Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N
We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...
Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre
Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.
Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe
I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....
Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after
Jugert, Philipp; Titzmann, Peter F
This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact. The sample comprised 1,300 ethnic German immigrants, 820 native German adolescents, and 1,535 Russian Jewish adolescents. The participants (15.36-years-old) completed 3 annual assessments. Two-part latent growth models showed similar levels and rates of change among all 3 ethnic groups. Interindividual differences in victimization were largely explained by the same general factors across all ethnic groups but acculturation-related hassles explained additional variance among immigrant youth. Acculturation and development interacted such that the protective effect of age did not set in until 3-5 years of residence among both immigrant groups. Results suggest that developmental pathways to victimization are very similar among immigrant and native youth once immigrants successfully have managed the phase transition of resettlement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.
Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…
Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe
I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....
"Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines…
Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.
Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Jervelund, Signe Smith
an increased risk of loneliness compared to adolescents with a Danish origin. The results also suggest that adolescents’ self-identified ethnicity plays an essential role but differently for immigrants and descendants: identifying with the Danish majority was protective against loneliness among immigrants...
Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell
Little is known about the values immigrant groups or U.S.-born racial and ethnic minorities attribute to wilderness. However, the views of these groups are important to wilderness preservation because of increasing diversity along ethnic, cultural, and racial lines in the United States. We examine the proposition that wilderness is a social construction (valued...
Vecchio, Diane C.
During the last 25 years, there has been a serious effort by scholars and teachers to introduce race, gender and ethnicity into the United States survey. While courses and curriculum have been transformed by the integration of race and gender, how much progress has been made integrating immigration and ethnicity? Considering the current atmosphere…
Essers, C.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.
Building on theories of intersectionality, in this article we develop the concept of female ethnicity in order to understand the meanings of femininity for Muslim immigrant businesswomen in the context of entrepreneurship. Through the notion of female ethnicity we analyse four life stories and
Lee, Dong Ok
Considers existing theories of immigrant entrepreneurship, and studies how the reproduction of ethnicity is associated with the transformation of social relationships in the Korean community in Los Angeles (California). A survey of 60 entrepreneurs shows the ways in which ethnicity becomes a commodity to sell or use. (SLD)
Kaucher, Simone; Deckert, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker
We aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality among ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union by different immigration periods to describe associations with migration pattern and mortality. We used pooled data from three retrospective cohort studies in Germany. Ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union (called resettlers), who immigrated to Germany since 1990 to the federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland and to the region of Augsburg (n=59 390). All-cause and cause-specific mortality among resettlers in comparison to the general German population, separated by immigration period. Immigration periods were defined following legislative changes in German immigration policy (1990-1992, 1993-1995, 1996+). Resettlers' characteristics were described accordingly. To investigate mortality differences by immigration period, we calculated age-standardised mortality rates (ASRs) and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of resettlers in comparison to the general German population. Additionally, we modelled sex-specific ASRs with Poisson regression, using age, year and immigration period as independent variables. The composition of resettlers differed by immigration period. Since 1993, the percentage of resettlers from the Russian Federation and non-German spouses increased. Higher all-cause mortality was found among resettlers who immigrated in 1996 and after (ASR 628.1, 95% CI 595.3 to 660.8), compared with resettlers who immigrated before 1993 (ASR 561.8, 95% CI 537.2 to 586.4). SMR analysis showed higher all-cause mortality among resettler men from the last immigration period compared with German men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19), whereas resettlers who immigrated earlier showed lower all-cause mortality. Results from Poisson regression, adjusted for age and year, corroborated those findings. Mortality differences by immigration period suggest different risk-factor patterns and possibly deteriorated integration
Diehl, Claudia; Friedrich, Michael; Hall, Anja
In this article, we examine the extent and the causes of ethnic inequalities in access to apprenticeship training positions within the German system of vocational training. Analyses are based on pooled data from three surveys of high school graduates conducted at the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB). The role of the following differences between German and applicants with an immigrant background for vocational training positions is analyzed: their preferen...
Damm, Anna Piil
This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... refugees across locations conditional on six individual-specific characteristics. The results show that refugees with unfavourable unobserved characteristics are found to self-select into ethnic enclaves. Furthermore, taking account of negative self-selection, a relative standard deviation increase...
Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula
The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women's lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women's homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked to acculturation and identity construction
Kim, Il-Ho; Carrasco, Christine; Muntaner, Carles; McKenzie, Kwame
Objectives. In this prospective cohort study, we examined the trajectory of general health during the first 4 years after new immigrants’ arrival in Canada. We focused on the change in self-rated health trajectories and their gender and ethnic disparities. Methods. Data were derived from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada and were collected between April 2001 and November 2005 by Statistics Canada. We used weighted samples of 3309 men and 3351 women aged between 20 and 59 years. Results. At arrival, only 3.5% of new immigrants rated their general health as poor. Significant and steady increases in poor health were revealed during the following 4 years, especially among ethnic minorities and women. Specifically, we found a higher risk of poor health among West Asian and Chinese men and among South Asian and Chinese women than among their European counterparts. Conclusions. Newly arrived immigrants are extremely healthy, but the health advantage dissipates rapidly during the initial years of settlement in Canada. Women and minority ethnic groups may be more vulnerable to social changes and postmigration settlement. PMID:23409893
Veling, Wim; Susser, Ezra; van Os, Jim; Mackenbach, Johan P; Selten, Jean-Paul; Hoek, Hans W
OBJECTIVE: A high incidence of psychotic disorders has been reported in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. Some studies suggest that ethnic density may influence the incidence of schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether this increased incidence among immigrants depends on the ethnic
Spoonley, P.; Meares, C.; Peace, R.; Cain, T.
New Zealand’s post-1987 business and skill-focussed immigrant recruitment policies have had several consequences for Auckland, including the transformation of numerous public spaces. One manifestation of this process of change has been the co-location of immigrant-dominated retailing in ethnic business precincts, which provides both economic and social network spaces for immigrant interaction with co-ethnics, and a zone of contact between immigrants and others. This paper describes the exampl...
Full Text Available The interaction between immigrants and members of the host society has been and still is an important issue during processes of migration. This study analyses inter-ethnic aggressive antisocial actions among adolescents. A descriptive analysis reveals the frequency of such behaviour among German, Turkish and Resettler (Aussiedler adolescents. The explanatory analysis concentrates on the influence of a attitudes towards violence (justifications, b an approval with social dominance, c bargaining as a conflict resolution strategy, and d trust in the judicial system (a fair treatment according to the law. It is assumed that justifications for violent behaviour and the approval with social dominance are likely to increase inter-ethnic aggressive antisocial actions. In contrast, bargaining as a preference for conflict resolution and trust in the judicial system are supposed to reduce such behaviour. A final comparison reveals whether the explanations are substantial across the groups.
Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua
Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006
Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.
Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…
Kim, JaHun; Nicodimos, Semret; Kushner, Siri E.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann
Background: To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Methods: We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To…
Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.
Halim, May Ling; Moy, Keith H; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Perceiving ethnic discrimination can have aversive consequences for health. However, little is known about whether perceiving language-based (how one speaks a second language) discrimination poses the same risks. This study examined whether perceptions of language-based and ethnic discrimination are associated with mental and physical health. Among 132 Mexican and Dominican immigrant women, perceiving ethnic and language-based discrimination each predicted psychological distress and poorer physical health. When examined together, only ethnic discrimination remained a significant predictor. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination play an integral role in the health of Latina immigrant women.
Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D
Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.
van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri
Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had
van Bergen, D.D.; Saharso, S.
Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel
This study examined variations in the main and buffering effects of ethnic and nonethnic social support on depressive symptoms associated with discrimination among five immigrant groups in Toronto. Data were taken from the Toronto Study of Settlement and Health, a cross-sectional survey of adult immigrants from five ethnic communities (Vietnamese, Ethiopian, Iranian, Korean, and Irish) in Toronto. A total of 900 surveys were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted between April and September 2001. Significant ethnic variations were observed in the effects of both ethnic and nonethnic social supports on discrimination-related depressive symptoms. Regarding the main effect, ethnic social support was significantly stronger for Iranian, Ethiopian, and Korean immigrants than for Irish immigrants. The benefits of nonethnic support were stronger for Iranian immigrants compared to the effect found in the Irish sample. With respect to stress-buffering or stress-moderating effects of social support, ethnic support was significant in all ethnic groups, except the Vietnamese group. Nonethnic support aggravated the negative impact of discrimination on depressive symptoms in the Irish group, but exerted a stress-buffering effect in the Iranian group. Overall, social supports received from fellow ethnic group members had significant main effects (suppressing depressive symptoms) and stress-buffering effects and were most pronounced in the minority ethnic immigrant groups of Ethiopians, Koreans, and Iranians. The effects were least evident among the Vietnamese and Irish. Evidence for the stress-suppressing and stress-buffering role of cross-ethnic group supports was unclear, and even inverted among Irish immigrants. Empirical evidence from the current study seems to support the sociocultural similarity hypothesis of social support.
Andersen, Hans Skifter
In European countries there are large differences between the settlements patterns of different ethnic immigrant groups. One explanation is that different groups to a different extent have been successful immigrants. Differences regarding their social and cultural integration and their economic...... network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves, or for preferences for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. The results of the study thus supports that the American ‘spatial assimilation theory’ has some importance also in Europe...
This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…
Nielsen, Signe S; Hempler, Nana F; Waldorff, Frans B
Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilisation in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could be explaine...
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel
This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.
Nesterko, Yuriy; Braehler, Elmar; Grande, Gesine; Glaesmer, Heide
There is a lack of population-based studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and satisfaction with life (SWL) of immigrants compared to the native populations. Findings of previous research are inconclusive. Our study compares HRQoL and SWL in immigrants and native-born Germans, investigating immigration-related factors as suspected determinants of HRQoL and SWL in immigrants. In the German Socio-economic panel from 2006, HRQoL (measured with the SF-12v2) and SWL as well as immigration-related factors were assessed in 21,079 subjects (including 2,971 immigrants). Analyses of variance were applied as statistical tests in our study. Native-born Germans report a higher amount of SWL and of HRQoL on the physical health component compared to the immigrants. With effect sizes ranging from E² = 0.001 to 0.111, these findings are of minimal practical relevance. In immigrants, the physical health component of HRQoL is significantly associated with younger age at migration and with country of origin. As the effect sizes are extremely low, these findings have limited practical relevance. There are small differences in SWL and HRQoL of immigrants and native-born Germans. Some immigration-related factors are related to HRQoL, but not to SWL. As immigrants are a quite heterogeneous group, it seems useful to focus on immigration-related factors, not simply comparing immigrants and the native-born. Our findings suggest that research on the association of immigration-related factors with quality of life in immigrants seems a promising approach to better identify subgroups of immigrants with lower levels of quality of life.
Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.
It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…
Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.
This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…
Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…
Gorinas, Cedric Jean-Laurent Elie
Earlier studies do not agree on whether ethnic identity, i.e., immigrants’ attachment to the home country and the host country, can explain lower employment outcomes among immigrants. This study investigates the relationship between employment and ethnic identity and complements the literature by...
Rumbaut, Ruben G.
Examines the psychosocial adaptation of children of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean showing major differences in ethnic self-identification, both among and within groups from diverse national origins. Analyses explore the determinants of assimilative and dissimilative ethnic self-identities and of other aspects of…
Kim, Kwang Chung; Hurh, Won Moo
Korean entrepreneurs rely heavily on their ethnic resources for both business formation and operation. While such resource utilization facilitates immigrants' business entry and gives them competitive advantage in the general marketplace, the same mechanism poses the problems of entra-ethnic business competition and precarious position as a…
de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon; Taveras, Elsie M.
To assess racial/ethnic differences in the diet in young children and the explanatory role of maternal BMI, immigrant status and perception of child's weight. Among white, black and Hispanic 3-year-olds, we used negative binomial and linear regression to examine associations of race/ethnicity with
Sevillano, Verónica; Basabe, Nekane; Bobowik, Magdalena; Aierdi, Xabier
The current study compares subjective mental and physical health among native Spaniards and immigrant groups, and examines the effects of ethnicity and perceived discrimination (PD) on subjective health in immigrants. Two random samples of 1250 immigrants to Spain from Colombia, Bolivia, Romania, Morocco, and Sub-Saharan Africa and 500 native Spaniards, aged between 18 and 65, were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Several hierarchical regression analyses of ethnicity and PD on subjective mental and physical health (assessed using the health-related quality of life items, HRQLSF-12) were carried out separately for men and women. Male immigrants from Colombia and Sub-Saharan Africa showed better physical health than natives, controlling for age and socioeconomic and marital status. The immigrants - except for the Colombians - had poorer mental health than natives, especially African men and Bolivian women. Socioeconomic status had no impact on these differences. Among immigrants, PD was the best predictor of physical and mental health (controlling for socio-demographic variables). African men, Bolivian women and women without legal status exhibited the poorest self-rated mental health. Clear differences in health status among natives and immigrants were recorded. The self-selection hypothesis was plausible for physical health of Colombians and Sub-Saharan African men. Acculturation stress could explain poorer mental health in immigrants compared with natives. The association between ethnicity and poor self-reported mental health appears to be partially mediated by discrimination.
This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...
Pottick, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yun
Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking. PMID:28275923
Nielsen, Signe Smith; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Kreiner, Svend
), and immigrants from RGC (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Somalia). Survey data was linked to healthcare utilisation registries. Using Poisson regression, contacts with private practising psychiatrists and psychologists were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and mental health status. RESULTS......: Overall, 2.2 % among ethnic Danes, 1.4 % among labour immigrants and 6.5 % among immigrants from RGC consulted a psychiatrist or psychologist. In adjusted analyses, for psychiatrists, compared with ethnic Danes, labour-immigrant women (multiplicative effect = 1.78), and immigrant women from RGC...... (multiplicative effect = 2.49) had increased use, while labour-immigrant men had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.03). For psychologists, immigrant men from RGC had increased use (multiplicative effect = 2.96), while labour-immigrant women had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.27) compared...
Damm, Anna Piil
increase in the ethnic enclave size increases annual earnings by 18 percent on average, irrespective of skill level. Third, the paper proposes an explanation for the earnings gain of ethnic enclave members. Enclave members benefit from more access to ethnic networks because ethnic networks disseminate job...
Mezuk, Briana; Li, Xinjun; Cederin, Klas; Concha, Jeannie; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
Some non-Western immigrant groups in Europe have elevated risk of psychosis relative to native-born. It is hypothesized that neighborhood ethnic density moderates this risk. Immigration to Sweden has increased substantially recently, particularly from the Middle East. This study examined the relationship between neighborhood ethnic density (i.e., living in an immigrant enclave) and risk of psychotic and affective disorders among three groups: Iraqi immigrants, immigrants from other nations, and native-born Swedes. Individuals aged 15-60, without prevalent psychopathology, were drawn from Swedish population-based registries and followed from 2005 to 2010 (N = 950,979). Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine the association between neighborhood ethnic composition and incident psychopathology. Cumulative incidence of psychopathology was greater in Iraqi enclaves relative to predominantly Swedish neighborhoods (6.3 vs. 4.5%). Iraqis living in enclaves did not have significantly greater risk of psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.92-2.97) or affective disorders (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 0.85-1.27) relative to those in predominantly Swedish neighborhoods. There was no increased risk of psychosis (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) or affective disorders (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) for other immigrants living in an enclave. Swedes living in an enclave had elevated risk of both psychosis (OR: 1.37, p immigrants in Sweden. Findings regarding Swedes are consistent with social drift.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene
Our study is one of the first to take search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account when investigating firm behavior towards second-generation immigrants in Denmark. We ensure sub-sample homogeneity in search models by matching second-generation immigrants to thei...... education, in particular males, face lower arrival rates when unemployed and higher layoff rates than those of their twins....... to their ethnic Danish twins according to parental characteristics and informal network quality. We find that second-generation immigrants with a high-school or primary school education, in particular females, perform as well or better than their ethnic counterparts. Second generation immigrants with vocational...
I find evidence that human capital spillovers have positive effects on the proclivity of low human capital immigrants to self-employ. Human capital spillovers within an ethnic community can increase the self-employment propensity of its members by decreasing the costs associated with starting and running a business (especially, transaction costs and information costs). Immigrants who do not speak English and those with little formal education are more likely to be self-employed if they reside...
P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)
textabstractThis article addresses the extent and ways in which ethnic diversity has been part of American, Dutch and German national literary policy from 1965 until 2005. By analyzing the content of policy documents of the National Endowment of the Arts and the Dutch and German Literary Fund, I
Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F
This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.
Leth, Ingrid; Niclasen, Janni; Ryding, Else
Objective: This study investigated and compared the prevalence of psychological difficulties among Danish, immigrant, and refugee children. Methods: We enrolled 332 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (148 Danish children, 81 immigrant children, and 67 children with refugee backgrounds....... No significant differences with regard to age or gender were found among the groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that, although immigrant children had higher levels of conduct problems than ethnic Danish children, they did not suffer from higher levels of internalizing psychological difficulties. However......, refugee children were at higher risk for psychological difficulties associated with both externalizing and internalizing....
Despite widespread interest in poverty among recent immigrants and female immigrant employment, research on the link between the two is limited. This study evaluates the effect of recently arrived immigrant women's employment on the exit from family poverty and considers the implications for ethnic differences in poverty exit. It uses the bivariate probit model and the Fairlie decomposition technique to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), a nationally representative survey of immigrants arriving in Canada, 2000-2001. Results show that the employment of recently arrived immigrant women makes a notable contribution to lifting families out of poverty. Moreover, the wide ethnic variations in the probability of exit from poverty between European and non-European groups are partially explained by the lower employment rates among non-European women. The results suggest that the equal earner/female breadwinner model applies to low-income recent immigrant families in general, but the male breadwinner model explains the low probability of poverty exit among select non-European groups whose female employment rates are notably low.
This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…
Alberto Álvarez de Sotomayor
Full Text Available The influence that co-ethnic relationships and coethnic networks have on the educational attainment of immigrant students is a topic that has often been researched within the sociology of migrations. During the last years, the concept of social capital has been privileged in the analysis of this topic, highlighting fundamentally the positive effect of such relationships and networks over the educational attainment of immigrant pupils. Nevertheless, the opposite outcome is shown by a second type of literature that focuses on the analysis of a particular form of this kind of relationship: the one that occurs inside the peer groups. Researches included within this second sort of literature usually highlight the negative effects of these co-ethnic relationships on immigrant students. The purpose of this article is to make a dialectic contrast between both tendencies in the literature, which allows us to face the analysis of the association between co-ethnic relationships and the educational attainment of immigrant pupils from a critical perspective. As a result, this paper underlines the ambivalence of the «ethnic factor» that is implicit in this kind of relationships
Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja
Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Bergen, Diana D.; Heredia-Montesinos, Amanda; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam
Leading experts examine suicidal behavior and its prevention in immigrants and their descendants – the fastest expanding proportion of the population in many European countries. Nearly half of the inhabitants of several large European cities, such as London, Berlin, or Amsterdam, and a rising
P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)
textabstractThis article compares the classification of ethnic minority fiction writers in American, Dutch and German literary anthologies and literary history books for the period of 1978-2006. Using content analyses, ethnic boundaries are much stronger in Dutch and German textbooks than in their
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Vanderlinden, Lisa K
This ethnographic study uses the lens of ethnic difference to examine the experience of infertility and the cultural politics of belonging in modern Germany. The data are derived from participant observation and interviews conducted with forty-one ethnic Germans and thirty-three German Turks undergoing biomedical treatment for infertility at a fertility clinic in Berlin (1998-2000). Through their illness narratives, men and women symbolically link their loss of biological parenthood to losses in other life arenas, such as gender identity, social status and cultural acceptance. Results reveal that while both German Turks and ethnic Germans experience disruption and social suffering from their inability to conform to procreative norms, German Turkish sufferers exhibit higher levels of distress, which directly relates to their dual stigma as outsiders in both German Turkish culture and mainstream German culture. The findings suggest that the tensions surrounding individual reproductive practices are reflective of larger national tensions regarding the constitution of the body politic in an increasingly multicultural Germany.
Assar, Nandini Narain
Immigration policy and tradition dovetail in their impact on the social organization of immigrant communities, linking the material and non-material aspects of gender. I focus on Asian Indian Patels, who dominate the budget motel business in the United States. I conducted semi-structured interviews with Patel men, women, and teenagers. I stayed overnight in the motels to observe families at work. I was almost always invited to prepare and share a meal, so I observed families at home. My ...
Full Text Available The economic aspect of ethnicity represents a wide topic of research which still hasn’t been extensively studied in Serbian ethnology and anthropology. It encompasses numerous kinds of relationships between people who belong to the same ethnic group, as well as all kinds of economic discrimination or economic favorizing based on ethnic identity. In this paper I shall attempt to highlight some of the basic characteristics of this issue, and to point out the interconnectedness of economic behavior and ethnic identity, based on one case study. I shall also demonstrate some of the specifics of the socio-economic system within which the studied topic was considered (USA, as well as the complex and ambiguous influence that this system has had on ethnic identity through certain economic actions. The paper focuses on the economic aspect of ethnicity of the Serbian Diaspora in the US, and certain specific issues are considered through the example of the economic behavior of one Serbian immigrant from Romania.
Full Text Available Background: This article provides an introduction to the special collection of papers on partnership dynamics among immigrants and their descendants in five selected European countries: Sweden, France, the UK, Spain, and Estonia. Results: The analysis shows a significant variation in partnership patterns among immigrants in all five countries. Immigrants from countries with more 'conservative' family patterns (e.g., those from Turkey, South Asia, and the Maghreb region have high marriage rates, low (premarital cohabitation levels, and are less likely to separate. By contrast, more 'fluid' family formation patterns dominate among some non-European immigrant groups (e.g., Caribbeans, Sub-Saharan Africans, and Latin Americans. Conclusions: The significant diversity of partnership patterns within countries across immigrant groups supports the idea that socialisation factors play an important role in their partnership behaviour. The partnership patterns of immigrants' descendants are 'in-between'. These findings support the idea that both the minority subculture and the mainstream society have an effect on the behaviour of ethnic groups; however, the role of minority subculture seems to be larger than expected among some groups (e.g., individuals of Turkish, South Asian, Slavic, and Maghrebian origin. Contribution: All five studies report a significant diversity in partnership patterns across ethnic groups and suggest that the diversity in family forms will persist in the future. We argue that future research should investigate family patterns among the 'third generation', examine the links between economic and cultural integration of ethnic minorities, and exploit various novel techniques to analyse the dynamic nature of individuals' lives.
Osypuk, Theresa L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hadley, Craig; Kandula, Namratha R
The growing size and changing composition of the foreign-born population in the USA highlights the importance of examining the health consequences of living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants. Using data from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in four US cities, we examined whether neighborhood immigrant composition was associated with health behaviors (diet, physical activity) among Hispanic and Chinese Americans (n=1902). Secondarily we tested whether neighborhoods with high proportions of immigrants exhibited better or worse neighborhood quality, and whether these dimensions of neighborhood quality were associated with healthy behaviors. Neighborhood immigrant composition was defined based on the Census 2000 tract percent of foreign-born from Latin-America, and separately, percent foreign-born from China. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education, neighborhood poverty, and acculturation, living in a tract with a higher proportion of immigrants was associated with lower consumption of high-fat foods among Hispanics and Chinese, but with being less physically active among Hispanics. Residents in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants reported better healthy food availability, but also worse walkability, fewer recreational exercise resources, worse safety, lower social cohesion, and lower neighborhood-based civic engagement. Associations of neighborhood immigrant composition with diet persisted after adjustment for reported neighborhood characteristics, and associations with physical activity were attenuated. Respondent-reported neighborhood healthy food availability, walkability, availability of exercise facilities and civic participation remained associated with behaviors after adjusting for immigrant composition and other covariates. Results show that living in an immigrant enclave is not monolithically beneficial and may have different associations with different health behaviors.
Durgel, E.S.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Yagmurlu, B.
This study aimed at: (1) disentangling the associations between ethnicity, immigration, educational background, and mothers’ developmental expectations and (self-reported) child-rearing practices; and (2) identifying the cross-cultural differences and similarities in developmental expectations and
Walsemann, Katrina M; Ro, Annie; Gee, Gilbert C
Although immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants on numerous outcomes, the reverse appears to be true with regards to food insecurity. Most studies ignore heterogeneity in the risk for food insecurity within immigration status and by ethnicity, even though significant variation likely exists. We consider how immigration status and ethnicity are related to trends in food insecurity among Latinos and Asians in California from 2001 through 2011. Data come from the 2001 to 2011 restricted California Health Interview Survey (n=245,679). We categorized Latinos and Asians as US-born, naturalized/legal permanent residents (naturalized/LPR), and non-LPRs (students, temporary workers, refugees, and undocumented persons). Multivariable weighted logistic regression analyses assessed temporal trends over the 10-year period after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and program participation. Across this period, US-born Asians reported similar levels of food insecurity as US-born Whites. Conversely, Latinos, regardless of immigration status or nativity, and Asian immigrants (i.e., naturalized/LPR and non-LPR) reported greater food insecurity than US-born Whites. Further, from 2001 through 2009, non-LPR Latinos reported higher risk of food insecurity than naturalized/LPR Latinos. Thus, food insecurity differs between ethnic groups, but also differs within ethnic group by immigration status. Efforts to reduce food insecurity should consider the additional barriers to access that are faced by immigrants, particularly those without legal permanent residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Waldorff, Frans Boch
Background: Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilization in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could...... were linked to registries on healthcare utilization. Using Poisson regression models, contacts to hospital, emergency room (ER), general practitioner (GP), specialist in private practice, and dentist were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for health symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and proxies...... of integration. Results: In adjusted analyses, immigrants and their descendents had increased use of ER (multiplicative effect=1.19–5.02 dependent on immigrant and descendent group) and less frequent contact to dentist (multiplicative effect=0.04–0.80 dependent on the group). For hospitalization, GP...
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the role of immigrants in the processof economic restructuring and secondary internationalisation of the metropolises in opposition to the hegemonic globalisation process associated to Transnational Corporations (TNC and its strategies. This will be illustrated with a comparative reading of the diffusion process of ethnic restaurants (Chinese and Indian and franchised pizza and hamburger (McDonald’s, Pizza Hut outlets in Lisbon.
Kumar, Revathy; Seay, Nancy; Karabenick, Stuart A
Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents' feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents' multifaceted identity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.
Marzona, Irene; Avanzini, Fausto; Tettamanti, Mauro; Vannini, Tommaso; Fortino, Ida; Bortolotti, Angela; Merlino, Luca; Genovese, Stefano; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla
To describe the prevalence and management of diabetes among immigrants according to ethnic group and duration of stay, compared to Italian citizens. Diabetic immigrant and Italian residents aged 20-69 years in the administrative database of the Lombardy Region. Immigrants were classified by region of origin and as long-term residents (LTR) and short-term residents (STR). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence and indicators of diabetes management were calculated for immigrants by region of origin and by length of stay using Cox proportional models. In 2010 19,992 immigrants (mean age 49.1 ± 10.8, 53.7% males) and 195,049 Italians (mean age 58.7 ± 9.3, 61.1 males) with diabetes were identified. Immigrants had a higher adjusted diabetes prevalence than Italians (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.45-1.50). STR received significantly fewer recommended cardiovascular drugs (antiplatelets, statins and ACE-inhibitors/ARBs) than Italians, although prescription was higher among LTR from some ethnic groups. Immigrants were less likely to be seen by a diabetologist and to do at least one HbA1c test per year. Although the recommended tests/visits were more often done for the LTR than the STR, in the majority of ethnic groups these indicators were still far from optimal. The prevalence and management of diabetes differ between immigrants and Italians, although some improvement can be seen among LTR.
Ardern Chris I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA levels are known to be significantly lower in ethnic minority and immigrant groups living in North America and Europe compared to the general population. While there has been an increase in the number of interventions targeting these groups, little is known about their preferred modes of PA. Methods Using three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 1.1, 2.1, 3.1; 2000-2005, n = 400,055 this investigation determined PA preferences by self-ascribed ethnicity (White, South Asian, South-East Asian, Blacks, Latin American, West Asian, Aboriginal persons and Other and explored variation in PA preference across time since immigration categories (non-immigrant, established immigrant [> 10 years], and recent immigrant [≤ 10 years]. PA preferences over the past three months were collapsed into eight categories: walking, endurance, recreation, sports, conventional exercise, active commuting, and no PA. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of participating in each PA across ethnicity and time since immigration compared to Whites and non-immigrants, respectively. Results Compared to Whites, all other ethnic groups were more likely to report no PA and were less likely to engage in walking, with the exception of Aboriginal persons (OR: 1.25, CI: 1.16-1.34. Further, all ethnic groups including Aboriginal persons were less likely to engage in endurance, recreation, and sport activities, but more likely to have an active commute compared to Whites. Recent and established immigrants were more likely to have an active commute and no PA, but a lower likelihood of walking, sports, endurance, and recreation activities than non-immigrants. Conclusion Ethnic minority groups and immigrants in Canada tend to participate in conventional forms of exercise compared to Whites and non-immigrants and are less likely to engage in endurance exercise, recreation activities, and sports. Health
Full Text Available Following World War I, the League of Nations promoted a liberal system of minority rights conceived on the basis of individual rights and designed to provide human rights protection against discrimination. In reaction to this conception of minorities as deserving democratic protection, an alternate, ethnicallyoriented concept was developed in German-speaking territories, particularly in Germany and Austria, which was based on collective rights and whose goal was ethnically-based legislation (called “Volksgruppenrecht” or “ethnic-group law”. This political concept was gradually developed into a system of international standards. Supporters hoped that ethnically based law would replace international liberal-democratic law. This paper examines how the political paradigm of collective rights was redefined during the 1920s to produce a conceptual system of legal standards, and how successful efforts were in providing a legal foundation for the sociotheoretical concept of “Volksgruppe” (“ethnic group”.
Full Text Available Japanese migration to Argentina started in the early Twentieth Century, with the arrival of Japanese men from other Latin American countries and did not stop until the 60’s even though as time passed the composition of the immigrant group changed and so did their objectives. Japanese immigrants soon created voluntary associations where they gathered, a trend that still survives to these days. The different kind of associations they created, their aims and later development as well as their relationship to the Japanese government, are broached in this paper. It focuses on the changes Japanese associations have suffered along the process, a as support devices for young men that arrived as dekaseguis in early times, and whose stay was extended indefinitely, b during the Second World War crisis c with the arrival of Japanese newcomers during the postwar period, d attending to the cases of Japanese migrants arriving from the Dominican Republic, Paraguay and Bolivia; and, finally, dealing with the dilemma aroused by the decision to settle definitively versus the desire to preserve Japanese traditions and identity
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kromann, Lene
Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub......‐sample homogeneity. Thus, we match second‐generation immigrants to their ethnic Danish twins on the basis of parental characteristics and informal network quality. There are big differences before matching, but after matching, second‐generation immigrants perform as well or better than their ethnic Dane counterparts...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....
Makowski, Anna Christin; Kofahl, Christopher
There is an ongoing debate about equity and equality in health care, and whether immigrants benefit equally from services as the non-immigrant population. The study focuses on benefits from and adherence to the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) disease management program (DMP) among Turkish immigrants in Germany. So far, it has not been researched whether this group benefits from enrollment in the DMP as well as diabetics from the non-immigrant population. Data on the non-immigrant sample (N = 702) stem from a survey among members of a German health insurance, the Turkish immigrant sample (N = 102) was recruited in the area of Hamburg. Identical questions in both surveys enable comparing major components. Regarding process quality, Turkish diabetics do not differ from the non-immigrant sample; moreover, they have significantly more often received documentation and diabetes training. In terms of outcome quality however, results display a greater benefit on behalf of the non-immigrant sample (e.g., blood parameters and body mass index), and they also met more of the DMP criteria. This underlines the need of diabetics with Turkish background for further education and information in order to become the empowered patient as is intended by the DMP as well as to prevent comorbidities.
Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee
This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.
Danzer, A. M.; Yaman, F.
It is widely debated whether immigrants who live among co-ethnics are less willing to integrate into the host society. Exploiting the quasi-experimental guest worker placement across German regions during the 1960/70s as well as information on immigrantsâ€™ inter-ethnic contact networks and social activities, we are able to identify the causal effect of ethnic concentration on social integration. The exogenous placement of immigrants "switches off" observable and unobservable differences in t...
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; Fife, Kelly A
As levels of immigration and ethnic diversity continue to rise in most Western societies, the social demography of schools is changing rapidly. Although schools represent a prominent developmental context, relatively little is known about the extent to which the racial/ethnic composition of schools influences mental health outcomes in students. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school-the numerical representation of a student's immigrant generational status and race/ethnicity in the student body-and levels of emotional and behavioral problems. This study also examines the extent to which the association between congruence and emotional-behavioral problems differs across racial/ethnic immigrant sub-groups and is accounted for by individual perceptions of school belonging. Data come from the in-school survey of the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) conducted in the United States. The sample is nationally representative, and includes 128 schools and 77,150 adolescents in grades 7-12 (50 % female, M age = 14.9 years, SD = 1.78). After controlling for school and family socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school exhibited a negative association with emotional and behavioral problems for most sub-groups examined. School belonging was associated negatively with emotional and behavioral problems, and partially accounted for the effects linked to congruence in schools. The immigrant and racial/ethnic composition of schools and perceptions of belonging have strong links with emotional and behavioral problems and may represent important targets for intervention.
Durgel, Elif S.; Van de Vijver, Fons J.R.; Yagmurlu, Bilge
This study aimed at: (1) disentangling the associations between ethnicity, immigration, educational background, and mothers’ developmental expectations and (self-reported) child-rearing practices; and (2) identifying the cross-cultural differences and similarities in developmental expectations and child-rearing practices. Participants were 111 Dutch and 111 Turkish immigrant mothers in the Netherlands, and 242 Turkish mothers living in Turkey. Dutch and higher-educated mothers had a ...
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene
do on the labor market, though not with respect to layoffs. This result is mainly driven by the group of high school graduates and those with a primary school education only. Second generation immigrants with vocational education, males in particular, face both significantly lower arrival rates when......Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan
Ethnically harassed immigrant youth are at risk for experiencing a wide range of school adjustment problems. However, it is still unclear why and under what conditions experiencing ethnic harassment leads to school adjustment difficulties. To address this limitation in the literature, we examined two important questions. First, we investigated whether self-esteem and/or depressive symptoms would mediate the associations between ethnic harassment and poor school adjustment among immigrant youth. Second, we examined whether immigrant youths' perception of school context would play a buffering role in the pathways between ethnic harassment and school adjustment difficulties. The sample (n = 330; M age = 14.07, SD = .90; 49% girls at T1) was drawn from a longitudinal study in Sweden. The results revealed that experiencing ethnic harassment led to a decrease in immigrant youths' self-esteem over time, and that youths' expectations of academic failure increased. Further, youths' relationships with their teachers and their perceptions of school democracy moderated the mediation processes. Specifically, when youth had poor relationships with their teachers or perceived their school context as less democratic, being exposed to ethnic harassment led to a decrease in their self-esteem. In turn, they reported low school satisfaction and perceived themselves as being unsuccessful in school. Such indirect effects were not observed when youth had high positive relationships with their teachers or perceived their school as offering a democratic environment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding underlying processes and conditions in the examination of the effects of ethnic devaluation experiences in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of immigrant youths' school adjustment.
Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus
Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…
Chen, Hung-Hui; Chien, Li-Yin
Drinking behavior among immigrants could be influenced by drinking-related cultural norms in their country of origin and host country. This study examined the association of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and enculturation with alcohol drinking among male immigrants in Taiwan. This cross-sectional survey recruited 188 male immigrants. Ethnic drinking culture was divided into dry and wet according to per capita alcohol consumption and abstinent rate in the countries of origin in reference to that in Taiwan. A scale, Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Marriage-Based Immigrants, was developed to measure acculturation (adaptation to the host culture) and enculturation (maintenance of the original culture). Drinking patterns (abstinent, low-risk drinking, and hazardous drinking) were determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. There was a significant interaction between ethnic drinking culture and enculturation/acculturation on drinking patterns. Multinomial logistic regression models identified that for those from dry ethnic drinking cultures, a high level of acculturation was associated with increased low-risk drinking, while a high level of enculturation was associated with decreased low-risk drinking. For those from wet ethnic drinking cultures, a low level of acculturation and high level of enculturation were associated with increased hazardous drinking. High family socioeconomic status was associated with increased drinking, while perceived insufficient family income was positively associated with hazardous use. To prevent hazardous use of alcohol, health education should be targeted at immigrant men who drink, especially among those who have economic problems, are from wet ethnic drinking cultures, and demonstrate low adaptation to the host culture.
Amundsen, Ellen J
Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20-60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents' generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim immigrants reported a significantly
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…
Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace
Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…
Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas
Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and "Other African" countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention.
Kumar, B N; Meyer, H E; Wandel, M; Dalen, I; Holmboe-Ottesen, G
To compare ethnic and gender differences in generalized and central obesity and to investigate whether these differences persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In 2002, the population-based cross-sectional, Oslo Immigrant Health study was conducted. A total of 7890 Oslo residents, born between 1942 and 1971 in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, were invited and 3019 attended. Participants completed a health questionnaire and attended a clinical screening that included height, weight, waist and hip measurements. Generalized obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m2) was greatest among women from Turkey (51.0%) and least among men from Vietnam (2.7%). The highest proportions of central obesity (waist hip ratio (WHR)>or =0.85) were observed among women from Sri Lanka (54.3%) and Pakistan (52.4%). For any given value of BMI, Sri Lankans and Pakistanis had higher WHR compared to the other groups. Despite a high mean BMI, Turkish men (27.9 kg/m2) and women (30.7 kg/m2) did not have a corresponding high WHR. Ethnic differences in BMI, waist circumference and WHR persisted despite adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. We found large differences in generalized and central obesity between immigrant groups from developing countries. Our data find high proportions of overweight and obese subjects from Pakistan and Turkey, but low proportions among those from Vietnam. Subjects from Sri Lanka and Pakistan had the highest WHR for any given value of BMI. Our findings, in light of the burgeoning obesity epidemic, warrant close monitoring of these groups.
Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.
Ji, Jianguang; Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
The incidence of type 1 diabetes shows a large variation worldwide, but whether the causes are environmental or genetic has not been settled. We examine here the incidence of type 1 diabetes among second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad to disentangle genetic/ethnic vs. environmental influence, assuming adoptees from abroad have similar environmental exposures compared with the native Swedes, with the only difference in their genetic background. Second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad were retrieved from the MIGMED2 database, and they were followed up until the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, death, or the end of study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for type 1 diabetes among these immigrants compared with native Swedes. A total of 1,050,569 children were defined as second-generation immigrants and the overall SIR of type 1 diabetes was significantly decreased. A decreased risk was observed for all countries of origin, with an exception for children with parents from Finland. A total of 51,557 children born in foreign countries were adopted by Swedes. Adoptees from Eastern Europe, Soviet countries, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, East and Southeast Asia, Chile, and other Central and South American countries had a significantly decreased SIR. The decreased incidence of type 1 diabetes observed in some second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad strongly suggests that ethnic genetic heterogeneity could play an important role on type 1 diabetes.
Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie
The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available We examined the prevalence and correlates of parent-reported behavioral problems among immigrants and US-born children aged 6–17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to develop an 11-item factor-based behavioral problems index (BPI and a dichotomous serious behavioral problems (SBP measure. Logistic and least-squares regression and disparity indices were used to analyze differentials. BPI scores varied from 92.3 for immigrant Asian children to ≥102.4 for native Hispanic and Black children. The prevalence of SBP ranged from 2.9% for immigrant Asian children to 17.0% for native Black children. Children in most ethnic-immigrant groups had higher adjusted levels of behavioral problems than immigrant Asian children. Native Hispanic children, native and immigrant White children, immigrant Black children, and native Asian children had ≥3.0 times higher adjusted odds of SBP than immigrant Asian children. Lower socioeconomic status, obesity, physical inactivity, lack of sports participation, increased television viewing, and sleep disruption were associated with greater behavioral problems. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors accounted for 37.0% and 48.5% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in BPI and SBP, respectively. Immigrant children had fewer behavioral problems than native-born children. Policies aimed at modifying obesity-related behaviors and social environment may lead to improved behavioral/emotional health in both immigrant and native children.
Forrest, James; Dandy, Justine
Much is known about immigrants' majority language proficiency in the first (immigrant) generation. Less is understood of differences in linguistic shift compared with heritage language retention in subsequent generations. Focusing on Sydney, Australia's largest "EthniCity," we build on Clyne and Kipp's (1999. "Pluricentric Languages…
Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas
We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Georgiades, Katholiki; Paksarian, Diana; Rudolph, Kara E; Merikangas, Kathleen R
To examine differences in lifetime prevalence of mental disorder and service use among U.S. adolescents by both immigrant generation and race/ethnicity. A total of 6,250 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement were assessed for lifetime prevalence of mood and/or anxiety disorders, behavior disorders, and mental health service use. Twelve groups defined by self-identified race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, Asian) and immigrant generation (first, second, third, or more) were compared. Differences in prevalence of lifetime mental disorder were most apparent when immigrant generation and race/ethnicity were considered jointly. Compared to third+generation non-Hispanic white adolescents, the odds of mood/anxiety disorder were increased among second-generation Asian (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.22-5.17) and third+generation Hispanic (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.00-1.63) but reduced among first-generation Asian (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.10-0.71) and second-generation non-Hispanic white adolescents (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.81). The odds of behavior disorder were lower among first-generation Asian (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.09-0.71) and all generations of non-Hispanic black adolescents (AOR range 0.43-0.55). Adjusting for lifetime disorder, first-generation Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents and all generations of non-Hispanic black adolescents were less likely to receive mental health services (AOR range 0.24-0.55). Variation in risk of disorder by immigrant generation and race/ethnicity underscores the importance of considering social, economic, and cultural influences in etiologic and treatment studies of adolescent psychopathology. Lower rates of service use, particularly among first-generation immigrant adolescents, highlight the need to identify and address barriers to recognition and treatment of mental disorders among adolescents from immigrant
Thibeault, M Alexander; Stein, Gabriela L; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O
Ethnic discrimination increases risk for depressive symptoms, but less is known about factors that influence the impact of this cultural challenge on psychological adjustment for immigrant-origin college students. Sociocultural identity development is especially relevant during emerging adulthood. Studies examining exacerbating or buffering impacts of ethnic identity have yielded mixed results. The current study examines conditions under which one aspect of ethnic identity, affirmation/belonging, moderates the impact of perceived ethnic discrimination stress on depressive symptoms. This was expected to vary by other-group orientation and gender, in accordance with rejection sensitivity theory. A multicultural sample of 290 non-White immigrant-origin emerging adults (aged 18-25) from mixed cultural backgrounds and generational statuses attending a college in the Southeastern United States completed electronic self-report questionnaires. More robust support was provided for social identity theory rather than rejection sensitivity theory: stronger affirmation/belonging was inversely associated with depressive symptoms across the sample, with a notable buffering impact for women. Trend-level results indicated a protective effect for those endorsing stronger affirmation/belonging paired with greater other-group orientation. Additionally, women with weaker affirmation/belonging demonstrated greater increased depressive symptoms compared to men with weaker affirmation/belonging. For this sample, social identity theory was relevant to the impact of affirmation/belonging on the relation between ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms contingent on other-group orientation and gender. This finding underscores the importance of examining ethnic identity in a nuanced manner. Implications for these results extend to college counseling centers, where inclusion of sociocultural identity in case conceptualization would be useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…
Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp
Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.
Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.
Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…
Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura
Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.
Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.
As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...
Clarke, Christina A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.
Objectives. We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival. Methods. We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007. Results. US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics. Conclusions. Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control. PMID:20299648
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).
de Vroome, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969; Hooghe, Marc
Previous studies have shown that immigrants' levels of life satisfaction tend to be lower than among natives. We do not know, however, whether this is due to the immigration experience as such, or rather is a result of the fact that on average this group is faced with less prosperous living
Beckhusen, J.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; de Graaff, T.; Poot, H.J.; Waldorf, B.S.
We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is
Acar, Erkan; Yigit, Mehmet Fatih; Aslan, Dolgun
Today, Americans are increasingly concerned about the matter of immigration in the United States. A growing number believe that immigrants are a burden to the country, taking jobs and housing and creating strains on the health care system. Many Americans are also worried about the cultural impact of the expanding number of newcomers to the U.S.…
Mako, Robsan Sayo
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem with the burden of the disease distributed unevenly. The prevalence of the disease is higher among South Asian immigrants in comparison to the prevalence among the population of the host countries. Studies from Norway, UK and beyond indicate that there is ethnic inequality in the prevalence of T2DM. In order to find out the reason for this high prevalence of T2DM, this ...
Why has the promise of American democracy been so persuasive to immigrants despite prejudice regarding cultural inferiority, a history of slavery and genocide, violations of human rights, media manipulations, and imperial self-righteousness? How can we analyze, understand, and evaluate the response
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Methods Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants (n = 2 997 with Australian born (n = 13 047. Among immigrants, acculturation differences were examined by length of residence in Australia and age at migration. Data were modelled in a staged approach using multilevel linear and logistic regression, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Relative to Australian born, men from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions had significantly higher BMIs, and men from North West Europe, North East Asia and Southern and Central Asia had significantly lower BMIs. Among women, the majority of foreign born groups had significantly lower BMIs compared with Australian born. Male and female immigrants living in Australia for 15 years or more had significantly higher BMIs and increased odds of being overweight/obese respectively, compared with immigrants living in Australia for less than 5 years. Male immigrants arriving as adolescents were twice more likely to be overweight/obese and had significantly higher BMIs than immigrants who arrived as adults. Male and female immigrants who arrived as children (≤11 years had significantly higher odds of adult overweight/obesity and BMIs. Conclusions This study provides evidence of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in Australia with male
Menigoz, Karen; Nathan, Andrea; Turrell, Gavin
Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants (n = 2 997) with Australian born (n = 13 047). Among immigrants, acculturation differences were examined by length of residence in Australia and age at migration. Data were modelled in a staged approach using multilevel linear and logistic regression, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Relative to Australian born, men from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions had significantly higher BMIs, and men from North West Europe, North East Asia and Southern and Central Asia had significantly lower BMIs. Among women, the majority of foreign born groups had significantly lower BMIs compared with Australian born. Male and female immigrants living in Australia for 15 years or more had significantly higher BMIs and increased odds of being overweight/obese respectively, compared with immigrants living in Australia for less than 5 years. Male immigrants arriving as adolescents were twice more likely to be overweight/obese and had significantly higher BMIs than immigrants who arrived as adults. Male and female immigrants who arrived as children (≤11 years) had significantly higher odds of adult overweight/obesity and BMIs. This study provides evidence of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in Australia with male immigrants from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions being
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Pineda, Claudia G.
Although research on minority youth has established the value of coethnic spaces for safe ethnic identity exploration, research has seldom examined how youth in these spaces draw ethnic boundaries or offered appropriate frameworks addressing boundary-setting. This study uses Berry's acculturation framework to explore ethnic boundary-setting within…
Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid
are still important factors in determining the child.s cognitive outcome. However, the negative effect of ethnic concentration in the school is only significant for the native Danish children. Finally, there is a strong positive effect on the children.s cognitive outcome of speaking Danish at home....... to the ethnic concentration in the schools they attend and their relatively low socioeconomic status. Instrumenting for ethnic concentration reveals that even after taking into consideration that individuals may sort across neighborhoods, ethnic concentration in the school and the child's own ethnicity...
Jenny Fairthorne PhD
Full Text Available The risk of autism spectrum disorder varies by maternal race–ethnicity, immigration status, and birth region. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Australian state registries and a study population of 134 204 mothers enabled us to examine the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in children born from 1994 to 2005 by the aforementioned characteristics. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, and birth year. Indigenous women were 50% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than Caucasian, nonimmigrant women. Overall, immigrant women were 40% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than nonimmigrant women. However, Black women from East Africa had more than 3.5 times the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in their children than Caucasian nonimmigrant women. Research is implicated on risk and protective factors for autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in the children of immigrant women.
Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....
Gijsberts, Mérove; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn
There is an ongoing debate in many countries about the assumed negative influence of ethnically concentrated schools on pupils’ cognitive development. This paper addresses the influence of concentrations of ethnic minority children in schools on the school achievement of their pupils. The analysis
Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less
Schachner, Maja K.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Noack, Peter
Navigating between cultures in addition to developmental changes and challenges in early adolescence can be difficult. We investigated school, family, and ethnic group as conditions for acculturation and school adjustment among early-adolescent boys and girls. Analyses were based on 860 mostly second- and third-generation immigrant students from…
Isac, Maria Magdalena; Brese, Falk; Diazgranados, Silvia; Higdon, Julia; Maslowski, Ralf; Sandoval-Hernandez, Andres; Schulz, Wolfram; Werf, Greetje van der
Many civic and citizenship education programmes in Europe promote the development of tolerance towards immigrants or, more in general, towards people of ethnic/racial minorities or different cultural backgrounds. Although individuals form their attitudes in multiple settings, schools and educational
Abad, Neetu S; Sheldon, Kennon M
Born and raised in the United States, children of immigrants often face conflict over whether to endorse the norms and traditions of the family's country of origin (the natal culture) or those of mainstream U.S. society (the host culture). The authors hypothesized that when immigrant parents allow children to make their own choices concerning their cultural identity, their children will be more likely to internalize the natal culture and will experience greater well-being. Ninety-nine college-aged 2nd-generation immigrants rated their well-being, perceptions of their mother's and father's autonomy support, and their endorsement of both natal and U.S. cultures. Results demonstrated that paternal, but not maternal, autonomy support predicted greater well-being and greater endorsement of the natal culture and that immersion in the natal culture predicted some indices of well-being. Several explanations for the possibly greater significance of paternal versus maternal autonomy support in the context of immigrant families are considered.
de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.
Giese, Arnd; Uyar, Müberra; Henning, Bernhard F; Uslucan, Haci H; Westhoff, Timm; Pagonas, Nikolaos
Culturally adequate medical care is a goal in Germany, but quantitative data concerning inpatients is lacking. Inpatients of a German tertiary hospital: Turkish migrants (T) and Germans (G) were interviewed in their respective native language. 121 T and 121 G were interviewed. 97.5% of T were Muslims, 82.6% of G were Christians. 88.5% of T judged religion as "important" or "very important" (G: 35.8%). 50.8% of T saw their opportunity to pray in the hospital as "bad" or "very bad" (G: 0.9%). Keeping to Islamic dietary rules in the hospital was "difficult" or "very difficult" for 90% of T. For 79.0% of female T care by a same-sex staff was "important" or "very important" (female G: 36.3%, male T: 40.0%, male G: 7.7%). The presence of a same-sex person during examinations or treatments was "much" or "very much" appreciated by 69.7% of female T, if same-sex care was impossible (female G: 25.4%, male T: 28.9%, male G: 6.1%). A retrospective analysis revealed that 5.8% of all 8988 hospital admissions during the period of study recruitment were Turkish migrants. To meet the needs of Turkish migrants German hospitals should improve the opportunity for Muslims to pray. Additionally, the cooperation with local imams should be sought. Precise descriptions of food ingredients or an adapted menu could help T to deal with Muslim dietary commandments. A culturally sensitive hospital should take into account that female as well as male T prefer to be cared of by same-sex physicians and nurses. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.
Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B
Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant elderly are a rapidly growing group in Dutch society; little is known about their health care use. This study assesses whether ethnic disparities in health care use exist and how they can be explained. Applying an established health care access model as explanatory factors, we tested health and socio-economic status, and in view of our research population we added an acculturation variable, elaborated into several sub-domains. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the "Social Position, Health and Well-being of Elderly Immigrants" survey, conducted in 2003 in the Netherlands. The study population consisted of first generation immigrants aged 55 years and older from the four major immigrant populations in the Netherlands and a native Dutch reference group. The average response rate to the survey was 46% (1503/3284; country of origin: Turkey n = 307, Morocco n = 284, Surinam n = 308, the Netherlands Antilles n = 300, the Netherlands n = 304. Results High ethnic disparities exist in health and health care utilisation. Immigrant elderly show a higher use of GP services and lower use of physical therapy and home care. Both self-reported health status (need factor and language competence (part of acculturation have high explanatory power for all types of health services utilisation; the additional impact of socio-economic status and education is low. Conclusion For all health services, health disparities among all four major immigrant groups in the Netherlands translate into utilisation disparities, aggravated by lack of language competence. The resulting pattern of systematic lower health services utilisation of elderly immigrants is a challenge for health care providers and policy makers.
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180
Coenders, Marcel Theodorus Aloysius
The start of the twenty-first century is characterized by massive international migration, intense ethnic conflicts and ethnic antagonism. Attitudes toward the ethnic in-group and toward ethnic out-groups have gained increasing relevance as a research topic in the social sciences. In this
Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas
Most of the literature suggests a positive relationship between immigrant concentration and anti-immigrant sentiments. The main goal of this study is to investigate the impact of both perceived and actual size of migrant populations on anti-immigrant sentiments. A representative survey of
The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…
Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell Endowed, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun
Our purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of and less severe symptoms than non-immigrants (p immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R2=.01, p<.05). PMID:24875592
Full Text Available the article contains a justification of the research approach to the detection of subjective content of historical memory among groups of respondents from different ethnic background; presents the results of a study of two groups of respondents, who are descendants of the Volga Germans and the representatives of the titular nation (Russian; establishes the main cultural and historical events of life of the peoples that make up the historical memory.
Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara
It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows
Terasaki, Genji; Desai, Angel; McKinney, Christy M; Haider, Mahri Z
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent worldwide and is most often diagnosed through screening efforts. In order to identify the specific ethnic groups at greatest risk, it is necessary to go beyond traditional categories. We conducted a retrospective case series in a primary care clinic serving non-English speaking immigrants to determine the prevalence of HBV among patients of various primary spoken languages (used as a proxy for ethnicity). Among the 1378 patients, the overall prevalence of current infection was 8%. HBV infection was markedly higher among Somali, Oromo and Khmer speakerscompared to other groups. This study illustrates the use of granular language data in describing the serologic profiles of HBV infection among non-English speaking patients in primary care setting. The variations in prevalence by language have implications for public health HBV screening efforts, in addition to suggesting potential risk factors for transmission.
Adolescent interethnic friendship is an important indicator of social cohesion in multi-ethnic societies. Therefore, this dissertation examines individual, network, and contextual explanations for ethnic segregation in adolescent friendship networks in school classes. More specifically, the
the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...
Full Text Available “(Late resettlers”, or to put it in simple terms, people of German ancestry who came to Germany from Eastern Europe after World War II, constitute a peculiar case within the spectrum of German migration. On one hand, they are distinct from foreigners, on the other hand, despite having German citizenship, they stand out from the native German population. L. Wilkiewicz refers to this category as “quasi-forced resettlers”. The forced nature of the young resettlers migration may then be seen as doubly strengthened by the fact that they had no impact on their parents decision to leave the country. They were, in a sort of way, uprooted from their original environment and planted into a new, alien one. Having accepted German citizenship and having been attributed the purpose of “living as Germans among Germans”, the resettlers were expected to show a higher degree of integration with local society than “ordinary” migrants. In this study, I shall confine myself to a few selected aspects affecting the success of integration. Presented below are some of the memories that the young resettlers have of the moment of their “(quasi-forced” migration, of their early days in Germany, of Poland as the country of their childhood, of the reasons for departure as given by their parents, and of the main factors – apart from those personality-related such as intelligence – that contributed to their successful integration.
Sog Yee Mok; Sarah E. Martiny; Ilka H. Gleibs; Melanie M. Keller; Laura Froehlich
Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students’ performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students’ performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects o...
Geel, Mitch van
This thesis deals with the adaptation and acculturation of immigrant adolescents in junior vocational education. The adaptation of immigrant adolescents fits the notion of an 'immigrant paradox'. Maintaining aspects of the ethnic culture was found positively related to immigrant adolescents'
Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Loth, Katie; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of, parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n = 150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Among parents who used restriction (49%) and pressure-to-eat (69%) feeding practices, these feeding practices were utilized about every other day. Contextual factors at the meal associated with parent feeding practices included: number of people at the meal, who prepared the meal, types of food served at meals (e.g., pre-prepared, homemade, fast food), meal setting (e.g., kitchen table, front room), and meal emotional atmosphere (p meat proteins, and refined grains (p < 0.05). There were some differences by race/ethnicity across findings (p < 0.01), with Hmong parents engaging in the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Parent feeding practices varied across the week, indicating feeding practices are more likely to be context-specific, or state-like than trait-like. There were some meal characteristics more strongly associated with engaging in restriction and pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Given that parent feeding practices appear to be state-like, future interventions and health care providers who work with parents and children may want to address contextual factors associated with parent feeding practices to decrease restriction and pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…
Park, Seong Man
This paper explores the influence of Korean ethnic churches on the maintenance of heritage language (HL) and culture among Korean-Canadian students. The ethnographic and qualitative study on which it is based involved participant observation over a 4-month period, group discussions, interviews, and a questionnaire. Participants were 15 immigrant…
Karen Macknow Lisboa
Full Text Available No contexto do Império alemão até a ascensão do nazismo e o III Reich, o texto investiga o tema da insalubridade, do aclimatamento e das doenças no Brasil em escritos de viajantes de língua alemã envolvidos com a questão imigratória. Por um lado, o Brasil era considerado um país bastante adequado para imigrar - sobretudo quando comparado com a África e os EUA - , por outro, o clima e a ameaça de doenças tais como febre amarela, malária, tuberculose, verminoses, bem como pragas de insetos e animais peçonhentos, podiam afugentar imigrantes. Pergunta-se como autores de diferentes perfis - 'políticos coloniais', imigrantes, literatos em sua imigração forçada e cientistas - abordam essas 'ameaças', considerando que terão como leitores (potenciais imigrantes.In the period stretching from the birth of the German Empire through the rise of Nazism and the Third Reich, the article explores the themes of unhealthiness, acclimatization, and disease in Brazil as found in the writings of German-speaking travelers who were involved with the immigration question. On the one hand, Brazil was considered quite suitable as an immigration destination, especially in comparison to Africa and the United States; on the other, immigrants might be scared off by its climate and by the menace of diseases like yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, and worms, along with insect plagues and venomous animals. The question here is how authors with different profiles - 'colonial politicians,' immigrants, men of letters who were forced to emigrate, and scientists - approached these 'threats,' considering that their readers would be (potential immigrants.
Termorshuizen, Fabian; Heerdink, Eibert R; Selten, Jean-Paul
A higher own-group ethnic density in the area of residence is often associated with a lower risk for psychotic disorder. For common mental disorders the evidence is less convincing. This study explores whether these findings are mirrored in data on dispensing of antipsychotics and antidepressants. Health insurance data on dispensed medication among all adults living in the four largest Dutch cities were linked to demographic data from Statistics Netherlands. Dispensing of antipsychotics and antidepressants in 2013 was analyzed in relation to the proportion of the own ethnic group in the neighborhood. Higher own-group ethnic density was associated with lower dispensing of antipsychotics among the Moroccan-Dutch (N = 115,455), after adjusting for age, gender, and SES of the neighborhood (OR adj for the highest vs. the lowest density quintile = 0.72 [0.66-0.79]). However, this association vanished after adjustment for household composition (OR adj = 0.93 [0.85-1.03]). Similar results were found for the Turkish-Dutch (N = 105,460) (OR adj = 0.86 [0.76-0.96] and 1.05 [0.94-1.18]). For those of Surinamese (N = 147,123) and Antillean origin (N = 41,430), in contrast, the association between ethnic density and lower risk remained after each adjustment (P density was consistently found for those of Antillean origin (OR adj = 0.62 [0.52-0.74]) only. These data on dispensing of psychomedication confirm the ethnic density hypothesis for psychosis alongside earlier equivocal findings for other mental disorders. The negative association between own-group ethnic density and dispensing of antipsychotics among the Moroccan- and Turkish-Dutch may be explained, at least in part, by a favourable household composition (i.e., living in a family) in high-density neighborhoods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D
Asian-American men with prostate cancer have been reported to present with higher grade and later stage disease than white American men. However, Asian-American men comprise a heterogeneous population with distinct health outcomes. We compared prostate cancer risk profiles among the diverse racial and ethnic groups in California. We used data from the California Cancer Registry on 90,845 nonHispanic white, nonHispanic black and Asian-American men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2010. Patients were categorized into low, intermediate and high risk groups based on clinical stage, Gleason score and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Using polytomous logistic regression we estimated adjusted ORs for the association of race/ethnicity and nativity with risk group. In addition to the nonHispanic black population, 6 Asian-American groups (United States born Chinese, foreign born Chinese, United States born Japanese, foreign born Japanese, foreign born Filipino and foreign born Vietnamese) were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile compared to nonHispanic white men. The OR for high vs intermediate risk disease ranged from 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.49) for United States born Japanese men to 1.45 (95% CI 1.31-1.60) for foreign born Filipino men. These associations appeared to be driven by higher grade and prostate specific antigen rather than by advanced clinical stage at diagnosis. In this large, ethnically diverse, population based cohort Asian-American men were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile at diagnosis. This association varied by racial/ethnic group and nativity, and was not attributable to later stage at diagnosis. This suggests that Asian men may have biological differences that predispose to more severe disease. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This dissertation, comprising four appended papers, examines what entrepreneurs actually do in order to manage the intrinsic social complexity pertaining to relations of power and culture involved in entrepreneurial undertakings. The studies share the common interest in probing into the ways inwhich fundamental social divisions and conflicts, namely gender, ethnicity and class are inscribed into the entrepreneurs through the organization of difference (Ashcraft, 2012) and how these shape and ...
Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A
Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shetty, N; Shemko, M; Abbas, A
The objectives were to study knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding tuberculosis (TB) among Somalian subjects in inner London. We administered structured, fixed response KAP questionnaires to 23 patients (culture proved TB), and two groups of controls: 25 contacts (family members) and 27 lay controls (general Somali immigrant population). Responses were summed on a five-point scale. Most were aware of the infectious nature of TB but uncertain of other risk factors. Many were uncertain about coping with the disease and its effect on lifestyle. Belief in biomedicine for TB was unequivocal with men having a significantly higher belief score than women (p = 0.02); the need to comply with TB medication was unambiguously understood. Somalians interviewed were educated, multilingual, and aware of important health issues. Uncertainties in core TB knowledge need to be addressed with direct educational input, especially in women and recent entrants into the country. Volunteers from the established Somalian community could play a valuable part as links in the community to fight TB.
Polek, Elzbieta; Woehrle, Joachim; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This study investigates the relationships between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of European immigrants in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the role of the cultural distance between native and host cultures as it pertains to the adjustment of immigrants has been
Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard
This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Ulrike M Vieten
Full Text Available The paper pinpoints some crucial themes of European belonging arising in the narratives of minority key activists with various hyphened legal national citi-zenship status, e.g. South Asian Brits, Moroccan-Dutch and Turkish/ Kurd-ish-Germans. The interviews capture how visible minorities’ perspectives on European belonging are influenced by structural racism, but also by national-ly specific discourses of symbolic inclusion or exclusion of ethnic minorities respectively. In this original research project in total 43 key minority activists, men and women and all of middle class social status were interviewed between au-tumn 2009 and summer 2012, e.g. pre-Brexit, in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. The findings of the study underline ambivalent post-cosmopolitan identities and more contradictory notions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity in Britain and the Netherlands, due to specific colonial / post-colonial contexts, and a different use of these categories in Britain and the rest of Europe. The minor-ity citizens interviewed in Germany expressed a more troubled position here as their relationship to the European Union is influenced by their feelings of belonging to Turkey, the latter outside the EU and at the border of Europe. As the ‘new’ citizens interviewed in this sample live in major cities, such as London, Berlin and Amsterdam, individual feelings of belonging to Europe, perceptions of being European and cosmopolitan were very much shaped by the concrete city spaces and a positive identification with metropolitan urban identity.
Central Office of Information, London (England).
This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…
Henke, Antje; Thuss-Patience, Peter; Behzadi, Asita; Henke, Oliver
Since the late 1950's, a steadily increasing immigrant population in Germany is resulting in a subpopulation of aging immigrants. The German health care system needs to adjust its services-linguistically, culturally, and medically-for this subpopulation of patients. Immigrants make up over 20% of the population in Germany, yet the majority receive inadequate medical care. As many of the labor immigrants of the 1960s and 1970s are in need of hospice and palliative care (HPC), little is known about this specialized care for immigrants. This epidemiological study presents utilization of HPC facilities in Berlin with a focus on different immigrant groups. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from patients at 34 HPC institutions in Berlin over 20 months. All newly admitted patients were recruited. Anonymized data were coded and analyzed by using SPSS and compared with the population statistics of Berlin. 4118 questionnaires were completed and included in the analysis. At 11.4% the proportion of immigrants accessing HPC was significantly (pimmigrants in Berlin population, 17.7% immigrants in HPC population) and 61-70 years (16,9% vs. 13,1%). The largest ethnic groups are Turks, Russians, and Poles, with a different weighting than in the general population: Turkish immigrants were 24% of all Berlin immigrants, but only 13.6% of the study immigrant population (OR: 0.23, 95%CI: 0.18-0.29, pimmigrants account for 5.6% and 9.2% in the population, but 11.5% and 24.8% in the study population respectively (Russian: OR 0.88, 95%CI: 0.66-1.16; Polish: OR 1.17, 95%CI: 0.97-1.42). Palliative care wards (PC) were used most often (16.7% immigrants of all PC patients); outpatient hospice services were used least often by immigrants (11.4%). Median age at first admission to HPC was younger in immigrants than non-immigrants: 61-70 vs. 71-80, p = 0.03. Immigrants are underrepresented in Berlin´s HPC and immigrants on average make use of care at a younger age than non-immigrants
Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.
OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether
This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections
Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig
were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...
Liudmila R. Sadykova
Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups
Denmark lost the war in 1848-50 against the German States, and Danish nationalism had arisen throughout the country. For this reason the descendants of the German immigrants had a need culturally or politically to show their Danish identity through the names about 20 years before the language......In 1760, invited by king Frederik V, immigrants came to Denmark from the southern parts of Germany. Uninhabited moorlands in Jutland needed to be cultivated and the German immigrants were offered a number of inducements to settle in Viborg County. Many of the German immigrants settled in a single...... parish, Frederik’s Parish. Here the German language was used for services in the parish church until 1856. Thereafter German and Danish services alternated, and from 1870 the church language was solely Danish. This investigation shows that in 1801, after about 40 years in Denmark, the immigrants...
In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…
Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Immigration involves extensive changes in living environments. Nonetheless, the predominant approach in the health science literature has been to utilize individual characteristics (including ethnic background) to explain and predict immigrants' lived experiences and health outcomes. Contexts, particularly the larger societal contexts by which immigrants are constituted, are generally ignored. Data from a critical ethnography regarding immigrants' experiences with language, occupation, and economic survival in the United States are utilized to illustrate that immigrants' lives are inseparable from the larger societal contexts, such as immigration policy, Western imperialism, and structural discrimination. The implications for practice, education, and research are discussed.
Telzer, Eva H.; Vazquez Garcia, Heidie A.
Research has increasingly identified race as a salient characteristic that affects one's life experiences and psychological well-being. However, little is known about how skin color affects the emotional health of Latinos. The present study examined how skin color relates to the self-perceptions of immigrant (N = 26) and U.S.-born (N = 55) Latina…
Suurmond, Jeanine; Uiters, Ellen; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
Objectives. We explored characteristics of in-hospital care and treatment of immigrant patients to better understand the processes underlying ethnic disparities in patient safety. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with care providers regarding patient safety events involving immigrant
Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.
Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael
Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in
Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.
Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231
Lewis, Brian A.
Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…
Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry
Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n=3114, mean age=58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFIjob demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored. (149/150 limit) PMID:20582720
Enrique E. Raya Lozano
Full Text Available The English-speaking Canada and the rebellious Frenchspeaking «province» of Quebec are going through a broad and deep identity crisis that dates back to the 19th century, but intensified in the new age of globalization. A country created by immigration, it is still a country of immigration and one of the most multiethnic countries in the world. Multiculturalism is the model of political management that belongs to this diversity and the ideology that legitimates it —a Canadian inventio— at the same time that it recognizes, ignores and eludes the internal conflict —the Canada-Quebec conflict— that implicitly determines the differentiated migratory policies of both political communities. On its part, Quebequian multiculturalism («interculturalism» shows two different models (pro-assimilation and pro differentiation. These tensions, ambiguities, and diversity of models shape the current Canadian and Quebequian debate about citizenship, which conditions and functions as a frame of reference for social work (professional social intervention with immigrants, very developed both in theory and in practice in this American country, and that is aware of the political challenges offered by multiculturalism in Ottawa and Quebec. The study and evaluation of this dynamic reality can be extremely useful in Europe, both North and South, for working out public policies and organizing social work in a multiethnic environment.
Damm, Anna Piil
This paper exploits a Danish spatial dispersal policy on refugees which can be regarded a natural experiment to investigate the influence of regional factors on recent immigrants' locational choices. The main push factors are lack of co-ethnics and presence of immigrants. Additional push factors...
Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.
This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…
Stewart, David W.
Changes in immigration patterns bring problems and opportunities to higher education. New federal law significantly changes the ethnic and skills mix of the immigrant pool. Issues emerging include potential brain drain; pressure for curriculum change; language as a barrier to access; and the rights of illegal immigrants to higher education. (MSE)
Voon, Shi Jing; Pearson, Emma
This pilot study was designed to shed light on Malaysian-Chinese parents' beliefs about ethnic identity and cultural maintenance in children's socialisation following migration. Three Malaysian-Chinese families residing in Sydney, Australia, with at least one child within the early childhood age range of 4-8 years, participated in the study.…
Ademir Valdir dos Santos
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta dados de pesquisa sobre a organização escolar e curricular de escolas primárias na colônia catarinense Hansa, fundada em 1897. Foi baseado na análise de documentos da Companhia Colonizadora Hamburguesa. Os resultados mostram peculiaridades como o ensino em alemão e o currículo focalizado no Cálculo e na aprendizagem da língua e cultura alemãs nas disciplinas de Leitura, Escrita, Poesia, Canto, Religião e Latim. Porém, havia matérias como Português e História, que abordavam questões brasileiras. Nos seus primeiros anos, as instituições mantiveram aspectos pedagógicos que as caracterizam como típicas expressões do fenômeno das escolas étnicas: as escolas alemãs [Deutsch Schulen]. Elas atenderam a necessidade de escola, embasadas por um conjunto de práticas educativas de cunho étnico que mesclaram aspectos culturais estrangeiros àqueles do contexto brasileiro. O uso da língua alemã constituiu um indicador étnico essencial. A compreensão dessas instituições escolares na história da educação brasileira é parametrizada pelas relações entre currículo e cultura, considerando a questão étnica como fator central na análise dos processos sociais.This article presents data on school organization and curricula for primary schools in the Hansa colony in Santa Catarina, founded in 1897 in Brazil. It has been based on an analysis of documents belonging to the Colonizing Company of Hamburg [Companhia Colonizadora Hamburguesa]. The results show particularities such as German-medium teaching and a curriculum focusing on Calculus and the study of the German language and culture in subjects such as Reading, Writing, Poetry, Singing, Religion and Latin. There were, however, subjects such as Portuguese and History, which addressed Brazilian issues. In their early years, these institutions maintained pedagogical aspects that mark them as typical expressions of the ethnic school phenomenon: the German
Tatiana V. Govenko
Full Text Available German settlements in Russia have been known since the ancient times, however larger settlements appeared only after the “Мanifesto” issued by Empress Catherine II. Settling in Volga Region, Novorossiya, Crimea, the Caucasus, and Siberia, German colonists preserved German language, customs, traditions, songs, tales, household items, musical instruments, costumes, and cuisine — all those identity and ethnic codes that tied them to their historical homeland and, at the same time, distinguished them from the neighboring nations. Autonomous and closed character of German settlements in Russia, their long-term isolation from their nation and its cultural and historical core as well as the impossibility of modernization in step with their historical motherland contributed to the preservation of language and elements of the immigrant traditional culture in the alien environment. Vegetation was carried out at the expense of inner resources and those of the neighboring nations leading to the transformation of “the national spirit and manners.” New sub-ethnic group of “Russian Germans” formed a considerable part of the pre-revolutionary Russian population but at the beginning of the 20th century, due to the unfavorable political and military circumstances, the state forced administrative sanctions on German population that led to further destruction of the ethnic area as well as of the cultural, social, and economic conditions necessary for its development. Later, this situation got worse due to the Stalin regime, Nazi attack on the Soviet Union, and general reluctance of the state to preserve this ethnic group in a favorable condition. In the 1990s, Russian Germans massively resettled in Germany. Over the past 20 years, the number of the settlers has decreased by seven times. In Germany, “Russian Germans” faced the question of self-identity. If until the beginning of the 20th century their heritage language had been one of the German
The central focus of this research has been to document immigrant and non-immigrant students' storytelling practices and cultural knowledge and identify how these might be adapted as "cultural data sets" for academic literary study in ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous, middle-grade classrooms. Such data sets, however, have limited use…
Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul
Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses. Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics. This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD). While Korean immigrants used e...
Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Henrik Mäkinen, Ilkka
Little research has focused on the relation of immigration and suicidal behaviour in youth. Nevertheless, the impact of migration on the mental health of youth is an issue of increasing societal importance. This review aimed to present studies on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in various countries and to provide possible explanations for suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth, especially regarding acculturation. The review included a literature search to locate articles on the subject of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in the context of acculturation. Studies on suicidal behaviour in culturally diverse youth are few and most of the existing research does not differentiate ethnic minorities from immigrants. Studies on epidemiology and on specific risk factors were found regarding various immigrant youth including Hispanics in the United States, Asians in North America and Europe, as well as comparative studies between different immigrant groups in specific countries. The relation between immigration status and suicidal behaviours in youth appears to vary by ethnicity and country of settlement. Time spent in the new country as well as intergenerational communication and conflicts with parents have, in many of the studies, been related to suicidality in immigrant youth. Summing up, there is a clear and urgent need to further pursue the work in this field, to develop targeted public health interventions as well as psychosocial treatment for preventing suicide in these youth.
Kerr, William R.; Mandorff, Martin
We study the relationship between ethnicity, occupational choice, and entrepreneurship. Immigrant groups in the United States cluster in specific business sectors. For example, the concentration of Korean self-employment in dry cleaners is 34 times greater than other immigrant groups, and Gujarati-speaking Indians are similarly 108 times more concentrated in managing motels. We develop a model of social interactions where non-work relationships facilitate the acquisition of sector-specific sk...
The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.
Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua
Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.
Kalbach, Madeline A.
Full Text Available EnglishThis paper focuses on the relationship between the retention of ethnic andcultural distinctiveness and economic inequality for Ukrainians, Germans, Italians, Chinese, and southEast Asians. It uses Canadian census data to test predictions arising from assimilation theory byexamining the possible varying effects of religion on economic inequality for the five ethnic groupsin order to determine whether assimilation theory and the multidimensional effect of ethnicity canpredict within group variations. This analysis lends emphasis to the fact that retention of ethnic-connectedness and distinctiveness may create obstacles for the immigrant attempting to achieveeconomic success in Canada.FrenchCet article porte sur la relation entre le maintien du particularisme ethniques ou culturel et l'inégalité économique des Ukrainiens, des Allemands, des Italiens, des Chinois et des ressortissants du Sud-Est asiatique. Les auteurs utilisent des données de recensement canadiennes pour vérifier les prédictions relatives à la théorie de l'assimilation en examinant les divers effets éventuels de la religion sur l'inégalité économique de cinq groupes ethniques dans le but de déterminer si la théorie de l'assimilation et les effets multidimensionnels de l'ethnicité peuvent prédire les écarts au sein d'un groupe. Cette analyse vient renforcer le fait que le maintien de l'interdépendance et du particularisme ethniques peut créer des obstacles pour les immigrants canadiens qui désirent réussir sur le plan économique.
Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.
Sergei A. Shchebetenko
Full Text Available The author examined how need for cognition may contribute to the attitudes toward immigrants among Russian students. It was shown that although need for cognition may not correlate with attitude toward immigrants directly it might either interact with other factors or influence several relations of attitudes. Specifically, low need for cognition may facilitate the application of immigrants' ethnicity as a cue for the attitudes toward immigrants. On the contrary, those participants having highneed for cognition probably may not use immigrants ethnicity as a cue for attitudes. Additionally, need for cognition might make attitudes toward immigrants more positive among Russian women comparing with Russian men. Furthermore, a positive correlation between perceived stereotypicity and attitude toward immigrants was eliminated among lowneed for cognition participants. Moreover, this correlation has become even negative among lowneed for cognition males. The results of the study are discussed.
understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...
Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M
Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Examines the increase in immigration and foreign nationals in European countries since the 1950s. Points out that liberal immigration laws made Germany the most popular haven for refugees and others. Contends that Germans will have to adjust to a multicultural Germany within a multicultural Europe. (CFR)
Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.K.; Van de Schoot, R.
The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate
Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.; van de Schoot, R.
The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate
Fietkau, Sebastian; Hansen, Kasper Møller
background, and gender in Denmark and Germany. For women, an additional split in which half of the women wore a headscarf is performed. In both countries, highly skilled immigrants are preferred to low-skilled immigrants. Danes are more skeptical toward non-Western immigration than Germans. Essentially, less...
Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.
Peguero, Anthony A.a
Anthony Peguero speaks about his research on adolescent violence, socialization and marginalization, school bullying, race and ethnicity, and the adaptation of the children immigrants. It is well established that violence can seriously lead to mental health disorders, disrupt interpersonal social relationships, derail educational progress, and negatively impact life-course trajectories for youth. Despite the prevalence and problems associated with youth violence, studies that examine the disp...
This dissertation examines how gentrification—a class transformation—unfolds along racial and ethnic lines. Using a new conceptual framework, considering the city-level context of immigration and residential segregation, examining the pace and place of gentrification, and employing a new method, I conduct three sets of empirical analyses. I argue that racial and ethnic neighborhood characteristics, including changes brought by the growth of Asians and Latinos following immigration policy refo...
Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
This paper investigates whether or not the self-employment choice is different among ethnic Danish men and male immigrants from less developed countries. The main issue is to determine whether or not the large incidence of self-employment among immigrants can be explained by past difficulties...
Storen, Liv Anne; Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke
This article compares the labour market situation of graduates with different types of international background. The authors look at four groups of graduates: immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated in Norway and immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated abroad. By employing multinomial logistic regression analyses the authors find that ethnic…
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Douglass, John Aubrey; Thomson, Gregg
One of the major characteristics of globalization is the large influx of immigrant groups moving largely from underdeveloped regions to developed economies. California offers one of the most robust examples of a large-scale, postmodern demographic transition that includes a great racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity of immigrant groups, many of…
Creighton, Mathew J.; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Chung, Chang Y.
Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity. PMID:22575698
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. Methods The body mass index (BMI was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. Results The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6–7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity, the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1% than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%. When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032 Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. Conclusion Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry.
Khakoo, Mohamed Hussein Turabali
Immigrant entrepreneurship has always existed and has developed remarkably. It is related to migration flows over time and has brought increasing attention from researchers and management practitioners in recent years. The research sets out to investigate the process by which immigrants enter into entrepreneurship. The idea of starting a small business and the internationalization strategies they follow. A homogeneous ethnic minority is researched upon, the East African Asians who had migrate...
Deding, Mette; Fridberg, Torben; Jakobsen, Vibeke
The purpose of this paper is to study how various characteristics of respondents and interviewers affect non-response among immigrants. We use a survey conducted among immigrants in Denmark and ethnic Danes. First, we analyse the determinants of overall non-response. Second, we analyse how...... the determinants of contact and of response given contact differ. We find that characteristics of the respondents are important for the response rate – especially they are important for the probability of getting in contact with the respondent. The lower probability of response among immigrants compared to ethnic...
Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.
Sergio I. Garcia-Rios; Matt A. Barreto
Social identity theorists have long studied identity as one of the prime determinants of behavior. However, political scientists have had a hard time identifying consistent patterns between ethnic identity and political participation, especially among immigrants. In this paper, we take a more complex approach and explore whether a sense of immigrant linked fate is salient in explaining political participation among immigrants and, further, what may have caused immigrant identity to become so ...
Full Text Available On the basis of the latest statistics, the author estimates the present share of first- and second-generation immigrants in Slovenia’s population. After examining the quantity and intensity of those public efforts in Slovenia that have been focused on unresolved problems of the immigrants’ social and cultural integration, she continues to question the equality of immigrant minorities in Slovenia, and the sufficiency of the existing programs aimed at facilitating their integration with Slovenian society at large. She explains her doubts about the general assumption that a very clear distinction should be made between the rights of the autochthonous minorities and those of the immigrant ones as far as their special protection is concerned. In the third section of this article, the author discusses the social-ethnic stratification of Slovenian society and tries to look into the psychological background of the nationality/ethnicity statistics. She presents some aspects of the immigrants’ daily experience in Slovenian social, cultural, educational and working milieu, and points to the authorities’ attitude toward them. She comments on the burning issue of the “deleted residents”, and illustrates it with the experience of one of the persons involved. The fourth section, in which the most regular symptoms of Slovenian xenophobia are presented, consists of first-hand observations and focuses on the daily human attitude of the national majority towards the immigrant minorities. Finally the author compares the nature of the specific needs of Slovenians as a “European national minority” with the needs of the immigrant minorities in Slovenia.
The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is empirically studied from three different perspectives. From an acculturation perspective, findings in Chapter 3 indicate that non-western immigrant workers are most healthy at work when they are abl...
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2016, ... question – what shapes the ethnic identity of immigrants in the context of sport participation? ... tends to be determined by the quality of experience they have when ..... International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(2): 203-229.
Coombs, Virginia M.
This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)
Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...
Wilson, Fernando A; Wang, Yang; Stimpson, Jim P
To characterize utilization of office-based optometry services by immigration status using a nationally representative database. The 2007 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is used to examine adults aged 18 years and older. Respondents were classified as US natives, naturalized citizens, and noncitizens. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the relationship of having visited an office-based optometrist within the past 12 months by immigrant status, adjusting for age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, marital status, self-reported vision difficulty, use of corrective lenses, poverty status, insurance, language barrier and usual source of care. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition identified factors that perpetuate or ameliorate disparities in utilization across immigrant groups. The proportion of US natives who had visited an optometrist within the past year was 7.2%, almost three times higher than that for noncitizens (2.5%). Among respondents who reported vision difficulties, only 47.9% of noncitizens used corrective lenses compared with 71.0% of naturalized citizens and 71.6% of US natives. Adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression showed that naturalized citizens and noncitizen residents had significantly lower odds than US natives of receiving optometry services (naturalized citizen adjusted odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.89; noncitizen adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53). Decomposition analysis suggested that 17% of the disparity in utilization between noncitizens and US natives resulted from barriers to care such as language barriers, poverty, lack of insurance, and not having a usual source of health care. Prior literature suggests that immigrants have significantly poorer clinical vision outcomes than US natives. Our findings suggest that this disparity in clinical vision outcomes may result from underutilization of optometry services by immigrants compared with US
Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G
hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...
Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.
The student booklet presents short chapters illustrating the migration unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Sixteen brief chapters describe migration, immigration, and emigration in the United States. The first six chapters offer first person accounts of immigrants from Norway, Korea, Egypt, Hitler's…
Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong
The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.
David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L
Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.
Sweden is one of the European countries that has gradually changed from a mainly ethnically homogeneous society into a multi-ethnic society. This change began in the late 1940s and has increased in pace, especially since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this thesis is to understand, describe and analyze the factors that contribute to poor health among female immigrants in Sweden, from the perspectives of class, gender and ethnicity. This thesis is based on four differ...
Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López
The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin
Crosnoe, Robert; López Turley, Ruth N.
Summary The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K–12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K–12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths’ English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially
The effects of language bias and cultural bias estimated using the method of correlated vectors on a large database of IQ comparisons between native Dutch and ethnic minority immigrants from non-Western countries
te Nijenhuis, J.; Willigers, D.; Dragt, J.; van der Flier, H.
Cultural factors and language bias are often used to explain the large differences in mean intelligence test scores between ethnic groups, for instance majority Dutch compared to ethnic minorities. A competing explanation comes from Spearman's hypothesis, which states that these group differences in
Full Text Available Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009. The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In further contextualisation of the achievement results, the analysis seeks explanations beyond the common education system explanatory model. Specifically, the article considers results from Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia, highlighting the significance of language distance between native and immigrant students as well as migration regimes as important factors in creating or reducing the achievement gap between native and immigrant students. Evidence has been found that immigrant students score worse in countries with guest labour immigration regimes than in the countries with large scale forced immigration of people of the same ethnic (linguistic origin.
Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos
To examine the effect of immigration on the self-reported oral health of immigrants to Canada over a 4-year period. The study used Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC 2001-2005). The target population comprised 3976 non-refugee immigrants to Canada. The dependent variable was self-reported dental problems. The independent variables were as follows: age, sex, ethnicity, income, education, perceived discrimination, history of social assistance, social support, and official language proficiency. A generalized estimation equation approach was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. After 2 years, the proportion of immigrants reporting dental problems more than tripled (32.6%) and remained approximately the same at 4 years after immigrating (33.3%). Over time, immigrants were more likely to report dental problems (OR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.55-3.02). An increase in self-reported dental problems over time was associated with sex, history of social assistance, total household income, and self-perceived discrimination. An increased likelihood of reporting dental problems occurred over time. Immigrants should arguably constitute an important focus of public policy and programmes aimed at improving their oral health and access to dental care in Canada. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: There is a growing literature on the dynamics of immigrant fertility and mixed marriages, but partnership transitions among immigrants and ethnic minorities are little studied. Objective: This study investigates union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply the techniques of event history analysis. We contrast partnership trajectories of various immigrant groups and compare these with those of the 'native' British population. Results: The analysis shows significant differences in partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Women of Caribbean origin have the highest cohabitation and the lowest marriage rates, whereas cohabitation remains rare among immigrants from South Asia and their descendants, as most of them marry directly. Immigrants from the Caribbean region and their descendants also show higher divorce rates than 'native' British women, whereas women of South Asian origin have a low divorce risk.
Newman, A. M.; Spengler, R. F.
Ontario is home to a sizeable, recently established immigrant population whose cancer mortality has until now remained unexamined. The province's six largest immigrant groups (British, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish and Soviet) were investigated to compare their cancer mortality experience with that prevailing in Ontario and in their countries of birth for the period 1969 through 1973. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed from data from Statistics Canada and the World Health Org...
Full Text Available Host country satisfaction, as an index of immigr ants’ psychological adaptation, has particular importance for immigrant communities in the destination country. We explain immigrant adolescents’ satisfaction with their level of life in Spain by examining the contribution of sociodemographic variables, ethnic and mainstream identification, the perception of ethnic group discrimination, and the length of time lived in the host country. We examine a group of 347 Moroccans and Ecuadorians adolescent immigrants, two of the biggest immigrant communities in Spain that differ in their cultural distance (e.g., language, religion to the mainstream culture. We provide empirical evidences that; first, Spanish language proficiency, mainstream (and not ethnic identification, and time lived in Spain are positivel y related to host country satisfaction; second, immigrants’ perception of ethnic discrimination is negatively associated with host country satisfaction; and third, cultural distance to the mainstream does not significantly moderate these associations (i.e. the relationships are similar for the two ethnic groups. Considering these results, social policies aimed at promoting positive attitudes towards cultural diversity and supporting immigrants’ participation in the host society should be encouraged.
Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles
In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…
Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J
To compare functional health literacy (HL) levels in three immigrant groups to those of the German- and Italian-speaking non-immigrant population in Switzerland. Moreover, to investigate whether language-independent, respectively language-dependent, functional HL and variables of acculturation were associated with self-reported health status among immigrants. Language-independent HL was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) in the respective native languages. Language-dependent HL was measured using Brief Health Literacy Screeners (BHLS) asking about participants' confidence in understanding medical information in the language of the host country. Measures of acculturation included length of stay and age when taking residency in Switzerland. In particular Albanian- and Portuguese-speaking immigrants had lower levels of functional HL. In unadjusted analysis "age when taking residency in Switzerland" was associated with the BHLS. Adjusted analysis showed that the BHLS were significantly associated with self-reported health among all immigrant groups (p≤0.01). Functional HL that is dependent on understanding of medical information in the language of the new host country is a better predictor for self-reported health status among immigrants than language-independent HL. In the clinical setting limited functional HL might be a significant obstacle to successful disease treatment and prevention in immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bermejo, I; Hölzel, L P; Kriston, L; Härter, M
Analysis of barriers regarding attendance at the health care system under consideration of cultural and migration-related factors. Cross-sectional survey with immigrants from Turkey (n = 77), Spain (n = 67), Italy (n = 95) and German resettlers from the former Soviet Union (n = 196), recruited on migration and addiction services of the German Caritasverband, the Arbeiterwohlfahrt and migrant organizations. Spanish and Italian immigrants mainly search for help within their families and social environment. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union use home remedies and experience more linguistic difficulties as barriers for the use of health services, just like Turkish immigrants. Turkish immigrants reported feeling misunderstood regarding their cultural peculiarities by the expert staff as another main barrier. Other major influencing factors were German language proficiency and the subjective wellbeing in Germany. The consideration of cultural-related as well as linguistic factors in health care services is an essential contribution for improving health care of immigrants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.
Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm
The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation...
Department of Education and Science, London (England).
This paper recognizes the need to educate children, especially immigrant pupils, and adults for life in a multiracial society, while making observations on a British select committee report on race relations and immigration. The paper accepts the committee's view that many of those born in Great Britain who belong to minority ethnic groups will…
Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung
The underachievement of ethnic minority youth from disadvantaged neighborhoods is a pervasive educational issue this nation is facing. Based on an ecological perspective, we examined the contextual effects of neighborhood ethnic density and neighborhood disadvantage on the academic achievement of Hmong immigrant youths. Utilizing hierarchical…
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.
to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....
The ethnic minority population of the US continues to increase due to rising minority birth rates coupled with the influx of ethnic immigrants to America's cities, suburbs and towns (Parrillo 1994). Based on present immigration trends, by the year 2050, 22 percent of the US population will be Hispanic and 10 percent will be Asian (US Department of Commerce 1994)....
Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian
Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie
PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...
Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter
Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school composition for intergenerational differences in religious salience. We perform analyses on religious salience, one five-point Likert scale item me...
Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora
In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48-1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29-1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19-0.29) to 0.07 (0.01-0.12) and 0.12 (0.07-0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions
Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo
Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Tammaru, T.; Strömgren, M.; Van Ham, M.; Danzer, A.M.
Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research shows that while residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse within cities, residential segregation from natives has overall remained persistently high. High levels of
This paper evaluates the economic benefits of self-employment in Canada for 12 groups of ethno-racial immigrants. It tests whether or not their self-employment earnings are higher or lower than similar groups in wage and salary employment, whether ethnic minorities earn more or less from self-employment compared to White immigrants, and whether self-employment earnings of immigrant groups vary by their industrial sectors of employment. Using the Canadian Census 2006, I show that self-employed ethno-racial immigrants earn less than White immigrants. I also show that the economic benefits of self-employment depend on the ethno-racial groups and the industrial mix of their self-employment. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
such as affirmative action and immigration, we examine the extent to which American attitudes toward immigration can be conceptualized from a Blumerian sense of group position without setting Allport’s contact theory as an alternative hypothesis. Our findings show cultural and ideological threat, and subjective...... economic threat as more important in informing attitudes toward immigration than objective economic conditions; and social and ethnic location threat. Our findings are consistent with and confirm Blumer’s argument that prejudice as a sense of group position is primarily derived from feelings, and are...
Olsen, Tore Vincents
and discursive opportunity structures immigrants face as ethnic and religious minorities. The article analyzes the Danish political culture with regard to the potential barriers it has for the inclusion of immigrants in national political life. It finds that the predominantly liberal, secular and republican......In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional...
Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R
This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.
Butler, Broadus N.
Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…
Education of Ethnic Minorities; Comments on the Consultative Document Issued by the Department of Education & Science on the Report on the West Indian Community Issued by the Select Committee on Race Relations & Immigration. Occasional Paper No. 1.
Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).
This paper presents the Commission's views on the scope of a proposed inquiry into the educational underachievement of West Indian children and into other aspects of the education of ethnic minority children in general. Objectives and suggestions for meeting these objectives in the proposed inquiry are outlined. These include: (1) basic skills in…
Evaluation of sun holiday, diet habits, origin and other factors as determinants of vitamin D status in Swedish primary health care patients: a cross-sectional study with regression analysis of ethnic Swedish and immigrant women.
Björk, Anne; Andersson, Åsa; Johansson, Gunnar; Björkegren, Karin; Bardel, Annika; Kristiansson, Per
Determinants of vitamin D status measured as 25-OH-vitamin D in blood are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D through food and supplements. It is unclear how large the contributions are from these determinants in Swedish primary care patients, considering the low radiation of UVB in Sweden and the fortification of some foods. Asian and African immigrants in Norway and Denmark have been found to have very low levels, but it is not clear whether the same applies to Swedish patients. The purpose of our study was to identify contributors to vitamin D status in Swedish women attending a primary health care centre at latitude 60°N in Sweden. In this cross-sectional, observational study, 61 female patients were consecutively recruited between January and March 2009, irrespective of reason for attending the clinic. The women were interviewed about their sun habits, smoking, education and food intake at a personal appointment and blood samples were drawn for measurements of vitamin D and calcium concentrations. Plasma concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D below 25 nmol/L was found in 61% (19/31) of immigrant and 7% (2/30) of native women. Multivariate analysis showed that reported sun holiday of one week during the last year at latitude below 40°N with the purpose of sun-bathing and native origin, were significantly, independently and positively associated with 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma with the strongest association for sun holiday during the past year. Vitamin D deficiency was common among the women in the present study, with sun holiday and origin as main determinants of 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma. Given a negative effect on health this would imply needs for vitamin D treatment particularly in women with immigrant background who have moved from lower to higher latitudes.
A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Saha, Sanjib; Leijon, Matti; Gerdtham, Ulf; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Arvidsson, Daniel; Bennet, Louise
Studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients. However, research on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in high-risk immigrant populations with different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds is scarce. The aim was to design a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for an immigrant population and to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. In this randomized controlled trial, 308 participants (born in Iraq, living in Malmö, Sweden and at high risk of type 2 diabetes) will be allocated to either a culturally adapted intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 10 group counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity and behavioral change over 6 months, and the offer of exercise sessions. Cultural adaptation includes gender-specific exercise sessions, and counseling by a health coach community member. The control group will receive the information about healthy lifestyle habits provided by the primary health care center. The primary outcome is change in fasting glucose level. Secondary outcomes are changes in body mass index, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, food habits and health-related quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. The cost-effectiveness during the trial period and over the longer term will be assessed by simulation modeling from patient, health care and societal perspectives. This study will provide a basis to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention designed for immigrants from the Middle East in terms of improvement in glucose metabolism, and will also assess its cost-effectiveness. Results from this trial may help health care providers and policy makers to adapt and implement lifestyle interventions suitable for this population group that can be conducted in the community. Clinical
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...
Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...
Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso
We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...
Tolzmann, Don Heinrich
A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)
Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J
This study aimed at investigating the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims in people suffering from back pain. Further, it aimed at identifying in how far causal attributions and related coping maxims would defer between immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data for this study came from a larger survey study that was conducted among immigrant populations in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Included in the analyses were native Swiss participants, as well as Albanian- and Serbian-speaking immigrants, who had indicated to have suffered from back pain within the last 12 months prior to the study. Data was analyzed for overall 495 participants. Items for causal attributions and coping maxims were subject to factor analyses. Cultural differences were assessed with ANOVA and regression analyses. Interaction terms were included to investigate whether the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims would differ with cultural affiliation. For both immigrant groups the physician's influence on the course of their back pain was more important than for Swiss participants (p immigrant groups were more likely to agree with maxims that were related to the improvement of the back pain, as well as the acceptance of the current situation (p immigrants and non-immigrants exist. Further, the results support the assumption of an association between causal attribution and coping maxims. However cultural affiliation did not considerably moderate this relationship.
Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Toselli, Stefania; Masotti, Sabrina; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
The increasing population diversity in Europe demands clarification of possible ethnic influences on the growth and health of immigrant children and their psychosocial adaptation to the host countries. This article assesses recent data on immigrant children in Europe in comparison to European natives by means of a systematic review of the literature on growth patterns and data on children's health and adaptation. There were wide variations across countries in growth patterns and development of immigrant children and natives, with different trends in Central and Northern Europe with respect to Southern Europe. In general, age at menarche was lower in immigrant girls, while male pubertal progression seemed faster in immigrants than in European natives, even when puberty began after. Owing to the significant differences in anthropometric traits (mainly stature and weight), new reference growth curves for immigrant children were constructed for the largest minority groups in Central Europe. Possible negative effects on growth, health and psychosocial adaptation were pointed out for immigrant children living in low income, disadvantaged communities with a high prevalence of poor lifestyle habits. In conclusion, this review provides a framework for the health and growth of immigrant children in Europe in comparison to native-born children: the differences among European countries in growth and development of migrants and non-migrants are closely related to the clear anthropological differences among the ethnic groups due to genetic influences. Higher morbidity and mortality was frequently associated with the minority status of these children and their low socio-economic status. The observed ethnic differences in health reveal the need for adequate health care in all groups. Therefore, we provide suggestions for the development of health care strategies in Europe. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association
Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza
This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.
Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E.; Baston, Christie
The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration often focuses on panethnic differences and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican, Mexican, Chinese, and Filipino origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a less extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840
Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.
This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…
Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes the experiences of a group of intentional immigrant entrepreneurs (IIEs who have successfully set up a business within three years of arrival in a new country. It shows how various forms of symbolic capital are successfully deployed at each stage of the entrepreneurial process and asserts that the study of intentional, well-resourced immigrants, can contribute to understanding immigrant entrepreneurs’ adaptation to their new settings and also inform immigration policy. Research Design & Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of New Zealand intentional immigrant entrepreneurs. The iterative analytical process used revealed the various dimensions of symbolic capital necessary for adaptation to the host country and to fulfilling visa requirements to gain residency. Findings: This paper demonstrates that the successful adaptation of IIEs, while in the first instance requiring adequate financial capital, also requires the strategic use of human, cultural and social capital, in different ways and at different times in the entrepreneurial process, to overcome the obstacles and barriers to success. Implications & Recommendations: As immigration policy makers seek to balance global migrant pressures and international obligations against internal national economic and political demands, the results of this study could resonate with both global policy analysts and scholars engaged in immigrant entrepreneurship. Contribution & Value Added: This article adds to the relatively small body of scholarship on IIEship, particularly those who, unlike the majority of immigrant entrepreneurs, do not establish a business within ethnic communities.
Jang, Sou Hyun
This study examined factors associated with first-generation Korean immigrants' medical tours to the homeland, which has emerged as a field of study in immigrant medical transnationalism and immigrant healthcare behaviors. This paper reports survey data from 507 Korean immigrants and indepth interviews with 120 Korean immigrants in the New York-New Jersey area. About one-fourth of survey respondents have visited their home country for medical care since their migration to the US. Of those with relatives in Korea, 29% have experienced at least one medical tour, compared to only 9.2% of those without relatives in Korea. Having frequent contacts with relatives in the home country was positively associated with the number of medical tour visits. Except for social transnational ties, other types of transnational ties with the home country were marginally related to Korean immigrants' medical tourism. Surprisingly, their health insurance status itself, which is assumed to be important, was not statistically associated with medical tourism. Although this study has the limitation of analyzing a convenience sample, it contributes to the literature on immigrant transnationalism and immigrant healthcare behaviors by using a mixed-methods approach to focus on one ethnic group's medical transnationalism.
Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M; Valle, Antonio
Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren't found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
Díaz, Esperanza; Hjörleifsson, Stefán
To explore whether and how immigrant general practitioners (GPs) in two major cities in Norway think that their own ethnic background affects their practices and their work. Qualitative focus group and individual interviews with seven immigrant GPs, five men and two women, age 36-65 years. Their clinical experience in Norwegian primary health care ranged from four to 30 years. Analysis was conducted by systematic text condensation. First, immigrant GPs described a gradual process of becoming bicultural: the GPs communicate with immigrant patients on their own terms and draw upon their special knowledge from abroad to help selected patients, while also adapting to Norwegian cultural expectations of the GP's role. Second, the GPs described being aware of cultural issues in consultations with immigrant and Norwegian patients, but rarely making these issues explicit. The GPs ventured that cultural awareness, together with their personal experience in their own countries and as immigrants in Norway, made them able to sometimes help immigrant patients better than Norwegian GPs. Third, immigrant GPs experienced a big workload related to immigrant patients, but they accepted this as a natural part of their work. Fourth, immigrant GPs felt that they had to work harder and be more careful than their Norwegian colleagues in order to avoid complaints from patients, and to be accepted by colleagues. Immigrant GPs express broad cultural competence and keen cultural awareness in their consultations. The immigrant background of these GPs could be considered as a special resource for clinical practice.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market...... prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....
Lien, Else; Nafstad, Per; Rosvold, Elin O
Over the last few years the number of immigrants from the non-western parts of the world living in Oslo, has increased considerably. We need to know if these immigrants are satisfied with the health services they are offered. The aim of this study was to assess whether the immigrants' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners was comparable with that for ethnic Norwegians. Two population-based surveys, the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were performed on selected groups of Oslo citizens in 2000 and 2002. The response rates were 46% and 33%, respectively. In all, 11936 Norwegians and 1102 non-western immigrants from the Oslo Health Study, and 1774 people from the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were included in this analysis. Non-western immigrants' and ethnic Norwegians' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners were analysed with respect to age, gender, health, working status, and use of translators. Bivariate (Chi square) and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were performed. Most participants were either moderately or very satisfied with their last visit to a general practitioner. Non-western immigrants were less satisfied than Norwegians. Dissatisfaction among the immigrants was associated with young age, a feeling of not having good health, and coming from Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, or Vietnam as compared to Sri Lanka. The attendance rates in the surveys were rather low and lowest among the non-western immigrants. Although the degree of satisfaction with the primary health care was relatively high among the participants in these surveys, the non-western immigrants in this study were less satisfied than ethnic Norwegians with their last visit to a general practitioner. The rather low response rates opens for the possibility that the degree of satisfaction may not be representative for all immigrants.
Setia, Maninder Singh; Lynch, John; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie
Using a multi-level random effects logistic model, we examine the contribution of source country, individual characteristics and post-migration experiences to the self-rated health (SRH) of 2468 male and 2614 female immigrants from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2001-2005). Sex/gender differences were found for all categories of health determinants. Source country characteristics explained away some ethnic differentials in health and had independent negative effects, particularly among women. Thus, women from countries lower on the development index appear at greater risk of poor SRH, and should be at the forefront of public health programmes aimed at new immigrants in Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article presents findings from a quantitative survey (N = 301 to evaluate the impact discriminatory incidents have on the attitudes of immigrants towards the majority society in Germany.The findings show that there is a strong relationship between experiences of discrimination and a hostile or alienated attitude towards German society. As an attempt to explain this generalization from single incidents to the macro relation between immigrants and autochthonous Germans in general a theory of framing, taken from developments in the field of rational choice theory, is applied. The reasoning is that a generalizing and rather hostile framing in terms of the attitude towards Germans can minimize psychic, emotional and social costs resulting from acts of discrimination.
Data relating to socio-demographic characteristics, such as continuity with ethnic food culture and the problems faced by Sub-Saharan immigrants with regard to them retaining their traditional food culture was collected. All the respondents indicated that they treasured and maintained their traditional food culture, albeit to ...
Full Text Available Work on creative careers has focused on the main national populations, while little research has addressed the situation of artists and creators of immigrant origin or different ethnic groups to determine whether they have the same access to work and employment rights. To respond for a call for research on different ethnic groups in the cultural sector, or the ethnic consequences of the individualization of careers, we therefore undertook research on the creative careers of immigrants in Montreal. We were interested in how they emerged as an artist, how they developed their careers, the access and rights they have in terms of support to their career, as McRobbie seems to indicate that ethnicity adds its “own weight to the life chances of those who are attempting to make a living in these fields. We found that these immigrant artists consider their main difficulties to be the lack of social networks, access to various forms of support to compensate for financial risks and difficulties in finding a job. We conclude with a few suggestions: measures to facilitate networking for immigrants, more training and information on government programs, mentoring support, as well as the support from community organizations, associations, and programs.
Botswana as at June 2005 when this study was conducted. ... clinics/hospitals for follow-ups in case of certain health conditions; and (iv) The immigrants and ... Perceptions of public healthcare providers a Oucho JO, PhD b Ama NO, PhD a Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick, United Kingdom b ...
Min, Pyong Gap
Compares the business activities of Filipino and Korean immigrants based on census data and other published materials. Formulates hypotheses for differences between these groups based on the following factors: (1) value systems, (2) ethnic resources, (3) level of industrial and business development of home country, and (4) trade relations with the…
Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Engel, Laura C.
Growing ethnic and cultural diversity within Europe has brought increased attention to the impact and inclusion of immigrant populations and has also presented societies with valuable opportunities for intercultural learning between diverse groups. Using the International Civic and Citizenship Study data from 24 European education systems, in this…
Han, Meekyung; Cao, Lien; Anton, Karen
Vietnamese Americans are at high risk for developing mental health disorders due to multiple risk factors such as trauma and acculturative stress. However, the utilization of mental health services has been low. The pilot project Tam An was implemented to raise mental health awareness by engaging community resources in the Vietnamese population. Informed by the Community Readiness Model and through local ethnic media sources, messages to destigmatize mental health and promote the willingness to initiate mental health treatment were presented. Using an exploratory perspective, findings from focus group data suggest that the project improved the community's stage of readiness.
Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J
This study aimed at investigating the association between functional health literacy and knowledge on when to seek medical help for potentially harmless (overutilization) or serious (underutilization) situations among immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data was collected among three immigrant groups and the native population (N=1146) in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and three Brief Health Literacy Screeners. Over- and underutilization of healthcare services was assessed with items asking participants about when to seek medical help for minor, respectively major, physical symptoms. Immigrants were more likely to seek medical help when unwarranted (overutilization). Health literacy, when assessed with the S-TOFHLA, was significantly associated with over- and underutilization. Yet, once controlled for covariates, the association between health literacy and overutilization was negative. Immigration background and micro-cultural differences emerged as important predictors of utilization. Results suggest that functional health literacy is directly related to healthcare utilization. The effects might be amplified by (micro-)cultural differences. Healthcare providers should be aware of differences in health literacy and utilization patterns among different population groups. Communication between patients and providers should be literacy and culturally sensitive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
separate wage equations for natives and a number of immigrant groups using panel data sample selection models. Based on the estimations, we find that the immigrant wage gap is caused by a lack of qualifications and incomplete assimilation, and that a large fraction of that gap would disappear if only......In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
separate wage equations for natives and a number of immigrant groups using panel data sample selection models. Based on the estimations, we find that the immigrant wage gap is caused by a lack of qualifications and incomplete assimilation, and that a large fraction of that gap would disappear if only......In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...
Full Text Available Background: Ancient grains with ethnic food origins are gaining renewed interest in contemporary food design due to its balanced nutritional profiles and health benefits. The “North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat” (Triticum dicoccum, a tetraploid species, had ethnic origins with German immigrants from Russia migrating to North Dakota in late 19th century. Targeting such grains with ethnic origins that are rich in fibers, amino acids, minerals, and other bioactive compounds has significant merit for advancing health benefits against emerging diet-linked chronic diseases. Based on this rationale, phenolic-linked antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat was compared with those of other commercial wheat cultivars in order to integrate it into a health-targeted food design based on past ethnic food insights. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat (with and without hull and two other commercial wheat varieties, Barlow and Coteau, were analyzed before and after milling. The total soluble phenolic content, phenolic acid profile, protein content, antioxidant activity, type 2 diabetes relevant α-amylase, and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities were determined using in vitro assay models. Results: North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull had highest total soluble phenolic content and associated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties (before and after milling when compared to the other commercial wheat cultivars. Conclusion: Results indicated that North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull can be integrated into a health-targeted contemporary food design as a part of dietary support against chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress associated with early stages type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Antioxidant, Enzyme inhibitors, Ethnic wheat, North Dakota Common Emmer, Phenolics, Type 2 diabetes
Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda
Immigrants and ethnic minorities tend to have lower life satisfaction than majority populations. However, current understanding of the drivers of these gaps is limited. Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of ethnic minorities and matched neighbourhood characteristics, we test whether first and second generation minorities experience lower life satisfaction once accounting for compositional differences and whether, specifically, neighbourhood deprivation impacts their wellbeing. We further investigate whether a larger proportion of own ethnic group in the neighbourhood improves satisfaction. We find life satisfaction is lower among ethnic minorities, and especially for the second generation, even controlling for individual and area characteristics. Neighbourhood concentration of own ethnic group is, however, associated with higher life satisfaction for Black Africans and UK born Indians and Pakistanis. The effect for Black Africans may stem from selection into areas, but findings for Indians and Pakistanis are robust to sensitivity tests. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
This study examines predictors of life satisfaction that are more distal (spousal normative beliefs and attitudes) and more proximal (marital satisfaction) in 404 mainstreamers, 375 Western, and 195 non-Western immigrants living in the Netherlands. In the immigrant groups, we used ethnic and
Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary
Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. 2008 APA
Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.
Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M
Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.
Full Text Available There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a coping with acculturative stress, (b creating ethnic strength, and (c personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group.
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk
There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group.
Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...
Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta
We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...
from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;
Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.
Kloek, M.E.; Buijs, A.E.; Boersema, J.J.; Schouten, M.G.C.
Immigrants are often described as ‘under-participating’ in non-urban outdoor recreation. Our quantitative study among 1057 young adults of Chinese, Turkish and non-immigrant descent in the Netherlands, however, showed strong differences in outdoor recreational behaviour between and within ethnic
Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos
Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants' poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants' access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. A secondary data analysis was conducted on the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Simple descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period. Approximately 32% of immigrants reported unmet dental care needs. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.05-3.37), and those with an average household income of $20,000 to $40,000 per year (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.61), and lower than $20,000 (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.31-3.86), were more likely to report unmet dental care needs than those earning more than $60,000 per year. In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans. Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.
This article contests a racialised skills regime in Canada. Canadian studies of the labour market transitions of skilled immigrants are analysed through the lens of critical race theory. The analysis shows that knowledge and skills of recent immigrants in Canada are racialised and materialised on the basis of ethnic and national origins. Skin…
"A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt
This dissertation is a study about Korean immigrant students' identities, including academic identities related to science learning and identities along various social dimensions. I explore how Korean immigrant students participate in science classrooms and how they enact and negotiate their identities in their classroom discursive participation. My dissertation is motivated by the increasing attention in educational research to the intersectionality between science learning and various dimensions of identities (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, social networks) and a dearth of such research addressing Asian immigrant students. Asian immigrant students are stereotyped as quiet and successful learners, particularly in science and mathematics classes, and their success is often explained by cultural differences. I confront this static and oversimplified notion of cultural differences and Asians' academic success and examine the intersectionality between science learning and identities of Asian immigrant students, with the specific case of Korean immigrants. Drawing upon cultural historical and sociolinguistic perspectives of identity, I propose a theoretical framework that underscores multiple levels of contexts (macro level, meso level, personal, and micro level contexts) in understanding and analyzing students' identities. Based on a year-long ethnographic study in two high school Advanced Placement Biology classes in a public high school, I present the meso level contexts of the focal school and biology classes, and in-depth analyses of three focal students. The findings illustrate: (1) how meso level contexts play a critical role in these students' identities and science classroom participation, (2) how the meso level contexts are reinterpreted and have different meanings to different students depending on their personal contexts, and (3) how students negotiated their positions to achieve certain identity goals. I discuss the implications of the findings for the
Vangen, S; Stoltenberg, C; Skrondal, A; Magnus, P; Stray-Pedersen, B
We studied prevalences and risk factors for cesarean section among different groups of immigrants from countries outside Western Europe and North America in comparison to ethnic Norwegians. The study is population based using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 553,491 live births during the period 1986-1995 were studied, including 17,891 births to immigrant mothers. The prevalences of cesarean section ranged from 10.1% among women from Vietnam to 25.8% in the group of Filipino origin. The use of abdominal delivery was also high in the groups from Sri Lanka/India (21.3%), Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia (20.5%) and Chile/Brazil (24.3%), while the frequency among women from Turkey/Morocco (12.6%) and Pakistan (13.2%) was approximately the same as among ethnic Norwegians (12.4%). Feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor were the most important diagnoses associated with the high prevalences, but the significance of these diagnoses differed among the groups. Other unknown factors come into play, particularly among women from Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia and Chile/Brazil. There was substantial variation in the use of cesarean section among ethnic groups in Norway. The diagnoses feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor may be confounded by a number of factors including maternal request for cesarean section and difficulties in handling the delivery. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences.
This paper investigates Internet-usage patterns of immigrants, and seeks to identify the correlation between Internet use and intercultural adaptation. The study focuses on mainland Chinese immigrants in Singapore, and was conducted via a nationwide telephone survey. The results show that immigrants tend to change their preferences on Internet use to reflect their residence in the host country. In particular, the longer an immigrant resides in the host country, the less likely they would be to surf their original country's websites and the more likely they would be to communicate with local people via the Internet. More importantly, differences in Internet usage are found to have a significant impact on immigrants' intercultural adaptation. In an online environment, the social communication in the host country is a critical component that can facilitate or impede immigrants' successful adaptation to the host country, whereas ethnic social communication also plays a role at the initial stage of transition.
Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.
To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…
Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth
Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452
Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...
Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Lien, Lars; Elstad, Jon Ivar
As the immigrant population rises in Norway, it becomes ever more important to consider the responsiveness of health services to the specific needs of these immigrants. It has been questioned whether access to mental healthcare is adequate among all groups of immigrants. This study aims to examine the use of specialist mental healthcare services among ethnic Norwegians and specific immigrants groups. Register data were used from the Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway. The sample (age 0-59) consisted of 3.3 million ethnic Norwegians and 200,000 immigrants from 11 countries. Poisson regression models were applied to examine variations in the use of specialist mental healthcare during 2008-2011 according to country of origin, age group, reason for immigration, and length of stay. Immigrant children and adolescents had overall significantly lower use of specialist mental healthcare than ethnic Norwegians of the same age. A distinct exception was the high utilization rate among children and youth from Iran. Among adult immigrants, utilization rates were generally lower than among ethnic Norwegians, particularly those from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Adult immigrants from Iraq and Iran, however, had high utilization rates. Refugees had high utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare, while labour immigrants had low use. Utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare are lower among immigrants than Norwegians. Immigrants from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam, had generally quite low rates, while immigrants from Iran had high utilization rates. The findings suggest that specialist mental healthcare in Norway is underutilized among considerable parts of the immigrant population.
From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and
Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe
The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…
Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung
The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…
For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life
The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena
Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Szaflarski, Magdalena; Cubbins, Lisa A; Bauldry, Shawn; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Klepinger, Daniel H; Somoza, Eugene
Immigrants often have lower rates of depression than US-natives, but longitudinal assessments across multiple racial-ethnic groups are limited. This study examined the rates of prevalent, acquired, and persisting major depression and dysthymia by nativity and racial-ethnic origin while considering levels of acculturation, stress, and social ties. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used to model prevalence and 3-year incidence/persistence of major depression and dysthymia (DSM-IV diagnoses) using logistic regression. Substantive factors were assessed using standardized measures. The rates of major depression were lower for most immigrants, but differences were noted by race-ethnicity and outcome. Furthermore, immigrants had higher prevalence but not incidence of dysthymia. The associations between substantive factors and outcomes were mixed. This study describes and begins to explain immigrant trajectories of major depression and dysthymia over a 3-year period. The continuing research challenges and future directions are discussed.
In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…
Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire
Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…
Jimenez, Rosa M.
Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…
Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.
A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256
Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil
The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....
Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria
Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte
This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lucia Lo; Wei Li
Financial globalization and international migration have altered the socio-economic-demographic make-up as well as the financial dynamics in immigrant receiving countries. An outcome is the emergence or strengthening of a formal ethnic financial sector consisting of financial institutions that are owned and/or operated by a variety of ethnic groups. Focusing on ethnic banks in Los Angeles, USA and ethnic credit unions in Toronto, Canada, and using secondary sources and interviews with bank ex...
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Wiznitzer, Martin; Fedder, Hans; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…
Hollifield, J H
Treatment of migrants and foreigners by a government can reveal not only the functioning of the political system but the philosophic values on which the system is founded. This article compares French and American immigration policy and explores the extent to which French immigration policy is more "statist" or Jacobin while American immigration policy is more "liberal" or pluralist. Immigration is an explosive problem for all democratic governments. 4 questions are involved, that of the sovereignty of the state over its citizens; that of citizenship, not only regarding the juridical definition of citizen but also assimilation, ethnicity, race, and political socialization; that of employment, which has been the most important determinant of migration policies in the industrialized countries after World War II; and that of humanitarian considerations, which have become more significant in the 1980s. Comparison of immigration policies must focus on issues of citizenship and employment and on humanitarian aspects. France and the US have had more difficulty in formulating and applying migration policies with national objectives than have any of the other liberal democracies. This work seeks to explain this similarity as well as divergences in the migration policies of France and the US by examining: 1) institutional differences between the 2 political systems and how they affect the state's capacity to control immigration; 2) the way in which the political and juridical culture influence relationships between problems of citizenship and use of foreign manpower; and 3) immigration policies as they have been applied in the 2 countries in the postwar period. The entire issue of immigration has become more politicized in France than in the US, partly because of the statist and administrative approach to it in France. The federal nature of the US political system, the stability of the party system, and the pluralist approach to legislation have fragmented the issue of
George J. Borjas
Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...
Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.
Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown
Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.
From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered
For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.
The existence and extent of intra-family debt shifting via selling children into bondage among German immigrant families to North America is documented using quantitative ship manifest and servant auction data. This evidence is at odds with the standard description presented in the literature based on literary sources. Market competition created the opening and colonial welfare laws drove German immigrant parents into selling their children into bondage to finance their own (the parents’) mig...
Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....
Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S
Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into
Gonzalez, Roger Geertz
This article looks at access to higher education in Germany. For a number of reasons, explained in this article, higher education is presently an elite system that privileges ethnic Germans while preventing Turkish-Germans from gaining sufficient access into academe. If Germany is to become a fully functioning multicultural democracy with equal…
Ashby, Wendy; Ostertag, Veronica
Investigates the effectiveness of an interactive, computer-mediated instructional segment designed to educate students about ethnicity in German-speaking countries. Fifty-two intermediate German students worked with computer-mediated segments and rated the segments' effectiveness on a Likert-scale questionnaire. (AS)
Full Text Available The rapid diversification of immigration to New Zealand post-1987 has made Auckland, as the nation’s key gateway city, both culturally and demographically superdiverse, and the location of considerable immigrant business development. We focus here on the development of ethnic precincts as the manifestation of this transformation of the cityscape. The neo-liberalism of the 1980s continues to prevail in the unwillingness of central and local government to recognise the ethnic/immigrant nature of such developments and there has been little in terms of either policy or resourcing to support or brand these precincts. As a consequence of this laissez-faire attitude, immigrants’ relational embeddedness tends to be privileged and ethnic-specific networks dictate the nature and location of ethnic precincts within a policy environment that stresses the importance of market processes and encourages small business development.
Danish society used to have a very homogenous culture; everybody was Lutheran and there were only very small groups of ethnic minorities. However, since the 1960s the immigration of foreign workers and refugees has created substantial minority groups of people who are very different ethnically, r......, religiously and linguistically. Becoming a multicultural country may be particularly problematic for such a formerly homogeneous society; formal and informal rules for the co-existence of different ethnic and religious segments of the society have until now not been necessary...
Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workpl...
Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G
differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...... was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...... participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a worksite health promotion intervention in a predominantly female occupation. For attaining high participation and low dropout in future worksite health promotion interventions among cleaners, the intervention ought to not only target the ethnic background...
Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina
Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…
Leopold, Liliya; Leopold, Thomas; Lechner, Clemens M
This study asks whether immigrants suffer more from unemployment than German natives. Differences between these groups in pre-unemployment characteristics, the type of the transition into unemployment, and the consequences of this transition suggest that factors intensifying the negative impact of unemployment on subjective well-being are more concentrated in immigrants than in natives. Based on longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1990-2014; N = 34,767 persons aged 20 to 64; N = 210,930 person-years), we used fixed-effects models to trace within-person change in subjective well-being across the transition from employment into unemployment and over several years of continued unemployment. Results showed that immigrants' average declines in subjective well-being exceeded those of natives. Further analyses revealed gender interactions. Among women, declines were smaller and similar among immigrants and natives. Among men, declines were larger and differed between immigrants and natives. Immigrant men showed the largest declines, amounting to one standard deviation of within-person change over time in subjective well-being. Normative, social, and economic factors did not explain these disproportionate declines. We discuss alternative explanations for why immigrant men are most vulnerable to the adverse effects of unemployment in Germany.
Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)
Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...
Diana Virginia Todea
Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.
Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni
Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...
Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.
Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...
Matt S. Whitt
Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...
Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.
Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...
Olinda C Luiz
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogeneous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe-Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03-8.77, Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41-8.57, a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.93, or ≥ 2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06-7.47; eye color-light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14-3.84 and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22-9.58; pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21-6.49; no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03-9.22; and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants.
Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José
Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444
Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.
Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller
Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local concentr......Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local...... concentration of same-ethnicity voters increases, so does the individual's propensity to turn out for the election. In general, the concentration of non-Western immigrants in the neighborhood has only a very limited impact on an immigrant's propensity to vote. Finally, we investigate the possible mobilizing...... effect of local candidates and, in particular, local co-ethnic candidates on voter turnout. We find that the presence of candidates in general and co-ethnic candidates running for office in a neighborhood has a moderate positive mobilization effect. However, taking this factor into account, the effect...
Chen, Mei-Ju; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Jeng, Huey-Mei; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal and child healthcare needs of new immigrants in Taiwan. Results will be used to reflect upon the services which the government is currently providing, and to determine if further investigation may be required to establish whether or not the health care quality currently provided by public health nurses succeeds in meeting the needs of new immigrants. Face-to-face interviews were undertaken by public health nurses on 1,068 women from Mainland China, and a further 1,068 women from other Southeast Asian countries, all of whom were randomly selected from the 12 administrative districts of Taipei. Information on the healthcare information needs of mothers and children (10 items), psychological distress variables, health status and socio-demographic variables of both the new immigrants and their Taiwanese spouses were collected via a structured questionnaire, of which a total of 1,829 completed copies were returned. Chi-square tests were performed to examine differences in both healthcare needs and psychological distress levels amongst different new immigrant ethnic groups. Logistic regressions were subsequently performed with the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) then being calculated to examine the differential effects of the healthcare needs of the different ethnic groups of new immigrants. The needs of the Vietnamese immigrants were found to be significantly different from those of the Mainland Chinese immigrants in all items, with the former needing Chinese communication assistance particularly at those times when they received medical treatment (p Cultural competence in public health nursing education should not be deemphasized in Taiwan. Within the public sector, there is a clear need to create and implement partnerships between the public and private sectors on the overall issue of new immigrants within the community. Results strongly suggest that public health nurses should be aware of how to meet the
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…
Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Khyatti, Meriem; Anwar, Wagida A; Mousavi, Mohsen
The early cancer studies on immigrants, which started to appear some 50 years ago, showed that the incidence in cancers changes to the level of the new host country in one or two generations. These findings were fundamental to the understanding of the environmental etiology of human cancer. Many immigrant groups originate from countries with no cancer registration, and, hence, the immigrant studies may provide estimates on the indigenous cancer rates. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been an important source of data for immigrant studies on various diseases. The Database covers the Swedish population of the past 100 years, and it records the country of birth for each subject. A total of 1.79 million individuals were foreign born, Finns and other Scandinavians being the largest immigrant groups. Over the course of years, some 30 publications have appeared relating to cancer in immigrants. In the present article, we will review more recent immigrant studies, mainly among Swedish immigrants, on all cancers and emphasize the differences between ethnic groups. In the second part, we discuss the problem of reliable registration of cancer and compare cancer incidence among non-European immigrants with cancer incidence in countries of origin, as these have now active cancer registries. We discuss the experiences in cancer registration in Morocco and Egypt. We show the usefulness and limitations in predicting cancer incidence in the countries of origin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K
Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.
Since 2000, international migration has increased in several European countries with settlement in both urban and rural areas. However, the proportion of immigrants settling in rural areas is much larger in the Nordic regions compared to other European countries (Hedberg & Haandrikman, 2014; Søholt......, Aasland, Onsager & Vestby, 2012; Søholt, Tronstad, Rose & Vestby, 2015). At the same time, the Nordic countries have been the destination of a large number of asylum seekers and refugees, many of whom are settled in rural areas. Thus, migration of international migrants; immigrants and refugees change...... the demographic and ethnic composition of rural populations and contribute to the transformation of rural places (Hedberg, Forsberg, & Najib, 2012; Stenbacka: 2012 & 2016 and Søholt, Stenbacka & Nørgaard, 2017). This paper is based on a case study in a rural Danish municipality, where immigrants constitute...
Jervelund, Signe Smith; Malik, Sanam; Ahlmark, Nanna
To enable preventive policies to address health inequity across ethnic groups, this review overviews the current knowledge on morbidity, self-perceived health and mortality among non-Western immigrants and their descendants in Denmark. A systematic search in PUBMED, SCOPUS, Embase and Cochrane...... as well as in national databases was undertaken. The final number of publications included was 45. Adult immigrants had higher morbidity, but lower mortality compared to ethnic Danes. Immigrant children had higher mortality and morbidity compared to ethnic Danes. Immigrants’ health is critical to reach...... the political goals of integration. Despite non-Western immigrants’ higher morbidity than ethnic Danes, no national strategy targeting immigrants’ health has been implemented. Future research should include elderly immigrants and children, preferably employing a life-course perspective to enhance understanding...
Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Liao, Hua-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chang, Pei-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung
Although racial/ethnic disparities in neonatal and infant health are well known, positive associations between migration and perinatal health exist among immigrant mothers in western countries. There are unique marriage migration, East Asia culture, universal national health insurance system, and adequate social support in Taiwan that may differ from the situation in western countries. We aimed to assess the neonatal outcomes among live births to married immigrant mothers in recent years in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based analysis among all the live births in Taiwan during the period 1998-2003 to assess neonatal outcomes, including incidence of low birth weight and preterm birth and of early and late neonatal mortality, according to maternal nationality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) associated with low birth weight and preterm birth, and Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with mortality in the neonatal period. There were a total of 1,405,931 single live births, including 6.6% born to immigrant mothers and 93.4% born to Taiwanese mothers. Disparities existed among the intercultural couples, including paternal age, parental educational level, and residential distribution. Fewer low birth weight and fewer preterm babies were born to immigrant mothers than to Taiwanese mothers. In addition, babies born to immigrant mothers had lower early neonatal and neonatal mortalities than those born to Taiwanese mothers. There were lower risks of having a low birth weight (adjusted OR [AOR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.75) or preterm (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.69-0.74) baby and lower hazard ratios (HRs) of having an early neonatal death (adjusted HR [AHR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.82) or neonatal death (AHR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.87) in babies born to immigrant mothers. There is a gradual increase in the risks of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with increases in length of residence
Eva G. T. Green
Full Text Available
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... the centres provided limited specialized knowledge and support. The questionnaires completed by the parents revealed limited schooling, lack of professional education and a major need for interpreters; these characteristics were especially prevalent among the mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients from ethnic...
Full Text Available This article provides a first critical overview of the historiography of Jewish immigration and integration in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. While the experience of immigration has been crucial for Scandinavian Jewry, scholarly interest in Jewish migration history only emerged during the 1980s in connection with the focus on migration and ethnicity in Swedish research and the adaptation of sociological concepts of migration in general historiography. By analysing key historio-graphical works, focusing on their approaches and main narratives, this article aims at a critical methodological self-reflection. It identifies two major approaches to Jewish immigration history in current Scandinavian historiography: the demographic and social history approach, focusing in particular on the role of Jewish immigrants in the labour market, their settlement and housing conditions and their social mobility; and the cultural history approach, reconstructing and preserving the vanished world of Yiddish immigrant culture.
Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee
Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.
Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie
More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.
Full Text Available During the reign of Reza Shah, policy of magisterial modernization was done on the basis of society modernization by importing products, civilization manifestations, modern management, monopolizing political power and governmentalizing economy. Social structures, under the influence of integration in global system and the effects caused by two world wars, as a semi-periphery region, did not stay away from unpleasant consequences of the situation such as immigration inside the borders of Iran and immigration among the political borders of Iran especially in eastern borders. Because of special geographical situation (border region and economic situation (silk trade route, eastern borders had an important role in Iran’s exterritorial immigration system and were receptive to resident ethnics in neighbor countries (Hazara in Afghanistan, Sikh, etc. and were also the entry gate of immigrants to eastern cities of Iran. In this research, emphasizing on Iran’s situation in global system, immigration and its causes on Zahedan have been studied. The results suggest that the strategic location of Zahedan was a predisposing factor of preliminary foundations such as railway for economy growth of the city and a small group of Hindus’ immigration for employment in this part. Gradually, central government actions in customs section and transportation development, turned Zahedan into a suitable region for trade that resulted immigration and habitation of many citizens of neighboring countries in order to work in economic fields. Because of disability in adaption to new conditions and lack of proficiency, many native inhabitants immigrated to the other regions.
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.
JuYin (Helen Wong
Full Text Available This study explores whether ethnicity affects immigrants’ time to first employment. Many studies on labour/social inequalities focus on modeling cross-sectional or panel data when comparing ethnic minority to majority groups in terms of their employment patterns. Results from these models, however, do not measure the degree of transition-duration penalties experienced by immigrant groups. Because time itself is an important variable, and to bridge the gap between literature and methodology, a lifecourse perspective and a duration model are employed to examine the length of transition that immigrants require to find first employment.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market...
Li, Yun Ling
This study investigates first-generation Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women faculty's workplace experiences and their strategies for managing work and family demands. By looking at how immigration, ethnicity, gender, and work processes shape these women's ideology and practices, this study addresses the following questions: How do married Chinese and Taiwanese immigrant women in research-intensive universities handle work and family conflicts? How do they negotiate their gender-role expect...
Full Text Available The acculturation complexity model suggests that immersion into dissonant cultures promotes cognitive skills in biculturals (Tadmor and Tetlock, 2006. In the present study, we examined links between identity acculturation and executive functioning (EF. Turkish-German immigrant origin children (N = 225; M = 11 years, SD = 1.6 years, 99 males were given questions about their identification with Turks and Germans to capture bicultural involvement and a Dot Task (using Hearts and Flowers to measure EF. Results showed that Turkish-German bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength did not have a cognitive advantage in working memory and inhibition compared to their peers who more clearly preferred one culture over the other. However, bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength performed significantly better on a switching task that required cognitive flexibility. The study highlights the potential cognitive benefits associated with biculturalism.
Full Text Available The emigration of Croats to Chile was a part of transoceanic migration that occurred at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Croatia at the time was within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The most important area of emigration was Dalmatia, especially the island of Brač. Emigration went on without organisation, with no emigration policy or legislative framework. The main routes of emigration to Chile were to its northern parts (Antofagasta and Tarapaca and southern parts (the province Magallanes. In the new social milieu, in the immigration country – i.e. Chile, Croatian immigrants passed through various processes of integration and adaptation. The openness of Chilean society and politics to cultural pluralism gave them the opportunity to freely express themselves and their ethnicity. On the other hand, Chilean laws did not permit dual citizenship, and thus the children of the immigrants automatically became Chileans. Croatian immigrants at first nurtured a mechanical type of solidarity, since their migration was a chain development and they lived in groups of relatives and friends. After they assured for themselves the material necessities of life, they began to establish societies and were recognized from the outside as an immigrant group, distinct from other such groups. With time social stratification developed among them. They lived in communion with many other immigrant groups. They were attracted to all Slavic immigrant groups and they also have good relations with Chileans. Mixed marriages, mostly with Chileans, quickened the process of assimilation and brought about the almost total disappearance of the Croatian language. This paper is based on research, until the present, made by Croatian and Chilean authors into the historical sources and newspaper articles analysing the process of integration of immigrants on three social levels: within Chilean society, within their own immigrant groups and in regard to
This paper analyses how finding a new job affects the earnings of immigrants. I hypothesize that job changes are more successful for individuals who have access to bridging social capital. Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel (1996–2011), fixed-effects models show that finding a new job
Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer
This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...
Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah
The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723
Slotman, Anne; Snijder, Marieke B; Ikram, Umar Z; Schene, Aart H; Stevens, Gonneke W J M
This study examined the mediating and moderating role of one's sense of mastery in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and depression. Questionnaire data from participants of the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study were used, containing responses from 9,141 Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian immigrant adults, aged 18 to 70, living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results of path modeling indicated that perceptions of ethnic discrimination were positively related to depression symptomatology, and this relationship was moderated and partially mediated by mastery. Results remained fairly robust across sex, educational level, immigrant generation, and ethnicity. This study indicated that mastery may both serve a moderating and mediating role in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and depression, suggestive of a process in which the impact of perceiving discrimination becomes increasingly more deteriorating over time. Thus, interventions focused on mastery may potentially be beneficial to improve ethnic minority mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...
Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…
Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M
Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses. PMID:28267148
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....
Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita
Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents’ perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using subsample (N = 1561 the Latino immigrant) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs
Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen M
Experiences with neighborhood violence can produce negative consequences in youth, including stress, anxiety, and deviant behavior. Studies report that immigrant and minority youth are more likely to be exposed to violence but less likely to perpetrate it. Similarly, research shows parenting practices are differentially adopted by Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Although family management strategies can often act as a barrier to the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence (ETV-C), there is a paucity of investigation on how Hispanic subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican) and immigrant families employ such practices in protecting their children against victimization and violence in the community. Applying an ecological framework, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the role of parenting and peer relationships on youth ETV-C, across race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our sample is drawn from Cohorts 9, 12, and 15, and is over 40% Hispanic-Latino. We investigate the differences in within and outside the home family management strategies in terms of both race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our work also seeks to determine the effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on youth ETV-C, while examining the influence of family management and peer relations. Results indicate that the adoption of family management practices is not homogeneous across Hispanic subgroups or immigrant generational status, and parenting practices seem to mediate the relationship between these characteristics and exposure to violence. Variations in parenting practices underscore the need to disentangle the cultural plurality of racial/ethnic grouping and how immigrant generational status influences parenting choices that protect children from exposure to violence in the community.
Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, In-sop
A growing body of literature has explored issues surrounding the maintenance and development of a minority heritage language among immigrants and their children in relation to their ethnic identities in multi-ethnic societies. However, most of the studies either have alluded to heritage learners' language competence by way of their attitudes and…
Neeleman, J; Mak, [No Value; Wessely, S
Background information on suicide in ethnic and immigrant groups in England and Wales is limited. Method A three-year (1991-1993) survey was conducted of all unnatural deaths of residents of an urban area. True likely and 'official' age-adjusted suicide rates were compared by ethnicity and, for
Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.
Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413
Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S
This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3 rd -plus generation young adults. The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors.
Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver
Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18
Terhart, Henrike; von Dewitz, Nora
Newly arrived migrant students in German schools are currently the centre of attention. In 2015 and 2016 the incoming number of migrant children and adolescents of school-age has risen. Schools, the education administration as well as politics need to take action with regard to this. In the on-going debate on new immigrant students in school,…
Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.
Blanca Garcés Mascareñas
Full Text Available The immigrant population in the Netherlands has been named and defined under the categories of ethnic minorities and allochtonen. Although these categories are directly related to specific policies, these terms became very soon common social categories. The extended use of the term ethnic minority led to the construction of the immigrant as culturally and socio-economically different. The extended use of the term allochtoon led to identify the immigrant, also in the second and third generation, as “from another country” or eternal foreigner. The main result, as we will see in this article, is that immigrants, also after two or three generations, continue to be seen as “the others”, the different, the foreigners or the non-indigenous.
Joel G Ray
Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP has a multifactorial etiology, and placental vascular disease may be one major risk factor. The risk of placental vascular disease may be lower among some immigrant groups. We studied the association between immigrant status and the risk of CP.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton and twin livebirths in Ontario between 2002-2008, and who survived ≥28 days after birth. Each child was assessed for CP up to age 4 years, based on either a single inpatient or ≥2 outpatient pediatric diagnoses of CP. Relative to non-immigrants (n = 566,668, the risk of CP was assessed for all immigrants (n = 177,390, and further evaluated by World region of origin. Cox proportional hazard ratios (aHR were adjusted for maternal age, income, diabetes mellitus, obesity, tobacco use, Caesarean delivery, year of delivery, physician visits, twin pregnancy, preterm delivery, as well as small- and large-for-gestational age birthweight.There were 1346 cases of CP, with a lower rate among immigrants (1.45 per 1000 than non-immigrants (1.92 per 1000 (aHR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.88. Mothers from East Asia and the Pacific (aHR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.77 and the Caribbean (aHR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93 were at a significantly lower risk of having a child with CP. Whether further adjusting for preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, placental abruption or placental infraction, or upon using a competing risk analysis that further accounted for stillbirth and neonatal death, these results did not change.Immigration and ethnicity appear to attenuate the risk of CP, and this effect is not fully explained by known risk factors.
Daniel W.L. Lai
Background This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly immigrants from Mainland China to Canada and the impact of various psychosocial factors as predictors of the number of depressive symptoms reported by the elderly Chinese immigrants.Methods The participants were 444 elderly immigrants who migrated from Mainland China to Canada. They were a part of a random sample of 2272 elderly Chinese living in the communities and took part in a face-to-face interview to answer questions in an orally administrated questionnaire. The depressive symptoms of the participants were measured by a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data obtained from the 444 elderly Chinese immigrants was analyzed to assess the impact of various psychosocial factors on the number of depressive symptoms that they reported.Results The findings indicated that 23.2% of the elderly immigrants were assessed to have some depressive symptoms. When other predicting variables were adjusted, elderly immigrants with more chronic illnesses, less positive attitude towards ageing, poorer physical health, less adequate financial situation, lower level of ethnic identification as Chinese, more service barriers, lower level of life satisfaction, shorter length of residency in Canada and those who lived alone tended to have more depressive symptoms.Conclusions The findings indicate that the prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among our elderly immigrant sample is higher than the one reported in a general elderly population. While further research is recommended to examine the reasons for such a difference, culturally appropriate health services, including health promotion programs, should be promoted to reduce mental health disparities.
Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.
This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.
Thacher, Tom D; Pludowski, Pawel; Shaw, Nick J; Mughal, M Zulf; Munns, Craig F; Högler, Wolfgang
Immigrant and refugee populations bring public health challenges to host nations. In the current global refugee crisis, children are the most vulnerable subpopulation. Diseases that were considered rare in the host nation may be highly prevalent among immigrant children. The prevalence of nutritional rickets is increasing in high-income countries, largely driven by an influx of immigrant populations. Nutritional rickets is a bone disease in early childhood resulting in bone pain, delayed motor development, and bending of the bones, caused by vitamin D deficiency and/or inadequate dietary calcium intake. The consequences of nutritional rickets include stunted growth, developmental delay, lifelong bone deformities, seizures, cardiomyopathy, and even death. Nutritional rickets is most commonly seen in children from the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia in high-income countries. Dark skin pigmentation, sun avoidance, covering the skin, and prolonged breast feeding without vitamin D supplementation, are important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and combined with a lack of dairy products in the diet, these deficiencies can result in insufficient calcium supply for bone mineralization. We recommend screening all immigrant and refugee children under 5 years of age from these ethnic groups for nutritional rickets, based on clinical features, and confirming the diagnosis with radiographs of the wrists and knees. Because nutritional rickets is entirely preventable, public health policies must address the need for universal vitamin D supplementation and adequate dietary calcium to protect children from this scourge. Vitamin D supplementation of all infants and children with 400 IU/d during the first year of life and dietary or supplemental intakes of at least 600 IU/d of vitamin D and 500 mg/d of calcium thereafter, will effectively prevent nutritional rickets. We call on national health authorities of host countries to implement health check lists and prevention
Lee, Sungkyu; Choi, Sunha; Matejkowski, Jason
Using a nationally representative sample of 1280 Asian Americans, we examined the extent to which major depressive disorder (MDD) onset differs by ethnicity and its associated factors for each of the three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese. We employed the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the survival and hazard functions for MDD onset by ethnicity, and cox proportional hazards models to identify socio-demographic and immigration-related factors associated with MDD onset. Approximately 7% of the entire sample had experienced MDD onset in their lifetime. Filipino immigrants showed the highest survival function, followed by Vietnamese immigrants over time. Those who were never-married or divorced were more likely to experience MDD onset when compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. Those who immigrated at a younger age were more likely to experience MDD onset than were those who immigrated at an older age. However, there were ethnic variations in terms of the risk factors that were associated with MDD onset across these three ethnic groups. Findings from this study signal the importance of understanding the differing experiences of MDD onset by ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kale, Emine; Finset, Arnstein; Eikeland, Hanne-Lise; Gulbrandsen, Pål
To identify potential barriers in communication with non-Western immigrant patients by comparing the frequency and nature of emotional cues and concerns, as well as physician responses during consultations, between ethnically Norwegian patients and immigrant patients in a general hospital setting. Consultations with 56 patients (30 non-Western immigrants and 26 ethnic Norwegians) were coded using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) and the Verona Codes for Provider Responses (Verona Codes-P). There were no significant differences in frequencies of cues and concerns between immigrant and Norwegian patients. However, the immigrant patients with high language proficiency expressed more concerns compared to immigrant patients with language problems and Norwegian patients. Moreover, more concerns were expressed during consultations with female physicians than with male physicians. Expression of cues and concerns in immigrant patients is dependent on the patient's language proficiency and the physician's gender. Providers should recognize that immigrant patients may have many emotional cues and concerns, but that language problems may represent a barrier for the expression of these concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damm, Anna Piil
This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...
Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia
Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...
In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016
Shield, Andrew DJ
In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...
Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.
Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan
The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...
Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.
We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650
Hettige, Nuwan C; Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo
Suicide is a leading cause of mortality among those afflicted by schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated that the stressors associated with immigration may lead to an onset of schizophrenia and suicide separately in susceptible individuals. However, no studies have shown whether immigration may lead to suicidal behaviour for individuals with schizophrenia. Our study proposes that an individual's geographical ancestry, ethnicity or migration status may be predictive of suicide risk in schizophrenia. In a sample of 276 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we conducted cross-sectional assessments to collect clinical information. Self-identified ethnicity and suicide history were collected through self-report questionnaires and interview-based scales. Ancestry was identified using 292 genetic markers from HapMap. Migrants were classified as those who immigrated to Canada during their lifetime. Using a regression analysis, we tested whether a history of migration, ethnicity or geographical ancestry were predictive of a history of suicide attempts. Our analysis failed to demonstrate a significant relationship between suicide history and migration, ethnicity or ancestry. However, ethnicity appears to be significantly associated with the number of psychiatric hospitalizations in our sample. Ethnicity and migration history are not predictive of previous suicide attempts. Ethnicity may be an important demographic factor affecting access to mental health resources and frequency of hospitalizations.
Antonio J. Baladrón-Pazos, Ph.D.
Full Text Available This article examines the present and future of advertising targeting immigrants in Spain. The research is based on the results of a Delphi survey conducted in 2009 and 2010 among directors of ethnic advertising agencies. The main purpose is to analyse the trends that, according to these directors, will characterise advertising for immigrants in the coming years and the way these experts would like this type of advertising to evolve. The article examines the needs of companies to direct their advertising at a society that is increasingly culturally diverse due to the significant rise of immigration in Spain in the last few years. The results show that in the future advertising for immigrants will be more creative, will use more the Web 2.0., will be more professionalised, and will research more about immigrants. The results also predict that advertising for immigrants will give less importance to immigrants’ ethnicity and the cultural references about their origins. The reason is that the new residents will be increasingly integrated into the Spanish society and therefore increasingly incorporated into the planning of any type of campaign.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...
Dillon, Frank R.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Schwartz, Seth J.
Given the growing population of Latino immigrants in the United States, it is critical for counselors to understand pre- and postimmigration social contextual factors affecting the mental health of this heterogeneous ethnic population. The objective of our cross-sectional, retrospective study was to investigate the potential protective influence…
A common claim in the literature is that higher-educated persons are more likely to marry outside their ethnic/racial group than lower-educated persons. We re-examine this "educational gradient" with a multilevel analysis of 46 immigrant groups in the Current Population Survey. We find that there are positive effects not only of individual…
This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…
Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew
Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…
Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Blustein, David L.
This study examined the contribution of perceptions of discrimination, career planning, and vocational identity to the school engagement experiences of first- and second-generation immigrants among a sample of 125 Cape Verdean high school students. Perceived ethnic discrimination was found to moderate the association between both vocational…
Dumludag, D.; Gokdemir, O.; Vendrik, M.C.M.
This study examines the effects of social comparison with a wide range of reference groups on the life satisfaction of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. For two sets of ethnic and life-domain reference groups, results are obtained that deviate from the findings of recent studies and that
Nikolaou, Georgios; Samsari, Eleni
Although school bullying is a serious form of violence, relevant studies do not agree if immigrant students are at higher risk to be involved in bullying than native students in ethnically diverse schools. The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitudes of Greek and non-Greek students about school bullying. The sample composed of 719…
Schnell, Ph.; Crul, M.R.J.; Fibbi, R.; Monteiro-Sieburth, M.
Recent literature has emphasised the importance of family involvement within immigrant families in determining their children’s educational pathways. On the one hand, the focus on family involvement and the transmission of familial resources becomes more important when disentangling ethnic
Van Landschoot, L.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Van Bavel, J.
BACKGROUND Research on the fertility behavior of descendants of immigrants has focused on female characteristics and has largely neglected those of the male partner. One key aspect is whether the partner is of same (endogamous) or of different (exogamous) ethnic origin. Moreover, the male partner
Driessen, G.; Merry, M.S.
In many Western countries the pressure exerted on immigrants to integrate has become intense in recent years. Efforts to preserve their ethnic identity through multicultural recognition has now been replaced by the requirements of active civic participation and assimilation. Of course integration is
Irakliy D. Gvazava
Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations
Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik
The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of immigration transition to cardiovascular symptoms among 4 major racial/ethnic groups of 1054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 2 large national survey studies. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including hierarchical multiple regressions. Immigrants reported fewer numbers (t = 5.268, P < .01) and lower severity scores (t = 5.493, P < .01) of cardiovascular symptoms compared with nonimmigrants. Self-reported racial/ethnic identify was a significant factor influencing cardiovascular symptoms (P < .01).
Barry, Declan T; Beitel, Mark
Although sex role ideology (i.e., beliefs about the proper roles for men and women) is linked with self-definition and male-female interactions, researchers have rarely examined such beliefs among U.S. immigrants. This study examined the cultural (ethnic identity, self-construal) and demographic (gender, age, years in United States) correlates of sex role ideology among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants using psychometrically established measures. Male participants who endorsed ethnic identity and interdependent self-construal were more likely to report traditional sex roles; female participants who lived for a longer period of time in the United States and who endorsed independent self-construal were more likely to report sex role equality. Clinicians should consider assessing sex role ideology to reduce the likelihood of stereotyping their immigrant clients. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A
Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.
Full Text Available Financial globalization and international migration have altered the socio-economic-demographic make-up as well as the financial dynamics in immigrant receiving countries. An outcome is the emergence or strengthening of a formal ethnic financial sector consisting of financial institutions that are owned and/or operated by a variety of ethnic groups. Focusing on ethnic banks in Los Angeles, USA and ethnic credit unions in Toronto, Canada, and using secondary sources and interviews with bank executives, this paper demonstrates that contemporary financial dynamics pertaining to immigration is rooted/localized in different ways with different groups, and is shaped by different regulatory and institutional contexts. Specifically, it identifies that ethnic financial institutions in both cities serve co-ethnics first and foremost, and utilize ethnic assets, bonding social capital in particular, to develop their customer base while branching out to other groups by developing bridging social capital and broadening their product lines. The comparison also shows that ethnic banks in LA are larger, more numerous, and mostly Asian-owned, whereas the ethnic credit unions in Toronto are smaller, less numerous, and mostly of European background. These variations stem from differences in the national financial regulatory regimes and in the immigrant population dynamics.
A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…
Two vignette studies were conducted in which preadolescent children (Study 1: N=542; Study 2: N=137; aged 8-13years) evaluated the exclusion, for unknown reasons, of an immigrant minority child by a native majority peer (majority interethnic exclusion). Study 1 compared children's evaluations of majority interethnic exclusion with their evaluations of (majority and minority) intraethnic exclusion and minority interethnic exclusion, and Study 2 examined children's underlying explanations. Each study compared ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents and examined the role of in-group bias for the former. Overall, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents regarded majority interethnic exclusion more negatively than the other exclusion types (majority intraethnic, minority interethnic, and minority intraethnic). All children, but especially older minority respondents, were more likely to reject majority interethnic exclusion if they perceived it to be discriminatory (ethnicity based). Among the majority children, a strong in-group bias was associated with a weaker condemnation of majority interethnic exclusion, but this was not due to a larger tolerance of ethnicity-based discrimination. Biased majority children were also less likely to reject minority intraethnic exclusion, indicating an overall weaker concern for out-group victims. Taken together, the studies show that children are relatively negative about majority (prototypical) interethnic exclusion because it implies the possibility of ethnic discrimination, and they concur with previous evidence for a developmental increase in the awareness of discrimination in ethnic minority youths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
Janmaat, Jan Germen
The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa
Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.
The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de
Clementine M. Msengi
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to describe a single multicultural women’s support program known as the Women of Care Project. The program was conducted in a community in the Midwest region of the United States and began in 2005 with a grant from the Open Meadows Foundation. Participants were volunteers who were recruited for the program through pre-existing access points to the Bosnian, African, and Hispanic communities, such as ethnic churches, markets, and key contacts within these communities. The support group format for the Women of Care Program was an open group format in which participants were encouraged to invite their friends to join. The initial support group consisted of women from various cultural origins, including Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Russia, Sierra Leone, Brazil, China, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Bosnia, Mexico, and the United States. This case study was based on focus group discussions, as well as observations and completion of evaluation forms. To analyze data, the focus group discussion notes and summaries were rearranged into recurring themes. The evaluation provided further feedback from the discussions to cement these themes. Findings suggested immigrants, especially women, benefit from support groups. Group involvement could empower women and increase their general sense of well-being in overcoming barriers they may face in transitioning into a new environment. It is recommended that host communities have integration programs which benefit both the host community and the immigrant: a win–win situation.
Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin
Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample of 2041 children aged 6-10 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the second phase, a subsample of 253 children was psychiatrically examined, while their parents were i...
McCauley, Linda A
Immigrant workers are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. work force, and these increasing numbers have resulted in a different ethnic mix in the work force than in previous decades. Immigrant workers are not a homogenous group, but are over-represented in low-paying occupations. Their diversity and vulnerability present distinct challenges for occupational health nurses. High-risk occupations in which a large proportion of immigrant workers are hired include agriculture, sweatshops, day laborers, and construction. Initiatives needed to improve the working conditions of this vulnerable population include improved surveillance and research, culturally competent care providers, improved health care access, advocacy, and changes in immigration and health policy.
Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole
In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research), cultural context (US versus Europe), age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26217256
Full Text Available In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of .63 (random effects model in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research, cultural context (US vs. Europe, age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.
Shield, Andrew DJ
newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....
Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan
Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...
Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa
The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J
Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt
George J. Borjas
Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...
Fischer, Andreas M.
Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...
Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...
Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...
Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun
This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239
"The essay analyzes the immigration policy pursued by Sweden from 1966, the year in which the first commission was established for this particular area, till 1985, the year in which an important reform was passed regarding the reception of refugees. The focal point of this immigration policy is singled out halfway in the 70's when the assimilation model is repudiated in favor of multiculturalism. One of the main features of this policy is the priority role accorded to research. The author examines the main fields of interest pursued by researchers, in particular the more recent studies on the ethnic-cultural dimension of the immigration phenomenon." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt
Full Text Available This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1 the experience of psychological well-being, (2 the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3 the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants.
This paper investigates the gender and ethnic wage differentials for female Immigrants, applying the Oaxaca ecomposition to estimate the level of discrimination. The gender pay gap is quite small (7.42%), but it's not explained by observable differences, whilst the ethnic wage gap is larger (27.11%), but the explained components account for about 30%. Ultimately, we will evaluate how the multiple levels of discrimination (due to being a woman and a foreigner at the same time) intersect, follo...
Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia
We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build.
Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia
We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999–2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build. (paper)
Sklair-Levy, Miri; Segev, Anat; Sella, Tamar; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Zippel, Douglas
High breast density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development. Little is known concerning ethnic variations in breast density and its relevant contributing factors. We aimed to study breast density among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel in comparison with Israeli-born women and to determine any effect on breast density of the length of residency in the immigrant population. Mammographic breast density using the BI-RADS system was estimated and compared between 77 women of Ethiopian origin who live in Israel and 177 Israeli-born controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for high density (BI-RADS score ≥ 3) vs low density (BI-RADS score density compared with Israeli-born women. Adjustments for various cofounders did not affect the results. Time since immigration to Israel seemed to modify the relationship, with a stronger association for women who immigrated within 2 years prior to mammography (OR:0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.17) as opposed to women with a longer residency stay in Israel (OR:0.23, 95% CI:0.10-0.50). Adjustments of various confounders did not alter these findings. Breast density in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel is significantly lower than that of Israeli-born controls. Our study suggests a positive association between time since immigration and breast density. Future studies are required to define the possible effects of dietary change on mammographic density following immigration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.
Schutt, Russell K; Mejía, Camila
Differences in health care satisfaction can alter patterns of health care utilization and so affect health outcomes, but little is known about variation in satisfaction in relation to immigration status. Health care satisfaction is analyzed with survey data from state public health program patients. Overall health care satisfaction is higher for first generation Hispanic immigrants and lower among those in the second generation compared to white Americans-consistent with the pattern termed the "healthy migrant effect." This pattern is more pronounced for Portuguese-speaking immigrants and is not explained by self-reported health, communication ability or acculturation. Satisfaction with specific aspects of health care follows different patterns that may be explained by differences in experiences and culture. As anticipated by segmented assimilation theory, we find variation in cross-generational patterns of health care satisfaction both within and between ethnic groups. This variation indicates the importance of distinguishing Portuguese-speakers from Spanish-speakers and of taking into account differences in the ways they are able to communicate with health care providers as well as differences in their orientations toward health care. Our disparate findings with other immigrant groups also reinforce limiting expectations of a "healthy migrant effect" to Latinos. Finally, the variable influences on different satisfaction measures indicate the importance of considering the relative influence of culturally-based orientations and health care experiences on the specific outcomes measured, with particular sensitivity to acceptance of individualized standards of care.
Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin
The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
Immigrants are faced with several impediments in the host country that may affect their quality of life (QoL), but little is known about the impact of these stressors as well as about the protective role of sense of coherence (SoC) in the context of Polish immigration to Germany. Health Related QoL (Short Form Health Survey SF-36) and SoC (Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29) were assessed in a total sample consisting of 511 participants aged between 18 and 84 years (260 Polish immigrants in Germany and 251 indigenous Poles). Polish immigrants reported a significantly lower mental and physical health-related QoL than the German norm population, but they were comparable to native Poles. This result remained the same when the model was adjusted for age but physical health status was better for immigrants compared with indigenous Poles. Both groups scored significantly lower for SoC than Germans, but did not differ from each other. The main differences concerning the examined variables were with respect to the German norm population and are putatively shaped by culture. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Meta van der Linden
Full Text Available The aim of this study is twofold. First, we expand on the literature by testing whether generalized trust is negatively related to anti-immigrant sentiments in Europe. Second, we examine to what extent the relation between generalized trust and anti-immigrant sentiments is dependent upon cross-group friendships. We apply multilevel linear regression modeling to representative survey data enriched with levels of ethnic diversity covering 21 European countries. Results show that both generalized trust and cross-group friendship are negatively related to anti-immigrant sentiments. However, there is a negligible positive relation between generalized trust and cross-group friendship (r = .10, and we can clearly observe that they operate independently from one another. Hence, trusting actors are not more likely to form more cross-group friendships, and cross-group friendship do not lead to the development of more generalized trust. Instead, the findings show that generalized trust leads immigrants too to be included in the radius of trusted others and, as a consequence, the benign effects of generalized trust apply to them as well. We conclude that the strength of generalized trust is a form of generalization, beyond the confines of individual variations in intergroup experiences.
In a group of 105 mentally ill immigrants we investigated the intensity and the frequency of aggressive behaviour at the time of admission with the help of two standardized instruments: the "Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale" (SDAS) and the "Modified Overt Aggression Scale" (MOAS). As many as possible collateral informants were contacted to gather all information available for the aggressiveness rating. The immigrant group was compared to a matched group of German patients. 416 German patients had to be investigated until 105 of them fulfilled the matching criteria. The matching variables were: age, gender, diagnosis (ICD-10), severity of mental illness (CGI) and social status. The physicians who carried out the matching process and who carried out the aggression-rating were "blind" to the aim of the investigation. We found out that there was no significant difference between immigrants and German patients when the sum-scores of the SDAS and the MOAS are compared (N = 210). When SDAS single variables were compared German patients had a higher severity and frequency of "physical violence towards other persons". We interpreted this finding as an increased level of disinhibition which may be correlated to a higher acceptance of aggressive behaviour in German culture compared to normative beliefs of Mediterranean immigrants.
Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…
Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.
This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...
Miyamoto, Ai; Pfost, Maximilian; Artelt, Cordula
The present study compares native and immigrant students regarding the direction and the strength of the relation between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. Within the framework of the German National Educational Panel Study, 4,619 secondary school students were included in the analyses. The present study confirmed the reciprocal…
The theoretical and material moves within this essay suggest that culturally hybrid agents use the "closet" as a space to negotiate the intersections of sexuality and ethnicity in everyday life. Discussing some conclusions of my ethnographic research project with the Russian Gay and Lesbian Group of West Hollywood, this essay applies Michel de Certeau's notion of tactics to the daily micro-practices of queer identified immigrants as they move between the demands of overlapping and contradictory cultures. Examining the circumstances in the Russian-American-immigrant-imagined community shared by the informants in this site, I argue that, contrary to a popularized valorization of queer "outness," there is a great deal of power in the oscillation between visibility and invisibility.
Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M
To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. A questionnaire was distributed to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.04-11.33). Within the past 14 days, 86% (n = 72) experienced that their advice and counselling were not understood by immigrant customers, whereas 49% (n = 41) experienced lack of understanding by ethnic Danes; and 30% (n = 25) had consciously refrained from counselling an immigrant, whereas 19% (n = 16) had done so with an ethnic Dane. Use of under-aged children as interpreters during the past month was reported by 79% of respondents. Regarding suggestions on how to improve encounters with immigrant customers, most respondents listed interventions aimed at patients, general practitioners and pharmaceutical companies. Community pharmacy staff report poorer quality in their encounters with immigrant customers, including sub-optimal counselling and frequent use of under-aged children as
Menigoz, Karen; Nathan, Andrea; Heesch, Kristiann C; Turrell, Gavin
Increasing global migration, high obesity in developed countries, and ethnic health inequalities are compelling reasons to monitor immigrant obesity trends. Longitudinal studies of ethnicity, length of residence, and adiposity in contexts outside of the United States are lacking. Nine waves (2006-2014) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey were analyzed (n = 20,934; 52% women; 101,717 person-year observations) using random effects modeling to assess average annual change in body mass index (BMI) by ethnic group. A second analysis used an immigrant only cohort (n = 4583; 52% women; 22,301 person-year observations) to examine BMI change by length of residence. Over 9 years, mean BMI increased significantly in all ethnic and Australian-born groups, and by the final wave, mean BMI exceeded 25 kg m -2 for all groups. Trajectories of change did not vary between groups, with the exception of slower BMI increases for North-West European men compared with Australian born. Immigrants residing in Australia for 10-19 years had significantly faster annual increases in BMI compared with long-term immigrants (≥30 years). Immigrants to Australia, regardless of ethnicity, are at risk of obesity over time. Obesity prevention policy should prioritize immigrants in the early-mid settlement period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...
Aleman, Steven R.
This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…
Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov
Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…
Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter
While research suggests that schools can foster active citizenship among youth, studies have not tested whether ethnic minority youth may benefit differently from school experiences than ethnic majority youth. In this study of 219 students (138 German majority and 81 Turkish-origin minority; M age = 18.26; 55% females), we examined the association between different experiences at school and 4 indicators of youth active citizenship, controlling for various socio-demographic characteristics. Although value of social studies was associated with three out of four active citizenship indicators among both ethnic groups, the effects of the other school-related variables on active citizenship were moderated by ethnicity. Specifically, indicators of classroom climate, such as open classroom climate and classroom community, were only associated with greater active citizenship among Turkish-minority youth, while participatory factors, such as engagement in school decisions, were only associated with active citizenship among native German youth. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available The study examines a special case of international migration, when the ethnicity, mother tongue, historical and cultural traditions of the immigrants are identical with those of the receiving population. This is also a fundamental feature of immigration to Hungary in the last decade and a half and could be observed primarily in the migratory wave from neighboring countries (most of all from Transylvania in Romania. After presenting the historical background we will review the development of the present-day migratory processes as well as their social and economical conditions, relying on statistics based on various sources. The socio-demographic composition of the immigrants and their selection from the population of origin indicate that migration is more frequent among younger, better-educated people living in an ethnically heterogeneous urban environment. At the same time, the rising proportion of older people and pensioners among the immigrants suggests the commencement of the so-called secondary migration. This is con? rmed by a questionnaire-based survey conducted among immigrants, which showed that family reuni? cation is a migratory motivation for a signi? cant group of people, primarily for the older generation. Among younger people economic considerations are decisive in the migrants decision-making. Our analysis underscores the roles of ethnicity and network of connections in the processes under examination.
Full Text Available
Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.
Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.
Nguyen, Duy; Reardon, Leigh J
This study applies the Commission on Social Determinants of Health model to identify the effect of ethnicity/race and English proficiency on the health of older immigrants. California Health Interview Survey data of foreign-born respondents aged 65 and over were used to examine the four outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study included 1,196 immigrant Latinos, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites. The results show that ethnicity/race-based differences in HRQOL exist. Furthermore, the results indicate that English proficiency has a significant moderating relationship on racial/ethnic background. The likelihood of reporting more Limited Combined Days increased with lower levels of English proficiency for both Latino and Asian-American old adults as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In addition to focusing on racial disparities, health promotion efforts with older immigrants need to examine language-based stratification. Social work and gerontological advocates need to develop and employ evidence-based interventions that reach limited-English-proficient older immigrants to address the health, psychosocial, and access to health care challenges they face.
Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank
This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Immigrant-origin students (i.e., first- and second-generation immigrants comprise roughly 20Š of the US school-age population. Despite growing awareness of a female-favorable gender gap in educational performance, quantitative research on immigrant educational adaptation rarely considers whether there are differences in the educational adaptation patterns between boys and girls. Methods: Using a nationally representative sample of 2002 high school sophomores from the Educational Longitudinal Study, we examine gender-specific patterns of generational differences in high school grades and investigate racial/ethnic variation in these patterns. Results: Among whites and Asians, girls and boys exhibit similar patterns of educational adaptation as measured by high school grade point average, but there are significant gender differences in patterns of educational adaptation among blacks and Hispanics. Second-generation Hispanic boys, but not girls, have lower grades than their coethnic native counterparts, and first-generation black boys, but not girls, earn higher grades than their native peers. Class preparedness and instrumental motivation partially explain these gender differences in educational adaptation, especially among blacks. Contribution: The results reveal the heterogeneity in immigrant-origin youth's educational adaptation along gender and racial/ethnic lines and illuminate which students - in terms of gender, generational status, and race/ethnicity - are most at risk of downward mobility.
DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.
German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.
Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann
The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…
Van Son, Catherine R
Older adults who immigrate late in life face many challenges adapting to a new country. Immigrants bring their cultural beliefs and behaviors with them, which can influence their ability to make dietary changes required when they have type 2 diabetes. Culturally targeted patient education materials are needed to improve immigrants' health literacy and abilities to self-manage diabetes. Currently, there is a scarcity of diabetes patient education materials to meet the educational needs of the Russian-speaking immigrant group. The purpose of this article is to describe a project in which culturally targeted diabetes education materials for older Russian-speaking immigrants were designed and developed. Culturally targeted patient education materials are essential if they are to be accepted and used by clients from different ethnic minority populations. The creation of culturally relevant materials requires a team effort and community stakeholder input. The availability of materials on the internet facilitates access and use by health care providers. Culturally targeted education materials are an important component in addressing health literacy in ethnic minority populations. Next steps require that these materials be evaluated to test their impact on diabetes self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes such as adherence, amount of physical activity, and blood glucose levels. © 2014 The Author(s).
Leu, Janxin; Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David
This article investigates differences in the mental health among male and female immigrants from an ecological perspective, testing the influences of both individual acculturation domains and social contexts. Data from the first nationally representative psychiatric survey of immigrant Asians in the US is used (N = 1,583). These data demonstrate the importance of understanding acculturation domains (e.g., individual differences in English proficiency, ethnic identity, and time in the US), within the social contexts of family, community, and neighborhood. Results demonstrate that among immigrant Asian women, the association between family conflict and mental health problems is stronger for those with higher ethnic identity; among immigrant Asian men, community reception (e.g., everyday discrimination) was more highly associated with increases in mental health symptoms among those with poor English fluency. Findings suggest that both individual domains of acculturation and social context measures contribute to immigrant mental health, and that it is important to consider these relationships within the context of gender.
Rozin, P.; Cherfas, L.; Radil, Tomáš; Radilová, Jiřina; McCauley, C. R.; Cohen, A.B.
Roč. 20, č. 4 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 1078-1919 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/10/2031 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ethnic aversions * forgiveness * Germans * Holocaust survivors * Jews * social perception * trauma Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian
Teachers not only play a pivotal role in developing students' knowledge and skills but also can serve as role models, which may be particularly beneficial for youth of color and children of immigrants. However, it is unknown whether relationships vary across student racial/ethnic and generational groups. Moreover, the link between teacherstudent…
Leman, Johan, Ed.
The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)
This dissertation is a sociolinguistic study of the ideologies about language, culture and ethnicity among Japanese immigrants and descendants in Brazil (hereafter, Nikkeis) who gather at a local Japanese cultural association, searching for what it means to be "Japanese" in Brazil. This study focuses on how linguistic behaviors are…
Veling, Wim; Hoek, H. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of
Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar
In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…
Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of ethnic acceptance and prejudice on English language learning among immigrant nonnative speakers. During 2004 and 2005, the author conducted participatory dialogues among six Vietnamese and Mexican adult immigrant English language learners. The researcher sought to answer five questions: (1 What are some nonnative English speakers’ experience regarding the way native speakers treat them? (2 How have nonnative English speakers’ experiences of ethnic acceptance or ethnic prejudice affected their learning of English? (3 What do nonnative English speakers think they need in order to lower their anxiety as they learn a new language? (4 What can native English speakers do to lower nonnative speakers’ anxiety? (5 What can nonnative English speakers do to lower their anxiety with native English speakers? Even though many of the adult immigrant participants experienced ethnic prejudice, they developed strategies to overcome anxiety, frustration, and fear. The dialogues generated themes of acceptance, prejudice, power, motivation, belonging, and perseverance, all factors essential to consider when developing English language learning programs for adult immigrants.
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte
This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...
Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.
Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.
... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...