Sample records for ethanoligenens harbinense yuan-3

  1. Buffering action of acetate on hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49

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    Ji-Fei Xu


    Full Text Available The buffering effect of acetate on hydrogen production during glucose fermentation by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was investigated compared to phosphate, a widely used fermentative hydrogen production buffer. Specific concentrations of sodium acetate or phosphate were added to batch cultures, and the effects on hydrogen production were comparatively analyzed using a modified Gompertz model. Adding 50 mM acetate or phosphate suppressed the hydrogen production peak and slightly extended the lag phase. However, the overall hydrogen yields were 113.5 and 108.5 mmol/L, respectively, and the final pH was effectively controlled. Acetate buffered against hydrogen production more effectively than did phosphate, promoting cell growth and preventing decreased pH. At buffer concentrations 100–250 mM, the maximum hydrogen production was barely suppressed, and the lag phase extended past 7 h. Therefore, although acetate inhibits hydrogen production, using acetate as a buffer (like phosphate effectively prevented pH drops and increased substrate consumption, enhancing hydrogen production.

  2. Characteristics of biohydrogen production by ethanoligenens R{sub 3} isolated from continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, A.Y.; Liu, K. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Li, Y.F. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Forestry; Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Liu, B. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). School of Material Science and Engineering; Xu, J.L. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    This study investigated the fermentative hydrogen production characteristics of ethanoligenens R{sub 3} isolated from anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The effects of the initial pH value, the proportion of carbon and nitrogen sources, and the effects of fermentation temperature were investigated in a series of batch experiments. Substrates for the hydrogen production of glucose and peptone were used as carbon and nitrogen sources. Results of the experiments showed that a maximum hydrogen production yield of 834 mlH{sub 2}/L culture was obtained with a fermentation temperature of 35 degrees C and an initial pH value of 5.5. The maximum average hydrogen production rate of 10.87 mmolH{sub 2}/g cell dry weight per hour was obtained at a carbon-nitrogen source ratio of 3.3. The degradation efficiency of the glucose used as a carbon source ranged from 91.5 to 95.43 per cent during the conversion of glucose to hydrogen by the bacteria.

  3. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production. (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi


    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation. (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi


    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishment of rumen-mimic bacterial consortia: A functional union for bio-hydrogen production from cellulosic bioresource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Lin, Jia-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University,Taichung (China)


    The study aimed to establish stable rumen-mimic bacterial consortia as a functional union for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from cellulosic bioresource. The consortia was constructed by repeated-batch culture with ruminal microflora and napiergrass at 38 C. The major bacterial composition of batch culture was monitored by 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The result showed that a stable consortia constituted by ruminal microflora was formed, and the consortia includes bacterial strains such as Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium papyrosolvens, Clostridium beijerinckii, Ruminococcus sp., Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The Clostridium genus was showed as the dominant population in the system and contributed to the biohydrogen production. During each eight days incubation period, the functional consortia could degrade an average of 27% hemicellulose and 2% cellulose from napiergrass biomass. While the increasing of the reducing sugars and their converting to biohydrogen gas productivity were also observed. The time course profile for cellulytic enzymes showed that the hydrolysis of complex lignocellulosic material may occur through the ordered actions of xylenase and cellulase activities. (author)

  6. Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: a meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among select H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria. (United States)

    Carere, Carlo R; Rydzak, Thomas; Verbeke, Tobin J; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B; Sparling, Richard


    Fermentative bacteria offer the potential to convert lignocellulosic waste-streams into biofuels such as hydrogen (H2) and ethanol. Current fermentative H2 and ethanol yields, however, are below theoretical maxima, vary greatly among organisms, and depend on the extent of metabolic pathways utilized. For fermentative H2 and/or ethanol production to become practical, biofuel yields must be increased. We performed a comparative meta-analysis of (i) reported end-product yields, and (ii) genes encoding pyruvate metabolism and end-product synthesis pathways to identify suitable biomarkers for screening a microorganism's potential of H2 and/or ethanol production, and to identify targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel yields. Our interest in H2 and/or ethanol optimization restricted our meta-analysis to organisms with sequenced genomes and limited branched end-product pathways. These included members of the Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the absence of genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, and Thermotoga species coincide with high H2 yields and low ethanol production. Organisms containing genes (or activities) for both ethanol and H2 synthesis pathways (i.e. Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Clostridium species) had relatively uniform mixed product patterns. The absence of hydrogenases in Geobacillus and Bacillus species did not confer high ethanol production, but rather high lactate production. Only Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus produced relatively high ethanol and low H2 yields. This may be attributed to the presence of genes encoding proteins that promote NADH production. Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate:formate lyase are not conducive for ethanol and/or H2 production. While the type(s) of encoded hydrogenases appear to have little impact

  7. Sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of a new complex perovskite: (1–x)(Sr0.3Ca0.427Nd0.182)TiO3-xSmAlO3 ceramics. JING JING QU1, FEI LIU2,*, XING WEI1, CHANG LAI YUAN3, XIAN PEI. HUANG3. 1Department of Information Engineering, Guilin University of Aerospace. Technology, Guilin 541004 ...

  8. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs (United States)


    orderly way. However, the problem at present is how to help the people of the whole country familia - rize themselves with and have a good grasp of the...or are of a pornographic nature, or toys with pornographic illustrations, aphrodisiacs, and sexual gadgets as well. Precious works of art cassettes, slides, toys, aphrodisiacs, and sexual aids are liable to fines ranging from 100 yuan to 1,000 yuan; (3) Those who take with them or

  9. Achieving ethanol-type fermentation for hydrogen production in a granular sludge system by aeration. (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying; Pan, Yu-Ting


    To investigate the effects of aeration on hydrogen-producing granular system, experiments were performed in two laboratory-scale anaerobic internal circulation hydrogen production (AICHP) reactors. The preliminary experiment of Reactor 1 showed that direct aeration was beneficial to enhancing hydrogen production. After the direct aeration was implied in Reactor 2, hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen content were increased by 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, mixed-acid fermentation was transformed into typical ethanol-type fermentation (ETF). Illumina MiSeq sequencing shows that the direct aeration did not change the species of hydrogen-producing bacteria but altered their abundance. Hydrogen-producing bacteria and ethanol-type fermentative bacteria were increased by 24.5% and 146.3%, respectively. Ethanoligenens sp. sharply increased by 162.2% and turned into predominant bacteria in the system. These findings indicated that appropriate direct aeration might be a novel and promising way to obtain ETF and enhance hydrogen production in practical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geometric Potential Assessment for ZY3-02 Triple Linear Array Imagery

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    Kai Xu


    Full Text Available ZiYuan3-02 (ZY3-02 is the first remote sensing satellite for the development of China’s civil space infrastructure (CCSI and the second satellite in the ZiYuan3 series; it was launched successfully on 30 May 2016, aboard the CZ-4B rocket at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC in China. Core payloads of ZY3-02 include a triple linear array camera (TLC and a multi-spectral camera, and this equipment will be used to acquire space geographic information with high-resolution and stereoscopic observations. Geometric quality is a key factor that affects the performance and potential of satellite imagery. For the purpose of evaluating comprehensively the geometric potential of ZY3-02, this paper introduces the method used for geometric calibration of the TLC onboard the satellite and a model for sensor corrected (SC products that serve as basic products delivered to users. Evaluation work was conducted by making a full assessment of the geometric performance. Furthermore, images of six regions and corresponding reference data were collected to implement the geometric calibration technique and evaluate the resulting geometric accuracy. Experimental results showed that the direct location performance and internal accuracy of SC products increased remarkably after calibration, and the planimetric and vertical accuracies with relatively few ground control points (GCPs were demonstrated to be better than 2.5 m and 2 m, respectively. Additionally, the derived digital surface model (DSM accuracy was better than 3 m (RMSE for flat terrain and 5 m (RMSE for mountainous terrain. However, given that several variations such as changes in the thermal environment can alter the camera’s installation angle, geometric performance will vary with the geographical location and imaging time changes. Generally, ZY3-02 can be used for 1:50,000 stereo mapping and can produce (and update larger-scale basic geographic information products.

  11. Biohydrogen production at pH below 3.0: Is it possible? (United States)

    Mota, V T; Ferraz Júnior, A D N; Trably, E; Zaiat, M


    Biological hydrogen production was investigated in continuous acidogenic reactors fed with sucrose at 30 °C without pH control. In the first experimental phase, three reactors were compared: a structured fixed-bed (FB), a granular UASB (UG) and a flocculent UASB (UF-1). They were run at 3.3 h HRT and 33 gCOD L-1d-1 OLR. Hydrogen production occurred throughout the experimental period with an average effluent pH of only 2.8. The FB, UG and UF-1 reactors presented volumetric hydrogen production rates (VHPR) of 95 ± 69, 45 ± 37 and 54 ± 32 mLH2 L-1h-1, respectively; and H2 yields (HY) of 1.5 ± 0.8, 0.8 ± 0.6 and 1.2 ± 0.7 molH2 mol-1 sucroseconsumed, respectively. The UF-1 reactor showed intermediate VHPR and HY, but no declining trend, contrary to what was observed in the FB reactor. Thus, aiming at continuous and long-term H2 production, a flocculent UASB was applied in the second experimental phase. In this phase, the HRT of the acidogenic reactor, which was named UF-2, was raised to 4.6 h, resulting in an OLR of 25 gCOD L-1d-1. The VHPR and the HY increased considerably to 175 ± 44 mLH2 L-1h-1 and 3.4 ± 0.7 molH2 mol-1 sucroseconsumed, respectively. These improvements were accompanied by greater sucrose removal, higher suspended biomass concentration, less production of lactate and more of acetate, and high ethanol concentration. Contradicting the current published literature data that reports strong inhibition of H2 production by dark fermentation at pH less than 4.0, the UF-2 reactor presented stable, long-term H2 production with satisfactory yields at pH 2.7 on average. 16 S rDNA sequencing revealed that two sequences assigned as Ethanoligenens and Clostridium accounted for over 70% of the microbiota in all the reactors. The non-necessity of adding alkalizing agents and the successful H2 production under very acid conditions, demonstrated in this study, open a new field of investigation in biological hydrogen production by dark

  12. An Uneven Illumination Correction Algorithm for Optical Remote Sensing Images Covered with Thin Clouds

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    Xiaole Shen


    Full Text Available The uneven illumination phenomenon caused by thin clouds will reduce the quality of remote sensing images, and bring adverse effects to the image interpretation. To remove the effect of thin clouds on images, an uneven illumination correction can be applied. In this paper, an effective uneven illumination correction algorithm is proposed to remove the effect of thin clouds and to restore the ground information of the optical remote sensing image. The imaging model of remote sensing images covered by thin clouds is analyzed. Due to the transmission attenuation, reflection, and scattering, the thin cloud cover usually increases region brightness and reduces saturation and contrast of the image. As a result, a wavelet domain enhancement is performed for the image in Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV color space. We use images with thin clouds in Wuhan area captured by QuickBird and ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 satellites for experiments. Three traditional uneven illumination correction algorithms, i.e., multi-scale Retinex (MSR algorithm, homomorphic filtering (HF-based algorithm, and wavelet transform-based MASK (WT-MASK algorithm are performed for comparison. Five indicators, i.e., mean value, standard deviation, information entropy, average gradient, and hue deviation index (HDI are used to analyze the effect of the algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively eliminate the influences of thin clouds and restore the real color of ground objects under thin clouds.

  13. Detection of ZY-3 Satellite Platform Jitter Using Multi-spectral Imagery

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    ZHU Ying


    Full Text Available Satellite platform jitter is one of the factors that affect the quality of high resolution imagery, which can cause image blur and internal distortion. Taking ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 multi-spectral camera as a prototype, this paper proposes a satellite platform jitter detection method by utilizing multi-spectral imagery. First, imaging characteristics of multispectral camera and the main factors affecting band-to-band registration error are introduced. Then the regularity of registration error caused by platform jitter is analyzed by theoretical derivation and simulation. Meanwhile, the platform jitter detection method based on high accuracy dense points matching is presented. Finally, the experiments were conducted by using ZY-3 multi-spectral imagery captured in different time. The result indicates that ZY-3 has a periodic platform jitter about 0.6 Hz in the imaging period of test data, and the jitter amplitude across track is greater than that along track, which causes periodic band-to-band registration error with the same frequency. The result shows the possibility of the improvement in geometric processing accuracy for ZY-3 imagery products and provides an important reference for satellite platform jitter source analysis and satellite platform design optimization.

  14. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming


    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  15. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming


    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  16. Ground Deformation Detection Using China’s ZY-3 Stereo Imagery in an Opencast Mining Area

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    Wenmin Hu


    Full Text Available Detection and extraction of mining-induced ground deformation can be used to understand the deformation process and space distribution and to estimate the deformation laws and trends. This study focuses on the application of ground deformation detection and extraction combined with digital surface model (DSM, derived from China’s ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 satellite stereo imagery and the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer global digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM data. A district covering 200 km2 around the west open-pit mine in Fushun of Liaoning Province, a city located in Northeast China, is chosen as the study area. Regional overall deformation, typical region deformation, and topographical profile deformation are extracted to analyze the distribution and the link between the regional ground deformations. The results show that the mean elevation has already increased by 3.12 m from 2010 to 2015; 71.18% of this area is deformed, and 22.72% of this area has an elevation variation of more than 10 m. Four districts of rising elevation and three districts of descending elevation are extracted. They are deformed with distinct elevation and volume changes. The total area with distinct rising elevation (>15 m is about 8.44 km2, and the change in volume is 2.47 × 108 m3. However, the total area with distinct descending elevation (<−10 m is about 6.12 km2, and the change in volume is 2.01 × 108 m3. Moreover, the deformation in the local mining area has expanded to the surrounding areas. Experiments in the mining area demonstrate that ground deformation, especially acute deformation such as large fractures or landslides, can be monitored using DSMs derived from ZY-3 satellite stereo images.

  17. High-Precision Attitude Post-Processing and Initial Verification for the ZY-3 Satellite

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    Xinming Tang


    Full Text Available Attitude data, which is the important data strongly correlated with the geometric accuracy of optical remote sensing satellite images, are generally obtained using a real-time Extended Kalman Filter (EKF with star-tracker and gyro data for current high-resolution satellites, such as Orb-view, IKONOS, Quickbird,Pleiades, and ZY-3.We propose a forward-backward Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF for post-processing, and the proposed method employs UKF to suppress noise by using an unscented transformation (UT rather than an EKF in a nonlinear attitude system. Moreover, this method makes full use of the collected data in the fixed-interval and computational resources on the ground, and it determines optimal attitude results by forward-backward filtering and weighted smoothing with the raw star-tracker and gyro data collected for a fixed period. In this study, the principle and implementation of the proposed method are described. The post-processed attitude was compared with the on-board attitude, and the absolute accuracy was evaluated by the two methods. One method compares the positioning accuracy of the object space coordinates with the post-processed and on-board attitude data without using ground control points (GCPs. The other method compares the tie-point residuals of the image coordinates after a free net adjustment. In addition, the internal and external parameters of the camera were accurately calibrated before use for an objective evaluation of the attitude accuracy. The experimental results reveal that the accuracy of the post-processed attitude is superior to the accuracy of the on-board processed attitude. This method has been applied to the ZiYuan-3 satellite system for processing the raw star-tracker and gyro data daily.

  18. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

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    Mi XS


    Full Text Available Xue-Song Mi,1,2 Ti-Fei Yuan,3,4 Yong Ding,1 Jing-Xiang Zhong,1 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of Central Nervous System, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. Keywords: animal model, in vitro culture, ex vivo culture, neurovascular dysfunction

  19. Chinese health care system and clinical epidemiology

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    Sun Y


    Full Text Available Yuelian Sun,1 Hans Gregersen,2 Wei Yuan3 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2GIOME, Department of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 3Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation of NPFPC, SIPPR, IRD, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide

  20. [The significance of multi-criteria decision analysis for the bundle treatment of severe pneumonia]. (United States)

    Xu, Junma; Zhao, Jie; Jia, Xiaomin; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Gang; Li, Haiquan


    To determine the effect of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on the effect of bundle treatment for severe pneumonia. A prospective historical control observation was conducted. Seventy-five patients with severe pneumonia having received MCDA (from January 2013 to August 2014) were assigned as intervention group. MCDA group was set up by the medical staff. Bundled treatment plan was composed of the MCDA evaluation results, anti-infection, phlegm and other conventional treatment measures which was adjust on time until the patient was transferred out of the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) or died. Seventy patients with severe pneumonia before receiving MCDA (from August 2010 to December 2012) were set as historical control group. Comparison of general condition before treatment and the incidence of hospital infection, average hospitalization cost, duration of RICU stay and mortality between these two groups were performed. There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, past history, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission between two groups. Compared with control group, the incidence of hospital infection [1.33% (1/75) vs. 11.43% (8/70), χ2 = 4.723, P = 0.030], mean hospitalization cost in RICU (10 thousand Yuan: 3.44 ± 0.79 vs. 3.76 ± 0.91, t = 2.265, P = 0.025), length of RICU stay (days: 15.01 ± 4.22 vs. 16.92 ± 4.79, t = 2.552, P = 0.012) and mortality in RICU [8.0% (6/75) vs. 21.4% (15/70 ), χ2 = 5.272, P = 0.032] in intervention group was significantly decreased. Application of MCDA in the bundle treatment of severe pneumonia could elevate the scientificalness of decision, and reduce the medical cost. Additionally, MCDA is worth to be generalized because the implementation of guidelines can improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of the patients.


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    K. Jacobsen


    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  2. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in locally advanced cervical cancer: potential biomarkers for predicting preoperative radiochemotherapy sensitivity and prognosis

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    Zhu PF


    Full Text Available Pengfeng Zhu,1 Yangjun Ou,2 Yishan Dong,1 Peizhen Xu,1 Lei Yuan3 1Department of Gynecology, 2Department of Pathology, Changzhou Maternity and Children Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 3Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC is an early-stage cervical cancer characterized by a local tumor diameter of ≥4 cm. Patients with LACC have a relatively poor prognosis. Although preoperative radiochemotherapy (PRCT might offer a valuable opportunity for subsequent radical surgery, surgeons should also consider the nonresponsive rate, the adverse effects of PRCT, and the surgical complications before designing a treatment plan. Therefore, biomarkers for predicting PRCT sensitivity and prognosis in patients with LACC are of high importance. We investigated the prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α in patients with LACC. A total of 43 patients with LACC who underwent PRCT (one course each of intravenous chemotherapy and after-loading intracavitary brachytherapy followed by a radical hysterectomy during the period 2009–2014 were included in this study. VEGF and HIF-1α expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in LACC lesions before and after PRCT. In addition, we analyzed the association of these proteins with the clinical response and pathological findings of pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM after the subsequent surgery. The total clinical response rate was 81.39% after PRCT, including five complete responses and 30 partial responses. VEGF and HIF-1α expression before PRCT was significantly higher than after PRCT (VEGF: 85.71% vs 66.67%; HIF-1α: 83.33% vs 59.52%, P<0.05. In addition, the same trend was found in patients with PLNM compared to those without PLNM (VEGF: 100% vs 77.78%; HIF-1

  3. Hepatocyte-targeting gene transfer mediated by galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol- graft-polyethylenimine derivative

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    Wang YQ


    Full Text Available Yuqiang Wang,1,* Jing Su,2,* Wenwei Cai,3 Ping Lu,3 Lifen Yuan,3 Tuo Jin,2 Shuyan Chen,1 Jing Sheng3 1Department of Geriatrics, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Biscarbamate cross-linked polyethylenimine derivative (PEI-Et has been reported as a novel nonviral vector for efficient and safe gene transfer in our previous work. However, it had no cell-specificity. To achieve specific delivery of genes to hepatocytes, galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol-graft-polyethylenimine derivative (GPE was prepared through modification of PEI-Et with poly(ethylene glycol and lactobionic acid, bearing a galactose group as a hepatocyte-targeting moiety. The composition of GPE was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The weight-average molecular weight of GPE measured with a gel permeation chromatography instrument was 9489 Da, with a polydispersity of 1.44. GPE could effectively condense plasmid DNA (pDNA into nanoparticles. Gel retardation assay showed that GPE/pDNA complexes were completely formed at weigh ratios (w/w over 3. The particle size of GPE/pDNA complexes was 79–100 nm and zeta potential was 6–15 mV, values which were appropriate for cellular uptake. The morphology of GPE/pDNA complexes under atomic force microscopy appeared spherical and uniform in size, with diameters of 53–65 nm. GPE displayed much higher transfection efficiency than commercially available PEI 25 kDa in BRL-3A cell lines. Importantly, GPE showed good hepatocyte specificity. Also, the polymer exhibited significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI 25 kDa at the

  4. Analysis of Coastline Extraction from Landsat-8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin Liu


    Full Text Available Coastline extraction is a fundamental work for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection and coastal sustainable development. Due to the free access and long-term record, Landsat series images have the potential to be used for coastline extraction. However, dynamic features of different types of coastlines (e.g., rocky, sandy, artificial, caused by sea level fluctuation from tidal, storm and reclamation, make it difficult to be accurately extracted with coarse spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, of Landsat images. To access this problem, we analyze the performance of coastline extraction by integrating downscaling, pansharpening and water index approaches in increasing the accuracy of coastline extraction from the latest Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery. In order to prove the availability of the proposed method, we designed three strategies: (1 Strategy 1 uses the traditional water index method to extract coastline directly from original 30 m Landsat-8 OLI multispectral (MS image; (2 Strategy 2 extracts coastlines from 15 m fused MS images generated by integrating 15 m panchromatic (PAN band and 30 m MS image with ten pansharpening algorithms; (3 Strategy 3 first downscales the PAN band to a finer spatial resolution (e.g., 7.5 m band, and then extracts coastlines from pansharpened MS images generated by integrating downscaled spatial resolution PAN band and 30 m MS image with ten pansharpening algorithms. Using the coastline extracted from ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 5.8 m MS image as reference, accuracies of coastlines extracted from MS images in three strategies were validated visually and quantitatively. The results show that, compared with coastline extracted directly from 30 m Landsat-8 MS image (strategy 1, strategy 3 achieves the best accuracies with optimal mean net shoreline movement (MNSM of −2.54 m and optimal mean absolute difference (MAD of 11.26 m, followed by coastlines extracted in strategy 2 with optimal MNSM