the whole follow-up period and regardless of the area of corneal debridement, the solution D provided a relatively lower concentration of riboflavin in the AHAC as compared to the two other solutions. At 30 minutes, when the cornea was considered ready for UV irradiation, the riboflavin level in the AHAC ranged from 385±26.1 μg/l (D-9) to 665±28 μg/l (R-9). In groups IR-9, IR-6, P-6, IR-3, and P-3 riboflavin levels were found to be in the same range starting at 20 minutes. However, even a sufficient concentration of riboflavin in the cornea or AHAC cannot guarantee safe and effective UV cross-linking, since the removed epithelium limits the area of the stroma that can be saturated with riboflavin, while the area of UV exposure is 8-10 mm. Safe and efficient standard UV cross-linking may be performed only under sufficient saturation of the

  3. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  4. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  6. Photoelectric observations of CH Cygni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luud, L; Ruusalepp, M; Vennik, Ya

    1977-01-01

    UBV observations of the peculiar variable star CH Cygni from 1968 up to 1974 are presented. HD 182691 served as a comparison star. It turned out that the colours are in accordance with a model for a symbiotic star. The colour-magnitude diagrams of CH Cygni allow dividing the period of the observations into two parts in dependence on the activity of CH Cygni. Observed brightness variations are analyzed by using autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, and power spectral density functions. It has been found that brightness variations have some periods which are given.

  7. Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands : the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Poortman, A.-R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use. Design. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged

  8. Malaria in pregnant women living in areas of low transmission on the southeast Brazilian Coast: molecular diagnosis and humoural immunity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Domingues Hristov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.

  9. Moche: Archaeology, Ethnicity, Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Quilter, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The two different modes of investigation in Art History and Anthropological Archaeology are discussed. This is followed by a consideration of these issues in relation to the Mochica archaeological culture. The “Mochica” have come to be considered a political or ethnic group and, in particular, considered as a prehistoric state. This essay questions these ideas and suggests that Moche is best considered as primarily a religious system. The ceremonial centers were likely places of pilgrimage wi...

  10. Unemployment, ethnicity and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, J; Bebbington, P; Bhavsar, V; Kravariti, E; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Dutta, R

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the incidence of psychosis in unemployed people and determines whether unemployment has a greater impact on the development of psychosis amongst Black minority groups than White groups. Patients with a first diagnosis of Research Diagnostic Criteria psychosis, in a defined area of London from 1998 to 2004, were identified. Crude and standardised incidence rates of psychosis amongst unemployed people for each ethnic group were calculated. Poisson regression modelling tested for interactions between unemployment and ethnicity. Hundred cases occurred amongst employed people and 78 cases occurred amongst the unemployed people. When standardised to the employed White population of the area, White unemployed people had a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 11.7 (95% CI 6.4-19.7), Black Caribbean people had a SIR of 60.1(95% CI 39.3-88) and Black African people had a SIR of 40.7 (95% CI 25.8-61.1). There was no interaction however between ethnicity and unemployment (Likelihood ratio test P = 0.54). Rates of psychosis are high amongst unemployed people in south London and extremely high amongst Black Caribbean and Black African unemployed people. There was no evidence however that the minority groups were particularly sensitive to the stresses, limitations or meaning of unemployment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Ethnic Harassment, Ethnic Identity Centrality, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.

  12. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  13. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  14. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  15. Clinical profile of uveitis in Hansen’s disease after completion of treatment – A study of 50 cases using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on aqueous humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Annamalai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low grade anterior uveitis is the commonest cause of blindness in leprosy. It is usually asymptomatic until the late stages and patients seek help only after irreversible visual loss. We analysed patients who had a recurrence of uveitis after completion of treatment with anti-leprosy drugs and had been proven as histopathologically negative. The presence of chronic uveitis, complications and the extent of ocular damage it may cause, can continue even after treatment, emphasising the importance of follow-up, early detection and treatment. This is a prospective cohort study. Ophthalmic evaluation was performed using slit lamp examination, biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, applanation tonometry, corneal sensation and Schirmer’s test. Split skin microscopy was done to confirm the activity of leprosy. In patients with recalcitrant iridocyclitis, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. The sample was analysed both by smear and polymerase chain reaction. The sequences that were targeted using PCR included genes encoding the DNA of 36-kDa antigen, 18-kDa antigen, 65-kDa antigen and the repetitive sequences among other M. leprae genes. Aqueous aspirate showed copies of mycobacterium leprae DNA in five out of twelve patients with recalcitrant anterior uveitis. Direct smear and staining with Ziehl- Neelson staining for mycobacteria was positive showing both live and dead bacilli. Live bacilli can persist in the aqueous humour even after completion of treatment. In our study this was more frequently observed in tuberculoid leprosy. This is possibly due to an immune mediated response combined with inadequate treatment dose in these patients.

  16. The Case Against Romantic Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    1974-01-01

    Characterizes the new ethnic movement as an upper-class intellectual romanticism, which has focused on an abstract craving for historical identity. Criticizes it for avoiding the principal problems of poverty and possivity of the poor, among whom the ethnics are so prominent. (EH)

  17. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politi...

  18. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    ethnic” adolescents in school? How do these factors intervene in forming educational strategies, and how are they reflected in longer-term career options? 2. How do “minority ethnic” students and their families relate to actual school experiences and to schooling in general? How do they interpret success......, failure and variations in advancement? What are their views on issues of justice, discrimination and equality in the context of schooling? 3. What are the typical strategies of identity formation for “minority ethnic” youth, and what roles do schools, families, peer relations and the broader inter......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  19. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  20. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  1. Paper-based microfluidic devices on the crime scene: A simple tool for rapid estimation of post-mortem interval using vitreous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Paulo T; Gabriel, Ellen F M; Pessôa, Gustavo S; Santos Júnior, Júlio C; Mollo Filho, Pedro C; Guidugli, Ruggero B F; Höehr, Nelci F; Arruda, Marco A Z; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-06-29

    This paper describes for the first time the use of paper-based analytical devices at crime scenes to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI), based on the colorimetric determination of Fe 2+ in vitreous humour (VH) samples. Experimental parameters such as the paper substrate, the microzone diameter, the sample volume and the 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) concentration were optimised in order to ensure the best analytical performance. Grade 1 CHR paper, microzone with diameter of 5 mm, a sample volume of 4 μL and an o-phen concentration of 0.05 mol/L were chosen as the optimum experimental conditions. A good linear response was observed for a concentration range of Fe 2+ between 2 and 10 mg/L and the calculated values for the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.3 and 0.9 mg/L, respectively. The specificity of the Fe 2+ colorimetric response was tested in the presence of the main interfering agents and no significant differences were found. After selecting the ideal experimental conditions, four HV samples were investigated on paper-based devices. The concentration levels of Fe 2+ achieved for samples #1, #2, #3 and #4 were 0.5 ± 0.1, 0.7 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.1 and 15.1 ± 0.1 mg/L, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those calculated by ICP-MS. It important to note that the concentration levels measured using both techniques are proportional to the PMI. The limitation of the proposed analytical device is that it is restricted to a PMI greater than 1 day. The capability of providing an immediate answer about the PMI on the crime scene without any sophisticated instrumentation is a great achievement in modern instrumentation for forensic chemistry. The strategy proposed in this study could be helpful in many criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The ethnic composition of the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts: three unresolved issues

    OpenAIRE

    Flap, H.D.; Dagevos, J.J.; Vervoort, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently supposed that the ethnic composition of a neighbourhood affects ethnic minorities’ social contacts with natives, co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Research to date, however, falls short in several ways. First of all, previous studies often did not consider social contacts with co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Second, although different mechanisms (i.e. meeting opportunities, ethnic competition theory, ‘third parties’ and constrict theory) point to different dimen...

  3. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  4. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic...

  5. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  6. Ethnic Identity in Context: Variations in Ethnic Exploration and Belonging within Parent, Same-Ethnic Peer, and Different-Ethnic Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic…

  7. Ethnicity and Politics. IRSS Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark

    This research report examines the role of ethnicity in politics. The concept of ethnicity encompasses at least four distinct dimensions: nationality identification, religious identification, old vs. new ethnic stock, and racial membership. In the national sample analyzed, several interesting patterns of ethnic differentiation emerged. First, none…

  8. CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 50% The Confidence Level of the CH-47F APB cost estimate, which was approved on April...M) Initial PAUC Development Estimate Changes PAUC Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 10.316 -0.491 3.003 -0.164 2.273 7.378...SAR Baseline to Current SAR Baseline (TY $M) Initial APUC Development Estimate Changes APUC Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total

  9. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  10. Cholinesterase (ChE) response and related mortality among birds fed ChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.; Hill, E.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of mortality and inhibition of brain and plasma ChE in birds treated with ChE inhibitors were studied in an attempt to determine the validity of using ChE activity as a monitoring and diagnostic technique. Analysis of brain ChE activity proved to be reliable for diagnosing and monitoring effects of selected ChE inhibitors in birds. Brain ChE inhibition exceeding 20% indicated exposure, and inhibition greater than 50% was sufficient for diagnosing cause of death. Individuals that died from dietary exposure to parathion or carbofuran had brain ChE activities below 55% of normal; although individuals could survive with brain ChE activity lower than 50%. Problems associated with collection, storage, and analysis of tissues for ChE activity are discussed.

  11. Stanovení vybraných vonných látek v kosmetických prostředcích

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá stanovením vybraných vonných látek v kosmetických prostředcích. Úvodem je popsán výskyt, metody získávání a využití těchto látek. Jsou nepostradatelnou součástí především kosmetických výrobků, avšak u citlivých jedinců mohou vyvolat alergickou reakci. O příčinách vzniku a průběhu těchto nežádoucích projevů je v teoretické části také pojednáno. Je známo několik stovek až tisíc vonných látek používaných v parfumérském průmyslu, z nichž je 26 ustanoveno evropskými ...

  12. The Products of the Thermal Decomposition of CH3CHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Zhang, Xu; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Osborn, David L.; Daily, John W.; Stanton, John F.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2011-04-06

    We have used a heated 2 cm x 1 mm SiC microtubular (mu tubular) reactor to decompose acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + DELTA --> products. Thermal decomposition is followed at pressures of 75 - 150 Torr and at temperatures up to 1700 K, conditions that correspond to residence times of roughly 50 - 100 mu sec in the mu tubular reactor. The acetaldehyde decomposition products are identified by two independent techniques: VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy after isolation in a cryogenic matrix. Besides CH3CHO, we have studied three isotopologues, CH3CDO, CD3CHO, and CD3CDO. We have identified the thermal decomposition products CH3(PIMS), CO (IR, PIMS), H (PIMS), H2 (PIMS), CH2CO (IR, PIMS), CH2=CHOH (IR, PIMS), H2O (IR, PIMS), and HC=CH (IR, PIMS). Plausible evidence has been found to support the idea that there are at least three different thermal decomposition pathways for CH3CHO: Radical decomposition: CH3CHO + DELTA --> CH3 + [HCO] --> CH3 + H + CO Elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> H2 + CH2=C=O. Isomerization/elimination: CH3CHO + DELTA --> [CH2=CH-OH] --> HC=CH + H2O. Both PIMS and IR spectroscopy show compelling evidence for the participation of vinylidene, CH2=C:, as an intermediate in the decomposition of vinyl alchohol: CH2=CH-OH + DELTA --> [CH2=C:] + H2O --> HC=CH + H2O.

  13. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed to specific 'Chinese' cultural values and strong intra-ethnic networks, of the ethnic Chinese in business and entrepreneurship. Our research among second- and third-generations shows an inclination ...

  14. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.E.; Pichat, L.

    1958-01-01

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14 C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH 3 I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author) [fr

  15. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  16. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  17. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  18. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  19. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  20. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  1. libChEBI: an API for accessing the ChEBI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainston, Neil; Hastings, Janna; Dekker, Adriano; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; May, John; Steinbeck, Christoph; Mendes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ChEBI is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. It is widely used as a source of identifiers to facilitate unambiguous reference to chemical entities within biological models, databases, ontologies and literature. ChEBI contains a wealth of chemical data, covering over 46,500 distinct chemical entities, and related data such as chemical formula, charge, molecular mass, structure, synonyms and links to external databases. Furthermore, ChEBI is an ontology, and thus provides meaningful links between chemical entities. Unlike many other resources, ChEBI is fully human-curated, providing a reliable, non-redundant collection of chemical entities and related data. While ChEBI is supported by a web service for programmatic access and a number of download files, it does not have an API library to facilitate the use of ChEBI and its data in cheminformatics software. To provide this missing functionality, libChEBI, a comprehensive API library for accessing ChEBI data, is introduced. libChEBI is available in Java, Python and MATLAB versions from http://github.com/libChEBI, and provides full programmatic access to all data held within the ChEBI database through a simple and documented API. libChEBI is reliant upon the (automated) download and regular update of flat files that are held locally. As such, libChEBI can be embedded in both on- and off-line software applications. libChEBI allows better support of ChEBI and its data in the development of new cheminformatics software. Covering three key programming languages, it allows for the entirety of the ChEBI database to be accessed easily and quickly through a simple API. All code is open access and freely available.

  2. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  3. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.

    2010-01-01

    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  4. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Colomé Tatché, Maria; Mousson, Florence; de Graaf, Petra; Mokry, Michal; Guryev, Victor; Timmers, H. Th. Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genomewide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/ or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  5. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  6. Dynamics of the F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) Proton Transfer Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Xie, Jing; Hase, William L

    2015-12-17

    Direct chemical dynamics simulations, at collision energies Erel of 0.32 and 1.53 eV, were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the F(-) + CH3I reaction dynamics. There is only the F(-) + CH3I → CH3F + I(-) bimolecular nucleophilic substitution SN2 product channel at 0.32 eV. Increasing Erel to 1.53 eV opens the endothermic F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) proton transfer reaction, which is less competitive than the SN2 reaction. The simulations reveal proton transfer occurs by two direct atomic-level mechanisms, rebound and stripping, and indirect mechanisms, involving formation of the F(-)···HCH2I complex and the roundabout. For the indirect trajectories all of the CH2I(-) is formed with zero-point energy (ZPE), while for the direct trajectories 50% form CH2I(-) without ZPE. Without a ZPE constraint for CH2I(-), the reaction cross sections for the rebound, stripping, and indirect mechanisms are 0.2 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.4, and 0.7 ± 0.2 Å(2), respectively. Discarding trajectories that do not form CH2I(-) with ZPE reduces the rebound and stripping cross sections to 0.1 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.5 Å(2). The HF product is formed rotationally and vibrationally unexcited. The average value of J is 2.6 and with histogram binning n = 0. CH2I(-) is formed rotationally excited. The partitioning between CH2I(-) vibration and HF + CH2I(-) relative translation energy depends on the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE. Without a CH2I(-) ZPE constraint the energy partitioning is primarily to relative translation with little CH2I(-) vibration. With a ZPE constraint, energy partitioning to CH2I(-) rotation, CH2I(-) vibration, and relative translation are statistically the same. The overall F(-) + CH3I rate constant at Erel of both 0.32 and 1.53 eV is in good agreement with experiment and negligibly affected by the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE, since the SN2 reaction is the major contributor to the total reaction rate constant. The potential energy surface and reaction dynamics for F

  7. Scientific Computing in the CH Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Cheng

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a general-purpose block-structured interpretive programming Ianguage. The syntax and semantics of this language called CH are similar to C. CH retains most features of C from the scientific computing point of view. In this paper, the extension of C to CH for numerical computation of real numbers will be described. Metanumbers of −0.0, 0.0, Inf, −Inf, and NaN are introduced in CH. Through these metanumbers, the power of the IEEE 754 arithmetic standard is easily available to the programmer. These metanumbers are extended to commonly used mathematical functions in the spirit of the IEEE 754 standard and ANSI C. The definitions for manipulation of these metanumbers in I/O; arithmetic, relational, and logic operations; and built-in polymorphic mathematical functions are defined. The capabilities of bitwise, assignment, address and indirection, increment and decrement, as well as type conversion operations in ANSI C are extended in CH. In this paper, mainly new linguistic features of CH in comparison to C will be described. Example programs programmed in CH with metanumbers and polymorphic mathematical functions will demonstrate capabilities of CH in scientific computing.

  8. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  9. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  10. Trilingual Education and Mongolian Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilik, Naran; Erdene, Has

    2016-01-01

    Anxieties about Chinese-Mongolian-English trilingual program in Inner Mongolia reflect three linguistic ideologies, that is, the instrumental and the essentialist among Mongolian elites and the assimilationist among Han elites. Mongolian ethnicity is on trial in front of an upsurge of Chinese nationalism. Both pro and con trilingual education…

  11. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  12. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  13. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  14. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are highlighted with emphasis on those leading to C-C bond formation, but where it was deemed necessary for the general understanding of the process closely related C-H oxidations and aminations are also included. It is found that C-H cleavage is most likely achieved by ligand participation which could involve......-H alkylation reaction which is the topic of the current review. Particular emphasis is put on current mechanistic proposals for the three reaction types comprising the overall transformation: C-H activation, nucleophillic addition, and re-oxidation of the active catalyst. Recent advances in C-H bond activation...... an acetate ion coordinated to Pd. Several of the reported systems rely on benzoquinone for re-oxidation of the active catalyst. The scope for nucleophilic addition in allylic C-H alkylation is currently limited, due to demands on pKa of the nucleophile. This limitation could be due to the pH dependence...

  15. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  16. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Methyl chloride, CH 3 Cl, is the major natural source of chlorine to the stratosphere. The production of CH 3 Cl is dominated by biological sources from the oceans and biomass burning. Production has a seasonal cycle which couples with the short lifetime of tropospheric CH 3 Cl to produce nonuniform global mixing. As an absorber of infrared radiation, CH 3 Cl is of interest for its potential affect on the tropospheric energy balance as well as for its chemical interactions. In this study, we estimate the radiative forcing and global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Cl. Our calculations use an infrared radiative transfer model based on the correlated k-distribution algorithm for band absorption. Global and annual average vertical profiles of temperature and trace gas concentration were assumed. The effects of clouds are modeled using three layers of global and annual average cloud optical properties. A radiative forcing value of 0.0053 W/m 2 ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Cl and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 300 times the forcing of CO 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation for CH 3 Cl is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Cl. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Cl of the order of 25 at a time of 20 years(CO 2 = 1). This result indicates that CH 3 Cl has the potential to be a major greenhouse gas if significant human related emissions were introduced into the atmosphere

  17. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed

  18. The seriousness of ethnic jokes : Ethnic humor and social change in the Netherlands, 1995-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; van der Ent, B.

    2016-01-01

    How serious are ethnic jokes? This article investigates this question by looking at the relation between ethnic jokes and ethnic relations in the Netherlands. It analyzes two corpora covering the range of ethnic jokes collected using an (almost) identical survey among high school students in 1995

  19. The ethnic composition of the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts : three unresolved issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flap, H.D.; Dagevos, J.J.; Vervoort, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently supposed that the ethnic composition of a neighbourhood affects ethnic minorities’ social contacts with natives, co-ethnics and other ethnic minorities. Research to date, however, falls short in several ways. First of all, previous studies often did not consider social contacts with

  20. What turns migrants into ethnic minorities at work? : Factors Erecting Ethnic Boundaries among Dutch Police Officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, Hans

    Transnational migration flows have revitalised the interest in ethnicity in social sciences. The ethnic boundary approach (Barth, Wimmer) argues for a non-essentialist understanding of ethnicity and calls for detecting the factors that turn migrants into ethnic minorities. Based on ethnographic

  1. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  2. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  3. Ethnic Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James H. Jr.; Oliver, Melvin L.

    1988-01-01

    The papers which comprise this volume were produced by a group of these nationally known scholars who are engaged in research on comparative aspects of ethnicity and ethnic group behavior. Organized around a series of themes which run through the extant comparative ethnicity literature and which reflect the expertise and current research foci of the conference presenters, the volume i...

  4. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    Positron-annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for mixtures of CH3Cl and CH3Br in cyclohexane and of CH3Cl in benzene. The ortho-positronium (Ps) yield decreased monotonically from 38% and 43% in cyclohexane and benzene respectively to 11% in pure CH3Cl and 6% in pure CH3Br. The strength......− anions to form Ps. while it forms a bound state with the halides. X−. CH3Cl was a roughly three times weaker Ps inhibitor in benzene than in cyclohexane, which shows that CH3Cl− does not dechlorinate in times comparable to or shorter than 400–500 ps in benzene. An improved model for the explanation of Ps...

  5. The reaction of fluorine atoms with methanol: yield of CH3O/CH2OH and rate constant of the reactions CH3O + CH3O and CH3O + HO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Vereecken, Luc; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-04-25

    Xenondifluoride, XeF2, has been photolysed in the presence of methanol, CH3OH. Two reaction pathways are possible: F + CH3OH → CH2OH + HF and F + CH3OH → CH3O + HF. Both products, CH2OH and CH3O, will be converted to HO2 in the presence of O2. The rate constants for the reaction of both radicals with O2 differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, which allows an unequivocal distinction between the two reactions when measuring HO2 concentrations in the presence of different O2 concentrations. The following yields have then been determined from time-resolved HO2 profiles: φCH2OH = (0.497 ± 0.013) and φCH3O = (0.503 ± 0.013). Experiments under low O2 concentrations lead to reaction mixtures containing nearly equal amounts of HO2 (converted from the first reaction) and CH3O (from the second reaction). The subsequent HO2 decays are very sensitive to the rate constants of the reaction between these two radicals and the following rate constants have been obtained: k(CH3O + CH3O) = (7.0 ± 1.4) × 10-11 cm3 s-1 and k(CH3O + HO2) = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1. The latter reaction has also been theoretically investigated on the CCSD(T)//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and CH3OH + O2 have been identified as the main products. Using μVTST, a virtually pressure independent rate constant of k(CH3O + HO2) = 4.7 × 10-11 cm3 s-1 has been obtained, in good agreement with the experiment.

  6. Visible absorption spectrum of the CH3CO radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, B; Flad, Jonathan E; Gierczak, Tomasz; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2007-09-20

    The visible absorption spectrum of the acetyl radical, CH(3)CO, was measured between 490 and 660 nm at 298 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Gas-phase CH(3)CO radicals were produced using several methods including: (1) 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of acetone (CH(3)C(O)CH(3)), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CH(3)C(O)CH(2)CH(3)), and biacetyl (CH(3)C(O)C(O)CH(3)), (2) Cl + CH(3)C(O)H --> CH(3)C(O) + HCl with Cl atoms produced via pulsed laser photolysis or in a discharge flow tube, and (3) OH + CH(3)C(O)H --> CH(3)CO + H(2)O with two different pulsed laser photolysis sources of OH radicals. The CH(3)CO absorption spectrum was assigned on the basis of the consistency of the spectra obtained from the different CH(3)CO sources and agreement of the measured rate coefficients for the reaction of the absorbing species with O(2) and O(3) with literature values for the CH(3)CO + O(2) + M and CH(3)CO + O(3) reactions. The CH(3)CO absorption spectrum between 490 and 660 nm has a broad peak centered near 535 nm and shows no discernible structure. The absorption cross section of CH(3)CO at 532 nm was measured to be (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-19) cm(2) molecule(-1) (base e).

  7. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  8. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents’ Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents’ ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths’ psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ ethnic identity, although fathers’ ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths’ school ethnic composition in 5th grade to influence ethnic identity in 7th grade. Furthermore, adolescents’ ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents’ normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033

  9. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  10. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  11. Social Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William R.; Mandorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between ethnicity, occupational choice, and entrepreneurship. Immigrant groups in the United States cluster in specific business sectors. For example, the concentration of Korean self-employment in dry cleaners is 34 times greater than other immigrant groups, and Gujarati-speaking Indians are similarly 108 times more concentrated in managing motels. We develop a model of social interactions where non-work relationships facilitate the acquisition of sector-specific sk...

  12. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto

    2011-02-28

    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  13. Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CH(sub 3)Cl, CH(sub 2) C1(sub 2), CHC1(sub 3)and CH(sub 3)Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-J.; DeMore, W.

    1994-01-01

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3C1, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CH3Br have been measured by a relative rate technique in which the reaction rate of each compound was compared to that of HFC-152a (CH3CHF2)and for CH2Cl2, HFC-161 (CH3CH2F).

  14. Ultraviolet absorption spectra and kinetics of CH3S and CH2SH radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasi, C.; Broomfield, M.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of CH3S and CH2SH radicals have been measured between 215 and 380 nm using the pulse-radiolysis/kinetic-absorption method. One absorption band between 250 and 300 nm and one around 215 nm have been tentatively assigned to the CH2SH and CH3S radicals, respectively....... This spectrum has been used to measure the self-reaction rates of these radicals. Rate constants of 4 x 10(-11) and 7 x 10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 have been measured at 298 K for CH3S and CH2SH recombination, respectively. The possible reaction pathways are discussed....

  15. (CH4)-C-14 Measurements in Greenland Ice: Investigating Last Glacial Termination CH4 Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Smith, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    by direct cosmogenic C-14 production in ice. C-14 of CO was measured to better understand this process and correct the sample (CH4)-C-14. Corrected results suggest that wetland sources were likely responsible for the majority of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal CH4 rise.......The cause of a large increase of atmospheric methane concentration during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt climatic transition (similar to 11,600 years ago) has been the subject of much debate. The carbon-14 (C-14) content of methane ((CH4)-C-14) should distinguish between wetland and clathrate...... contributions to this increase. We present measurements of (CH4)-C-14 in glacial ice, targeting this transition, performed by using ice samples obtained from an ablation site in west Greenland. Measured (CH4)-C-14 values were higher than predicted under any scenario. Sample (CH4)-C-14 appears to be elevated...

  16. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  17. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Blass, W.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    Methyl Bromide, CH 3 Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m 2 /ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C0 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Br. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C0 2 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH 3 Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH 4 , the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  18. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  1. The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Bee Seok; Rosnah Ismail; Jasmine Adela Mutang; Shaziah Iqbal; Nur Farhana Ardillah Aftar; Alfred Chan Huan Zhi; Ferlis Bin Bahari; Lailawati Madlan; Hon Kai Yee

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic ...

  2. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  3. Ethnic Conflict: Imperatives for US Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohide, Kurtis D

    1999-01-01

    .... Recent fighting in Bosnia, Central Africa, and Kosovo seems to provide this context. Such outbreaks of internecine fighting present compelling evidence that ethnic warfare will be a major source of conflict in the new millennium. Therefore, if 21st century American military thinkers are to craft a successful strategy, they must address the imperatives of ethnic conflict. This paper discusses the theoretical imperatives, doctrinal imperatives, and force structure imperatives of ethnic warfare.

  4. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... refugees across locations conditional on six individual-specific characteristics. The results show that refugees with unfavourable unobserved characteristics are found to self-select into ethnic enclaves. Furthermore, taking account of negative self-selection, a relative standard deviation increase...

  5. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  6. Crossing Boundaries: Nativity, Ethnicity, and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  7. Ethnicity and the ethics of data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Kenneth M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking health data with census data on ethnicity has potential benefits for the health of ethnic minority groups. Ethical objections to linking these data however include concerns about informed consent and the possibility of the findings being misused against the interests of ethnic minority groups. While consent concerns may be allayed by procedures to safeguard anonymity and respect privacy, robust procedures to demonstrate public approval of data linkage also need to be devised. The possibility of findings being misused against the interests of ethnic minority groups may be diminished by informed and open public discussion in mature democracies, but remain a concern in the international context.

  8. De Swift a Sterne: reflexões sobre o humor britânico na obra de Machado de Assis = From Swift to Sterne: reflections on British humour in the works of Machado de Assis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Valentine Redmond

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os humoristas britânicos, especialmente Swift e Sterne são tradicionalmente vistos como escritores que influenciaram a obra de Machado de Assis. Entretanto, foi o crítico Eugenio Gomes que provou, com precisão, a sutileza e o bom gosto que Machado obteve dessa influência. Em uma abordagem contemporânea, torna-se interessante questionar essa idéia de influência e examinar, à luz da intertextualidade, esse contato do humor entre as obras de Machado e as dessas duas grandes figuras da Literatura na Língua Inglesa.The British humourists, especially Swift and Sterne are traditionallyseen as writers who influenced Machado de Assis’ works. However it was the critic Eugenio Gomes who showed with precision the sublety and excellent taste of Machado obtained through this influence. With our contemporary approaches, it becomes interesting to question the idea of influence and examine in the light of intertextuality this contact of humour between the works of Machado and those of these two great figures of Literature in the English Language.

  9. Contrast between the mechanisms for dissociative electron attachment to CH3SCN and CH3NCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.

    2018-05-01

    The kinetics of thermal electron attachment to methyl thiocyanate (CH3SCN), methyl isothiocyanate (CH3NCS), and ethyl thiocyanate (C2H5SCN) were measured using flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatuses at temperatures between 300 and 1000 K. CH3SCN and C2H5SCN undergo inefficient dissociative attachment to yield primarily SCN- at 300 K (k = 2 × 10-10 cm3 s-1), with increasing efficiency as temperature increases. The increase is well described by activation energies of 0.17 eV (CH3SCN) and 0.14 eV (C2H5SCN). CN- product is formed at product but at a rate at 300 K that is below our detection threshold (k differentiating the two mechanisms. The kinetic modeling reproduces the CH3NCS data only if dissociation through the transient anion is considered.

  10. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  11. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether

  12. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  13. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  14. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836478

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  15. Nuclear Hyperfine Structure in the Donor – Acceptor Complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH)33N-B(CH3)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The donor-acceptor complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH3)3N-B(CH3)3 have been reinvestigated at high resolution by rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. Nuclear hyperfine structure resulting from both nitrogen and boron has been resolved and quadrupole coupling constants have bee...

  16. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mière, Arnaud; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters , intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between ICARE, IPSL and OMP data centers and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. ChArMEx data, either produced or used by the project, are documented and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The website offers the usual but user-friendly functionalities: data catalog, user registration procedure, search tool to select and access data... The metadata (data description) are standardized, and comply with international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignement procedure allows to automatically register the datasets, in order to make them easier to access, cite, reuse and verify. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 120 datasets, including more than 80 in situ datasets (2012, 2013 and 2014 summer campaigns, background monitoring station of Ersa...), 25 model output sets (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios...), a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean... Many in situ datasets

  17. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  18. Ethnic Minority Elders: Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Henry L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues related to culture, health, illness, ethnicity, and poverty for aging Asian and Pacific Islanders, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and African Americans. Identifies the relationship between culture and ethnicity and draws implications for mental health counseling. (SK)

  19. Ethnic Diversity in Geography Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.; Montalvo, Edris J.

    2008-01-01

    The discipline of geography in the United States has not done a good job of attracting people, other than Asians, from underrepresented ethnic groups. This article examines undergraduate geography programs in the United States to understand better the status of their ethnic diversity, particularly regarding Hispanics and African Americans, and to…

  20. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  1. Ethnic Art Falling Out of Favor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…

  2. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  3. Ethnic diversity outpatient clinic in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Nordin; Meijssen, Dominique; Chegary, Malika; Bosman, Diederik; Wolf, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC)

  4. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, t...

  5. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide

  6. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  7. Ethnic Conflicts in Schools. Multicultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Susan

    This book for young readers explores ethnic conflict in the schools. Public schools in the United States are among some of the places where members of a country's different ethnic and racial groups are brought together and required to work together more closely. A racial group is a group of people who share certain physical traits and often share…

  8. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  9. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  10. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  11. Ethnical distance in Vojvodina: Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Žolt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the ethnical distance measuring in Vojvodina, the north Province of the Republic of Serbia. The measuring was carried out on autumn 2002, during realization of the wider project of multiculturalism research in the mentioned region. According to the results the ethnical distances in Vojvodina are quite equalized and they are grouped around the attitude "all the same". Vojvodinian Serbs are more favorable partners for the majority of social contacts, and the relatively largest distance is shown toward Roma. The ethnical distance results also discovers two very important factors for understanding the interethnic relations in Vojvodina: first, the "rational" kind of social contacts with the members of the other ethnical groups are more preferable for the majority of respondents, and second, they have very equal distances toward their own ethnical groups.

  12. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Introduction: Racial and Ethnic Conflict and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Crutchfield

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.

  14. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant, ......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families.......The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant...

  15. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity: lessons learned from a Danish community pharmacy intervention for ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.

  16. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE PINNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... show ethnic variations. This study describes ethnic differences in the morphology of the pinna. Both ears ... Keywords: Pinna morphology, Ethnic difference, Variations. INTRODUCTION ..... World J Med Res. 1 (5): 091-095.

  17. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  18. Ethnic diversity and informal intra- and inter-ethnic contacts with neighbours in The Netherlands: A comparison of natives and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the extent to which ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods and municipalities in The Netherlands is related to personal contact with neighbours from ethnic in-groups and out-groups among the native majority as well as among ethnic minorities. The results indicate that ethnic diversity

  19. THE J = 1-0 TRANSITIONS OF 12CH+, 13CH+, AND 12CD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of laboratory experimental frequencies for the J = 1-0 rotational transition of 12 CH + , 13 CH + , and 12 CD + are obtained by using a liquid nitrogen cooled extended negative glow discharge in a gas mixture of CH 4 and He. These frequencies are found to be significantly different from those reported previously. The unexpectedly large Zeeman effect and the spin-rotation hyperfine interaction for a 1 Σ molecule are observed. The Zeeman effect and the hyperfine interaction appear to be distinctively different for each isotopic species. Theoretical considerations reveal the isotopic dependence of the magnitudes of these effects, and they also provide strong evidence for the identifications.

  20. Ab Initio Chemical Kinetics for the CH3 + O((3)P) Reaction and Related Isomerization-Decomposition of CH3O and CH2OH Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z F; Raghunath, P; Lin, M C

    2015-07-16

    The kinetics and mechanism of the CH3 + O reaction and related isomerization-decomposition of CH3O and CH2OH radicals have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital theory based on the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ, CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ, and G2M//B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) levels of theory. The predicted potential energy surface of the CH3 + O reaction shows that the CHO + H2 products can be directly generated from CH3O by the TS3 → LM1 → TS7 → LM2 → TS4 path, in which both LM1 and LM2 are very loose and TS7 is roaming-like. The result for the CH2O + H reaction shows that there are three low-energy barrier processes including CH2O + H → CHO + H2 via H-abstraction and CH2O + H → CH2OH and CH2O + H → CH3O by addition reactions. The predicted enthalpies of formation of the CH2OH and CH3O radicals at 0 K are in good agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, the rate constants for the forward and some key reverse reactions have been predicted at 200-3000 K under various pressures. Based on the new reaction pathway for CH3 + O, the rate constants for the CH2O + H and CHO + H2 reactions were predicted with the microcanonical variational transition-state/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (VTST/RRKM) theory. The predicted total and individual product branching ratios (i.e., CO versus CH2O) are in good agreement with experimental data. The rate constant for the hydrogen abstraction reaction of CH2O + H has been calculated by the canonical variational transition-state theory with quantum tunneling and small-curvature corrections to be k(CH2O + H → CHO + H2) = 2.28 × 10(-19) T(2.65) exp(-766.5/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the 200-3000 K temperature range. The rate constants for the addition giving CH3O and CH2OH and the decomposition of the two radicals have been calculated by the microcanonical RRKM theory with the time-dependent master equation solution of the multiple quantum well system in the 200-3000 K temperature range at 1 Torr to

  1. Ethnic density of regions and psychiatric disorders among ethnic minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott Daniel; Minh, Anita; Guhn, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ethnic minorities form an increasingly large proportion of Canada's population. Living in areas of greater ethnic density may help protect mental health among ethnic minorities through psychosocial pathways such as accessibility to culturally appropriate provision of mental health care, less discrimination and a greater sense of belonging. Mood and anxiety disorders are common psychiatric disorders. This study examined whether ethnic density of regions was related to mood and anxiety disorders among ethnic minorities in Canada. Responses by ethnic minority individuals to the 2011-2014 administrations of the Canadian Community Health Survey ( n =  33,201) were linked to health region ethnic density data. Multilevel logistic regression was employed to model the odds of having mood and/or anxiety disorders associated with increasing region-level ethnic density and to examine whether sense of community belonging helped explain variance in such associations. Analyses were adjusted for individual-level demographic factors as well as region-level socio-economic factors. Higher ethnic density related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders for Canadian-born (but not foreign-born) ethnic minorities. Sense of community belonging did not help explain such associations, but independently related to lower odds of mood and/or anxiety disorders. These findings remained after adjusting for regional population density and after excluding (rural/remote) regions of very low ethnic density. Ethnic density of regions in Canada may be an important protective factor against mental illness among Canadian-born ethnic minorities. It is important to better understand how, and for which specific ethno-cultural groups, ethnic density may influence mental health.

  2. Chôra : Creation and Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2009-01-01

    Plato's dialogue the Timaeus describes not only the making of the cosmos (order), but also the condition of what is not order, neither for the human body nor for the universe. What is disorder in cosmogonic terms it is disease for the human body. Timaeus applies to the concept chôra in discussing...

  3. Tropospheric radiative forcing of CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-04-01

    We have evaluated the tropospheric radiative forcing of CH 4 in the 0-3000 cm -1 wavenumber range and compared this with prior published calculations. The atmospheric test cases involved perturbed methane scenarios in both a McClatchey mid latitude, summer, clear sky approximation, model atmosphere, as well as a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved pure CH 4 radiative forcing and CH 4 plus a mixture of H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution transmission model. The major purposes of this paper are to first, use the correlated k-distribution model to calculate the tropospheric radiative forcing for CH 4 , as the only radiatively active gas, and in a mixture with H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O, for a McClatchey mid-latitude summer, clear-sky model atmosphere, and to compare the results to those obtained in the studies mentioned above. Second, we will calculate the tropospheric methane forcing in a globally and annually averaged atmosphere with and without a representative cloud distribution in order to validate the conjecture given in IPCC (1990) that the inclusion of clouds in the forcing calculations results in forcing values which are approximately 20 percent less than those obtained using clear sky approximations

  4. Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, K.-J.; Demore, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br have been measured by a relative rate technique in which the reaction rate of each compound was compared to that of HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) and (for CH2Cl2) HFC-161 (CH3CH2F). Using absolute rate constants for HFC-152a and HFC-161, which we have determined relative to those for CH4, CH3CCl3, and C2H6, temperature dependent rate constants of both compounds were derived. The derived rate constant for CH3Br is in good agreement with recent absolute measurements. However, for the chloromethanes all the rate constants are lower at atmospheric temperatures than previously reported, especially for CH2Cl2 where the present rate constant is about a factor of 1.6 below the JPL 92-20 value. The new rate constant appears to resolve a discrepancy between the observed atmospheric concentrations and those calculated from the previous rate constant and estimated release rates.

  5. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  6. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and falls within the scope of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - Forms to document observations or products that will be provided to the database in compliance with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - A search tool to browse the catalogue using thematic, geographic and/or temporal criteria. - Sorted lists of the datasets by thematic keywords, by measured parameters, by instruments or by platform type. - A shopping-cart web interface to order in situ data files. At present datasets from the background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica and from the 2012 ChArMEx pre-campaign are available. - A user-friendly access to satellite products

  7. Definice vnitřních zisků jako okrajových podmínek pro energetickou simulaci administrativních budov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duska, M; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Clánek zduraznuje význam volby vhodných okrajových podmínek pro správnost energetických simulacních výpoctu. Okrajové podmínky musí být vázány na úcel, pro který se simulacní výpocty provádí. Je predložen teoretický rozbor, metodologie a výsledky výpoctu ruzných okrajových podmínek stanovených z

  8. Explanations for Special Neighbourhood Preferences among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can be expla......In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can...

  9. Budoucnost benzinových dvoutaktních motorů

    OpenAIRE

    Kříž, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá historickým vývojem dvoudobých benzínových motorů od samých počátků vzniku dvoudobého cyklu, mapuje technologický vývoj těchto motorů až do dnešní doby, kde je v druhé polovině pozornost věnována přímému srovnání motoru dvoudobého se čtyřdobým v oblasti ultralightových letounů. My thesis deals with the historical development of two-stroke petrol engines from the very establishment of a two-stroke cycle, mapping the technological development of these engines up to present da...

  10. Submillimeter laboratory identification of CH{sup +} and CH{sub 2}D{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, T. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Laboratory identification of two basic and important interstellar molecular ions is presented. The J = 1 - 0 rotational transition of {sup 12}CH{sup +} together with those of {sup 13}CH{sup +} and {sup 12}CD{sup +} was observed in the laboratory. The newly obtained frequencies were found to be different from those reported previously. Various experimental evidences firmly support the new measurements. In addition, the Zeeman effect and the spin-rotation hyperfine interaction enforce the laboratory identification with no ambiguity. Rotational lines of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} were observed in the submillimeter-wave region. This laboratory observation is consistent with a recent tentative identification of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} toward Ori IRc2.

  11. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The ethnic prejudice of Flemish teachers: The role of ethnic school composition and of teachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaet, Roselien; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils' teachability. Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils' teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  14. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  15. Ion yields of laser aligned CH3I and CH3Br from multiple orbitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Lanhai; Pan, Yun; Yang, Yujun; Luo, Sizuo; Lu, Chunjing; Zhao, Huifang; Li, Dongxu; Song, Lele; Stolte, Steven; Ding, Dajun; Roeterdink, Wim G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the alignment influence on ion yields of CH3I and CH3Br molecules in the laser intensity regime from 1013 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2. The hexapole state-selection technique combined with laser induced alignment has been employed to obtain aligned (〈P2(cosθ)〉=0.7) and anti-aligned

  16. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  17. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  18. Facial-based ethnic recognition: insights from two closely related but ethnically distinct groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Henzi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on facial recognition have considered widely separated populations, both geographically and culturally, making it hard to disentangle effects of familiarity with an ability to identify ethnic groups per se.We used data from a highly intermixed population of African peoples from South Africa to test whether individuals from nine different ethnic groups could correctly differentiate between facial images of two of these, the Tswana and Pedi. Individuals could not assign ethnicity better than expected by chance, and there was no significant difference between genders in accuracy of assignment. Interestingly, we observed a trend that individuals of mixed ethnic origin were better at assigning ethnicity to Pedi and Tswanas, than individuals from less mixed backgrounds. This result supports the hypothesis that ethnic recognition is based on the visual

  19. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a levels, and the association of Lp(a with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ≥18 y in Northern California in whom Lp(a levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%. Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a levels. Significance was assessed at the P<.0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD (265 events, stroke (122, or peripheral vascular disease (PVD (87. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36 nmol/L and NHW (29 nmol/L had higher median Lp(a levels than Chinese (22 nmol/L, P≤.0001 and P=.0032. When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P=.001, NHW v CH: P=.0018 but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P=.0402, NHW v CH: P=.0761. Asian Indians (OR=2.0 and Chinese (OR=4.8 exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a levels than NHW (OR=1.4, but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did

  20. Impact of genome assembly status on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET can potentially be used with any genome for genome wide profiling of protein-DNA interaction sites. Unfortunately, it is probable that most genome assemblies will never reach the quality of the human genome assembly. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET are practicable with genome sequences other than a few (e.g. human and mouse. Findings Here, we used in silico simulations to assess the impact of completeness or fragmentation of genome assemblies on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping. Conclusions Most currently published genome assemblies are suitable for mapping the short sequence tags produced by ChIP-Seq or ChIP-PET.

  1. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  2. Surveying Ethnical Policies in Iran and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Wendt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the bases of culture and ethnic nowadays the world is a plural world, in way that it’s reasonable to say nowhere could be exempted fro this classification. Researches conducted in this field have classified all countries whether developed or developing into lingual, religion, racial and cultural classes.As result of religious, cultural and ethnical overlapping between the countries and cases of unsatisfied needs and request by such group, local, national and even disputes between theses group and their governments is a common case through the ages.this study was conducted while having a historical look on the issue of ethnics in two countries including Iran and Malaysia and also surveying current situation and place of this challenge in the two countries, and also determining courses of ethnical and tradition reconstruction.

  3. Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. 2008 APA

  4. Essentialism Promotes Children's Inter-ethnic Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eDiesendruck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children’s attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  6. Consumer responses to ethnic targeted marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-S.I.A. Lenoir (Anne-Sophie); S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Marketing is impacted more than ever by demographic change, to the extent that practitioners targeting ethnic groups should re-think their approach depending upon the strength with which different generations identify with their cultural heritage.

  7. Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.

  8. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  9. Ethnic and social distance towards Roma population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are one of social marginalised ethnic groups which can easily be classified as underclass or ethno-class. In this work are presented the results of survey data analysis of ethnic and social distance towards the Roma population (2007. It concludes that the Roma people are one of ethnic groups with the highest social and ethnic distances in all observed social relations. The conclusion is that their generations poverty and still of life which the poverty produces are main causes of the high distance. The society has very important task to overcome situation which keep their social situation. In this paper are showed some of possible solutions of solving global Romas social situation and their integration in the rest of society. .

  10. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maskarinec, Gertraud

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether mammographic density patterns differ by ethnic background and to explore the possible association of a soy rich diet with mammographic density patterns...

  11. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  12. 100 History-Making Ethnic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.

  13. MUSIC THE LOADED WEAPON: WAR METAPHORS & ETHNICITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula fiona mwikali

    the fight against ethnic animosity can only be won if the 'mouth pieces' used to ... Key words: Conceptual metaphor theory, metaphor, popular song ..... In the study of Social Construction of Terrorism: Media, Metaphor and Policy Implication.

  14. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is empirically studied from three different perspectives. From an acculturation perspective, findings in Chapter 3 indicate that non-western immigrant workers are most healthy at work when they are abl...

  15. Stanovení platinových kovů ve velkých městských aglomeracích

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Cílem této diplomové práce je vypracování aktuální literární rešerše, týkající se problematiky platinových kovů v životním prostředí, stanovení platiny a palladia na území městské částí Brno a Moskva. Zahrnuje chemické a fyzikální vlastnosti, výskyt a koloběh platinových v životním prostředí. Obsahuje také použité metody extrakce a stanovení platiny a palladia. The aim of this thesis is the actual elaboration literature search concerning the issue of platinum group metals in the environmen...

  16. Ethnic Maps: Between Reality and Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Klemenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic maps provide insight into the ethnically complex populations of certain areas. They are a cartographic way of portraying a part of geographic reality. Southeastern Europe appears as an ideal area for ethnic maps drawers: there is a variety of different ethnic groups living in a relatively small area. Moreover, political boundaries often do not correspond with so-called ethnic borders, i.e. divisions between majority areas of different nations and/or ethnic groups. The history of South-Eastern Europe offers a number of examples of ethnic maps drawing and their use in political context. The paper focused on ethnic maps drawn and published in the context of the break-up of Yugoslav federation during the first half of the 1990’s. The maps were produced mainly by scientific institutions or under the supervision of such institutions or experts, but always with the specific goal to back and justify political standpoints of their respective country's governments during a turbulent period of geopolitical change and transition. Generally, figures and statistics were presented professionally and correctly. Map authors and compilers did not try to falsify figures. The degree of intent in mapmaking is registered primarily through the choice of cartographic technique, including certain elements of the map design (choice of colours. In that regard, one can identify a technique favoured by Croatian sources (pie charts and another one often used by Serbian mapmakers (choropleth maps. Maps were understood to be powerful media tools and influential visual images that could be used to create a particular perception.

  17. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  18. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...

  19. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  20. Perceived Ethnic Stigma across the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnicity-based negative treatment during the transition to college may affect the long-term adjustment of ethnic-minority youth. We examined within-person changes in youths' perceptions of overt discrimination and their sense of their ethnic group being devalued by the larger society among 563 Latino, European, Asian, and other ethnic minority…

  1. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2009-01-01

    increase in the ethnic enclave size increases annual earnings by 18 percent on average, irrespective of skill level. Third, the paper proposes an explanation for the earnings gain of ethnic enclave members. Enclave members benefit from more access to ethnic networks because ethnic networks disseminate job...

  2. Trajectories of Neighborhood Change : Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; van Ham, M.; Manley, D.J.

    Western cities are increasingly ethnically diverse and in most cities the share of ethnic minorities is growing. Studies analyzing changing ethnic geographies often limit their analysis to changes in ethnic concentrations in neighborhoods between two points in time. Such a static approach limits our

  3. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  4. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  5. The CH/π hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.

    2012-06-01

    The CH/π hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base π-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/π hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in α-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/π hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/π hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

  6. Factors Predicting Inter-Ethnic Friendships at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan H. M. Hashim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored factors that may contribute to inter-ethnic friendships, both in terms of quantity and satisfaction with those friendships. Participants were 200 working adults who were studying part-time in a long-distance program in a university in Malaysia. In general, demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, education, and income had no significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends and satisfaction people had with inter-ethnic friendships. Ethnic identity and stress at work also did not have significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends. However, they were significantly related to satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships. People with higher ethnic identification were more satisfied with inter-ethnic friendships whereas people with more stress at work reported lower satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships.

  7. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H.; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH3. Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH4, CHD3, and CH3D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH3F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Impact of artefact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Samuel Carroll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium’s large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  9. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-21

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH 4 , CHD 3 , CH 3 D, and CH 3 F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH 3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH 3 . Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH 3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH 4 , CHD 3 , and CH 3 D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH 3 F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Conformational and spectroscopic study of xanthogen ethyl formates, ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3. Isolation of CH3CH2OC(O)SH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncal, Luciana C.; Cozzarín, Melina V.; Romano, Rosana M.

    2015-03-01

    ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3, with R = CH3sbnd , (CH3)2CHsbnd and CH3(CH2)2sbnd , were obtained through the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3. The liquid compounds were identified and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The conformations adopted by the molecules were studied by DFT methods. 6 conformers were theoretically predicted for R = CH3sbnd and (CH3)2CHsbnd , while the conformational flexibility of the n-propyl substituent increases the total number of feasible rotamers to 21. For the three molecules, the conformers can be associated in 3 groups, being the most stable the AS forms - the Cdbnd S double bond anti (A) with respect to the Csbnd S single bond and the Ssbnd C single bond syn (S) with respect to the Cdbnd O double bond - followed by AA and SS conformers. The vibrational spectra were interpreted in terms of the predicted conformational equilibrium, presenting the ν(Cdbnd O) spectral region signals corresponding to the three groups of conformers. A moderated pre-resonance Raman enhancement of the ν(Cdbnd S) vibrational mode of CH3(CH2)2OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 was detected, when the excitation radiation approaches the energy of a n → π∗ electronic transition associated with the Cdbnd S chromophore. UV-visible spectra in different solvents were measured and interpreted in terms of TD-DFT calculations. The unknown molecule CH3CH2OC(O)SH was isolated by the UV-visible photolysis of CH3OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 isolated in Ar matrix, and also obtained as a side-product of the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3.

  11. Vitamin D status partly explains ethnic differences in blood pressure: the 'Surinamese in the Netherlands: study on ethnicity and health'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohli, Nupur R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Nicolaou, Mary; Brewster, Lizzy M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of vitamin D in explaining ethnic differences in blood pressure among three ethnic groups in the Netherlands (ethnic Dutch, African Surinamese, and south Asian Surinamese). Methods: Data were derived from the 'Surinamese in the Netherlands: study on ethnicity and

  12. Bullying and Victimization Among Young Elementary School Children: The Role of Child Ethnicity and Ethnic School Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); J. van der Ende (Jan); G. Stevens (Gonneke); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSchool-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school

  13. Bullying and Victimization Among Young Elementary School Children : The Role of Child Ethnicity and Ethnic School Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Mieloo, Cathelijne L.; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Verlinden, Marina; van der Ende, Jan; Stevens, Gonneke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    School-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school composition, and

  14. Ethnic discrimination and global self-worth in early adolescents : The mediating role of ethnic self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one’s ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one’s ethnicity has a

  15. Ethnic diversity and personal contact at work and school in the Netherlands: a comparison of natives and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.; Sluiter, R.; Scheepers, P.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examined to what extent ethnic diversity in neighborhoods and municipalities in the Netherlands is related to personal contacts at work and at school with the ethnic in- and out-groups, among the native majority as well as ethnic minorities. Constrict theory, ethnic competition theory, and

  16. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  17. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Helene; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 75 datasets, including 50 in situ datasets (2012 and 2013 campaigns, Ersa background monitoring station), 25 model outputs (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios), and a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean. Many in situ datasets have been inserted in a relational database, in order to enable more accurate data selection and download of different datasets in a shared format. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - A data catalogue that complies with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - Metadata forms to document

  18. Ethnic Socialization in Neighborhood Contexts: Implications for Ethnic Attitude and Identity Development Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Knight, George P; Jensen, Michaeline; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2018-05-01

    Neighborhood Latino ethnic concentration, above and beyond or in combination with mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization, may have beneficial implications for minority adolescents' ethnic attitude and identity development. These hypotheses, along with two competing hypotheses, were tested prospectively (from x¯age = 12.79-15.83 years) in a sample of 733 Mexican-origin adolescents. Neighborhood ethnic concentration had beneficial implications for ethnic identity processes (i.e., ethnic exploration and perceived peer discrimination) but not for ethnic attitudes. For Mexico-born adolescents, high maternal ethnic socialization compensated for living in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Findings are discussed vis-à-vis the ways in which they address major gaps in the neighborhood effects literature and the ethnic and racial identity development literature. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual

  20. Ethnic Differences in Cancer Pain Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    Background Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of 4 ethnic groups in the U.S. Methods A feminist perspective provided the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status. The VDS, VAS, FS, MPQ, and BPI scores of Non-Hispanic (N-H) Asian participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The VAS and MPQ scores of N-H African American participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The FACT-G scores of N-H Asian participants were significantly lower than Hispanic participants (p<.01). The findings also indicated that being N-H Asian or not was a significant predictor of the VDS, FS, and BPI scores. Discussion The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national-scope studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic. PMID:17846550

  1. Diagnostika bariérových vlastností tenkých vrstev

    OpenAIRE

    Horák, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřena na charakterizaci vlastností tenkých SiOx vrstev připravených metodou plazmochemické depozice z plynné fáze (PECVD). Vrstvy byly charakterizovány s ohledem na budoucí možné použití pro ochranu muzejních archiválií proti korozi. Jako výchozí látka pro depozici byl použit kapalný hexamethyldisiloxan a testovacím substrátem pro charakterizaci vlastností vrstev byly polypropylénové fólie a křemíkové substráty. Pro korozní zkoušky pak byly zvoleny kovové plechy. P...

  2. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  3. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  4. The Relationship of Ethnicity-Related Stressors and Latino Ethnic Identity to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…

  5. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German "Aussiedler"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupbach, Doris

    2009-01-01

    "Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines…

  6. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  8. Bimolecular reaction of CH3 + CO in solid p-H2: Infrared absorption of acetyl radical (CH3CO) and CH3-CO complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2014-06-01

    We have recorded infrared spectra of acetyl radical (CH3CO) and CH3-CO complex in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2). Upon irradiation at 248 nm of CH3C(O)Cl/p-H2 matrices, CH3CO was identified as the major product; characteristic intense IR absorption features at 2990.3 (ν9), 2989.1 (ν1), 2915.6 (ν2), 1880.5 (ν3), 1419.9 (ν10), 1323.2 (ν5), 836.6 (ν7), and 468.1 (ν8) cm-1 were observed. When CD3C(O)Cl was used, lines of CD3CO at 2246.2 (ν9), 2244.0 (ν1), 1866.1 (ν3), 1046.7 (ν5), 1029.7 (ν4), 1027.5 (ν10), 889.1 (ν6), and 723.8 (ν7) cm-1 appeared. Previous studies characterized only three vibrational modes of CH3CO and one mode of CD3CO in solid Ar. In contrast, upon photolysis of a CH3I/CO/p-H2 matrix with light at 248 nm and subsequent annealing at 5.1 K before re-cooling to 3.2 K, the CH3-CO complex was observed with characteristic IR features at 3165.7, 3164.5, 2150.1, 1397.6, 1396.4, and 613.0 cm-1. The assignments are based on photolytic behavior, observed deuterium isotopic shifts, and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative IR intensities with those predicted with quantum-chemical calculations. This work clearly indicates that CH3CO can be readily produced from photolysis of CH3C(O)Cl because of the diminished cage effect in solid p-H2 but not from the reaction of CH3 + CO because of the reaction barrier. Even though CH3 has nascent kinetic energy greater than 87 kJ mol-1 and internal energy ˜42 kJ mol-1 upon photodissociation of CH3I at 248 nm, its energy was rapidly quenched so that it was unable to overcome the barrier height of ˜27 kJ mol-1 for the formation of CH3CO from the CH3 + CO reaction; a barrierless channel for formation of a CH3-CO complex was observed instead. This rapid quenching poses a limitation in production of free radicals via bimolecular reactions in p-H2.

  9. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,L.L.S.; Souza,S.P.; Silva,M.C; Carvalho,G.A.; Santos,C.D.; Corrêa,A.D.; Abreu,C.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá pr...

  10. Cardiovascular disease by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4%) participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Corresponding CVD prevalence rates among individuals with diabetes were 15.3% vs. 12.6% (p = 0.364). For individuals without diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) for CVD in the ethnic minority groups remained significantly higher (range 1.5-2.6) than ethnic Norwegians (p employment, and body height, except for Turkish individuals. Regardless of diabetes status, obesity and physical inactivity were prevalent in the majority of ethnic minority groups, whereas systolic- and diastolic- blood pressures were higher in Norwegians. In nearly all ethnic groups, individuals with diabetes had higher triglycerides, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index compared to individuals without diabetes. Age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and WHR were significant predictors of CVD in both ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minorities, but significant ethnic differences were found for age, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Ethnic differences

  11. Methane Provenance Determined by CH2D2 and 13CH3D Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, I. E.; Giunta, T.; Warr, O.; Ash, J. L.; Ruffine, L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the provenance of naturally occurring methane gases is of major interest to energy companies and atmospheric climate modelers, among others. Bulk isotopic compositions and other geochemical tracers sometimes fail to provide definitive determinations of sources of methane due to complications from mixing and complicated chemical pathways of origin. Recent measurements of doubly-substituted isotopologues of methane, CH2D2 (UCLA) and 13CH3D (UCLA, CalTech, and MIT) have allowed for major improvements in sourcing natural methane gases. Early work has focused on formation temperatures obtained when the relative abundances of both doubly-substituted mass-18 species are consistent with internal equilibrium. When methane gases do not plot on the thermodynamic equilibrium curve in D12CH2D2 vs D13CH3D space, temperatures determined from D13CH3D values alone are usually spurious, even when appearing reasonable. We find that the equilibrium case is actually rare and almost exclusive to thermogenic gases produced at temperatures exceeding 100°C. All other relevant methane production processes appear to generate gases that are not in isotopologue-temperature equilibrium. When gases show departures from equilibrium as determined by the relationship between CH2D2 and 13CH3D abundances, data fall within empirically defined fields representing formation pathways. These fields are thus far consistent between different geological settings and and between lab experiments and natural samples. We have now defined fields for thermogenic gas production, microbial methanogenesis, low temperature abiotic (Sabatier) synthesis and higher temperature FTT synthesis. The majority of our natural methane data can be explained by mixing between end members originating within these production fields. Mixing can appear complex, resulting in both hyper-clumped and anti-clumped isotopologue abundances. In systems where mixtures dominate and end-members are difficult to sample, mixing models

  12. Life satisfaction, ethnicity and neighbourhoods: Is there an effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition on life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-11-01

    Immigrants and ethnic minorities tend to have lower life satisfaction than majority populations. However, current understanding of the drivers of these gaps is limited. Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of ethnic minorities and matched neighbourhood characteristics, we test whether first and second generation minorities experience lower life satisfaction once accounting for compositional differences and whether, specifically, neighbourhood deprivation impacts their wellbeing. We further investigate whether a larger proportion of own ethnic group in the neighbourhood improves satisfaction. We find life satisfaction is lower among ethnic minorities, and especially for the second generation, even controlling for individual and area characteristics. Neighbourhood concentration of own ethnic group is, however, associated with higher life satisfaction for Black Africans and UK born Indians and Pakistanis. The effect for Black Africans may stem from selection into areas, but findings for Indians and Pakistanis are robust to sensitivity tests. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Divergent mortality trends by ethnicity in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.

  14. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  15. Pension prospects of minority ethnic groups: inequalities by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, J; Arber, S

    2001-09-01

    Minority ethnic groups have low income in later life from private pensions, partly due to shorter employment records in Britain since migration. Yet disadvantage and discrimination in the labour market, as well as differences in cultural norms concerning women's employment, may lead to persistence of ethnic variation in private pension acquisition. Little is known about the pension arrangements made by men and women in minority ethnic groups during the working life. This paper examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyses variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using three years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that Blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of Black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income. The research suggests that minority ethnic groups - especially women - will be disproportionately dependent on means-tested benefits in later life, due to the combined effects of low private pension coverage and the policy of shifting pension provision towards the private sector.

  16. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  17. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? : Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Pop, I.A.; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p2 model. Our key findings were: (1)

  18. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Deurzen, I.A. van; Stark, T.H.; Veenstra, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  19. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of plant transcription factors followed by sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) or hybridization to whole genome arrays (ChIP-CHIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muiño, J.M.; Østerås, M.; Farinelli, L.; Krajewski, P.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA in vivo. For genome-wide de novo discovery of TF-binding sites, the DNA that is obtained in ChIP experiments needs to be processed for sequence identification. The sequences

  20. Isotope effects in pericyclic reactions, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbier, W.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A distinction is made between primary and secondary isotope effects, the primary ones being based on the relative large vibrational frequencies and ensuing large zeroprint energies for C-H vibrations whereas the secondary effects are observed in systems where the vibrational modes of the isotopically labelled site are perturbed during transformation from reactant to product. Both effects are utilised in the elucidation of mechanism in pericyclic processes. The main processes dealt with in this chapter are cycloadditions of all types and sigmatropic rearrangements

  1. Výpočet rovnovážných stavů ve vysokolegovaných chromových ocelích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unucka, P.; Foret, R.; Svoboda, Milan; Kroupa, Aleš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 290 (2003), s. 223-227 ISSN 1429-6055. [Mezinárodní symposium /18./ Struktura a vlastnosti konstrukčních materiálů a výrobků. Svratka, 25.11.2003-27.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : thermodynamic calculation * high-Cr steels * phase precipitation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Reactive collisions between CH+ and O-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Padellec, A.; Staicu-Casagrande, E.M.; Nzeyimana, T.; Naji, E.A.; Urbain, X.

    2006-01-01

    Integral cross sections were measured for two reactions occurring in CH + +O - collisions: the formation of the carbon monoxide cation CO + via a reactive ionization process and the formation of the (iso)formyl cation HCO + (HOC + ) via the associative ionization process. Both carbon monoxide and formyl cations are present in the interstellar medium, the latter one being quite abundant in dense clouds. Provided the oxygen anion would also be present in the interstellar environment, the large efficiency of the two reactive processes reported here would justify their inclusion in astrochemical models. The whole set of data was obtained by means of a merged-beam setup operating with keV beams

  3. AHP 40: Review: IN THE LAND OF THE EASTERN QUEENDOM: THE POLITICS OF GENDER AND ETHNICITY ON THE SINO-TIBETAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Entenmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This intriguing anthropological study examines local culture and politics in Suopo Township, Danba County, Ganze (Dkar mdzes, Ch: Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 甘孜藏族自治州丹巴县梭坡乡 in western Sichuan, and the township's claim to be the site of the capital of a matriarchal "Eastern Queendom" that may or may not have existed there a thousand years ago. A neighboring town, supported by county authorities, disputes the claim, and the historical record is by no means clear. The stakes – a lucrative ethnic tourist trade – are high, but the dispute also has become an issue defining the cultural identity of the Suopowa 'people of Suopo'. Tenzin Jinba's work offers new perspectives on ethnic representation, gender and ethnic identity, civil associations, and collective action in Southwest China. ...

  4. Ethnic Characteristics of Students’ Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ju Chebotareva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ethnic features of value orientations in students from different parts of the world. It is shown that the lives of the students from Latin America and Central Asia are more holistic and meaningful than the lives of the students from China, the Middle East and Russia. Latin American students are more focused on individuality, self-regulation, and the Central Asian — on collectivism, the controllability of life events. The gender specifics of the value orientations of students are described. The connection between the students’ value orientations personality components such as a basic trust in the world, social and emotional intelligence, ethnic identity and tolerance towards the people of other ethnic groups, stress-coping strategies are analyzed.

  5. When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Olsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the change of articulation of ethnic boundaries on the coastline and the fjord areas in Finnmark, Northern Norway in the post-World War II period. From being a ‘social stigma’ in the 1950s a Sámi identity is today something that can be expressed in certain cultural constructed spaces. This change can be described as a result of socio-economic changes in the region, the populations’ firmer integration in a Norwegian culture and the ethno-political struggle of some Sámi that corresponded with a general development in the view on indigenous people in the Western world. Even if great changes have occurred there are still some resemblances with ethnic processes 50 years ago. A spatial ordering of ethnic boundaries and pragmatic assumption of Norwegian culture being neutral norm are among those features perpetuated until today.

  6. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  7. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Parallel factor ChIP provides essential internal control for quantitative differential ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Michael J; Cullen, Amy E; Markowetz, Florian; Holding, Andrew N

    2018-04-17

    A key challenge in quantitative ChIP combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the normalization of data in the presence of genome-wide changes in occupancy. Analysis-based normalization methods were developed for transcriptomic data and these are dependent on the underlying assumption that total transcription does not change between conditions. For genome-wide changes in transcription factor (TF) binding, these assumptions do not hold true. The challenges in normalization are confounded by experimental variability during sample preparation, processing and recovery. We present a novel normalization strategy utilizing an internal standard of unchanged peaks for reference. Our method can be readily applied to monitor genome-wide changes by ChIP-seq that are otherwise lost or misrepresented through analytical normalization. We compare our approach to normalization by total read depth and two alternative methods that utilize external experimental controls to study TF binding. We successfully resolve the key challenges in quantitative ChIP-seq analysis and demonstrate its application by monitoring the loss of Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) binding upon fulvestrant treatment, ER binding in response to estrodiol, ER mediated change in H4K12 acetylation and profiling ER binding in patient-derived xenographs. This is supported by an adaptable pipeline to normalize and quantify differential TF binding genome-wide and generate metrics for differential binding at individual sites.

  9. ANALÝZA OXIDAČNÍCH PRODUKTŮ VYBRANÝCH BIO FLAVONOIDŮ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Degano, I.; Ramešová, Šárka; Kocábová, Jana; Fiedler, Jan; Tarábek, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 170-170 ISSN 0009-2770. [Sjezd chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : antioxidants * bio flavoides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, J S

    1990-11-01

    Ethnic identity is central to the psychological functioning of members of ethnic and racial minority groups, but research on the topic is fragmentary and inconclusive. This article is a review of 70 studies of ethnic identity published in refereed journals since 1972. The author discusses the ways in which ethnic identity has been defined and conceptualized, the components that have been measured, and empirical findings. The task of understanding ethnic identity is complicated because the uniqueness that distinguishes each group makes it difficult to draw general conclusions. A focus on the common elements that apply across groups could lead to a better understanding of ethnic identity.

  11. Ethnic identity, territory and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This article explores, within the relationship between territory and society, the various points concerning cultural, social and ethnic identity through which the social contract on sustainable development must confront its greatest contradictions. The political position taken as regards sustainable development seeks cultural unity as a necessary condition for establishing modern forms of behavior to deal with styles of development and the management of the environment, for which to reconcile cultural diversity and the permanent social interaction between different ethnic groups, which is both imperative and of the utmost urgency

  12. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981). The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years) in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associati...

  13. On genocide, economic reasons vs. ethnic passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballet Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional vision of genocide is exogenous. In this framework, ethnics have a real sense. The economic approach of conflicts has expressed slight differences in the relation between ethnics and conflicts. However it does not reject this explanation. Here we propose an alternative approach, an endogenous vision of genocide. Genocide appears in society where social capital plays a major role in solidarities. But social capital is a weak asset in the individual portfolio. Economic and social shocks may have impacts on the assets structure and may produce conflicts such as genocide. In this new framework, policy makers may have to adopt prudential rules. .

  14. Teenage births to ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, R

    2001-01-01

    This article analyses British age-specific fertility rates by ethnic group, with a special interest in child-bearing by women below the age of 20. Birth statistics are not analysed by ethnic group, and teenage birth rates have been estimated from the dates of birth of mothers and children in the Labour Force Survey. The method appears to be robust. Caribbean, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi women were much more likely to have been teenage mothers than white women, but Indian women were below the national average. Teenage birth rates have been falling in all three South Asian communities.

  15. An examination of biracial college youths' family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment: do self-identification labels and university context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.

  16. An Examination of Biracial College Youths’ Family Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Adjustment: Do Self-Identification Labels and University Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants’ ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse. PMID:22905967

  17. Cardiovascular disease by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep Lien M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.

  18. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.

  19. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletnev Igor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.. InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision. The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications. We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets. For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body. From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  20. Suspense and humour in The Bloody Olive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In a film noir style, Bal presents not just a single joke, but a whole series of jokes about murder and duplicitous behaviour on the part of the characters. The article focuses on how the film manages to play on conventions of genre and style and the viewers’ expectations, repeatedly requiring...

  1. Ethnic variations in acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, G A

    2004-01-01

    Although it is very likely that ethnic variations in the incidence and, possibly, clinical outcome of acute coronary artery disease events exist, the causes for such differences are many and difficult to address fully, given the complex interplay of contributing factors

  2. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high...

  3. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  4. Ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XXth century the communist regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe collapsed, as well as the socialist system and the Warsaw Treaty’s Organization. New countries appeared in the international arena: instead of the former Yugoslavia, six new independent countries emerged. The disintegration of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia was followed by ethnic conflicts with tens of thousands victims. International sanctions and bombing of Serbia and Montenegro by the NATO aviation were the results of these conflicts. In 2006 disintegration continued: Serbia and Montenegro became independent countries, and in 2008, after many years of the armed conflict, Kosovo seceded from Serbia. The separation and disintegration processes seem to be typical for the Balkans, because for centuries the region has been home for several South Slavic ethnic groups with different religions, cultural and political traditions. Serbs used to dominate in the region, which provoked a constant latent confrontation with other ethnic groups. The collapse of the authoritarian system and the death of the powerful communist leader B. Tito gave impetus to nationalist movements. Various ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia brought the region to the deep social and economic crisis and pose a threat to the whole Europe due to the criminal groups’ activities in the “hot spots”. In particular, Kosovo is the center of drug trafficking to the Western countries. There are also numerous facts of kidnapping and murders of civilians in the areas, including foreigners, as well as sale of human organs, etc.

  5. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  6. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  7. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  8. Ethnic entrepreneurship and internationalisation in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell; Hein Roelfsema; Khalidi Swabiri

    Using the World Bank Enterprise Surveys panel data for the East African Community, this paper analyses the influence of ethnic origin of entrepreneurs on internationalisation and firm performance. Using traditional probit and OLS estimation techniques in combination with matching strategies to

  9. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  10. TOWARDS BRIDGING ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS DIVIDES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    the interest of this paper to bridge ethnic and religious tension in Nigeria by stimulating .... According to. Madu (1997:19) “religion as it were is the strongest element in man ..... 3:26-29. 80 course of his missionary activity in Central Asia Minor.

  11. Ethnic disparities in the graduate labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of students enrolled in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study decomposes wage differentials into two components: a component which can be

  12. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO) and colleges (HBO) in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study

  13. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  14. Cloudland, stronzoland, brisbane: Urban development and ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brisbane's recovery from its somewhat shady past involving corrupt government and law enforcement echoes the journey upon which Armanno's protagonists ... Brisbane and using critical definitions of Bildung and the notion of ethnic Bildungsromane, this paper aims to examine the parallel development of the Italian ...

  15. Ethnic Differences in Persistence with COPD Medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Frølich, Anne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) are recommended as a first-line maintenance therapy in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore potential ethnic differences in persistence with LABD in COPD patients. METHODS...

  16. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  17. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...... of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group...... in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did...

  18. Tsonga popular music: negotiating ethnic identity in 'global' music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identity performance'. Although ethnic identity continues to be performed in contemporary black South African popular music, this article argues for the existence of a performance of, and discourse on, identities that go beyond ethnicity. Here the ...

  19. Some nonfermented ethnic foods of Sikkim in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sikkim, the Himalayan state of India has several ethnic foods which have not been documented. A field survey was conducted in randomly selected 370 households in Sikkim representing the major ethnic communities, namely, Nepali, Bhutia, and Lepcha. Information was collected on different types of nonfermented ethnic foods, as prepared and consumed by these inhabitants, the traditional method of preparation, mode of consumption, as well as culinary, socioeconomic, and ethnic values. We have listed more than 83 common and uncommon nonfermented ethnic foods of Sikkim consumed by different ethnic groups in Sikkim, India. Some of these foods have been documented and include achar, alum, chatamari, chhwelaa, dheroh, falki, foldong, kodoko roti, kwanti, momo, pakku, phaparko roti, phulaurah, ponguzom, suzom, thukpa or gya-thuk, and wachipa. Nutritional analysis, process technology development and packaging of these ethnic foods may boost ethnic food tourism in the region, which could in turn enhance the regional economy.

  20. Implicit and explicit interethnic attitudes and ethnic discrimination in hiring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour

  1. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  2. Chédiak–Higashi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital immunodeficiency mainly characterized by a condition called oculo-cutaneous albinism. The affected subjects have light-colored hair, vision problems, blood clotting (coagulation abnormalities and in adulthood varying neurologic disorders. Recurrent infections, particularly viral infection with other disorders in childhood are usually life threatening. It has demonstrated mutations throughout the CHS1/LYST gene. The nature of the mutation can be a predictor of the severity of the disease. The current therapeutic options are: Antibiotics, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. This review will discuss the clinical and molecular aspects of this syndrome for better understanding of the factors that may cause abnormalities.

  3. Reactive collisions between CH+ and O-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Padellec, A.; Staicu-Casagrande, E. M.; Nzeyimana, T.; Naji, E. A.; Urbain, X.

    2006-04-01

    Integral cross sections were measured for two reactions occurring in CH++O- collisions: the formation of the carbon monoxide cation CO+ via a reactive ionization process and the formation of the (iso)formyl cation HCO+ (HOC+) via the associative ionization process. Both carbon monoxide and formyl cations are present in the interstellar medium, the latter one being quite abundant in dense clouds. Provided the oxygen anion would also be present in the interstellar environment, the large efficiency of the two reactive processes reported here would justify their inclusion in astrochemical models. The whole set of data was obtained by means of a merged-beam setup operating with keV beams.

  4. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities.

  5. Analytical characterization of ch14.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallarakal, Abraham T; Michiel, Dennis; Yang, Xiaoyi; Saptharishi, Nirmala; Jiang, Hengguang; Giardina, Steve; Gilly, John; Mitra, George

    2012-01-01

    Ch14.18 is a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody to the disialoganglioside (GD2) glycolipid. In the clinic, this antibody has been shown to be effective in the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma, either alone or in combination therapy. Extensive product characterization is a prerequisite to addressing the potential issues of product variability associated with process changes and manufacturing scale-up. Charge heterogeneity, glycosylation profile, molecular state and aggregation, interaction (affinity) with Fcγ receptors and functional or biological activities are a few of the critical characterization assays for assessing product comparability for this antibody. In this article, we describe the in-house development and qualification of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing to assess charge heterogeneity, analytical size exclusion chromatography with online static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), batch mode DLS for aggregate detection, biosensor (surface plasmon resonance)-based Fcγ receptor antibody interaction kinetics, N-glycoprofiling with PNGase F digestion, 2-aminobenzoic acid labeling and high performance liquid chromatography and N-glycan analysis using capillary electrophoresis. In addition, we studied selected biological activity assays, such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The consistency and reproducibility of the assays are established by comparing the intra-day and inter-day assay results. Applications of the methodologies to address stability or changes in product characteristics are also reported. The study results reveal that the ch14.18 clinical product formulated in phosphate-buffered saline at a concentration of 5 mg/ml and stored at 2–8°C is stable for more than five years. PMID:22327432

  6. Life satisfaction, ethnicity and neighbourhoods: Is there an effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition on life satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of minorities and matched small area characteristics, we explore differences in life satisfaction for ethnic groups living in UK. We test the hypothesis that minorities will be less satisfied, which will in part be explained by less favourable individual and area contexts, but that living in areas with a larger proportion of own ethnic group promotes well-being. We find that satisfaction is lower among minorities, ceteris pa...

  7. Essay: The Yi and the Internet: Promoting Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity in Chinese Virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraef, Olivia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of the century China has witnessed an unparalleled development of internet sites, blogs, chat forums, and corresponding virtual communities. These virtual platforms have become important nodes for information and networking, especially in light of economic and intellectual migration and the corresponding trans-local quality of relationships and networks, and contribute to a further diversification of China’s cultural landscape. China’s ethnic minorities, too, have been employing internet platforms as a means to promote, and to reflect on, their own culture. For some groups these platforms signify an extension of early, non-virtual ethnic networks and platforms in urban contexts, which provide a renewed incentive for the affirmation of ethnicity/ethnic identity by engaging netizens in an ongoing dialogue on ethnic cultural contents, which transcends physical space. The article introduces two major internet platforms of the so-called Yi minority, www.yizuren.com and http://yizucn.com, and probes into their potential for ethnic identity promotion, and into general parameters of the relationship between the Yi and the internet.

  8. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  9. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: the Case of the Family Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Granhemat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years old. To select the participants, a random proportional stratified sampling strategy was developed. A self administered questionnaire survey comprising three sections was used for gathering information about participants’ demographic profiles, their language choices in the family domain, and the concepts of their ethnic identity. To make analyses about the most used languages of the participants and the relationships between variables, SPSS software was run. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the participants’ profiles as well as participants’ used languages in the family domain of language use. Inferential statistics was used to examine relationships between variables. According to results of the study, in the family domain five codes were mostly used by the participants. These five codes were respectively, the Malay language, mixed use of Malay and English, Chinese, Mixed use of Chinese and English, and English. Furthermore, in the family domain, gender did not exert any influence on the choice of language of the multilingual participants, but ethnicity was found to be a determinant of language choice. Ethnic identity was found to influence the language choices of the Malays as well, but it did not affect the Chinese and Indian participants’ language choices in this domain of language use.

  10. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  11. Internal and External Ethnic Assessments in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Patricia; Feliciano, Cynthia; Emigh, Rebecca Jean

    2007-01-01

    Survey data for majority and minority ethnicities in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Russia illustrate how internal ethnic identification and other social characteristics influence external ethnic classification. Logistic regressions show how interviewers use negative social characteristics (poverty, low education) to classify respondents as Roma…

  12. Quotas and intersectionality: ethnicity and gender in candidate selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, K.; Erzeel, S.; Mügge, L.; Damstra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality is not fully realised when it is restricted to ethnic majority men and women. This article examines how gender quotas as a form of equality policy affect ethnic minority groups, in particular, the gender balance among ethnic minority candidates for political office. Our analysis

  13. Some results on ethnic conflicts based on evolutionary game simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Yi, Yunfei; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2014-07-01

    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially originating from the negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lacks support of scientific evidences. Because ethnic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: (1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a negative association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; (2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethnic members once for all, and it also cannot be reduced by a forcible pressure, i.e., increasing the ratio of individuals with civic identity; (3) the average frequencies of conflicts can stay in a low level by promoting civic identity periodically and persistently.

  14. Interpreting Democracy: Ethnic Politics and Democracy in the eastern Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2014-01-01

    into ethnic grievances in order to facilitate political mobilization and deeper engagement with the state. In this process, discussions and debates are framed around ethnicity but are presented and deliberated within state approved democratic practices. In the eastern Himalaya, ethnic identity is one...

  15. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  16. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  17. Children's cross-ethnic friendships: Antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jugert, P.; Feddes, A.R.; Rutland, A.; Nesdale, D.; Brown, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent research on the antecedents of cross-ethnic friendships, on friendship stability and quality, as well as on their consequences. It discusses structural, intergroup, and family factors and its relationship to cross-ethnic friendships. Research shows that cross-ethnic

  18. Ethnicity and Transition to Democracy in Nigeria: Explaining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay addresses an important variable in Nigerian politics, namely, ethnicity and the ways in which it affects the conduct of national affairs. It represents an effort at theorizing the role and place of ethnicity in the transition from authoritarianism in a multi-ethnic setting such as that represented by Nigeria. Drawing on ...

  19. Ethnicity: A threat to Nigeria's security and development | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative implications of ethnicity to national security and development are enormous. This paper interrogates ethnicity as the major hindrance to Nigeria.s security and development. The paper unveils the role of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in strengthening ethnicity and calls for a constitutional ...

  20. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and…

  1. The Artful Dodgers: Directors of Ethnic Studies Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchak, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Of the vast amount of ethnic studies promoted by state education departments, one conclusion can be easily made: East European ethnic studies are conspicuously absent. Suggestions are given to increase the awareness of Eastern European culture and heritage and promote their inclusion in formal ethnic studies curriculum. (Author/DE)

  2. An Institutional Assessment of Ethnic Conflict in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    from minority groups is forecasted under the institutional theory of ethnic conflict. Institutional theorists assert that when minorities are...outcome however, does align with the predictions made under an institutional theory of ethnic conflict. Two, during the Great Leap Forward and Cultural...intended. However, this exact response from minority groups is forecasted under the institutional theory of ethnic conflict. Institutional theorists

  3. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3CHF2 (HFC-152a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taketani, Fumikazu; Nakayama, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kenshi

    2005-01-01

    Smog chamber/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopic techniques were used to study the atmospheric degradation of CH3CHF2. The kinetics and products of the Cl(2P(3/2)) (denoted Cl) atom- and the OH radical-initiated oxidation of CH3CHF2 in 700 Torr of ...

  5. Ir-catalyzed C-H silylations of phenyldeazapurines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabat, Nazarii; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Hocek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 49 (2015), s. 6860-6862 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-H silylation * deazapurines * iridium catalysis * C-H activations Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2015

  6. Evolution of the DINA-CH tokamak full discharge simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Dokouka, V.N.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Lukash, V.E.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Artaud, J.-F.; Baziuk, V.; Cavinato, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the approach taken to develop an open architecture full tokamak discharge simulator - DINA-CH - based on the DINA code and implemented under graphical programming control using Matlab-SIMULINK. The evolution path and present status are presented, with applications to ITER and TCV. The future evolution combining DINA-CH with Cronos, is discussed

  7. Studium acidobazických a elektrolytických vlastností hyaluronanu v roztoku

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá studiem acidobazického a elektrolytického chování roztoků hyaluronanu při různé iontové síle. Acidobazické chování hyaluronanu bylo studováno pomocí acidobazických titrací, které byly prováděny dvěma různými způsoby, kyselou a zásaditou acidobazickou titrací. Z výsledků acidobazických titrací byly vyhodnocovány disociační konstanty při různé iontové síle při nulovém stupni disociace a při 50% stupni disociace. Výsledné disociační konstanty získané z kyselých acidobaz...

  8. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M

    2012-03-05

    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  9. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  10. Being Smart is not Enough: the role of psychlogical factors in study success of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the

  11. Friends' cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity among Mexican-origin adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter Seung Yoo; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Jian, Ni; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2017-04-01

    Research has indicated that ethnic identity protects ethnic minority youth on various indicators of adjustment, but there is a dearth of research pertaining to contextual influences on ethnic identity. Our study investigated how familial ethnic socialization and best friend's orientation toward Mexican culture influenced ethnic identity among Mexican-origin girls. Using a 3-wave longitudinal sample of 175 Mexican-origin adolescent girls (Mage = 13.75), the current study examined best friend's Mexican cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were conducted to examine potential age and generational status differences within the model. Analyses revealed that familial ethnic socialization promoted ethnic identity exploration and resolution 3.5 years later and that this effect was mediated by best friend's Mexican cultural orientation. No significant differences were found across age or generational status groups. Our study highlights the contribution of peer context to ethnic identity and its role in the process by which familial ethnic socialization influences ethnic identity during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  13. Využití separačních metod pro studium biologicky aktivních látek ve vodách

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Léčiva patří mezi biologicky aktivní látky, které se odlišují různými funkčními skupinami, fyzikálně-chemickými a biologickými vlastnostmi. Tyto chemické látky, v současnosti zařazované mezi „nové“ kontaminanty, se kumulují v různých složkách životního prostředí. Do životního prostředí se dostávají v průběhu jejich průmyslové výroby, dále v důsledku používání v léčebných zařízeních nebo v domácnostech. Protože se jedná o látky biologicky aktivní, mohou v různých složkách životního prostředí n...

  14. Thermochemistry and kinetics for 2-butanone-1-yl radical (CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3) reactions with O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbar, N; Bozzelli, J W; Bockhorn, H

    2014-01-09

    Thermochemistry of reactants, intermediates, transition state structures, and products along with kinetics on the association of CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3 (2-butanone-1-yl) with O2 and dissociation of the peroxy adduct isomers are studied. Thermochemical properties are determined using ab initio (G3MP2B3 and G3) composite methods along with density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311g(d,p)). Entropy and heat capacity contributions versus temperature are determined from structures, vibration frequencies, and internal rotor potentials. The CH2·C(═O)CH2CH3 radical + O2 association results in a chemically activated peroxy radical with 27 kcal mol(-1) excess of energy. The chemically activated adduct can react to stabilized peroxy or hydroperoxide alkyl radical adducts, further react to lactones plus hydroxyl radical, or form olefinic ketones and a hydroperoxy radical. Kinetic parameters are determined from the G3 composite methods derived thermochemical parameters, and quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) analysis to calculate k(E) with master equation analysis to evaluate falloff in the chemically activated and dissociation reactions. One new, not previously reported, peroxy chemistry reaction is presented. It has a low barrier path and involves a concerted reaction resulting in olefin formation, H2O elimination, and an alkoxy radical.

  15. Ethnic divisions, trust, and the size of the informal sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ethnic fractionalization and the size of the informal, or hidden, economy. Recent experimental and empirical research links, in turn, ethnicity and trust, and trust and tax compliance. In addition, recent empirical studies have identified...... an unwillingness to contribute to public goods benefiting other ethnic groups. Combining these insights, we argue that increasing ethnic fractionalization decreases voluntary tax compliance, and we present empirical evidence at the macro level in a cross-section of more than 50 countries that more ethnically...

  16. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    OpenAIRE

    Komalsingh Rambaree; Igor Knez

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic gr...

  17. ChIPWig: a random access-enabling lossless and lossy compression method for ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanmehr, Vida; Kim, Minji; Wang, Zhiying; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2018-03-15

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments are inexpensive and time-efficient, and result in massive datasets that introduce significant storage and maintenance challenges. To address the resulting Big Data problems, we propose a lossless and lossy compression framework specifically designed for ChIP-seq Wig data, termed ChIPWig. ChIPWig enables random access, summary statistics lookups and it is based on the asymptotic theory of optimal point density design for nonuniform quantizers. We tested the ChIPWig compressor on 10 ChIP-seq datasets generated by the ENCODE consortium. On average, lossless ChIPWig reduced the file sizes to merely 6% of the original, and offered 6-fold compression rate improvement compared to bigWig. The lossy feature further reduced file sizes 2-fold compared to the lossless mode, with little or no effects on peak calling and motif discovery using specialized NarrowPeaks methods. The compression and decompression speed rates are of the order of 0.2 sec/MB using general purpose computers. The source code and binaries are freely available for download at https://github.com/vidarmehr/ChIPWig-v2, implemented in C ++. milenkov@illinois.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Ethnic differences in fetal size and growth in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Rasmussen, Svein; Jenum, Anne Karen; Nakstad, Britt; Jensen, Odd Harald Rognerud; Vangen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Impaired or excessive fetal growth is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes that differ between ethnic groups. We explored ethnic differences in fetal size and growth from mid pregnancy until birth. Data are from the multi-ethnic STORK-Groruddalen study, a population-based, prospective cohort of 823 pregnant women and their offspring in Oslo, Norway. Measures were z-scores of estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, measured by ultrasound, and similar measures at birth. Differences in fetal size and growth were assessed using separate Linear Mixed Models including all four time points, with ethnic Europeans as reference. In week 24 South Asian fetuses had smaller AC, but larger FL than Europeans, and slightly lower EFW (-0.17 SD (-0.33, -0.01), p=0.04). Middle East/North African fetuses also had larger FL, but similar AC, and hence slightly higher EFW (0.18 (0.003, 0.36), p=0.05). Both groups had slower growth of AC, FL and EFW from this time until birth, and had -0.61 SD (-0.73, -0.49) and -0.28 SD (-0.41, -0.15) lower birth weight respectively. Ethnic East Asians, on the other hand, were smaller throughout pregnancy and had -0.58 SD (-0.82, -0.34) lower birth weight. Significant ethnic differences remained after adjusting for maternal factors. We observed ethnic differences in fetal size and body proportions already in gestational week 24, and in fetal growth from this time until birth, which were only partly explained by key maternal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnic variations in upper gastrointestinal hospitalizations and deaths: the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, Genevieve I; Bhopal, Raj S; Ward, Hester J T; Bansal, Narinder; Bhala, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common, but there is a paucity of data describing variations by ethnic group and so a lack of understanding of potential health inequalities. We studied the incidence of specific upper GI hospitalization and death by ethnicity in Scotland. Using the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study, linking NHS hospitalizations and mortality to the Scottish Census 2001, we explored ethnic differences in incidence (2001-10) of oesophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, gallstone disease and pancreatitis. Relative Risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression, multiplied by 100, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, country of birth (COB) and socio-economic position. The White Scottish population (100) was the reference population. Ethnic variations varied by outcome and sex, e.g. adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals) for oesophagitis were comparatively higher in Bangladeshi women (209; 124-352) and lower in Chinese men (65; 51-84) and women (69; 55-88). For peptic ulcer disease, RRs were higher in Chinese men (171; 131-223). Pakistani women had higher RRs for gallstone disease (129; 112-148) and pancreatitis (147; 109-199). The risks of upper GI diseases were lower in Other White British and Other White [e.g. for peptic ulcer disease in men, respectively (74; 64-85) and (81; 69-94)]. Risks of common upper GI diseases were comparatively lower in most White ethnic groups in Scotland. In non-White groups, however, risk varied by disease and ethnic group. These results require consideration in health policy, service planning and future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Christian Franklin Svensson elaborates on the social and political position of the Indian ethnic minority in Malaysia. Based on a total of five months field research, he investigates why Indian students at a public university in peninsular Malaysia consciously attempt to transform their life...... argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....... situation in order to gain personal realisation in the era of globalisation. Indian students are a group who are particularly prone to trauma in their current situation, as individuals lacking a sense of full citizenship. As strategies of transformation based on education take on many different forms, he...

  1. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  2. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  3. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981. The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results show that the assessment of the minority groups is more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceive most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews are positive.

  4. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  5. Ethnic differences in adverse drug reactions to asthma medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    , intervention, and types and severities of ADRs. RESULTS: Among the selected 15 randomised clinical trials, six pooled analyses of randomized clinical trials, and five prospective observational studies, only six studies compared ADRs across different ethnic groups. The majority of the comparisons were either...... studies disaggregated information by ethnic background, and reports of ADRs to asthma medications in different ethnic groups were rare. We suggest that the inclusion of ADR analysis by different ethnic backgrounds is desirable....... and to examine the relationship between ethnic background and ADRs to asthma medications. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched until March 2014. All types of studies reporting ADRs to asthma medications involving more than one ethnic group were included. Extracted information includes study designs, ethnic backgrounds...

  6. Essence and Content Schoolchildren’s Ethnic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses essence and content of schoolchildren’s ethnic education on the basis of the study of scientific works by domestic and foreign researchers. The analysis of their works shows that ethnic education as a scientific and pedagogical problem is associated with the development of ethno-pedagogical science. The article considers different points of view on the definition of the terms "folk pedagogy" and "ethnic pedagogy", "popular education" and "ethnic education". The analysis specifies the concept "schoolchildren’s ethnic education”, which is considered as a goal-oriented, well-organized educational process of schoolchildren familiarizing with ethno-social values and, as a result, formation of positive ethnic identity. The necessity of ethnic education in the process of formation of multicultural personality is justified; the importance of special training of future teachers for this activity is emphasized

  7. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage.

  8. Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ‘ethnic enclaves’ or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    In European countries there are large differences between the settlements patterns of different ethnic immigrant groups. One explanation is that different groups to a different extent have been successful immigrants. Differences regarding their social and cultural integration and their economic...... network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves, or for preferences for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. The results of the study thus supports that the American ‘spatial assimilation theory’ has some importance also in Europe...

  9. Marriage and ethnicity in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahnazarian, A

    1984-01-01

    "This paper will focus on ethnic differentials in the nuptiality of West Malaysia and on their evolution since the Second World War. The growing similarity of nuptiality patterns in the Malay, Chinese, and Indian communities will be outlined and the influence of age and sex distributions on the observed changes will be examined. The sources of data for this study are the 1947, 1957, and 1970 Population Censuses and the 1974 Malaysian Family and Fertility Survey." excerpt

  10. Ethnicity and waterpipe smoking among US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughosh, S; Wu, I-H; Peters, R J; Hawari, F; Essien, E J

    2012-11-01

    To examine the effect of ethnicity on waterpipe smoking among college students. A cross-sectional study utilized data from University of Houston students through an online survey (n = 2334) from March to April 2011. The survey included questions on demographic characteristics (sex, age, race/ethnicity), tobacco use experience, risk perception, social acceptability and popularity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of waterpipe use with three outcomes: ever-use vs. no use, past-year use vs. no use and past-month use vs. no use. Half of the sample had previously smoked tobacco using a waterpipe, approximately a third in the past year and 12.5% in the past month. Significant predictors included Middle Eastern ethnicity, Middle Eastern friend, past cigarette or cigar use. Perception of harm was associated with less use in the ever-use model, while perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipes were predictors in all models. Our findings underscore the importance of developing culturally appropriate interventions to control waterpipe smoking among Middle Eastern Americans and those of Indian/Pakistani descent to curb further spread in US society, and highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the perceived addictiveness, social acceptability and popularity of waterpipe smoking.

  11. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  12. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  13. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  14. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  15. Ethnic variation in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Banerjee, P; Davis, D; Charteris, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the clinical variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) in patients of different ethnicities. Methods Patients presenting with a primary RD from two ethnic groups were recruited from our tertiary referral hospital between August 2010 and December 2012. Patients who self-reported their ethnic origin either as European Caucasian (EC) or South Asian (SA) were included. Exclusion criteria included trauma, previous vitreoretinal procedures, age under 18 years, complicated cataract surgery and the presence of syndromes known to be associated with a high prevalence of RD. Detailed phenotypic data were collected. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were undertaken. Results 1269 Patients were recruited. 1173 (92.4%) were EC. Mean age of onset was 58.3 years (EC) and 54.5 years (SA) (P=0.006). 75.3% EC and 58.4% SA were phakic (Plattice retinal degeneration in the affected eye (P=0.003). Refractive myopia was greater in SA patients (mean: −6.1DS) than EC (−4.2DS) (P=0.032). Additionally, SA patients had a greater mean axial length (25.65 mm) than EC (25.06 mm) (P=0.014). No differences were demonstrated in laterality, family history, type of retinal break or macular status. Conclusions SA patients present with RD at an earlier age and have a more severe phenotype than ECs. Future management strategies for RD may need to reflect these differences. PMID:25853394

  16. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  17. Photodissociation and photoisomerization dynamics of CH2=CHCHO in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weiqiang; Yang Chunfan; Zhao Hongmei; Liu Kunhui; Su Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    By means of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, we have investigated the 193 nm photodissociation and photoisomerization dynamics of the prototype molecule of α,β-enones, acrolein (CH 2 =CHCHO) in CH 3 CN solution. The primary photolysis channels and absolute branching ratios are determined. The most probable reaction mechanisms are clarified by control experiments monitoring the product yields varied with the triplet quencher addition. The predominant channel is the 1,3-H migration yielding the rearrangement product CH 3 CH=C=O with a branching ratio of 0.78 and the less important channel is the α cleavage of C-H bond yielding radical fragments CH 2 =CHCO+H with a branching ratio of only 0.12. The 1,3-H migration is strongly suggested to correlate with the triplet 3 (ππ * ) state rather than the ground S 0 state and the α cleavage of C-H bond is more likely to proceed in the singlet S 1 1 (nπ * ) state. From the solution experiments we have not only acquired clues clarifying the previous controversial mechanisms, but also explored different photochemistry in solution. Compared to the gas phase photolysis which is dominated by photodissociation channels, the most important channel in solution is the photoisomerization of 1,3-H migration. The reason leading to the different photochemistry in solution is further ascribed to the solvent cage effect.

  18. Effects of Boreal Lake Wetlands on Atmospheric 13CH3D and 12CH2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Kohl, I. E.; Schauble, E. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we developed a theoretical model to investigate the potential use of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 as tools for tracking atmospheric methane budget. We used electronic structure methods to estimate kinetic isotope fractionations associated with the major sink reactions of CH4 in air (reactions with •OH and Cl•), and literature data with reconnaissance measurements of the relative abundances of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 to estimate the compositions of the largest atmospheric sources. Here we present new methane rare isotopologue data from boreal wetlands, comprising one of the most important sources, in order to evaluate the robustness of the model. Boreal wetlands (>55° N) account for more than half of the wetland area in the Northern hemisphere. We analyzed methane samples from high latitude lakes representing different geographical regions, geological and ecological contexts, methane fluxes, and isotopic signatures. Using clumped isotopes of CH4 we are able to determine the likely production mechanism for natural CH4 samples. So far, all of our analyzed samples except one plot in the microbial pure-culture methanogenesis field (Young et al. 2017) with ranges of -0.2‰ to +1.2‰ for Δ13CH3D, and -29.6‰ to -18.2‰ for Δ12CH2D2. These compositions are far from equilibrium. The one exception, from Lake Doughnut, Alaska, exhibits Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of +5.2‰ and +18.7‰, respectively, which fall near ambient thermodynamic equilibrium values. This may be an effect of methanotrophy. Mean Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 for all lake samples are +1.7‰ and -15.4‰ respectively, compared to our original estimate of +6.1‰ and +21.2‰ for the wetland methane source based on an assumption of equilibrium. If we assume that these samples are representative of the overall wetland source, Δ13CH3D decreases by 0.8‰ and Δ12CH2D2 decreases by 0.6‰ in our model of bulk atmospheric methane. Δ13CH3D and Δ12CH2D2 values of air (including •OH and Cl• sink

  19. Synthesis and thermolysis of Cp*(C5Me4CH2)TiR complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinstra, GA; Brinkmann, PHP; Teuben, JH; Luinstra, Gerrit A.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of the chloride in Cp*FvTiCl with MR (Fv = C5Me4CH2; R = Me, CH2SiMe3, CH2CMe3, CH = CH2, M = Li; R = CH2Ph, M = K; R = C3H5, M = MgCl; R = Ph, M = Na . NaCl) gives Cp*FvTiR. NMR spectroscopic evidence points towards a series of structurally related compounds with a bent-sandwich

  20. Cross Ethnic Friendship among Multi-ethnic Students and Teacher’s Role in Supporting Cultural Diversity in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth discussion about cross ethnic friendship among students and teacher's role in supporting the cultural diversity that exists in school. The school which consist of students from various ethnic groups provide space and opportunities for students to interact socially with peers either from the same or other ethnic groups. On the other hand, the school that consists of only one ethnic group limits the opportunity for students to interact with friends from different ethnic groups. Students who have attended the schools that are not diverse in terms of ethnicity were reported having more friends from the same ethnic group. A positive relationship between individuals from different ethnic groups led to the reduction in prejudice, enhance the sense of common identity and closeness among individuals. Teachers as agents of unity should play an important role in assisting students to acquire the necessary social skills that enables them to interact effectively with students from different ethnic, cultural and languages which consequently create a harmony cross ethnic friendships among multi-ethnic students in school.

  1. Dissociative sticking of CH4 on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Holmblad, Peter Mikal; Chorkendorff, Ib

    1999-01-01

    In this study the CH4 dissociation probability on Ru(0001) is found for various translational and vibrational energies. The absolute sticking values are determined from King and Wells experiments and carbon uptake curves. The carbon amount is determined from the recombination signal of carbon...... with oxygen obtained after the beam exposure when heating in an oxygen atmosphere. The measured sticking coefficient of CH4 is strongly enhanced both by increasing the translational and the vibrational energy of the CH4 molecule. A model is applied to the data and an estimate of the thermal activation energy...

  2. Radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Tao; Pan, Changduo

    2016-02-07

    Heterocyclic compounds are widely present in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules. Thus, organic and pharmaceutical chemists have been making extensive efforts to construct those heterocyclic frameworks through developing versatile and efficient synthetic strategies. The direct C-H functionalization via the radical pathway has emerged as a promising and dramatic approach towards heterocycles with high atom- and step-economy. Heterocyclic compounds such as coumarins, furans, benzofurans, xanthones, benzothiazoles, indoles, indolines, oxindoles, quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxaline, and phenanthridines have been successfully synthesized by C-H functionalization through the radical pathway. In this review, recent advances on radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds are highlighted with discussions.

  3. Electrochemical Cobalt-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Nicolas; Meyer, Tjark H; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-19

    Carbon-heteroatom bonds represent omnipresent structural motifs of the vast majority of functionalized materials and bioactive compounds. C-H activation has emerged as arguably the most efficient strategy to construct C-Het bonds. Despite of major advances, these C-H transformations were largely dominated by precious transition metal catalysts, in combination with stoichiometric, toxic metal oxidants. Herein, we discuss the recent evolution of cobalt-catalyzed C-H activations that enable C-Het formations with electricity as the sole sustainable oxidant until May 2018. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. ANALÝZA OXIDAČNÍCH PRODUKTŮ VYBRANÝCH BIOFLAVONOIDŮ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Degano, I.; Ramešová, Šárka; Kocábová, Jana; Fiedler, Jan; Tarábek, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2016 (2016), s. 170-170 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR M200401201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : flavonoids * analysis * rhamnazine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing CH4 gas exchange in this lake. Preliminary results indicate that there are two regimes in wind speed that impact k - one at low wind speeds up to ~5 m s-1 and another at higher wind speeds (max ~10 m s-1). The differential wind speeds during night and day may compound the effect of convective mixing and cause the diurnal variation in observed fluxes.

  6. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; DeFreitas, Mariana R

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income), BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  7. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES, body mass index (BMI, physical and mental self-rated health (SRH, and major depressive disorder (MDD with eating disorders (EDs across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, a national household probability sample collected in 2001–2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income, BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  8. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines certain finding on ethnic aspects of mass consciousness in the Russian Federation, as presented in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes (rus. Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены, published by the All-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion. The problems of national identity and ethnic tension in Russia increased after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Ethnic phobias, complexes and ambitions reached a peak in the period 1993–1995. However, by 1999–2000, according to the surveys, they returned to the 1989–1990 level. The increase until 1995 occurred during the break-down of former Soviet political and administrative relations. By 1994 negative attitudes, apart from a traditional aversion to immigrants from the Caucasus, were directed to peoples of the newly independent former Soviet republics (especially to those from the Baltic states, and to ethnic groups such as the Vietnamese, Gypsies, etc. On the other hand, the subsequent decrease in negative attitudes to other ethnic groups was not so much the result of greater tolerance or the development of civil society, but rather due to an imperial tradition of indifference to ethnic problems. According to L. Gudkov, ethnic views in 1994–1995 showed traces inherited from the Stalinist period. Gudkov found that passivity and a “victim“ complex had assumed a central position in the self-image of Russians. Such a complex serves to exonerate the subject from any feeling of personal blame or deficiency, but also leads to a nostalgic idealisation of the past and a negation of the present. The result is a social syndrome that denies action and an ethnosocial self-awareness that prevents universalisation and the development of a national identity based on the principles of civil society. The “victim“ complex fosters a feeling of threat to the

  9. Raman spectroscopy measurement of CH4 gas and CH4 dissolved in water for laser remote sensing in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Fujita, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    We examined the applicability of Raman spectroscopy as a laser remote sensing tool for monitoring CH4 in water. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for measurements of CO2 gas in water. In this paper, considering the spectral transmittance of water, third harmonics of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm (UV region) was used for detection of CH4 Raman signals. The Raman signal at 2892 cm-1 from CH4 dissolved in water was detected at a tail of water Raman signal.

  10. Fragmentation characteristics of the unstable [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals generated by neutralization of [CH3CO]+ cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, C. E. C. A.; Holmes, J. L.

    1991-03-01

    The stability and fragmentation characteristics of [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals, generated by vertical charge exchange between acetyl cations and permanent gases or metal vapours (He, Xe, NO, Cd, Na and K), were examined mass spectrometrically. Two dissociation reactions were observed, the losses of CH[radical sign]3 and H[radical sign]. The H[radical sign] loss reaction, the higher energy dissociation, became of greater importance as the exothermicity of the charge exchange was increased. Based on the analysis of the kinetic energy releases it was concluded that these decompositions arose from the population of two excited states of the [CH3 CO][radical sign] radical.

  11. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sartore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders’ statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2, that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  12. Probiotika v potravinových výrobcích

    OpenAIRE

    Silná, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Probiotika jsou živé mikroorganismy, které mají pozitivní zdravotní účinky na konzumenta, pokud jsou přidána v adekvátním množství do potraviny. Nejznámnější probiotika jsou bakterie mléčného kvašení a kvasinka Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Teoretická část bakalářské práce byla zaměřena na využití probiotických mikroorganismů v potravinářství. V experimentální části bakalářské práce byly připraveny hrubé lyzáty ze třech potravinářských výrobků a metodou PCR byla dokázána přítomnost...

  13. Identification of Ethnically Specific Genetic Variations in Pan-Asian Ethnos

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin Ok; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Park, Seong-Jin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Kiejung; Lee, Byungwook

    2014-01-01

    Asian populations contain a variety of ethnic groups that have ethnically specific genetic differences. Ethnic variants may be highly relevant in disease and human differentiation studies. Here, we identified ethnically specific variants and then investigated their distribution across Asian ethnic groups. We obtained 58,960 Pan-Asian single nucleotide polymorphisms of 1,953 individuals from 72 ethnic groups of 11 Asian countries. We selected 9,306 ethnic variant single nucleotide polymorphism...

  14. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...... for the development of allylic C-H alkylation into a widely applicable methodology, thus providing a means to enhance synthetic efficiency in these reactions....

  15. Racial/ethnic variations in the main and buffering effects of ethnic and nonethnic supports on depressive symptoms among five ethnic immigrant groups in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined variations in the main and buffering effects of ethnic and nonethnic social support on depressive symptoms associated with discrimination among five immigrant groups in Toronto. Data were taken from the Toronto Study of Settlement and Health, a cross-sectional survey of adult immigrants from five ethnic communities (Vietnamese, Ethiopian, Iranian, Korean, and Irish) in Toronto. A total of 900 surveys were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted between April and September 2001. Significant ethnic variations were observed in the effects of both ethnic and nonethnic social supports on discrimination-related depressive symptoms. Regarding the main effect, ethnic social support was significantly stronger for Iranian, Ethiopian, and Korean immigrants than for Irish immigrants. The benefits of nonethnic support were stronger for Iranian immigrants compared to the effect found in the Irish sample. With respect to stress-buffering or stress-moderating effects of social support, ethnic support was significant in all ethnic groups, except the Vietnamese group. Nonethnic support aggravated the negative impact of discrimination on depressive symptoms in the Irish group, but exerted a stress-buffering effect in the Iranian group. Overall, social supports received from fellow ethnic group members had significant main effects (suppressing depressive symptoms) and stress-buffering effects and were most pronounced in the minority ethnic immigrant groups of Ethiopians, Koreans, and Iranians. The effects were least evident among the Vietnamese and Irish. Evidence for the stress-suppressing and stress-buffering role of cross-ethnic group supports was unclear, and even inverted among Irish immigrants. Empirical evidence from the current study seems to support the sociocultural similarity hypothesis of social support.

  16. Kinetic isotope effects in the gas phase reactions of OH and Cl with CH3Cl, CD3Cl, and 13CH3Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH3Cl, 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH radicals and Cl atoms were studied in relative rate experiments at 298±2 K and 1013±10 mbar. The reactions were carried out in a smog chamber using long path FTIR detection and the spectroscopic data analyzed employing a non-linear least squares spectral fitting method using measured high-resolution infrared spectra as well as absorption cross sections from the HITRAN database. The reaction rates of 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH and Cl were determined relative to CH3Cl as: kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+13CH3Cl}kOH+13CH3Cl=1.059±0.008, kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+CD3ClkOH+CD3Cl=3.9±0.4, kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+13CH3ClkCl+13CH3Cl =1.070±0.010 and kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+CD3ClkCl+CD3Cl=4.91±0.07. The uncertainties given are 2σ from the statistical analyses and do not include possible systematic errors. The unexpectedly large 13C kinetic isotope effect in the OH reaction of CH3Cl has important implications for the global emission inventory of CH3Cl.

  17. Opportunities for healthier child feeding. Does ethnic position matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Health inequality between ethnic groups is expressed in differences in the prevalence of diet related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare barriers toward eating healthier among ethnic majority and minority parents in Denmark. A postal survey was carried out among 2511...... parents with either Danish or non-western ethnic minority descendant background, investigating barriers on cultural, structural, social, individual, and practical levels. The results showed that compared with parents of Danish origin, ethnic minority parents were more likely to evaluate their own diets...... negatively (OR 3.0, CI 1.7–5.3), and to evaluate their children's diets negatively (OR 4.6, CI 2.5–8.4). In addition, ethnic minority parents to a higher degree experienced barriers to eating healthier than Danish parents did. Most salient was ethnic minority parents’ expression of a lack of control over...

  18. Ethnic Variations in Prognosis of Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van de Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on dementia prognosis among ethnic minority groups are limited in Europe. OBJECTIVE: We assessed differences in short-term (1-year) and long-term (3-year) mortality and readmission risk after a first hospitalization or first ever referral to a day clinic for dementia between ethnic...... minority groups and the ethnic Dutch population in the NetherlandsMethods: Nationwide prospective cohorts of first hospitalized dementia patients (N = 55,827) from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 were constructed. Differences in short-term and long-term mortality and readmission risk following......-term and long-term risks of death following a first hospitalization with dementia were comparable between the ethnic minority groups and the ethnic Dutch. Age- and sex-adjusted risk of admission was higher only in Turkish compared with ethnic Dutch (HR 1.57, 95% CI,1.08-2.29). The difference between Turkish...

  19. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  20. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  1. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Ja...

  2. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-01-01

    At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence de...

  3. Gender, ethnicity and teaching evaluations : Evidence from mixed teaching teams

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Natascha; Rieger, Matthias; Voorvelt, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the effect of teacher gender and ethnicity on student evaluations of teaching quality at university. We analyze a unique data-set featuring mixed teaching teams and a diverse, multicultural, multi-ethnic group of students and teachers. Co-teaching allows us to study the impact of teacher gender and ethnicity on students’ evaluations of teaching exploiting within course variation in an empirical model with course-year fixed effects. We document a negative effect ...

  4. Ethnic and gender discrimination in recruitment: experimental evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Liebkind, Karmela; Larja, Lisa; Brylka, Asteria Anna

    2016-01-01

    We ask (1) how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority) group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2) whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1), 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on ...

  5. The role of ethnic school segregation for adolescents’ religious salience

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school composition for intergenerational differences in religious salience. We perform analyses on religious salience, one five-point Likert scale item me...

  6. The plateau of trials: modern ethnicity in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Estudos Africanos This thesis is a study about the modern ethnicity of the Ovimbundu of the central highlands of Angola. It shows how Ovimbundu conceptions of ethnicity became altered and enhanced by processes of modernisation, usually introduced by foreign agents, and how this modernisation came to play a critical role after independence. Following a contrast in existing literature between either the attribution of vital importance to ethnicity in human agency o...

  7. Ethnicity and health: key themes in a developing field \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U.; Bradby, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    Ethnicity is a social division that is increasingly difficult to ignore. Ethnicity has to be considered alongside other social divisions including socioeconomic status which is crucial to explaining minority disadvantages in health. Identity is a key dimension of ethnicity, which encompasses self-ascribed and externally-imposed elements. The stigma associated with particular conditions, combined with the effects of racism and economic marginalization, can be central to some minority groups' a...

  8. Ethnic Minorities? Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    OpenAIRE

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians...

  9. Recent Developments in C-H Activation for Materials Science in the Center for Selective C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Kang, Lauren J; Parker, Timothy C; Blakey, Simon B; Luscombe, Christine K; Marder, Seth R

    2018-04-16

    Abstract : Organic electronics is a rapidly growing field driven in large part by the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers. Traditional aryl cross-coupling reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki have been used extensively in the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers, but the synthesis of intermediates necessary for traditional cross-couplings can include multiple steps with toxic and hazardous reagents. Direct arylation through C-H bond activation has the potential to reduce the number of steps and hazards while being more atom-economical. Within the Center for Selective C-H Functionalization (CCHF), we have been developing C-H activation methodology for the synthesis of ∏-conjugated materials of interest, including direct arylation of difficult-to-functionalize electron acceptor intermediates and living polymerization of ∏-conjugated polymers through C-H activation.

  10. Chemical reaction surface vibrational frequencies evaluated in curvilinear internal coordinates: Application to H + CH(4) H(2) + CH(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Simon T; Clary, David C

    2009-01-14

    We consider the general problem of vibrational analysis at nonglobally optimized points on a reduced dimensional reaction surface. We discuss the importance of the use of curvilinear internal coordinates to describe molecular motion and derive a curvilinear projection operator to remove the contribution of nonzero gradients from the Hessian matrix. Our projection scheme is tested in the context of a two-dimensional quantum scattering calculation for the reaction H + CH(4) --> H(2) + CH(3) and its reverse H(2) + CH(3) --> H + CH(4). Using zero-point energies calculated via rectilinear and curvilinear projections we construct two two-dimensional, adiabatically corrected, ab initio reaction surfaces for this system. It is shown that the use of curvilinear coordinates removes unphysical imaginary frequencies observed with rectilinear projection and leads to significantly improved thermal rate constants for both the forward and reverse reactions.

  11. Side chain mobility as monitored by CH-CH cross correlation: The example of cytochrome b5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Felli, Isabella C.; Hajieva, Parvana; Viezzoli, Maria Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The mobility of βCH 2 moieties in oxidized and reduced cytochrome b 5 was studied by analyzing the 13 C relaxation of the J-split components, in terms of C-H dipole-C-H dipole cross correlation rates. A 2D 13 C- 1 H experiment is proposed to measure these rates that provide the internal effective reorientation correlation time for each CH 2 moiety. It is found that higher mobility is present in the α helices forming the heme pocket. On the contrary, the β strands, which form the hydrophobic core of the molecule, have the lowest mobility. The general pattern is the same for the oxidized and reduced species, indicating that any oxidation-dependent property detected for backbone NH moieties does not affect the CH 2 mobility

  12. Prejudice, Ethnic Identity, Contact and Ethnic Group Preferences Among Dutch Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  14. Ethnic-based federalism and ethnicity in Ethiopia : reassessing the experiment after 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the core principles instituted by the post-1991 government in Ethiopia that took power after a successful armed struggle was ethnic-based federalism, informed by a neo-Leninist political model called revolutionary democracy. In this model, devised by the reigning Tigray People's Liberation

  15. Ethnic-based federalism and ethnicity in Ethiopia: reassessing the experiment after 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the core principles instituted by the post-1991 government in Ethiopia that took power after a successful armed struggle was ethnic-based federalism, informed by a neo-Leninist political model called revolutionary democracy. In this model, devised by the reigning Tigray People's Liberation

  16. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  17. Clinical review: Ethnic differences in bone mass--clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D

    2012-12-01

    Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) as assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are observed between geographic and ethnic groups, with important implications in clinical practice. PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated. The available data highlight the complex ethnic variations in BMD, which only partially account for observed variations in fracture rates. Factors contributing to ethnic differences include genetics, skeletal size, body size and composition, lifestyle, and social determinants. Despite BMD differences, the gradient of risk for fracture from BMD and other clinical risk factors appears to be similar across ethnic groups. Furthermore, BMD variation is greater within an ethnic population than between ethnic populations. New imaging technologies have identified ethnic differences in bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength that may contribute to a better understanding of ethnic differences in fracture risk. Factors associated with ethnicity affect BMD and fracture risk through direct and indirect mechanisms.

  18. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F; Andersen, Gregers S; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans....... differences most apparent at higher levels of the anthropometric measures. Similar ethnic differences were seen in the associations with SAT for a given anthropometric measure. Conclusions Conventional anthropometric measures like BMI and waist circumference do not reflect the same amount of VAT and SAT...

  19. Feminist identity among women and men from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnett, Rachael D; Anderson, Kristin J

    2017-01-01

    Multiracial feminist theory proposes that the meaning of feminism and the pathways to feminist identity may differ on the basis of cross-cutting social categories such as ethnicity and gender. However, there is currently little research that has included systematic examination of feminist identity among women and men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. We examined feminist orientations among 1,140 undergraduates (70% women) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution who identified as African American, Asian American, European American, or Latina/o. Three related research aims were assessed through a combination of closed- and open-ended questions. First, we examined whether the meaning of the term feminism differed depending on participants' ethnicity or gender. We then tested for ethnic and gender variation in rates of feminist identity. Lastly, we examined participants' reasons for either identifying or not identifying as feminists. Ethnic and gender differences were obtained across each of the 3 research aims. For example, there were significant ethnic differences in rates of feminist identity among women, but not among men. Relative to past research, through the current study, we have provided an especially comprehensive examination of how ethnicity and gender interact to shape feminist attitudes. Consistent with multiracial feminist theory, findings demonstrated that attitudes about feminism vary as a function of both gender and ethnicity, yet key ethnic and gender similarities also emerged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  1. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  2. Electrical Resistance of Ag-TS-S(CH2)(n-1)CH3//Ga2O3/EGaln Tunneling Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cademartiri, Ludovico; Thuo, Martin M.; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Reus, William F.; Tricard, Simon; Barber, Jabulani R.; Sodhi, Rana N. S.; Brodersen, Peter; Kim, Choongik; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Tunneling junctions having the structure Ag-TS-S(CH2)(n-1)CH3//Ga2O3/EGaIn allow physical-organic studies of charge transport across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In ambient conditions, the surface of the liquid metal electrode (EGaIn, 75.5 wt % Ga, 24.5 wt % In, mp 15.7 degrees C) oxidizes and

  3. Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Arango, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the relations between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity development in 438 Mexican-origin (n = 242 boys and n = 196 girls) preadolescents. In addition, machismo and marianismo gender role attitudes were examined as potential mediators in this link. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the Familial Ethnic Socialization Scale (FES), Machismo Measure (MM), Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS), and the Ethnic Identity Brief Scale (EISB) were conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican-origin sample. Separate path analyses of analytic models were then performed on boys and girls. Results of the CFAs for survey measures revealed that for the FES, a 1-factor version indicated acceptable fit; for the MM, the original 2-factor structure indicated acceptable model fit; for the MBS, a revised 3-factor version indicated acceptable model fit; and, for the EISB, the affirmation and resolution dimensions showed acceptable fit. Among boys, FES was significantly and positively linked to caballerismo, and EISB affirmation and resolution; furthermore, the links between FES and EISB affirmation and resolution were indirectly connected by caballerismo. In addition, traditional machismo was negatively linked to EISB affirmation, and caballerismo was positively linked to EISB affirmation and resolution. Among girls, FES was significantly and positively related to the MBS-virtuous/chaste pillar, and EISB affirmation and resolution. The MBS-subordinate to others pillar was negatively linked to EISB affirmation. This study underscores the importance of FES and positive gender role attitudes in the link to ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin preadolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Ethnic identity and socio-linguistic: Multi-ethnic conflicts in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Lozano Martín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan Republic is the ninth biggest country in territorial extension and it is also an important communication link between Eastern and Western countries because of its situation. The strong migration, both natural and forced movements since the 19th century, has influenced this country, has set it today as a melting pot of cultures and ethnic groups, having to live up to a total of 130 different ethnic groups. This circumstance has favored, from the Government of Kazakhstan, social policies, such as the creation of the «Assembly of peoples» where all ethnicities are represented, in order to try to establish a peaceful coexistence between different cultures which allows them to move from a multi-ethnic society to an inter-ethnic society. In this context is where the research is registered, the one which was commissioned by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of Kazakhstan to the Institute for Socio-Political Research, and to the authors of this article which have participated in this. The objective of this study was to detect those situations which we could call «significant multicultural situations» (Giménez 1997 in the daily reality of the population and which could be at the origin of the multicultural conflicts. In short, those conflict situations where the distinctive cultural component is the central axis in which the social agents, involved in the problem, take part. The results of this research are those which are intended to present to understand multicultural reality and can help social policies that are designed to be able to take the step towards «interculturality» of Kazakh society and obtain a peaceful coexistence based on respect for each other.

  5. ChIPnorm: a statistical method for normalizing and identifying differential regions in histone modification ChIP-seq libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nishanth Ulhas; Sahu, Avinash Das; Bucher, Philipp; Moret, Bernard M E

    2012-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-seq has made possible the study of histone modifications. A problem of particular interest is the identification of regions of the genome where different cell types from the same organism exhibit different patterns of histone enrichment. This problem turns out to be surprisingly difficult, even in simple pairwise comparisons, because of the significant level of noise in ChIP-seq data. In this paper we propose a two-stage statistical method, called ChIPnorm, to normalize ChIP-seq data, and to find differential regions in the genome, given two libraries of histone modifications of different cell types. We show that the ChIPnorm method removes most of the noise and bias in the data and outperforms other normalization methods. We correlate the histone marks with gene expression data and confirm that histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 act as respectively a repressor and an activator of genes. Compared to what was previously reported in the literature, we find that a substantially higher fraction of bivalent marks in ES cells for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 move into a K27-only state. We find that most of the promoter regions in protein-coding genes have differential histone-modification sites. The software for this work can be downloaded from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html.

  6. Ethnic boundaries and personal choice. Assessing the influence of individual inclinations to choose intra-ethnic relationships on pupils' networks : Assessing the influence of individual inclinations to choose intra-ethnic relationships on pupils’ networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, C; Van Duijn, MAJ; Vermeij, L; Van Hemert, DA; Hemert, Dianne A. van

    The existence of ethnic boundaries in 20 pupils' networks is tested by comparing the proportion of intra-ethnic to inter-ethnic relationships, while controlling for the distribution of intra- and inter-ethnic dyads in pupils' networks. Also, we tested if those boundaries are affected by the

  7. The State of Ethnic Dermatology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji; Miller-Monthrope, Yvette

    Approximately 30% of Canadians will be members of a visible minority by 2031. When dermatology became an independent medical discipline in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, most residents of Canada and the United States were of Northern European descent. Morphology and descriptions of dermatoses are based on patients with light skin. Skin of colour dermatology refers to a unique field in dermatology dedicated to the diagnosis and management of disorders that are more prevalent in patients with moderately to richly pigmented skin. Important differences in the presentation of common dermatoses such as seborrheic dermatitis and acne exist in patients with darker skin types. The effect of traditional treatments for common and uncommon dermatoses is also an important consideration in managing patients with skin of colour. Such treatments may result in adverse effects such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or keloid scarring at a higher rate. Most respondents from a 2013 UK study of dermatology residents and consultants agreed that individuals with 'ethnic skin' had specific and unique dermatological problems. The Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada's Objectives of Training in Dermatology states that residents must demonstrate the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes for effective patient-centred care and service to a diverse population. Future steps include creating a national society of dermatologists interested in clinical and academic aspects of ethnic dermatology. As well, presentations on skin of colour dermatology could be encouraged at major Canadian dermatology meetings.

  8. Dayton Agreement as Legalization of Ethnic Cleainsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vinčić Manojlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes neo-racism in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is a direct result of the political structure of the country. The constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, drafted under the Dayton Agreement, does not define BiH as a country of its citizens, but as a country of ethnically pure groups, mainly Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, and members of minority groups. The country continually reproduces neo-racism and the marginalization of its citizens, because the primary purpose of ethno-nationalist policies is to ensure the unity of a particular ethnic group. In this society, human rights are limited to collective rights, and the individual becomes entirely irrelevant. By analyzing policies and discourses of political parties, and analyzing the educational system and media freedom, the author focuses on the tools used for ideological control, which produces neo-racism. The article also analyzes neo-racist discrimination in state symbols and state holidays. In the end, the author discusses the possibility of the abolition of the Dayton Agreement. Examples of respect and solidarity between people, in the author's opinion, are the most suitable basis for the fight against neo-racism. The article concludes that the ethno-nationalist political divide remains strong, and that it is not likely that, in the near future, Bosnia and Herzegovina will abolish the Dayton Agreement, and with it the neo-racist discrimination against its citizens.

  9. Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Radiology Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Derek L; Nguyen, HaiThuy

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess ethnic and gender diversity in US radiology fellowship programs from 2006 to 2013. Data for this study was obtained from Journal of the American Medical Association supplements publications from 2005 to 2006 to 2012-2013 (Gonzalez-Moreno, Innov Manag Policy Pract. 15(2):149, 2013; Nivet, Acad Med. 86(12):1487-9, 2011; Reede, Health Aff. 22(4):91-3, 2003; Chapman et al., Radiology 270(1):232-40, 2014; Getto, 2005; Rivo and Satcher, JAMA 270(9):1074-8, 1993; Schwartz et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 149(1):71-6, 2013; Simon, Clin Orthop Relat Res. 360:253-9, 1999) and the US census 2010. For each year, Fisher's exact test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in each Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-certified radiology fellowship to the percentage of women and under-represented minorities in (1) all ACGME-certified radiology fellowships combined, (2) radiology residents, (3) ACGME-certified fellows in all of medicine combined, (4) ACGME-certified residents in all of medicine combined, and (5) graduating medical students. Chi-Squared test was used to compare the percentage of women and under-represented minorities and the 2010 US census. p gender and ethnic disparities. Outreach efforts, pipeline programs, and mentoring may be helpful in addressing this issue.

  10. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  11. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  12. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  13. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  14. Fasting Glucose GWAS Candidate Region Analysis across Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J.; Guo, X.; Bowden, D. W.; Bertoni, A. G.; Sale, M. M.; Yao, J.; Bluemke, D. A.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Chen, Y. I.; Vaidya, D.; Raffel, L. J.; Papanicolaou, G.J.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these SNPs and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian GWAS across multiple ethnicities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Non-diabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the ...

  15. Photolysis of CH3CHO at 248 nm: Evidence of triple fragmentation from primary quantum yield of CH3 and HCO radicals and H atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morajkar, Pranay; Bossolasco, Adriana; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2014-06-01

    Radical quantum yields have been measured following the 248 nm photolysis of acetaldehyde, CH3CHO. HCO radical and H atom yields have been quantified by time resolved continuous wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the near infrared following their conversion to HO2 radicals by reaction with O2. The CH3 radical yield has been determined using the same technique following their conversion into CH3O2. Absolute yields have been deduced for HCO radicals and H atoms through fitting of time resolved HO2 profiles, obtained under various O2 concentrations, to a complex model, while the CH3 yield has been determined relative to the CH3 yield from 248 nm photolysis of CH3I. Time resolved HO2 profiles under very low O2 concentrations suggest that another unknown HO2 forming reaction path exists in this reaction system besides the conversion of HCO radicals and H atoms by reaction with O2. HO2 profiles can be well reproduced under a large range of experimental conditions with the following quantum yields: CH3CHO + hν248nm → CH3CHO*, CH3CHO* → CH3 + HCO ϕ1a = 0.125 ± 0.03, CH3CHO* → CH3 + H + CO ϕ1e = 0.205 ± 0.04, CH3CHO*{to 2pc{rArrfill}}limits^{o2}CH3CO + HO2 ϕ1f = 0.07 ± 0.01. The CH3O2 quantum yield has been determined in separate experiments as φ_{CH3} = 0.33 ± 0.03 and is in excellent agreement with the CH3 yields derived from the HO2 measurements considering that the triple fragmentation (R1e) is an important reaction path in the 248 nm photolysis of CH3CHO. From arithmetic considerations taking into account the HO2 and CH3 measurements we deduce a remaining quantum yield for the molecular pathway: CH3CHO* → CH4 + CO ϕ1b = 0.6. All experiments can be consistently explained with absence of the formerly considered pathway: CH3CHO* → CH3CO + H ϕ1c = 0.

  16. Vývoj kompozitních maltových a cementových směsí

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavinková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Předkládaná diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem složení a studiem vlastností ternárního pojivého systému na bázi účelového vzniku ettringitu, následně užitého k přípravě samonivelačních podlahových hmot typu potěr a stěrka. U navržených skladeb daných směsí je posléze zaměřena pozornost na optimalizaci dávkování dvou druhů plastifikační přísady s následným posouzením jejich vlivu na technologické vlastnosti těchto hmot. This diploma thesis deals with the design of composition and the study o...

  17. Ethnic Identity and Reconciliation: Two Main Tasks for the Young in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Hanna; Frisen, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The saliency of ethnicity and ethnic identity is influenced by contextual circumstances. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the current ethno-political situation, ethnicity and ethnic identity most likely are important aspects of adolescents' lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe a group of young Mostarians in relation to ethnic identity…

  18. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  19. Educational Outcomes and Functioning of Bi-Ethnic Dutch Children in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing demographics in societies through international migration have led to an increasing number of bi-ethnic individuals. The focus of this study is on bi-ethnic students with one parent with an ethnic majority background and one parent with an ethnic minority background. Most studies worldwide have grouped these bi-ethnic students…

  20. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  1. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4: Infrared spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, Timothy J.; Pivesso, Bruno Pasquini; Lira, Alane Moura; Anderson, James E.; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen; Andersen, Niels Højmark; Hodnebrog, Øivind

    2016-01-01

    Infrared spectra for the title compounds were measured experimentally in 700 Torr of air at 295 K and systematically modeled in B3LYP, M06-2X and MP2 calculations employing various basis sets. Calibrated infrared spectra over the wavenumber range 600–3500 cm"−"1 are reported and combined with literature data to provide spectra for use in experimental studies and radiative transfer calculations. Integrated absorption cross sections are (units of cm"−"1 molecule"−"1): CH_3Cl, 660–780 cm"−"1, (3.89±0.19)×10"−"1"8; CH_2Cl_2, 650–800 cm"−"1, (2.16±0.11)×10"−"1"7; CHCl_3, 720–810 cm"−"1, (4.08±0.20)×10"−"1"7; and CCl_4, 730–825 cm"−"1, (6.30±0.31)×10"−"1"7. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 have radiative efficiencies of 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1 and global warming potentials (100 year horizon) of 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively. Quantum chemistry calculations generally predict larger band intensities than the experimental values. The best agreement with experiments is obtained in MP2(Full) calculations employing basis sets of at least triple-zeta quality augmented by diffuse functions. The B3LYP functional is found ill-suited for calculating vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of halocarbons. - Highlights: • Infrared spectra reported for CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4. • REs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1, respectively. • GWPs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively.

  2. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  3. Exploring the crystallization landscape of cadmium bis(N-hydroxyethyl, N-isopropyldithiocarbamate), Cd[S2CN(iPr)CH2CH2OH]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yee Seng; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R.T.; Sunway Univ., Bandar Sunway

    2016-01-01

    Crystallization of Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 from ethanol yields the coordination polymer [{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 }.EtOH] ∞ (1) within 3 h. When the solution is allowed to stand for another hour, the needles begin to dissolve and prisms emerge of the supramolecular isomer (SI), binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 .2EtOH (2). These have been fully characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography. Polymeric 1 has 2-fold symmetry and features dithiocarbamate ligands coordinating two octahedral Cd atoms in a μ 2 κ 2 -tridentate mode. Binuclear 2 is centrosymmetric with two ligands being μ 2 κ 2 -tridentate as for 1 but the other two being κ 2 -chelating leading to square pyramidal geometries. The conversion of the kinetic crystallization product, 1, to thermodynamic 2 is irreversible but transformations mediated by recrystallization (ethanol and acetonitrile) to related literature SI species, namely coordination polymer [{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 3 .MeCN] ∞ and binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 .2H 2 O.2MeCN, are demonstrated, some of which are reversible. Three other crystallization outcomes are described whereby crystal structures were obtained for the 1:2 co-crystal {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 :2[3-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione] (3), the salt co-crystal [iPrNH 2 (CH 2 CH 2 OH)] 4 [SO 4 ] 2 {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 (4) and the salt [iPrNH 2 (CH 2 CH 2 OH)]{Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 3 } (5). These arise as a result of decomposition/oxidation of the dithiocarbamate ligands. In each of 3 and 4 the binuclear {Cd[S 2 CN(iPr)CH 2 CH 2 OH] 2 } 2 SI, as in 2, is observed strongly suggesting a thermodynamic preference for this form.

  4. Relative rate study of the kinetic isotope effect in the 13CH3D + Cl reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Lars Magnus Torvald; Forecast, Roslyn; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The 13CH3D/12CH4kinetic isotope effect, α13CH3D, of CH4 + Cl is determined for the first time, using the relative rate technique and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. α13CH3D is found to be 1.60 ± 0.04. In addition, a quantum chemistry/transition state theory model with tunneling...

  5. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  6. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  7. Analysis of the laser photoelectron spectrum of CH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, P.R.; Sears, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have simulated the photoelectron spectrum of CH - 2 using the model described previously [Sears and Bunker, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5265 (1983)]. The optimization of the fit of the simulated spectrum to the recently observed spectrum of Lineberger and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 1048 (1984) and preceding paper] has enabled us to determine the rotation-bending energy levels of triplet CH 2 over an energy range of more than 1 eV. It has also enabled us to determine that the rotational temperature of the CH - 2 in the experiment is 220 K and that, for v 2 = 1, the vibrational temperature is 680 K. For CH - 2 we determine that a/sub e/ = 103 0 and that ν 2 = 1230 cm -1 . The singlet--triplet splitting in methylene is determined to be 3150 +- 30 cm -1 (0.3905 +- 0.004 eV, 9.01 +- 0.09 kcal/mol) from the photoelectron spectrum, in excellent agreement with the more accurate value previously obtained from LMR spectroscopy [McKellar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5251 (1983)] of 3165 +- 20 cm -1 (0.3924 +- 0.0025 eV, 9.05 +- 0.06 kcal/mol), and the electron affinity of triplet CH 2 is determined to be 0.652 +- 0.006 eV

  8. Modeling ChIP sequencing in silico with applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong D Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq is a new method for genomewide mapping of protein binding sites on DNA. It has generated much excitement in functional genomics. To score data and determine adequate sequencing depth, both the genomic background and the binding sites must be properly modeled. To develop a computational foundation to tackle these issues, we first performed a study to characterize the observed statistical nature of this new type of high-throughput data. By linking sequence tags into clusters, we show that there are two components to the distribution of tag counts observed in a number of recent experiments: an initial power-law distribution and a subsequent long right tail. Then we develop in silico ChIP-seq, a computational method to simulate the experimental outcome by placing tags onto the genome according to particular assumed distributions for the actual binding sites and for the background genomic sequence. In contrast to current assumptions, our results show that both the background and the binding sites need to have a markedly nonuniform distribution in order to correctly model the observed ChIP-seq data, with, for instance, the background tag counts modeled by a gamma distribution. On the basis of these results, we extend an existing scoring approach by using a more realistic genomic-background model. This enables us to identify transcription-factor binding sites in ChIP-seq data in a statistically rigorous fashion.

  9. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.

    2015-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  10. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C. [Universidad del Valle, Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali, Valle del Cauca (Colombia); Aperador, W., E-mail: jacaicedoangulo1@gmail.com [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Ingenieria, 80 Entrada A La KR11 No. 101, Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  11. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  12. Ethnic Stratification and the Study of the Chicanos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Marietta

    1983-01-01

    Examines three analytical perspectives in the sociological study of ethnic minorities that have influenced Mexican-American studies: (1) international colonialism; (2) class; and (3) a Marxian focus on the international world system. Points to a transition in ethnic studies away from the assumption of similarity to recognition of variation in…

  13. Contradictions of Ethnic Loyalty and the Quest for National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many analysts have located the primary obstacle to Nigeria‟s development and integration in the multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural nature of the country. The ethnic, cultural and political diversities of the country have been perceived as the source of its fragility and instability as well as its inability to evolve a ...

  14. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  15. Ethnicity and the Federal Character Policy in Nigeria | Lambert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is to address the perceived predominance of persons from few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in the composition of government or the appointment or election of persons to high offices in the state. This paper examines the issue of ethnicity in Nigeria, the federal character principles, how it has affected ...

  16. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  18. Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Nigeria: The Marginalisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic conflicts in whatever form need to be resolved in order to allow for democracy to thrive. This paper examines ways in which ethnic problems in Nigeria may be resolved through the creation of a realistic and workable federalism modelled largely on the American model. Journal of Social Development in Africa Vol 15 ...

  19. The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Inter-Ethnic Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberg, Lawrence; Davidson, Florence

    Psychological research on race and ethnic stereotypes and attitudes has been carried out from two points of view -- a social learning view and a psychodynamic view. Neither of these grasp essential components of young children's ethnic attitudes or prejudices, nor do they detail the major developmental factors leading to the growth of tolerance…

  20. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently…