Sample records for ethanol stimulates formation

  1. Candida albicans ethanol stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-controlled biofilm formation as part of a cyclic relationship involving phenazines.

    Annie I Chen


    Full Text Available In chronic infections, pathogens are often in the presence of other microbial species. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and detrimental lung pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF and co-infections with Candida albicans are common. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and phenazine production were strongly influenced by ethanol produced by the fungus C. albicans. Ethanol stimulated phenotypes that are indicative of increased levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP, and levels of c-di-GMP were 2-fold higher in the presence of ethanol. Through a genetic screen, we found that the diguanylate cyclase WspR was required for ethanol stimulation of c-di-GMP. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that ethanol stimulates WspR signaling through its cognate sensor WspA, and promotes WspR-dependent activation of Pel exopolysaccharide production, which contributes to biofilm maturation. We also found that ethanol stimulation of WspR promoted P. aeruginosa colonization of CF airway epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa production of phenazines occurs both in the CF lung and in culture, and phenazines enhance ethanol production by C. albicans. Using a C. albicans adh1/adh1 mutant with decreased ethanol production, we found that fungal ethanol strongly altered the spectrum of P. aeruginosa phenazines in favor of those that are most effective against fungi. Thus, a feedback cycle comprised of ethanol and phenazines drives this polymicrobial interaction, and these relationships may provide insight into why co-infection with both P. aeruginosa and C. albicans has been associated with worse outcomes in cystic fibrosis.

  2. Formation mechanism of ethanol-water excimer

    Ying Liu; Hua Shao; Xiaowu Ni; Jian Lu


    The fluorescent spectrum and the excitation spectrum were used to present the cluster molecular structure feature in ethanol-water solutions.Through analyzing the fluorescent characteristics of an excimer,it is proposed that the excimers are formed between the ethanol-water cluster molecules in the excited state and in the ground state.The fluorescent lifetime and the fluorescent intensity decay process give information about the photo-physical and photo-chemical processes of the formation and the dissociation of an excimer.The theoretical calculation and physical analysis coincide with the experimental results.The preliminary conclusion about the structure feature of ethanol-water cluster molecule is that it has a planar one like a sandwich.

  3. Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation

    Mehdi Bin Samad


    Full Text Available We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P<0.05. Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL was also reestablished (P<0.05. Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P<0.01. This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P<0.05. Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P<0.05. Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver.

  4. Myeloperoxidase formation of PAF receptor ligands induces PAF receptor-dependent kidney injury during ethanol consumption.

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Nagy, Laura E; McIntyre, Thomas M


    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction and oxidative metabolism of ethanol in hepatocytes inflame and damage liver. Chronic ethanol ingestion also induces kidney dysfunction, which is associated with mortality from alcoholic hepatitis. Whether the kidney is directly affected by ethanol or is secondary to liver damage is not established. We found that CYP2E1 was induced in kidney tubules of mice chronically ingesting a modified Lieber-deCarli liquid ethanol diet. Phospholipids of kidney tubules were oxidized and fragmented in ethanol-fed mice with accumulation of azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine (Az-PC), a nonbiosynthetic product formed only by oxidative truncation of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine. Az-PC stimulates the inflammatory PAF receptor (PTAFR) abundantly expressed by neutrophils and kidney tubules, and inflammatory cells and myeloperoxidase-containing neutrophils accumulated in the kidneys of ethanol-fed mice after significant hysteresis. Decreased kidney filtration and induction of the acute kidney injury biomarker KIM-1 in tubules temporally correlated with leukocyte infiltration. Genetic ablation of PTAFR reduced accumulation of PTAFR ligands and reduced leukocyte infiltration into kidneys. Loss of this receptor in PTAFR(-/-) mice also suppressed oxidative damage and kidney dysfunction without affecting CYP2E1 induction. Neutrophilic inflammation was responsible for ethanol-induced kidney damage, because loss of neutrophil myeloperoxidase in MPO(-/-) mice was similarly protective. We conclude that ethanol catabolism in renal tubules results in a self-perpetuating cycle of CYP2E1 induction, local PTAFR ligand formation, and neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation and damage to kidney function. Hepatocytes do not express PTAFR, so this oxidative cycle is a local response to ethanol catabolism in the kidney.

  5. The H2O2 scavenger ebselen decreases ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in mice.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Aragon, Carlos M G


    In the brain, the enzyme catalase by reacting with H(2)O(2) forms Compound I (catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is the main system of central ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Previous research has demonstrated that acetaldehyde derived from central-ethanol metabolism mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Manipulations that modulate central catalase activity or sequester acetaldehyde after ethanol administration modify the stimulant effects induced by ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects caused by ethanol has not been clearly addressed. The present study investigated the effects of ebselen, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, on ethanol-induced locomotion. Swiss RjOrl mice were pre-treated with ebselen (0-50mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75g/kg; IP). In another experiment, animals were pre-treated with ebselen (0 or 25mg/kg; IP) before caffeine (15mg/kg; IP), amphetamine (2mg/kg; IP) or cocaine (10mg/kg; IP) administration. Following these treatments, animals were placed in an open field to measure their locomotor activity. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of ebselen on the H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of brain catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Ebselen selectively prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation without altering the baseline activity or the locomotor stimulating effects caused by caffeine, amphetamine and cocaine. Ebselen reduced the ability of AT to inhibit brain catalase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that a decline in H(2)O(2) levels might result in a reduction of the ethanol locomotor-stimulating effects, indicating a possible role for H(2)O(2) in some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Revisiting the formation of cyclic clusters in liquid ethanol

    Balanay, Mannix P.; Kim, Dong Hee; Fan, Haiyan


    The liquid phase of ethanol in pure and in non-polar solvents was studied at room temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies together with theoretical approach. The FT-IR spectra for pure ethanol and solution in cyclohexane at different dilution stages are consistent with 1H NMR results. The results from both methods were best explained by the results of the density functional theory based on a multimeric model. It is suggested that cyclic trimers and tetramers are dominated in the solution of cyclohexane/hexane with the concentration greater than 0.5M at room temperature. In liquid ethanol, while the primary components at room temperature are cyclic trimers and tetramers, there is a certain amount (˜14%) of open hydroxide group representing the existence of chain like structures in the equilibria. The cyclic cluster model in the liquid and concentrated solution phase (>0.5M) can be used to explain the anomalously lower freezing point of ethanol (159 K) than that of water (273 K) at ambient conditions. In addition, 1H NMR at various dilution stages reveals the dynamics for the formation of cyclic clusters.

  7. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Francisca Carvajal


    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  8. High Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula Reduces Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Rats

    Li, Jing; Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Xie, Guiqin; Kaur, Amandeep; Bekker, Alex


    Background: Development of new strategies that can effectively prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is of paramount importance, because the currently available treatments are inadequate. Increasing evidence indicates that the lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in aversion, drug abuse, and depression. In light of the success of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the LHb in improving helplessness behavior in rodents, we assessed the effects of LHb HFS on ethanol-drinking behavior in rats. Methods: We trained rats to drink ethanol under an intermittent access two-bottle choice procedure. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological approaches to examine LHb activity. We applied a HFS protocol that has proven effective for reducing helplessness behavior in rats via a bipolar electrode implanted into the LHb. Results: c-Fos protein expression and the frequency of both spontaneous action potential firings and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents were higher in LHb neurons of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared to their ethanol-naïve counterparts. HFS to the LHb produced long-term reduction of intake and preference for ethanol, without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, low-frequency electrical stimulation to the LHb or HFS applied to the nearby nucleus did not affect drinking behavior. Conclusions: Our results suggest that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases glutamate release and the activity of LHb neurons, and that functional inhibition of the LHb via HFS reduces ethanol consumption. Thus, LHb HFS could be a potential new therapeutic option for alcoholics. PMID:27234303

  9. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Chorev Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  10. Beer and wine but not whisky and pure ethanol do stimulate release of gastrin in humans.

    Singer, M V; Eysselein, V; Goebell, H


    In humans, the action of ethanol on gastrin release is still unclear and that of alcoholic beverages greatly unknown. We studied the effect of a drink of various concentrations of pure ethanol and several commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on plasma levels of immunoreactive gastrin in 6 healthy human volunteers and compared the results to a protein-rich meal. A drink of distilled water (250 ml) and of pure ethanol (250 ml or 125 ml in the case of 40% v/v ethanol) in concentrations (4, 10, 20 and 40% v/v) normally present in beer, wine, liquor and whisky did not stimulate plasma gastrin levels above basal. Of the alcoholic beverages given only whisky (125 ml) did not stimulate gastrin release. Beer, red and white wine (250 ml each) caused a rapid increase in plasma gastrin concentrations with a peak at 15-20 min, basal levels being reached 60 min after starting the drink. The 60-min integrated plasma gastrin response to beer, red and white wine was about 50% of the gastrin response to the protein-rich (steak) meal (883 +/- 297 pmol X min X 1(-1); mean +/- SE). A drink of 250 ml of white wine together with the meal did not cause a significantly higher integrated gastrin response than the protein meal with 250 ml of distilled water. We conclude that commonly ingested alcoholic beverages such as beer, red and white wine, but not whisky, are potent stimulants of gastrin release in humans. The ethanol content of these beverages cannot be responsible for the increase in plasma gastrin levels, since oral ingestion of pure ethanol in equivalent concentrations and amounts did not elicit a rise in plasma gastrin levels. Some unknown ingredients present in beer and wine are most likely responsible for the gastrin release by both alcoholic beverages.

  11. Prenatal exposure to ethanol stimulates hypothalamic CCR2 chemokine receptor system: Possible relation to increased density of orexigenic peptide neurons and ethanol drinking in adolescent offspring.

    Chang, G-Q; Karatayev, O; Leibowitz, S F


    Clinical and animal studies indicate that maternal consumption of ethanol during pregnancy increases alcohol drinking in the offspring. Possible underlying mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides, which are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure and themselves promote drinking. Building on evidence that ethanol stimulates neuroimmune factors such as the chemokine CCL2 that in adult rats is shown to colocalize with the orexigenic peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), the present study sought to investigate the possibility that CCL2 or its receptor CCR2 in LH is stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure, perhaps specifically within MCH neurons. Our paradigm of intraoral administration of ethanol to pregnant rats, at low-to-moderate doses (1 or 3g/kg/day) during peak hypothalamic neurogenesis, caused in adolescent male offspring twofold increase in drinking of and preference for ethanol and reinstatement of ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice paradigm under an intermittent access schedule. This effect of prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with an increased expression of MCH and density of MCH(+) neurons in LH of preadolescent offspring. Whereas CCL2(+) cells at this age were low in density and unaffected by ethanol, CCR2(+) cells were dense in LH and increased by prenatal ethanol, with a large percentage (83-87%) identified as neurons and found to colocalize MCH. Prenatal ethanol also stimulated the genesis of CCR2(+) and MCH(+) neurons in the embryo, which co-labeled the proliferation marker, BrdU. Ethanol also increased the genesis and density of neurons that co-expressed CCR2 and MCH in LH, with triple-labeled CCR2(+)/MCH(+)/BrdU(+) neurons that were absent in control rats accounting for 35% of newly generated neurons in ethanol-exposed rats. With both the chemokine and MCH systems believed to promote ethanol consumption, this greater density of CCR2(+)/MCH(+) neurons in the LH of preadolescent rats suggests that

  12. Ethanol disrupts the formation of hypochord and dorsal aorta during the development of embryonic zebrafish

    QIAN Linxi; WANG Yuexiang; JIANG Qiu; ZHONG Tao; SONG Houyan


    Exposure to ethanol during human embryonic period has severe teratogenic effects on the cardiovascular system. In our study, we demonstrated that ethanol of gradient concentrations can interfere with the establishment of circulatory system in embryonic zebrafish. The effective concentration to cause 50% malformations (EC50) was 182.5 mmol/L. The ethanol pulse exposure experiment displayed that dome stage during embryogenesis is the sensitive time window to ethanol. It is found that 400 mmol/L ethanol pulse exposure can induce circulatory defects in 43% treated embryos. We ruled out the possibility that ethanol can interfere with the process of hematopoiesis in zebrafish. By employing in situ hybridization with endothelial biomarker (Flk-1), we revealed that ethanol disrupts the establishment of trunk axial vasculature, but has no effect on cranial vessels. Combined with the results of semi-thin histological sections, the in situ hybridization experiments with arterial and venous biomarkers (ephrinB2, ephB4) suggested that ethanol mainly interrupts the development of dorsal aorta while has little effect on axial vein. Further study indicated the negative influence of ethanol on the development of hypochord in zebrafish. The consequent lack of vasculogenic factors including Radar and Ang-1 partly explains the defects in formation and integrity of dorsal aorta. These results provide important clues to the study of adverse effects of ethanol on the cardiovascular development in human fetus.

  13. α-Lipoic acid, a scavenging agent for H₂O₂, reduces ethanol-stimulated locomotion in mice.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G


    The main system of central ethanol oxidation is mediated by the enzyme catalase. By reacting with H(2)O(2), brain catalase forms compound I (the catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde in the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that pharmacological manipulations of brain catalase activity modulate the stimulant effects of ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects of ethanol has not yet been clearly addressed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a scavenging agent for H(2)O(2), on ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation. CD-1 mice were pretreated with LA [0-100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)] 0-60 min prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75 g/kg, IP). In another experiment, animals were pretreated with LA (0, 25, or 50 mg/kg, IP) 30 min before cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP), amphetamine (2 mg/kg, IP), or caffeine (25 mg/kg, IP). After these treatments the animals were placed in an open-field chamber and their locomotor activity was measured for 20 min. LA 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg IP prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation. LA did not affect the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine, amphetamine, and caffeine. Additionally, we demonstrated that LA prevents the inactivation of brain catalase by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, thus indicating that H(2)O(2) levels are reduced by LA. These data support the idea that a decrease in cerebral H(2)O(2) production by LA administration inhibits ethanol-stimulated locomotion. This study suggests that the brain catalase-H(2)O(2) system, and by implication centrally formed acetaldehyde, plays a key role in the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol.

  14. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung


    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  15. Inhibitors of biofilm formation by fuel ethanol contaminants

    Industrial fuel ethanol production suffers from chronic and acute infections that reduce yields and cause “stuck fermentations” that result in costly shutdowns. Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus sp., are recognized as major contaminants. In previous studies, we observed that certain...

  16. Selection of hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreatments and fermentation conditions to stimulate xylitol protection by ethanol-producing yeasts

    Converti, A. [Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Facolta di Ingegneria, Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy); Del Borghi, M. [Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Facolta di Ingegneria, Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy)


    Xylitol production from hardwood hemicellulosic hydrolysates by well-known ethanol-producing yeasts was stimulated through an experimental schedule including pretreatments of the hydrolysate, the choice of the best xylitol producer and the selection of the optimum fermentation conditions. The xylitol or ethanol yields obtained on consumed xylose demonstrated that their production was stimulated under completely different conditions, as to be expected by the fact that these catabolites are the final products of different metabolic pathways. In particular, the catabolism of Pachysolen tannophilus, that is the best ethanol producer from this natural substrate, could be targeted towards xylitol rather than towards ethanol production by ensuring a strongly reducing environment through a suitable pretreatment of the hydrolysate. The final removal of fermentation inhibitors by adsorption onto highly adsorbing substances allowed a further 20% xylitol yield increase. (orig.)

  17. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.


    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  18. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    Ho-Shing Wu


    Full Text Available Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  19. Low-temperature dynamics in an ethanol glass studied by the long-lived stimulated photon echo

    Meijers, Hans C.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    The long-lived stimulated photon echo has been used to measure the dynamics of a deuterated ethanol glass at 1.5 K. The time dependence of the effective dephasing time constant can be described by using the standard two-level system model and a I/R distribution function for the relaxation rates of

  20. Low-temperature dynamics in an ethanol glass studied by the long-lived stimulated photon echo

    Meijers, Hans C.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    The long-lived stimulated photon echo has been used to measure the dynamics of a deuterated ethanol glass at 1.5 K. The time dependence of the effective dephasing time constant can be described by using the standard two-level system model and a I/R distribution function for the relaxation rates of t

  1. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  2. Comparison of conversion and deposit formation of ethanol and butane under SOFC conditions

    Gupta, Gaurav K.; Dean, Anthony M.; Ahn, Kipyung; Gorte, Raymond J.

    This paper explores the gas-phase kinetics of butane and ethanol conversion as well as the propensity for molecular-weight growth and deposit formation in the non-catalytic regions of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Experiments are done where the fuel flows through a quartz reactor heated by a furnace. The primary observables are the extent of fuel conversion and the amount of deposit formed on a YSZ disk placed at the end of the furnace. Experiments are performed at 700, 750 and 800 ° C. The residence times in the hot zone varied from 2 to 4 s. Ethanol is more reactive than butane, and almost all the ethanol is reacted at 750 ° C whereas butane is completely reacted at 800 ° C. Deposit formation is much larger for butane. These results are compared to predictions of a detailed kinetic model. Model predictions for the extent of fuel conversion and molecular-weight growth are in good agreement with the data for both fuels. Butane is predicted to be converted to the lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethylene, propylene and ethane. Hydrogen is also a significant product, especially at higher temperatures. For ethanol, the product distribution is different with lower amounts of hydrocarbons while substantial quantities of water, ethylene, CO and H 2 are predicted. In ethanol pyrolysis there is no significant production of species with more than two carbon atoms, whereas propylene production is significant in butane pyrolysis. Modeling results suggest this is a major reason for increased deposit formation with butane. Equilibrium calculations demonstrate that both the butane and ethanol systems are far removed from equilibrium.

  3. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe


    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  4. Solvent stimulated actuation of polyurethane-based shape memory polymer foams using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol

    Boyle, A. J.; Weems, A. C.; Hasan, S. M.; Nash, L. D.; Monroe, M. B. B.; Maitland, D. J.


    Solvent exposure has been investigated to trigger actuation of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as an alternative to direct heating. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) to stimulate polyurethane-based SMP foam actuation and the required solvent concentrations in water for rapid actuation of hydrophobic SMP foams. SMP foams exhibited decreased T g when submerged in DMSO and EtOH when compared to water submersion. Kinetic DMA experiments showed minimal or no relaxation for all SMP foams in water within 30 min, while SMP foams submerged in EtOH exhibited rapid relaxation within 1 min of submersion. SMP foams expanded rapidly in high concentrations of DMSO and EtOH solutions, where complete recovery over 30 min was observed in DMSO concentrations greater than 90% and in EtOH concentrations greater than 20%. This study demonstrates that both DMSO and EtOH are effective at triggering volume recovery of polyurethane-based SMP foams, including in aqueous environments, and provides promise for use of this actuation technique in various applications.

  5. Ethanol-assisted graphene oxide-based thin film formation at pentane-water interface.

    Chen, Fuming; Liu, Shaobin; Shen, Jianmin; Wei, Li; Liu, Andong; Chan-Park, Mary B; Chen, Yuan


    Graphene oxide (GO) can be viewed as an amphiphilic soft material, which form thin films at organic solvent-water interfaces. However, organic solvent evaporation provides little driving force, which results in slow GO transfer in aqueous phase, thus dawdling GO film formation processes for various potential applications. We present an ethanol-assisted self-assembly method for the quick formation of GO or GO-based composite thin films with tunable composition, transmittance, and surface resistivity at pentane-water interface. The thickness of pure GO and reduced GO (rGO) films ranging from ~1 nm to more than 10 nm can be controlled by the concentration of GO in bulk solution. The transmittance of rGO films can be tuned from 72% to 97% at 550 nm while the surface resistivity changes from 8.3 to 464.6 kΩ sq(-1). Ethanol is essential for achieving quick formation of GO thin films. When ethanol is injected into GO aqueous dispersion, it serves as a nonsolvent, compromising the stability of GO and providing driving force to allow GO sheets aggregate at the water-pentane interface. On the other hand, neither the evaporation of pentane nor the mixing between ethanol and water provides sufficient driving forces to allow noteworthy amount of GO sheets to migrate from the bulk aqueous phase to the interface. This method can also be extended to prepare GO-based composites thin films with tunable composition, such as GO/single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite thin films investigated in this work. Reduced GO/SWCNT composite films show much lower surface resistivity compared to pure rGO thin films. This ethanol-assisted self-assembly method opens opportunities to design and fabricate new functional GO-based hybrid materials for various potential applications.

  6. Ethanolic extract of Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) potentiates bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells.

    Chan, B Y; Lau, K S; Jiang, B; Kennelly, E J; Kronenberg, F; Kung, A W C


    Aceaea racemosa (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh, AR) extracts have been widely used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Recent evidences suggest AR extracts are also effective in protecting against postmenopausal bone loss. To determine whether AR has any direct anabolic effect on osteoblasts, we investigated the ethanolic extract of AR on bone nodule formation in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. AR did not stimulate osteoblast proliferation. Rather, at high doses of 1000 ng/mL for 48 h, AR suppressed (7.2+/-0.9% vs. control) osteoblast proliferation. At 500 ng/mL, a significant increase in bone nodule formation was seen with Von Kossa staining. Using quantitative PCR analysis, AR was shown to enhance the gene expression of runx2 and osteocalcin. Co-treatment with ICI 182,780, the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, abolished the stimulatory effect of AR on runx2 and osteocalcin gene induction, as well as on bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. This is a first report of the direct effect of AR on enhancement of bone nodule formation in osteoblasts, and this action was mediated via an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. The results provide a scientific rationale at the molecular level for the claim that AR can offer effective prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

  7. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K


    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway.

  8. Ethanol extract of Justicia gendarussa inhibits lipopolysaccharide stimulated nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in murine macrophage.

    Varma, R Sandeep; Ashok, G; Vidyashankar, S; Patki, P; Nandakumar, Krishna S


    Justicia gendarussa Burm (Acanthaceae) is a plant used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of this plant has not been studied well. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Justicia gendarussa leaves (J-01) are studied here for the first time. The ethanol extract, J-01 was prepared from the leaves of Justicia gendarussa. The inhibitory effect of J-01 in nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expressions were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. J-01 in a concentration dependent manner (200-50 μg/mL) attenuated NO production from macrophage stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL). Further, J-01 significantly suppressed iNOS mRNA expression in these cells. J-01 has also downregulated the MMP-9 gene expression in LPS stimulated macrophage. The modulatory function of J-01 in inhibiting NO, iNOS, and MMP-9 as obtained from the present in vitro studies provide first scientific evidence to support the anti-inflammatory properties of Justicia gendarussa. This plant may have potential use in the management of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.

  9. Transient modulation of calcium and parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation.

    Chen, Andy B; Minami, Kazumasa; Raposo, João F; Matsuura, Nariaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yokota, Hiroki; Ferreira, Hugo G


    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone can stimulate bone formation. Parathyroid hormone is a natural hormone that responds to serum calcium levels. In this study, we examined whether a transient increase and/or decrease in the serum calcium can stimulate bone formation. Using a mathematical model previously developed, we first predicted the effects of administration of parathyroid hormone, neutralizing parathyroid hormone antibody, calcium, and EGTA (calcium chelator) on the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone and calcium. The model predicted that intermittent injection of parathyroid hormone and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid transiently elevated the serum parathyroid hormone, while that of parathyroid hormone antibody and calcium transiently reduced parathyroid hormone in the serum. In vitro analysis revealed that parathyroid hormone's transient changes (both up and down) elevated activating transcription factor 4-mediated osteocalcin expression. In the mouse model of osteoporosis, both intermittent administration of calcium and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid showed tendency to increase bone mineral density of the upper limb (ulna and humerus) and spine, but the effects varied in a region-specific manner. Collectively, the study herein supports a common bone response to administration of calcium and its chelator through their effects on parathyroid hormone.

  10. Formation of ethanol and higher alcohols by immobilized zymomonas mobilis in continuous culture

    Oaxaca, V.A.; Jones, L.P. (Texas Univ., El Paso (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)


    Cells of Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 were immobilized in 1.5% calcium alginate and packed in a column bioreactor for a series of fermentations utilizing 10.0% glucose media with the addition of one of the following amino acids or keto acids: L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid, {alpha}-ketobutyric acid, or {alpha}-ketoisovaleric acid. This was done in order to study the rates of production of higher alcohols during ethanolic fermentations at varying dilution rates while under the influence of amino acids or keto acids. Results indicate that the EHRLICH mechanism is operative in Zymomonas sp. {alpha}-Ketobutyrate enhanced the production of n-propanol and act-amyl alcohol. {alpha}-Ketoisocaproic acid stimulated the production of isoamyl alcohol. {alpha}-Ketoisovaleric acid increased the levels of isobutanol. The amino acids also gave rise to their corresponding alcohols but to a far lesser degree than did the keto acids. During high glucose utilization, ethanol yields ranged from 87% to 94% of theoretical with productivity ranging from 60.08 g/l/h in one fermentation (at a dilution rate of 1.35 h{sup -1}) to 70.42 g/l/h in another (at a dilution rate of 1.58 h{sup -1}). At dilution rates of 1.58 h{sup -1}, higher alcohol productivity rose to as high as 4.313 mg/l/h in the presence of {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid, 1,734.49 mg/l/h using {alpha}-ketoisovaleric acid, and 1,618.05 mg/l/h in {alpha}-ketobutyric acid. The concomitant production of ethanol and higher alcohols in all of the fermentations indicates that glucose is required for the production of the higher alcohols from their corresponding amino acids or keto acids. (orig.).

  11. Sulphuric acid-catalysed formation of hemiacetal from glyoxal and ethanol

    Sarrami, Farzaneh; Yu, Li-Juan; Wan, Wenchao; Karton, Amir


    We examine the reaction of ethanol with glyoxal to form hemiacetal by means of the high-level G4(MP2) procedure. In this reaction, an intermolecular proton transfer is coupled with the formation of a covalent Csbnd O bond between the two molecules. We find a novel catalytic reaction mechanism in which an H2SO4 catalyst reduces the barrier height from ∆H‡298 = 140.2 to 16.3 kJ mol-1. It is well established that H2SO4 can effectively catalyse intramolecular proton transfers. This letter shows that H2SO4 can catalyse an intermolecular proton transfer that is coupled with a covalent bond formation.

  12. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons reveals that tonic but not phasic patterns of dopamine transmission reduce ethanol self-administration

    Caroline E Bass


    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that acute ethanol exposure stimulates ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine cell activity and that VTA-dependent dopamine release in terminal fields within the nucleus accumbens plays an integral role in the regulation of ethanol drinking behaviors. Unfortunately, due to technical limitations, the specific temporal dynamics linking VTA dopamine cell activation and ethanol self-administration are not known. In fact, establishing a causal link between specific patterns of dopamine transmission and ethanol drinking behaviors has proven elusive. Here, we sought to address these gaps in our knowledge using a newly developed viral-mediated gene delivery strategy to selectively express Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 on dopamine cells in the VTA of wild-type rats. We then used this approach to precisely control VTA dopamine transmission during voluntary ethanol drinking sessions. The results confirmed that ChR2 was selectively expressed on VTA dopamine cells and delivery of blue light pulses to the VTA induced dopamine release in accumbal terminal fields with very high temporal and spatial precision. Brief high frequency VTA stimulation induced phasic patterns of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Lower frequency stimulation, applied for longer periods mimicked tonic increases in accumbal dopamine. Notably, using this optogenetic approach in rats engaged in an intermittent ethanol drinking procedure, we found that tonic, but not phasic, stimulation of VTA dopamine cells selectively attenuated ethanol drinking behaviors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel viral targeting strategy that can be used to restrict opsin expression to dopamine cells in standard outbred animals and provide the first causal evidence demonstrating that tonic activation of VTA dopamine neurons selectively decreases ethanol self-administration behaviors.

  13. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons reveals that tonic but not phasic patterns of dopamine transmission reduce ethanol self-administration.

    Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Gioia, Dominic; Day-Brown, Jonathan D; Bonin, Keith D; Stuber, Garret D; Weiner, Jeff L; Budygin, Evgeny A


    There is compelling evidence that acute ethanol exposure stimulates ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cell activity and that VTA-dependent dopamine release in terminal fields within the nucleus accumbens plays an integral role in the regulation of ethanol drinking behaviors. Unfortunately, due to technical limitations, the specific temporal dynamics linking VTA dopamine cell activation and ethanol self-administration are not known. In fact, establishing a causal link between specific patterns of dopamine transmission and ethanol drinking behaviors has proven elusive. Here, we sought to address these gaps in our knowledge using a newly developed viral-mediated gene delivery strategy to selectively express Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) on dopamine cells in the VTA of wild-type rats. We then used this approach to precisely control VTA dopamine transmission during voluntary ethanol drinking sessions. The results confirmed that ChR2 was selectively expressed on VTA dopamine cells and delivery of blue light pulses to the VTA induced dopamine release in accumbal terminal fields with very high temporal and spatial precision. Brief high frequency VTA stimulation induced phasic patterns of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Lower frequency stimulation, applied for longer periods mimicked tonic increases in accumbal dopamine. Notably, using this optogenetic approach in rats engaged in an intermittent ethanol drinking procedure, we found that tonic, but not phasic, stimulation of VTA dopamine cells selectively attenuated ethanol drinking behaviors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel viral targeting strategy that can be used to restrict opsin expression to dopamine cells in standard outbred animals and provide the first causal evidence demonstrating that tonic activation of VTA dopamine neurons selectively decreases ethanol self-administration behaviors.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sargassum serratifolium in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells.

    Oh, Sun-Ji; Joung, Eun-Ji; Kwon, Mi-Sung; Lee, Bonggi; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak


    Sargassum serratifolium was found to contain high concentrations of meroterpenoids, having strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of an ethanolic extract of S. serratifolium (ESS) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and to identify the anti-inflammatory components in ESS. The level of proinflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of inflammation-related proteins and mRNA was evaluated by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities of isolated components from ESS were analyzed in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. ESS inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. ESS also decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (κB) transcriptional activity and translocation into the nucleus were remarkably suppressed by ESS through the prevention of inhibitor κB-α degradation. The main anti-inflammatory components in ESS were identified as sargahydroquinoic acid, sargachromenol, and sargaquinoic acid based on the inhibition of NO production using LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, treatment with ESS significantly reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β stimulated with LPS in mouse hippocampus. Our results indicate that ESS can be used as a functional food or therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. A pair of dopamine neurons target the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR in the central complex to promote ethanol-stimulated locomotion in Drosophila.

    Eric C Kong

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a mediator of the stimulant properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. The neural substrates for the stimulant actions of ethanol in flies are not known. We show that a subset of dopamine neurons and their targets, through the action of the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR, promote locomotor activation in response to acute ethanol exposure. A bilateral pair of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain mediates the enhanced locomotor activity induced by ethanol exposure, and promotes locomotion when directly activated. These neurons project to the central complex ellipsoid body, a structure implicated in regulating motor behaviors. Ellipsoid body neurons are required for ethanol-induced locomotor activity and they express DopR. Elimination of DopR blunts the locomotor activating effects of ethanol, and this behavior can be restored by selective expression of DopR in the ellipsoid body. These data tie the activity of defined dopamine neurons to D1-like DopR-expressing neurons to form a neural circuit that governs acute responding to ethanol.

  16. Metabolic engineering of the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae away from glycerol formation towards alternative products

    Kumar Jain, V.; Divol, B.; Prior, B.; Franz Bauer, F. [Stellenbosch Univ., (South Africa). Inst. for Wine Biotechnology


    This study investigated the commercial advantage of eliminating glycerol from the ethanol fermentation process and possible replacement with other value products. Under fermentative conditions yeast re-oxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Deletion of these two genes renders the cells incapable of maintaining fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. This study examined the feasibility of converting this excess NADH to Nad by transforming a glycerol synthesizing double mutant with genes that could restore the redox balance in the yeast. The study showed that although glycerol formation can be eliminated during fermentation, no alternative redox balancing pathway is as efficient at the glycerol pathway in maintaining fermentation. Alternative products such as sorbitol and 1,2propanediol can be produced instead of glycerol, but these genetic manipulations were shown to have negative effects on fermentative ability. Ethanol yields, but not concentrations, were improved in mutants. Significant amounts of acetate were also produced. This paper discussed the metabolic and biotechnological implications of these findings. tabs., figs.

  17. Propolis Ethanol Extract Stimulates Cytokine and Chemokine Production through NF-κB Activation in C2C12 Myoblasts

    Washio, Kohei; Kobayashi, Mao; Saito, Natsuko; Amagasa, Misato; Kitamura, Hiroshi


    Myoblast activation is a triggering event for muscle remodeling. We assessed the stimulatory effects of propolis, a beehive product, on myoblasts. After an 8 h treatment with 100 μg/mL of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract, expression of various chemokines, including CCL-2 and CCL-5, and cytokines, such as IL-6, increased. This propolis-induced cytokine production appears to depend on NF-κB activation, because the IKK inhibitor BMS-345541 repressed mRNA levels of CCL-2 by ~66%, CCL-5 by ~81%, and IL-6 by ~69% after propolis treatment. Supernatant from propolis-conditioned C2C12 cells upregulated RAW264 macrophage migration. The supernatant also stimulated RAW264 cells to produce angiogenic factors, including VEGF-A and MMP-12. Brazilian green propolis therefore causes myoblasts to secrete cytokines and chemokines, which might contribute to tissue remodeling of skeletal muscle. PMID:26604971

  18. Microbial inhibitors: formation and effects on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Baral, Nawa Raj; Shah, Ajay


    Biobutanol is a promising biofuel due to the close resemblance of its fuel properties to gasoline, and it is produced via acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium species. However, lignin in the crystalline structure of the lignin-cellulose-hemicellulose biomass complex is not readily consumed by the Clostridium; thus, pretreatment is required to degrade this complex. During pretreatment, some fractions of cellulose and hemicellulose are converted into fermentable sugars, which are further converted to ABE. However, a major setback resulting from common pretreatment processes is the formation of sugar and lignin degradation compounds, including weak acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds, which have inhibitory effects on the Clostridium. In addition, butanol concentration above 13 g/L in the fermentation broth is itself toxic to most Clostridium strain(s). This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art knowledge on the formation of microbial inhibitors during the most common lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment processes. Metabolic effects of inhibitors and their impacts on ABE production, as well as potential solutions for reducing inhibitor formation, such as optimizing pretreatment process parameters, using inhibitor tolerant strain(s) with high butanol yield ability, continuously recovering butanol during ABE fermentation, and adopting consolidated bioprocessing, are also discussed.

  19. A novel mouse model for the study of the inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation

    Excessive alcohol consumption has been reported to interfere with human bone homeostasis and repair in multiple ways. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure in the rat via an intragastric dietary delivery system inhibits direct bone formation during distraction osteogenesis...

  20. Effect of Mono-and Di-ethanolammonium Formate Ionic Liquids on the Volatility of Water, Ethanol, and Methanol

    李雪梅; 沈冲; 李春喜


    Vapor pressures were measured for six binary systems containing water, ethanol, or methanol with one of the two ionic liquids (ILs) at different component concentrations and temperatures using a quasi-static ebulliometer, with the ILs mono-ethanolammonium formate ([HMEA][HCOO]) and di-ethanolammonium formate ([HDEA][HCOO]). The vapor pressures of the IL-containing binary systems are well correlated using the NRTL model with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 0.0062. The effect of ILs on the vapor pressure depression of sol-vents at 0.050 mole fraction of IL is that [HDEA][HCOO]>[HMEA][HCOO], and the vapor pressure lowering de-gree follows the order of water>methanol>ethanol. Further, the activity coefficients of three solvents (viz. water, ethanol, and methanol) for the binary systems{solvent (1)+IL (2)}predicted based on the fitted NRTL parameters at T=333.15 K indicate that the two ILs generate a negative deviation from Raoult’s law for water and methanol and a positive deviation for ethanol to a varying degree, change the relative volatility of a solvent. [HMEA][HCOO] may be a promising entrainer to efficiently separate ethanol aqueous solutions by special rectification.

  1. Induction of brain cytochrome P450 2E1 boosts the locomotor-stimulating effects of ethanol in mice.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Miquel, Marta; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo; Aragon, Carlos M G


    In the central nervous system ethanol (EtOH) is metabolized into acetaldehyde by different enzymes. Brain catalase accounts for 60% of the total production of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde, whereas cerebral cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) produces 20% of this metabolite. Acetaldehyde formed by the activity of central catalase has been implicated in some of the neurobehavioral properties of EtOH, yet the contribution of CYP 2E1 to the pharmacological actions of this drug has not been investigated. Here we assessed the possible participation of CYP 2E1 in the behavioral effects of EtOH. Thus, we induced CYP 2E1 activity and expression by exposing mice to chronic acetone intake (1% v/v for 10 days) and examined its consequences on the stimulating and uncoordinating effects of EtOH (0-3.2 g/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Our data showed that 24 h after withdrawal of acetone brain expression and activity of CYP 2E1 was induced. Furthermore, the locomotion produced by EtOH was boosted over the same interval of time. Locomotor stimulation produced by amphetamine or tert-butanol was unchanged by previous treatment with acetone. EtOH-induced motor impairment as evaluated in a Rota-Rod apparatus was unaffected by the preceding exposure to acetone. These results indicate that cerebral CYP 2E1 activity could contribute to the locomotor-stimulating effects of EtOH, and therefore we suggest that centrally produced acetaldehyde might be a possible mediator of some EtOH-induced pharmacological effects.

  2. Conditional stimulation by galanin of saccharin and ethanol consumption under free and response contingent access.

    McNamara, I M; Robinson, J K


    Prior research has shown that the neuropeptide galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is made freely available. However, when access to food is made contingent upon lever pressing on a reinforcement schedule, no such stimulation occurs. This dissociation is consistent with the theorized "behavioral energizing" function of the ascending mesolimbic dopamine system, which purports that this ascending dopamine system is involved in only the goal directed effort maintaining (appetitive) and not the hedonic (consummatory) aspects of reward. Further, these results suggest that galanin may play an inhibitory role therein, or itself may be inhibited by mesolimbic dopamine activity underlying instrumental behavior. Prior research into this phenomenon has only utilized caloric foods or water, so the current work assessed the generality of this finding by determining if a similar dissociation also applies to commodities with other properties. For the present experiments, two commodities which varied in the dimensions of palatability and caloric load but which are both known to serve as reinforcers in other settings were chosen. In the first experiment, under the current single commodity free consumption test conditions shown to be sensitive to galanin effects of food and water consumption, galanin did not significantly alter the consumption of caloric laden but poorly palatable 7% alcohol solution. However, in the second experiment, galanin significantly increased free consumption of a highly palatable but non-caloric 0.2% saccharin solution but not when operant responding was required for access to saccharin, extending the basic appetitive-consummatory dissociation observed for food. Taken together, these results suggest that the gustatory properties may be a specific factor involved in galanin stimulation of free consumption, and that there may be a continuum of influence of galanin based on the relative "elasticity" of the commodities as reinforcers.

  3. Genetic control of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D; Bennett, Richard J


    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced - under a specialized set of conditions - to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such "pheromone-stimulated" biofilms with that of "conventional" C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former.

  4. Low-dose ATRA Supplementation Abolishes PRM Formation in Rat Liver and Ameliorates Ethanol-induced Liver Injury

    PAN Zhihong; DAN Zili; FU Yu; TANG Wangxian; LIN Jusheng


    The effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in low doses supplementation on concentrations of polar retinoid metabolites (PRM) and retinoids in the ethanol-fed rat liver, and on hepatocyte injury were investigated. The rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was induced by intragastric infusion of ethanol, and then the rats were administrated with ATRA in two different doses (150 μg/kg body weight and 1.5 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Concentrations of retinoids in rat liver and plasma were determined by using HPLC. Liver tissues pathologic changes were observed under the light microscopy and electron microscopy. The serum transaminases concentrations were measured. The results showed that the HPLC analysis of retinoids revealed that retinoids (vitamin A,RA, retinyl palmitate) concentrations in ethanol-fed rat liver and RA concentration in ethanol-fed rat plasma were markedly diminished (P<0.01) after ethanol feeding for 12 weeks. Furthermore, obvious peaks of PRM were formed in livers of ethanol-fed rats. ATRA 150 μg/kg supplementation in ethanol-fed rats for 4 weeks raised RA concentration in both liver and plasma, and also raised vitamin A concentration in liver to control levels, partially restored retinyl palmitate concentration (P<0.05) in liver. ATRA 1.5 mg/kg supplementation raised not only RA concentrations in liver and plasma but also retinyl palmitate concentrations in liver. However, the vitamin A concentration in liver of ATRA-supplemented rats (1.5 mg/kg) was higher than that of controls (P<0.05). The histologic observation of liver tissues indicated that ATRA treatment notably alleviated hepatocellular swelling,steatosis, the swelling of mitochondria and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).ATRA treatment greatly decreased levels of serum transaminases as compared with the only ethanol-fed group (P<0.05). It was concluded that low-dose ATRA treatment could restore retinoids concentrations and abolish the PRM formation

  5. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Nevoigt Elke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  6. Ethylphenidate formation in human subjects after the administration of a single dose of methylphenidate and ethanol.

    Markowitz, J S; DeVane, C L; Boulton, D W; Nahas, Z; Risch, S C; Diamond, F; Patrick, K S


    Ethylphenidate was recently reported as a novel drug metabolite in two overdose fatalities where there was evidence of methylphenidate and ethanol coingestion. This study explores the pharmacokinetics of ethylphenidate relative to methylphenidate and the major metabolite ritalinic acid, in six healthy subjects who received methylphenidate and ethanol under controlled conditions. Subjects (three males, three females) received a single oral dose of methylphenidate (20 mg; two 10-mg tablets) followed by consumption of ethanol (0.6 g/kg) 30 min later. Methylphenidate, ritalinic acid, and ethylphenidate were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylphenidate was detectable in the plasma and urine of all subjects after ethanol ingestion. The mean (+/-S.D.) area under the concentration versus time curve for ethylphenidate was 1.2 +/- 0.7 ng/ml/h, representing 2.3 +/- 1.3% that of methylphenidate (48 +/- 12 ng/ml/h). A significant correlation was observed between the area under the concentration versus time curve of methylphenidate and that of ethylphenidate. In view of the known dopaminergic activity of racemic ethylphenidate, it remains possible that under certain circumstances of higher level dosing, e.g., in the abuse of methylphenidate and ethanol, the metabolite ethylphenidate may contribute to drug effects.

  7. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    Labidi, A., E-mail: [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Akkari, F. Chaffar [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Maaref, M. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia)


    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  8. Biofilm formation and ethanol inhibition by bacterial contaminants of biofuel fermentation

    Bacterial contaminants can inhibit ethanol production in biofuel fermentations, and even result in stuck fermentations. Contaminants may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted of bacterial contaminants from a Midwestern dry grin...

  9. Renewable hydrogen: carbon formation on Ni and Ru catalysts during ethanol steam-reforming

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Sehested, J.;


    Biomass is probably the only realistic green and sustainable carbonaceous alternative to fossil fuels. By degradation and fermentation, it can be converted into bioethanol, which is a chemical with a range of possible applications. In this study, the catalytic steam-reforming of ethanol for the p...

  10. Thermodynamics of the complex formation between Cu2+ and triglycine in water-ethanol solutions at 298 K

    Pham Thi, L.; Usacheva, T. R.; Khrenova, T. M.; Sharnin, V. A.


    Thermodynamic functions Δr H, Δr G, and TΔr S of the complex formation between Cu2+ and triglycine in water-ethanol solutions are calculated on the basis of calorimetric data. It is found that raising the concentration of EtOH results in a monotonic increase in the exothermic effect of [CuHL]2+ complex formation due to the weakening of triglycine solvation with the mutual compensation of ion solvation contributions. The enthalpy of [CuL]+ complex formation has an exothermic maximum at 0.1-0.3 molar fractions of EtOH due to competition between the solvation contributions from ions and ligands.

  11. Improved immunogenicity of fusions between ethanol-treated cancer cells and dendritic cells exposed to dual TLR stimulation

    Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Okamoto, Masato; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Kan, Shin; Takakura, Kazuki; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Hara, Eiich; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao


    ...) fused to whole cancer cells. We have recently revealed that ethanol-treated neoplastic cells fused to DCs exposed to 2 Toll-like receptor agonists efficiently induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes via TGF...

  12. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))


    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  13. Ferredoxin:NAD + Oxidoreductase of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and Its Role in Ethanol Formation

    Tian, Liang; Lo, Jonathan; Shao, Xiongjun; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Atomi, H.



    Ferredoxin:NAD+oxidoreductase (NADH-FNOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NAD+. This enzyme has been hypothesized to be the main enzyme responsible for ferredoxin oxidization in the NADH-based ethanol pathway inThermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum; however, the corresponding gene has not yet been identified. Here, we identified the Tsac_1705 protein as a candidate FNOR based on the homology of its functional domains. We then confirmed its activityin vitrowith a ferredoxin-based FNOR assay. To determine its role in metabolism, thetsac_1705gene was deleted in different strains ofT. saccharolyticum. In wild-typeT. saccharolyticum, deletion oftsac_1705resulted in a 75% loss of NADH-FNOR activity, which indicated that Tsac_1705 is the main NADH-FNOR inT.saccharolyticum. When both NADH- and NADPH-linked FNOR genes were deleted, the ethanol titer decreased and the ratio of ethanol to acetate approached unity, indicative of the absence of FNOR activity. Finally, we tested the effect of heterologous expression of Tsac_1705 inClostridium thermocellumand found improvements in both the titer and the yield of ethanol.

    IMPORTANCERedox balance plays a crucial role in many metabolic engineering strategies. Ferredoxins are widely used as electron carriers for anaerobic microorganism and plants. This study identified the gene responsible for electron transfer from ferredoxin to NAD+, a key reaction in the

  14. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang


    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  15. Electrical stimulation influences mineral formation of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    Wiesmann, H; Hartig, M; Stratmann, U; Meyer, U; Joos, U


    The aim of the present study was to assess the structure of newly formed mineral crystals after electrical stimulation of osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Pulsed electrical stimulation was coupled capacitively or semi-capacitively to primary osteoblast-like cells derived from bovine metacarpals. Computer calculations revealed that the chosen input signal (saw-tooth, 100 V, 63 ms width, 16 Hz repetition rate) generated a short pulsed voltage drop of 100 microV (capacitive coupled mode) and of 350 microV (semi-capacitive coupled mode) across the cell-matrix layer. Stimulated cultures showed an enhanced mineral formation compared to the non stimulated controls. In cultures exposed to capacitively coupled electric fields and in control cultures nodules and mineralized globules were found. Nodules with a diameter of less than 200 nm covered the cell surface, whereas mineral globules with a diameter of up to 700 nm formed characteristic mineral deposits in the vicinity of the cells similar to biomineral formations occurring in mineralizing tissues. In contrast, large rod-shaped crystals were found in cultures stimulated by semi-capacitive coupled electric fields, indicating a non-physiological precipitation process. In conclusion, osteoblasts in culture are sensitive to electrical stimulation resulting in an enhancement of the biomineralization process.

  16. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.


    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  17. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Hanning, Christopher William


    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were...... of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate)....

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract from Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage activation via NF-κB pathway regulation.

    Kim, Mi Eun; Jung, Yun Chan; Jung, Inae; Lee, Hee-Woo; Youn, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jun Sik


    Inflammation is major symptom of the innate immune response by infection of microbes. Macrophages, one of immune response related cells, play a role in inflammatory response. Recent studies reported that various natural products can regulate the activation of immune cells such as macrophage. Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh is one of brown algae. Recently, various seaweeds including brown algae have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, anti-inflammatory effects of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh are still unknown. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (ESH) on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. The ESH was extracted from dried Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh with 70% ethanol and then lyophilized at -40 °C. ESH was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS-stimulated macrophage activation was significantly decreased by the addition of 200 μg/mL of ESH. Moreover, ESH treatment reduced mRNA level of cytokines, including IL-1β, and pro-inflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophage activation in a dose-dependent manner. ESH was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK, p-p38 and NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, ESH inhibited the release of IL-1β in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that ESH elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage activation via the inhibition of ERK, p-p38, NF-κB, and pro-inflammatory gene expression.

  19. Retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulate osteoclast formation by different mechanisms

    Scheven, B.A.; Hamilton, N.J. (Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen (Scotland))


    The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on osteoclast formation were examined in intact fetal long bones of different ages/developmental stages maintained in organ culture using a chemically defined medium with or without the presence of serum. Besides stimulating bone resorption, RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the number of osteoclasts in 19-day-old fetal rat tibiae. Likewise, these bone-resorbing agents induced and stimulated osteoclast formation in 19- and 18-day-old metatarsal bones which were osteoclast-free at the beginning of the culture. The response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 was greatly enhanced by 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) irrespective of the developmental stage of the long bone. The response to RA was not. Light microscopic autoradiography after labeling of the cultures with tritiated thymidine showed that both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced osteoclast differentiation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors. However, neither agent was able to stimulate proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells in the older bones (19 days). Studies on the formation of osteoclast-like (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive) cells in bone marrow cultures indicated that FBS was a potent inducer of osteoclast-like cell formation. In the presence of FBS, 1,25-(OH)2D3 significantly stimulated this response, but RA did not. The results demonstrate that although both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulate osteoclast formation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors in long bones in vitro, they do so by different mechanisms.

  20. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher interact

  1. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher inter

  2. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher interact

  3. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher

  4. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  5. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.


    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  6. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity.

    Luo, Jia


    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways.

  7. Thromboxane A(2 receptor stimulation promotes closure of the rat ductus arteriosus through enhancing neointima formation.

    Tomohiro Yokota

    Full Text Available Ductus arteriosus (DA closure follows constriction and remodeling of the entire vessel wall. Patent ductus arteriosus occurs when the DA does not close after birth, and this condition is currently treated using cyclooxygenase inhibitors. However, the efficacy of cyclooxygenase inhibitors is often limited. Our previous study demonstrated that low-dose thromboxane A2 receptor (TP stimulation constricted the DA with minimal adverse effects in rat neonates. However, its effect on DA remodeling remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the impact of the exogenous TP stimulation on the DA remodeling, especially intimal thickening. Using DA explants from rat fetuses at embryonic day 19 as a ex vivo model and primary cultured rat DA smooth muscle cells from embryonic day 21 as a in vitro model, we evaluated the effect of TP stimulation on the DA remodeling. The selective TP agonists U46619 and I-BOP promoted neointima formation in the ex vivo DA explants, and TP stimulation increased DA SMC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Both effects were inhibited by the selective TP antagonist SQ29548 or the siRNA against TP. TP stimulation also increased DA SMC proliferation in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed that TP stimulation increased secretion of several extracellular matrix proteins that may contribute to an increase in neointima formation. In conclusion, we uncovered that exogenous administration of TP agonist promotes neointima formation through the induction of migration and proliferation of DA SMC, which could contribute to DA closure and also to its vasoconstrictive action.

  8. Formation And Stabilization Of Silver Nanoparticles In Ethanol By Phosphinic Acid

    Kim J.-K.


    Full Text Available Although phosphinic acid (H3PO2 has a powerful reduction potential, the reduction of silver ions by phosphinic acid salt has not yet been reported. In this work, colloidal silver has successfully synthesized by reducing silver ions in ethanol with phosphinic acid as a reducing agent. The effects of [AgNO3]/[H3PO2] ratios and reaction temperature were considered. Spherical silver nanoparticles with cubic structure were successfully prepared and their diameters were measured to be 8.5±0.9 nm − 11.3±0.2 nm. Half-life analysis showed that the reduction of silver ions proceeded with the reaction order of 1.30 on concentration of phosphinic acid and activation energy of 120.7 kJ/mol.

  9. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji


    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover.

  10. Honey-induced stimulation of blood ethanol elimination and its influence on serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure in man.

    Onyesom, I


    The effect of honey on blood alcohol metabolism and the accompanying changes in serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure were investigated using volunteers. Fifty consenting undergraduates in apparent good health, between the ages of 15 and 30 years (23.6 +/- 7.4), were recruited for the study. The subjects were moderate alcohol drinkers (alcohol disappearance and elimination rates by 32.4 and 28.6%, respectively, but reduced the intoxication time (that is, the time taken to attain zero blood alcohol level) and its degree (the peak blood alcohol level) by 30.0 and 4.4%. Ethanol + honey further increased serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure by 20.8 and 1.3/1.4% when compared with the proportion induced by ethanol after about 10 h of ingestion. The occasional use of honey as an anti-intoxicating agent may be approved. Meanwhile, further studies on how to ameliorate or prevent the associated increase in serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure is required.

  11. Osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1) inhibits measles virus nucleocapsid protein stimulated osteoclast formation/activity.

    Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Youssef, Rimon F; Pati, Parmita; Ries, William L; Rao, D Sudhaker; Reddy, Sakamuri V


    Paget's disease (PD) of bone is characterized by increased activity of large abnormal osteoclasts (OCLs) which contain paramyxoviral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions. MVNP gene expression has been shown to induce pagetic phenotype in OCLs. We previously characterized the osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/hSca) which inhibits OCL formation/bone resorption. OIP-1 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein containing a 79 amino acid extra cellular peptide and a 32 amino acid carboxy terminal GPI-linked peptide (c-peptide) which is critical for OCL inhibition. In this study, we demonstrate that OIP-1 c-peptide significantly decreased (43%) osteoclast differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with PD. Also, OIP-1 treatment to normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells transduced with the MVNP inhibited (41%) osteoclast precursor (CFU-GM) growth in methyl-cellulose cultures. We further tested if OIP-1 overexpression in the OCL lineage in transgenic mice inhibits MVNP stimulated OCL formation. MVNP transduction and RANKL stimulation of OIP-1 mouse bone marrow cells showed a significant decrease (43%) in OCL formation and inhibition (38%) of bone resorption area compared to wild-type mice. Western blot analysis identified that OIP-1 decreased (3.5-fold) MVNP induced TRAF2 expression during OCL differentiation. MVNP or OIP-1 expression did not affect TRAF6 levels. Furthermore, OIP-1 expression resulted in a significant inhibition of MVNP stimulated ASK1, Rac1, c-Fos, p-JNK, and NFATc1 expression during OCL differentiation. These results suggest that OIP-1 inhibits MVNP induced pagetic OCL formation/activity through suppression of RANK signaling. Thus, OIP-1 may have therapeutic utility against excess bone resorption in patients with PD.

  12. A density functional theory study on the carbon chain growth of ethanol formation on Cu-Co (111) and (211) surfaces

    Ren, Bohua; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Wen, Guobin; Zhang, Minhua


    Calculations based on the first-principle density functional theory were carried out to study the most controversial reactions in ethanol formation from syngas on Cu-Co surfaces: CO dissociation mechanism and the key reactions of carbon chain growth of ethanol formation (HCO insertion reactions) on four model surfaces (Cu-Co (111) and (211) with Cu-rich or Co-rich surfaces) to investigate the synergy of the Cu and Co components since the complete reaction network of ethanol formation from syngas is a huge computational burden to calculate on four Cu-Co surface models. We investigated adsorption of important species involved in these reactions, activation barrier and reaction energy of H-assisted dissociation mechanism, directly dissociation of CO, and HCO insertion reactions (CHx + HCO → CHxCHO (x = 1-3)) on four Cu-Co surface models. It was found that reactions on Cu-rich (111) and (211) surfaces all have lower activation barrier in H-assisted dissociation and HCO insertion reactions, especially CH + HCO → CHCHO reaction. The PDOS of 4d orbitals of surface Cu and Co atoms of all surfaces were studied. Analysis of d-band center of Cu and Co atoms and the activation barrier data suggested the correlation between electronic property and catalytic performance. Cu-Co bimetallic with Cu-rich surface allows Co to have higher catalytic activity through the interaction of Cu and Co atom. Then it will improve the adsorption of CO and catalytic activity of Co. Thus it is more favorable to the carbon chain growth in ethanol formation. Our study revealed the factors influencing the carbon chain growth in ethanol production and explained the internal mechanism from electronic property aspect.

  13. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel


    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  14. De novo triiodothyronine formation from thyrocytes activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Citterio, Cintia E; Veluswamy, Balaji; Morgan, Sarah J; Galton, Valerie A; Banga, J Paul; Atkins, Stephen; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Neumann, Susanne; Latif, Rauf; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Smith, Terry J; Arvan, Peter


    The thyroid gland secretes primarily tetraiodothyronine (T4), and some triiodothyronine (T3). Under normal physiological circumstances, only one-fifth of circulating T3 is directly released by the thyroid, but in states of hyperactivation of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors (TSHRs), patients develop a syndrome of relative T3 toxicosis. Thyroidal T4 production results from iodination of thyroglobulin (TG) at residues Tyr(5) and Tyr(130), whereas thyroidal T3 production may originate in several different ways. In this study, the data demonstrate that within the carboxyl-terminal portion of mouse TG, T3 is formed de novo independently of deiodination from T4 We found that upon iodination in vitro, de novo T3 formation in TG was decreased in mice lacking TSHRs. Conversely, de novo T3 that can be formed upon iodination of TG secreted from PCCL3 (rat thyrocyte) cells was augmented from cells previously exposed to increased TSH, a TSHR agonist, a cAMP analog, or a TSHR-stimulating antibody. We present data suggesting that TSH-stimulated TG phosphorylation contributes to enhanced de novo T3 formation. These effects were reversed within a few days after removal of the hyperstimulating conditions. Indeed, direct exposure of PCCL3 cells to human serum from two patients with Graves' disease, but not control sera, led to secretion of TG with an increased intrinsic ability to form T3 upon in vitro iodination. Furthermore, TG secreted from human thyrocyte cultures hyperstimulated with TSH also showed an increased intrinsic ability to form T3 Our data support the hypothesis that TG processing in the secretory pathway of TSHR-hyperstimulated thyrocytes alters the structure of the iodination substrate in a way that enhances de novo T3 formation, contributing to the relative T3 toxicosis of Graves' disease.

  15. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels. Effects on Neurotoxin-Stimulated Sodium Uptake in Synaptosomes


    concentration in the nonaqueuus (membrane) phase (Lyon et aL, 1981). Concentration- effect summarized in table 1 . When sodium channels were activated curves were...Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels : Effects on Neurotoxin-Stimulated Sodium Uptake in DT (7 Synaptosomes E L C MICHAEL J. MULLIN’ and WALTER A. HUNT...1984). At the present time, the 8 1 structural and functional properties of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels are understood most completely

  16. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  17. The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Pagliardini, Julien; Hubmann, Georg; Alfenore, Sandrine; Nevoigt, Elke; Bideaux, Carine; Guillouet, Stephane E.


    Background: Finely regulating the carbon flux through the glycerol pathway by regulating the expression of the rate controlling enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), has been a promising approach to redirect carbon from glycerol to ethanol and thereby increasing the ethanol yield in eth

  18. Augmentation of antitumor immunity by fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dendritic cells stimulated via dual TLRs through TGF-β1 blockade and IL-12p70 production.

    Shigeo Koido

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed "eat-me" signals such as calreticulin (CRT on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP90α and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90α and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-β1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90α. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-γ, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy.

  19. Concomitant Caffeine Increases Binge Consumption of Ethanol in Adolescent and Adult Mice, But Produces Additive Motor Stimulation Only in Adolescent Animals.

    Fritz, Brandon M; Quoilin, Caroline; Kasten, Chelsea R; Smoker, Michael; Boehm, Stephen L


    Binge co-consumption of highly caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) has become a common practice among adolescents/young adults and has been associated with an increased incidence of hazardous behaviors. Animal models are critical in advancing our understanding the neurobehavioral consequences of this form of binge drinking. Surprisingly, virtually no work has explored caffeine and EtOH co-consumption or its long-term consequences in adolescent animals. The primary objective of the current study was to extend a previously established mouse model of voluntary binge caffeine and EtOH co-consumption to explore adolescent consumption and responses compared to adults. Adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice had daily limited access to caffeine (0.03% w/v), EtOH (20% v/v), a combined EtOH/caffeine solution, or water for 14 days via the binge-like drinking paradigm, drinking-in-the-dark (DID). Home cage locomotor activity was measured during DID in a subset of mice. Following DID, all mice rested for 18 days so that adolescents reached adulthood, whereupon all mice underwent 7 days of continuous access 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% (v/v) EtOH or water. Co-consumption with caffeine significantly increased EtOH intake and resultant blood ethanol concentrations in both adolescent and adult mice. In addition, adolescent mice exhibited a uniquely robust locomotor stimulant response to caffeine and EtOH co-consumption. Later EtOH intake and preference was not influenced, however, by prior fluid consumption history via DID. Together with findings from the human literature, our results suggest that caffeine co-consumption may positively influence binge alcohol consumption in adolescents/young adults. Importantly, this age group may be particularly sensitive to the additive stimulant effects of caffeinated alcohol consumption, an effect which may be related to the high incidence of associated negative outcomes in this population. These observations are

  20. Thermodynamics of the formation of Cu2+-glycyl-glycyl-glycine complex in water-ethanol solutions at 298 K

    Pham Thi, L.; Usacheva, T. R.; Tukumova, N. V.; Koryshev, N. E.; Khrenova, T. M.; Sharnin, V. A.


    The stability constants of monoligand complexes of copper(II) ions with glycyl-glycyl-glycine zwitterions (triglycine, HL±) and triglycinate ions (L-) in a water-ethanol solvent with 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mole fractions of ethanol at an ionic strength of 0.1 created by sodium perchlorate and temperature T = 298.15 K are determined by means of potentiometric titration. It is found that an increase of ethanol content improves the stability of the investigated complexes, due mainly to the resolvation of ligands.

  1. Assessing trichloromethane formation and control in algal-stimulated waters amended with nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Mash, Clinton A; Winston, Byron A; Meints Ii, David A; Pifer, Ashley D; Scott, J Thad; Zhang, Wen; Fairey, Julian L


    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichments can stimulate algal growth in drinking water sources, which can cause increased production of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors. However, the effect of systematic N and P enrichments on DBP formation and control has not been adequately studied. In this work, we enriched samples from a drinking water source - sampled on April 5, May 30, and August 19, 2013 - with N and P to stimulate algal growth at N : P ratios covering almost five orders of magnitude (0.2-4429). To simulate DBP-precursor removal processes at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the samples were treated with ClO2 followed by alum coagulation prior to free chlorine addition to assess the DBP formation potential (FP). Trichloromethane (TCM) was the predominant DBP formed and the TCMFP was the highest at intermediate N : P molar ratios (∼10 to 50), which corresponded with the peak in algal biomass, as measured by chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). Algal biomass was P-limited throughout the study period, and co-limited by N for the August 19 sampling set. The differences in TCMFP between the raw and treated waters decreased with increasing P amendment, indicating that ClO2 and alum coagulation became less effective for TCM precursor removal as algal biomass increased. This study highlights the impact of nutrient enrichments on TCM formation and control and has implications for nutrient management strategies related to source water protection and for DWTPs that use source waters increasingly enriched with N and P.

  2. Environmentally triggered genomic plasticity and capsular polysaccharide formation are involved in increased ethanol and acetic acid tolerance in Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680.

    Brandt, Julia U; Born, Friederike-Leonie; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F


    Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 secretes a gum-cluster derived heteropolysaccharide and forms a surface pellicle composed of polysaccharides during static cultivation. Furthermore, this strain exhibits two colony types on agar plates; smooth wild-type (S) and rough mutant colonies (R). This switch is caused by a spontaneous transposon insertion into the gumD gene of the gum-cluster, resulting in a heteropolysaccharide secretion deficient, rough phenotype. To elucidate, whether this is a directed switch triggered by environmental factors, we checked the number of R and S colonies under different growth conditions including ethanol and acetic acid supplementation. Furthermore, we investigated the tolerance of R and S strains against ethanol and acetic acid in shaking and static growth experiments. To get new insights into the composition and function of the pellicle polysaccharide, the polE gene of the R strain was additionally deleted, as it was reported to be involved in pellicle formation in other acetic acid bacteria. The number of R colonies was significantly increased upon growth on acetic acid and especially ethanol. The morphological change from K. baliensis NBRC 16680 S to R strain was accompanied by changes in the sugar contents of the produced pellicle EPS. The R:ΔpolE mutant strain was not able to form a regular pellicle anymore, but secreted an EPS into the medium, which exhibited a similar sugar monomer composition as the pellicle polysaccharide isolated from the R strain. The R strain had a markedly increased tolerance towards acetic acid and ethanol compared to the other NBRC 16680 strains (S, R:ΔpolE). A relatively high intrinsic acetic acid tolerance was also observable for K. baliensis DSM 14400(T), which might indicate diverse adaptation mechanisms of different K. baliensis strains in altering natural habitats. The results suggest that the genetically triggered R phenotype formation is directly related to increased acetic acid and ethanol

  3. Influence of fuel ethanol content on primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential for a modern flex-fuel gasoline vehicle

    Timonen, Hilkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Saukko, Erkka; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Simonen, Pauli; Murtonen, Timo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Bloss, Matthew; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Pagels, Joakim; Brune, William H.; Keskinen, Jorma; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Hillamo, Risto; Rönkkö, Topi


    The effect of fuel ethanol content (10, 85 and 100 %) on primary emissions and on subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. Emissions were characterized during a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a comprehensive set-up of high time-resolution instruments. A detailed chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter (PM) was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and secondary aerosol formation was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. For the primary gaseous compounds, an increase in total hydrocarbon emissions and a decrease in aromatic BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) compounds was observed when the amount of ethanol in the fuel increased. In regard to particles, the largest primary particulate matter concentrations and potential for secondary particle formation was measured for the E10 fuel (10 % ethanol). As the ethanol content of the fuel increased, a significant decrease in the average primary particulate matter concentrations over the NEDC was found. The PM emissions were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.15 mg m-3 for E10, E85 and E100, respectively. Similarly, a clear decrease in secondary aerosol formation potential was observed with a larger contribution of ethanol in the fuel. The secondary-to-primary PM ratios were 13.4 and 1.5 for E10 and E85, respectively. For E100, a slight decrease in PM mass was observed after the PAM chamber, indicating that the PM produced by secondary aerosol formation was less than the PM lost through wall losses or the degradation of the primary organic aerosol (POA) in the chamber. For all fuel blends, the formed secondary aerosol consisted mostly of organic compounds. For E10, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 35 %, measured for primary organics, to 62 % after the PAM chamber. For E85, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 42 % (primary) to 57

  4. Caffeic acid inhibits the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radical in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with ethanol partly through its metal chelating activity.

    Ikeda, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yuka; Masaki, Miho; Iwahashi, Hideo


    Effect of caffeic acid on the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals via the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system pathway was examined. The electron spin resonance spin trapping showed that 1-hydroxyethyl radicals form in the control reaction mixture which contained 0.17 M ethanol, 1 mg protein/ml rat river microsomes, 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone, 5 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). When the electron spin resonance spectra of the control reaction mixtures with caffeic acid were measured, caffeic acid inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Gallic acid, dopamine, l-dopa, chlorogenic acid and catechin also inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals. Above results indicated that the catechol moiety is essential to the inhibitory effect. Caffeic acid seems to chelate of iron ion at the catechol moiety. Indeed, the inhibitory effect by caffeic acid was greatly diminished in the presence of desferrioxamine, a potent iron chelator which removes iron ion in the Fe (III)-caffeic acid complex. Since Fe (III)-desferrioxamine complex is active for the 1-hydroxyethyl radicals formation, caffeic acid inhibits the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in the reaction mixture partly through its metal chelating activity.

  5. Resveratrol inhibits prostaglandin formation in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH neuronal cells

    Candelario-Jalil Eduardo


    Full Text Available Abstract Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in different in vitro and in vivo models. Our group recently demonstrated that resveratrol reduced the production of prostaglandin (PG E2 and 8-isoprostane in rat activated microglia. In a microglial-neuronal coculture, resveratrol reduced neuronal death induced by activated microglia. However, less is known about its direct roles in neurons. In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on interleukin (IL-1β stimulated SK-N-SH cells. Resveratrol (0.1-5 μM did not reduce the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1, although it drastically reduced PGE2 and PGD2 content in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells. This effect was due, in part, to a reduction in COX enzymatic activity, mainly COX-2, at lower doses of resveratrol. The production of 8-iso-PGF2α, a marker of cellular free radical generation, was significantly reduced by resveratrol. The present work provides evidence that resveratrol reduces the formation of prostaglandins in neuroblastoma cells by reducing the enzymatic activity of inducible enzymes, such as COX-2, and not the transcription of the PG synthases, as demonstrated elsewhere.

  6. Stimulation of astaxanthin formation in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by the fungus Epicoccum nigrum.

    Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Johnson, Eric A


    A fungal contaminant on an agar plate containing colonies of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous markedly increased carotenoid production by yeast colonies near to the fungal growth. Spent-culture filtrate from growth of the fungus in yeast-malt medium also stimulated carotenoid production by X. dendrorhous. Four X. dendrorhous strains including the wild-type UCD 67-385 (ATCC 24230), AF-1 (albino mutant, ATCC 96816), Yan-1 (beta-carotene mutant, ATCC 96815) and CAX (astaxanthin overproducer mutant) exposed to fungal concentrate extract enhanced astaxanthin up to approximately 40% per unit dry cell weight in the wild-type strain and in CAX. Interestingly, the fungal extract restored astaxanthin biosynthesis in non-astaxanthin-producing mutants previously isolated in our laboratory, including the albino and the beta-carotene mutant. The fungus was identified as Epicoccum nigrum by morphology of sporulating cultures, and the identity confirmed by genetic characterization including rDNA sequencing analysis of the large-subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer, and the D1/D2 region of the LSU. These E. nigrum rDNA sequences were deposited in GenBank under accesssion numbers AF338443, AY093413 and AY093414. Systematic rDNA homology alignments were performed to identify fungi related to E. nigrum. Stimulation of carotenogenesis by E. nigrum and potentially other fungi could provide a novel method to enhance astaxanthin formation in industrial fermentations of X. dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma.

  7. Thermodynamics of the complex formation of copper(II) with L-phenylalanine in aqueous ethanol solutions

    Burov, D. M.; Ledenkov, S. F.; Vandyshev, V. N.


    Constants of the acid dissociation and complexation of L-phenylalanine (HPhe) with copper(II) ions are determined by potentiometry in aqueous ethanol solutions containing 0 to 0.7 molar fraction of alcohol. Changes in the Gibbs energy for the transfer from water to a binary solvent of L-phenylalanine, Phe- anion, and [CuPhe]+ complex are calculated. It is found that the weakening of solvation of the ligand donor groups in solvents with high ethanol contents is accompanied by an increase in the stability of [CuPhe]+ complex.

  8. Bifunctional bioceramics stimulating osteogenic differentiation of a gingival fibroblast and inhibiting plaque biofilm formation.

    Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Jiao; Zhou, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Chengtie; Haapasalo, Markus


    Gingival recession is a common clinical problem that results in esthetic deficiencies and poor plaque control and predominantly occurs in aged patients. In order to restore the cervical region, ideal biomaterials should possess the ability to stimulate proliferation and osteogenesis/cementogenesis of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and have a strong antibiofilm effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions of HGF and oral multispecies biofilms with Ca, Mg and Si-containing bredigite (BRT, Ca7MgSi4O16) bioceramics. BRT extract induced osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of HGF and its inhibition of plaque biofilm formation were systematically studied. BRT extract in concentrations lower than <200 mg mL(-1) presented high biocompatibility to HGF cells in 3 days. Ion extracts from BRT also stimulated a series of bone-related gene and protein expressions in HGF cells. Furthermore, BRT extract significantly inhibited oral multispecies plaque biofilm growth on its surface and contributed to over 30% bacterial cell death without additional antibacterial agents in two weeks. A planktonic killing test showed that BRT suppressed 98% plaque bacterial growth compared to blank control in 3 days. The results also revealed that BRT extract has an osteostimulation effect on HGF. The suppression effect on plaque biofilms suggested that BRT might be used as a bioactive material for cervical restoration and that the synergistic effect of bioactive ions, such as Ca, Mg and Si ions, played an important role in the design and construction of bifunctional biomaterials in combination with tissue regeneration and antibiofilm activity.

  9. Increased aerobic glycolysis through beta2 stimulation is a common mechanism involved in lactate formation during shock states.

    Levy, Bruno; Desebbe, Olivier; Montemont, Chantal; Gibot, Sebastien


    During septic shock, muscle produces lactate by way of an exaggerated NaK-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)-stimulated aerobic glycolysis associated with epinephrine stimulation possibly through beta2 adrenoreceptor involvement. It therefore seems logical that a proportion of hyperlactatemia in low cardiac output states would be also related to this mechanism. Thus, in low-flow and normal-to-high-flow models of shock, we investigate (1) whether muscle produces lactate and (2) whether muscle lactate production is linked to beta2 adrenergic stimulation and Na+K+-ATPase. We locally modulated the adrenergic pathway and Na+K+-ATPase activity in male Wistar rats' skeletal muscle using microdialysis with nonselective and selective beta blockers and ouabain in different models of rodent shock (endotoxin, peritonitis, and hemorrhage). Blood flow at the probe site was evaluated by ethanol clearance. We measured the difference between muscle lactate and blood lactate concentration, with a positive gradient indicating muscle lactate or pyruvate production. Epinephrine levels were elevated in all shock groups. All models were associated with hypotension and marked hyperlactatemia. Muscle lactate concentrations were consistently higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 2.5+/-0.3 in endotoxic shock, 2.1+/-0.2 mM in peritonitis group, and 0.9+/-0.2 mM in hemorrhagic shock (Pshock, 210+/-30 microM in peritonitis group, and 90+/-10 microM in hemorrhagic shock (Pshock mechanism. This demonstrates that lactate production during shock states is related, at least in part, to increased NaK-ATPase activity under beta2 stimulation. In shock state associated with a reduced or maintained blood flow, an important proportion of muscle lactate release is regulated by a beta2 receptor stimulation and not secondary to a reduced oxygen availability.

  10. [Regularities of endogenous lipid metabolites formation in phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes at leukemia].

    Batikian, T B; Akopian, G V; Lazian, M P; Torgomian, T R; Kazarian, R A; Amirkhanian, E S; Tadevosian, Iu V


    Regularities of biologically active lipid metabolites formation in dynamics (5, 10, 30, 60 s) by phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate stimulation in [14C]palmitic acid have been investigated in normal and leukemia peripheral blood lymphocytes prelabeled with [14C]palmitate. In normal cells there was two-phase formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (5, 30 s), lysophosphatidylcholine (10, 60 s), as well as free palmitic acid at 10 s of stimulation. Under the identical experimental conditions there was inhibition of investigated lipid release processes at early (5 and 10 s) stages of stimulation of leukemic lymphocytes. At later (30, 60 s) terms of these lymphocytes the activation, basically, similar to norm changes in the formation of palmitic acid-containing metabolites except free palmitic acid (the level of which raised only at 60 second of the post-stimulation) was found. Various protein kinases C are involved in the regulation of investigated lipid levels at certain stages of signal transduction both in norm, and in blast cells. Short-term (5, 10 s) activations of healthy donors lymphocytes are coupled to functioning of Ca2+-independent isoforms of protein kinase C. The inhibition of this protein kinase C in leukemic cells leads to normalization of the investigated lipid release. The data obtained suggests disorders of early membrane-bound reactions in agonist - and a protein kinase C-mediated processes of formation palmitic acid-containing lipid metabolites in the leukemic cells in comparison with the norm.

  11. Asphaltene Formation Damage Stimulation by Ultrasound: An Analytical Approach Using Bundle of Tubes Modeling

    Arash Rabbani


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel approach for bundle of tubes modeling of permeability impairment due to asphaltene-induced formation damage attenuated by ultrasound which has been rarely attended in the available literature. Model uses the changes of asphaltene particle size distribution (APSD as a function of time due to ultrasound radiation, while considering surface deposition and pore throat plugging mechanisms. The proposed model predicts the experimental data of permeability reduction during coinjection of solvent and asphaltenic oil into core with reasonable agreement. Viscosity variation due to sonication of crude oil is used to determine the fluid mobility applied in the model. The results of modeling indicate that the fluid samples exposed to ultrasound may cause much less asphaltene-induced damage inside the porous medium. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters showed that there is an optimum time period during which the best stimulation efficiency is observed. The results of this work can be helpful to better understand the role of ultrasound prohibition in dynamic behavior of asphaltene deposition in porous media. Furthermore, the present model could be potentially utilized for modeling of other time-dependent particle induced damages.

  12. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Yongke Lu


    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  13. Ethanol poisoning

    ... this page: // Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  14. Tetrameric assembly of hGBP1 is crucial for both stimulated GMP formation and antiviral activity.

    Pandita, Esha; Rajan, Sudeepa; Rahman, Safikur; Mullick, Ranajoy; Das, Saumitra; Sau, Apurba Kumar


    Interferon-γ inducible human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP1) shows a unique characteristic that hydrolyses GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP through successive cleavages, with GMP being the major product. Like other large GTPases, hGBP1 undergoes oligomerization upon substrate hydrolysis, which is essential for the stimulation of activity. It also exhibits antiviral activity against many viruses including hepatitis C. However, which oligomeric form is responsible for the stimulated activity leading to enhanced GMP formation and its influence on antiviral activity, are not properly understood. Using mutant and truncated proteins, our data indicate that transition-state-induced tetramerization is associated with higher rate of GMP formation. This is supported by chimaeras that are defective in both tetramerization and enhanced GMP formation. Unlike wild-type protein, chimaeras did not show allosteric interactions, indicating that tetramerization and enhanced GMP formation are allosterically coupled. Hence, we propose that after the cleavage of the first phosphoanhydride bond GDP·Pi-bound protein dimers transiently associate to form a tetramer that acts as an allosteric switch for higher rate of GMP formation. Biochemical and biophysical studies reveal that sequential conformational changes and interdomain communications regulate tetramer formation via dimer. Our studies also show that overexpression of the mutants, defective in tetramer formation in Rep2a cells do not inhibit proliferation of hepatitis C virus, indicating critical role of a tetramer in the antiviral activity. Thus, the present study not only highlights the importance of hGBP1 tetramer in stimulated GMP formation, but also demonstrates its role in the antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus.

  15. A mutation in the COX5 gene of the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis alters utilization of amino acids as carbon source, ethanol formation and activity of cyanide insensitive respiration.

    Freese, Stefan; Passoth, Volkmar; Klinner, Ulrich


    Scheffersomyces stipitis PJH was mutagenized by random integrative mutagenesis and the integrants were screened for lacking the ability to grow with glutamate as sole carbon source. One of the two isolated mutants was damaged in the COX5 gene, which encodes a subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase. BLAST searches in the genome of Sc. stipitis revealed that only one singular COX5 gene exists in Sc. stipitis, in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where two homologous genes are present. Mutant cells had lost the ability to grow with the amino acids glutamate, proline or aspartate and other non-fermentable carbon sources, such as acetic acid and ethanol, as sole carbon sources. Biomass formation of the mutant cells in medium containing glucose or xylose as carbon source was lower compared with the wild-type cells. However, yields and specific ethanol formation of the mutant were much higher, especially under conditions of higher aeration. The mutant cells lacked both cytochrome c oxidase activity and cyanide-sensitive respiration, whereas ADH and PDC activities were distinctly enhanced. SHAM-sensitive respiration was obviously essential for the fermentative metabolism, because SHAM completely abolished growth of the mutant cells with both glucose or xylose as carbon source.

  16. Ethanol Basics



    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Cartilage formation measured by a novel PIINP assay suggests that IGF-I does not stimulate but maintains cartilage formation ex vivo

    Madsen, S H; Sondergaard, B C; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay;


    . Proteoglycan levels retained in the explants after 22 days of culture were extracted and measured by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay. RESULTS: In the absence of stimulation, PIINP markedly decreased as a function of time (99.4%, p collagen formation...... explants were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM):F12 in the presence of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL of IGF-I. The viability of the chondrocytes was measured by the colorimetric Alamar blue assay. Collagen formation was assessed from the conditioned medium by the PIINP assay...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Uwe eDruege


    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled

  19. Altered beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated cAMP formation in cultured skin fibroblasts from Alzheimer donors.

    Huang, H M; Gibson, G E


    An alteration in signal transduction systems in Alzheimer's disease would likely be of pathophysiological significance, because these steps are critical to normal brain function. Since dynamic processes are difficult to study in autopsied brain, the current studies utilized cultured skin fibroblasts. The beta-adrenergic-stimulated increase in cAMP was reduced approximately 80% in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease compared with age-matched controls. The deficit in Alzheimer fibroblasts in response to various adrenergic agonists paralleled their beta-adrenergic potency, and enhancement of cAMP accumulation by a non-adrenergic agonist, such as prostaglandin E1, was similar in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Diminished adenylate cyclase activity did not underlie these abnormalities, since direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin elevated cAMP production equally in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Cholera toxin equally stimulated cAMP formation in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Moreover, cholera toxin partially reduced isoproterenol-induced cAMP deficit in Alzheimer fibroblasts. Pertussis toxin, on the other hand, did not alter the Alzheimer deficits. The results suggest either that the coupling of the GTP-binding protein(s) to the beta-adrenergic receptor is abnormal or that the sensitivity of receptor is altered with Alzheimer's disease. Further, any hypothesis about Alzheimer's disease must explain why a reduced beta-adrenergic-stimulated cAMP formation persists in tissue culture.

  20. Real-time formation of salivary films onto polymeric materials for dental applications: Differences between unstimulated and stimulated saliva.

    Weber, Florian; Barrantes, Alejandro


    The formation of salivary films onto oral prostheses materials is of central importance for understanding their performance and interaction with oral tissue and flora. The aim of this work was to study and compare the salivary films formed from unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva on two common polymeric materials, polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate). Irradiating these materials with UV light is a simple way to modify their wettability, roughness and ζ-potential. Therefore, the effect of UV exposure of polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate) on saliva adsorption was also investigated. For this purpose a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and SDS-PAGE have been combined in order to associate the thicknesses and viscoelastic properties of the salivary films with their protein composition. SDS-PAGE results suggest that a larger diversity of proteins is involved in the formation of stimulated saliva pellicles. Furthermore, according to QCM-D, pellicles formed from stimulated saliva are thinner and stiffer than the ones formed from unstimulated saliva if the polymeric materials have not been exposed to UV light although both types of saliva form a biphasic layer. For UV-treated materials, the same is applied to polycarbonate but not to poly(methyl methacrylate) where stimulated saliva yields thicker and softer films than unstimulated saliva being the adsorption process of a multiphasic nature. These results highlight the importance of choosing the appropriate sample depending on the type of study to be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; Feber, le Joost; Rutten, W.L.C.; Herzig, K.H.


    Ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion. These findings suggest that ghrelin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders related to synaptic impairment.

  2. Sensitization of Listeria monocytogenes to Low pH, Organic Acids, and Osmotic Stress by Ethanol

    Barker, Clive; Park, Simon F.


    The killing of Listeria monocytogenes following exposure to low pH, organic acids, and osmotic stress was enhanced by the addition of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. At pH 3, for example, the presence of this agent stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in 40 min of exposure. The rate of cell death at pH 3.0 was dependent on the concentration of ethanol. Thus, while the presence 10% (vol/vol) ethanol at pH 3.0 stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in just 5 min, addition of 1.25% (vol/vol) ethanol resulted in less than 1 log unit of killing in 10 min. The ability of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol to stimulate killing at low pH and at elevated osmolarity was also dependent on the amplitude of the imposed stress, and an increase in the pH from 3.0 to 4.0 or a decrease in the sodium chloride concentration from 25 to 2.5% led to a marked reduction in the effectiveness of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol as an augmentative agent. Combinations of organic acids, low pH, and ethanol proved to be particularly effective bactericidal treatments; the most potent combination was pH 3.0, 50 mM formate, and 5 % (vol/vol) ethanol, which resulted in 5 log units of killing in just 4 min. Ethanol-enhanced killing correlated with damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:11282610

  3. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  4. 23(S),25(R)-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone stimulates murine bone formation in vivo

    Shima, M.; Tanaka, H.; Norman, A.W.; Yamaoka, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Takaoka, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Seino, Y. (Osaka Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))


    23(S),25(R)-1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone (1,25-lactone) has been shown to have unique actions different from those of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3). In contrast to 1,25-(OH)2D3, 1,25-lactone causes a significant reduction in the serum Ca2+ level, stimulates collagen production in an osteoblastic cell line, and inhibits bone resorption induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3. A possible effect of 1,25-lactone on bone formation was examined in experiments on ectopic bone formation using a bone-inducing factor derived from Dunn osteosarcomas. 1,25-Lactone, a metabolite of 1,25-(OH)2D3, increased (3H)proline uptake at the stage of chondrogenesis and {sup 85}Sr uptake during bone formation. Significantly enlarged bone was also induced by this compound 3 weeks after implantation. These results suggest that the 1,25-lactone may be able to stimulate bone formation under in vivo conditions.

  5. Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: involvement of p42/44 MAPK activation

    Myeong Soo Lee; Myung-Sunny Kim; Soo Young Park; Chang-Won Kang


    AIM: To evaluate the effects of betaine on the ethanolinduced secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting, respectively, in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol and PD98059 procedures. The hepatocytes were also treated with different doses of betaine (10-5,10-4, and 10-3 mol/L). We measured IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: The ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-Ⅰ secretion was attenuated by betaine in a concentration-dependent manner in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. At 10-3 mol/L, betaine significantly increased IGF-Ⅰ secretion but decreased IGFBP-1 secretion. In addition, p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was accelerated significantly from 10 min to 5 h after treatment with 10-3 mol/L betaine. Furthermore, the changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 secretion resulting from the increased betaine-induced p42/44 MAPK activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes was blocked by treatment with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059. Betaine treatment blocked the ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-Ⅰ secretion and p42/44 MAPK activity, and the ethanol-induced increase in IGFBP-1 secretion.CONCLUSION: Betaine modulates the secretion of IGF-Ⅰ and IGFBP-1 via the activation of p42/44 MAPK in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Betaine also alters the MAPK activations induced by ethanol.

  6. [Autonomic correlates of the formation of a functional self-stimulation system].

    Belyĭ, V P; Peres-Markes, L U


    Capability of intracerebral electrostimulation to serve as an unconditioned reinforcing stimulus in classical conditioning was studied in rabbits. Changes of such vegetative characteristics as respiration frequency and ECG were taken as criterion of conditioned response (CR) elaboration. In preliminary experiments, optimal parameters of stimulation maintaining the highest level of instrumental self-stimulation behaviour were found for each of the animals. Isolated presentation of the unconditioned reinforcing stimulus led to the increase of respiratory rate. Such kind of stimulation induced tachicardia in 5 animals, bradicardia in 3 ones, and in the remaining 6 rabbits a biphasic reaction was observed with initial tachicardia changing for bradicardia. Reactions were taken as CRs if they were similar to those to the unconditioned stimulus and appeared at the moment of omitted reinforcement. After 10 pairings of conditioned sound stimulus with positive reinforcement, CR changes of the two vegetative parameters were observed in 21,4 per cent of cases. After 40 pairings CRs were observed in 87,5 per cent of trials for cardiac and in 78,5 per cent cases for respiratory components. The results obtained confirm the idea of validity and efficiency of intracerebral stimulation of self-stimulation zones as a factor of positive reinforcement.

  7. Formation and reverberation of sequential neural activity patterns evoked by sensory stimulation are enhanced during cortical desynchronization.

    Bermudez Contreras, Edgar J; Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Muhammad, Arif; Bartho, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L; Kolb, Bryan; Gruber, Aaron J; Luczak, Artur


    Memory formation is hypothesized to involve the generation of event-specific neural activity patterns during learning and the subsequent spontaneous reactivation of these patterns. Here, we present evidence that these processes can also be observed in urethane-anesthetized rats and are enhanced by desynchronized brain state evoked by tail pinch, subcortical carbachol infusion, or systemic amphetamine administration. During desynchronization, we found that repeated tactile or auditory stimulation evoked unique sequential patterns of neural firing in somatosensory and auditory cortex and that these patterns then reoccurred during subsequent spontaneous activity, similar to what we have observed in awake animals. Furthermore, the formation of these patterns was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, suggesting that the phenomenon depends on synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that anesthetized animals with a desynchronized brain state could serve as a convenient model for studying stimulus-induced plasticity to improve our understanding of memory formation and replay in the brain.

  8. Homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli differently affect sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Basso, Thiago Olitta; Gomes, Fernanda Sgarbosa; Lopes, Mario Lucio; de Amorim, Henrique Vianna; Eggleston, Gillian; Basso, Luiz Carlos


    Bacterial contamination during industrial yeast fermentation has serious economic consequences for fuel ethanol producers. In addition to deviating carbon away from ethanol formation, bacterial cells and their metabolites often have a detrimental effect on yeast fermentative performance. The bacterial contaminants are commonly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), comprising both homo- and heterofermentative strains. We have studied the effects of these two different types of bacteria upon yeast fermentative performance, particularly in connection with sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation process. Homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be more detrimental to an industrial yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1), when compared with heterofermentative Lactobacillus fermentum, in terms of reduced yeast viability and ethanol formation, presumably due to the higher titres of lactic acid in the growth medium. These effects were only noticed when bacteria and yeast were inoculated in equal cell numbers. However, when simulating industrial fuel ethanol conditions, as conducted in Brazil where high yeast cell densities and short fermentation time prevail, the heterofermentative strain was more deleterious than the homofermentative type, causing lower ethanol yield and out competing yeast cells during cell recycle. Yeast overproduction of glycerol was noticed only in the presence of the heterofermentative bacterium. Since the heterofermentative bacterium was shown to be more deleterious to yeast cells than the homofermentative strain, we believe our findings could stimulate the search for more strain-specific antimicrobial agents to treat bacterial contaminations during industrial ethanol fermentation.

  9. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    Laura eFont


    Full Text Available Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (opioid peptides and receptors in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference. Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc, which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine. The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: 1 implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and 2 the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR.

  10. Tanshinol stimulates bone formation and attenuates dexamethasone-induced inhibition of osteogenesis in larval zebrafish

    Shiying Luo


    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that tanshinol prevented decreased osteogenesis in GC-treated larval zebrafish via scavenging ROS and stimulated the expression of osteoblast-specific genes. Tanshinol treatment may be developed as a novel therapeutic approach under recent recognised conditions of GC-induced osteoporosis.

  11. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn



    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  12. The Biocide Chlorine Dioxide Stimulates Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis by Activation of the Histidine Kinase KinC▿ †

    Shemesh, Moshe; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard


    Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in response to signals that remain poorly defined. We report that biofilm formation is stimulated by sublethal doses of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), an extremely effective and fast-acting biocide. ClO2 accelerated biofilm formation in B. subtilis as well as in other bacteria, suggesting that biofilm formation is a widely conserved response to sublethal doses of the agent. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of an extracellular matrix that holds the constituent cells together. We show that the transcription of the major operons responsible for the matrix production in B. subtilis, epsA-epsO and yqxM-sipW-tasA, was enhanced by ClO2, in a manner that depended on the membrane-bound kinase KinC. Activation of KinC appeared to be due to the ability of ClO2 to collapse the membrane potential. Importantly, strains unable to make a matrix were hypersensitive to ClO2, indicating that biofilm formation is a defensive response that helps protect cells from the toxic effects of the biocide. PMID:20971918

  13. Neurophysiological mechanisms of formation of non-chemical dependence through self-stimulation of positive emotiogenic areas of rats’ brains

    O. G. Berchenko


    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study the limbic-neocortical mechanisms of addictive behaviour in rats formed throughthe arousal of intense emotions on the model of self-stimulation reaction of the brain. We carried out investigations by conducting a chronic experiment on 15 nonlinear laboratory male rats weighing 250 to 320 grams, at the ages of 5 to 6 months. As a model of receiving positive emotions we used the behaviour of animals held in a Skinner box which was formed through self stimulation of the positive emotional zones of the posterior ventrolateral hypothalamus. We registered the frequency of self-stimulation reactions of the ventrolateral hypothalamus daily for 4 days and on the 7th day after its ccessation (state of deprivation. We performed visual and spectral analysis of the electrical activity of the brain using "" software. We assessed the absolute spectral density of the power of rhythm signals of the following frequency bands: delta (0.5–4.0 Hz, theta (4.0–7.0 Hz, alpha (8.0–12.0 Hz and low frequency beta (14.0–20.0 Hz. The formation of behaviour dependent on receiving intense emotions as a result of self-stimulation of the positive zones of the ventrolateral hypothalamus is caused by the initial high level of need for positive emotional reinforcement and further growth in the implementation of desire and is associated with activation of emotional memory mechanisms, changes in electrogenesis in the hippocampus and the reticular formation in the form of decrease in the spectral power of rhythms of alpha and beta bands and increased spectral power of biopotentials of the delta range in the hippocampus and theta range in the reticular formation with severe manifestations of seizure and paroxysmal activity components and increased activity of the sympatho-adrenal system. The syndrome of withdrawal fromthe receiving of positive emotions in some rats with implementation of a programme of a phobic character

  14. Optical processes in the formation of stimulated emission from ZnO nanowires

    Liu Rui-Bin; Pan An-Lian; Wang Fei-Fei; Zou Bing-Suo


    This paper studies power dependent photoluminescence spectra, the stimulated emission occurring at ultraviolet (UV) band instead of the green emission band of ZnO nanowires, which are prepared with a chemical reduction method.The dynamics of the UV emission and green emission is given to demonstrate the reason of stimulated emission occurring at UV band but not the green emission band under high excitation, which indicates that the slow decay rate of trap state makes it easy to be fully filled and saturated, while the fast decay rate of near-band-edge exciton state makes the UV emission dominate the radiative recombination under high excitation. The UV emission, as well as the corresponding stimulated emission, occurs in competition with the green deep-trap emission. In addition, when pump fluence further increases, the multiple lasing modes appear. The dependence of these lasing modes on the pump fluence is first discussed.This diagram should be helpful to understand and design the optical nanodevices of ZnO nanowires.

  15. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon stimulation with fly ash

    K Voelkel; H F Krug; S Diabaté


    Fly ash was used as a model for ambient particulate matter which is under suspicion to cause adverse pulmonary health effects. The fly ash was pre-sized and contained only particles < 20 m including an ultrafine fraction (< 100 nm) that contributed 31% to the particle number. In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the formation of ROS with regard to the mass of particles applied. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) added as a co-stimulus did not increase the formation of ROS induced by fly ash. Furthermore, in LPS (0.1 g/ml) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 1 ng/ml) pre-treated cells no increase in reactive oxygen species comparable to fly ash alone is observable. In presence of the metal chelator, desferrioxamine (DFO), ROS formation can be significantly reduced. Neither fly ash nor LPS induced a significant NO release in RLE-6TN cells.

  16. Maghemite nanoparticles and ferrous sulfate for the stimulation of iron plaque formation and arsenic immobilization in Phragmites australis.

    Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; de la Fuente, Carlos; Clemente, Rafael; Komárek, Michael; Bernal, M Pilar


    Wetland plants are considered as suitable biofilters for the removal of metal(loid)s and other contaminants from waters and wastewaters, due to their ability to accumulate and retain the contaminants in their roots. The iron plaque (IP) on the root surface influences the metal(loid)s retention processes. The stimulation of the IP development on roots of Phragmites australis by the external supply of a novel synthetic nanomaterial (nanomaghemite, nFe2O3) and FeSO4 (alone or in combination) was studied. An hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the iron plaque formation after external iron addition, as well as their influence on arsenic immobilization capacity. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were utilized to assess the distribution of Fe and As in the roots. The addition of Fe stimulated the generation of the IP, especially when FeSO4 was involved. The nanoparticles alone were not efficient with regard to IP formation or As adsorption, even though they adhered to the root surface and did not enter into epithelial root cells. The combination of FeSO4 and nFe2O3 was the most effective treatment for improving the As removal capacity, and it seems to be an effective way to enhance the rhizofiltration potential of P. australis in As contaminated (waste)waters.

  17. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha


    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  18. A comparative analysis of multi-stage fracture stimulation treatments within the Bakken formation, Kisbey Area, SE Sask

    Hassler, G.; Poohkay, P.; Jubinville, L. [Tristar Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Multi-stage stimulation treatments used in the Bakken formation were discussed in this presentation. The middle Bakken formation is comprised primarily of dolomitic siltstone with an oil saturation level of between 50 to 70 per cent. Original oil in place is estimated at between 4000 to 5000 mBbls. Porosity ranges between 15 and 5 per cent. Horizontal drilling techniques are used at the formation. This study compared production histories with various fracture treatment variations, wellbore lengths, and orientations. The study examined the impact of total tonnage on production wells of similar length, as well as the impact of increased fracture density on production rates. The aim of the study was to determine optimal well spacing, length and fracture design combinations. A total of 38 wells were studied with a variety of fracture treatments. Data were obtained for flush rates, production rates, and cumulative production rates. The study demonstrated that the range of fracture treatments used at the formation will not influence total fluid production rates over time. It was concluded that improvements in fracture design should focus on maximizing fracture conductivity within the reservoir while maximizing the number of fracture intervals per wellbore. tabs., figs.

  19. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats

    Gowen, Maxine; Stroup, George B.; Dodds, Robert A.; James, Ian E.; Votta, Bart J.; Smith, Brian R.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Lago, Amparo M.; Callahan, James F.; DelMar, Eric G.; Miller, Michael A.; Nemeth, Edward F.; Fox, John


    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a “calcilytic”) of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17β-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  20. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

    Siva Wu

    Full Text Available Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  1. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M; Webster, Paul


    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  2. Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul


    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

  3. Inhibiting effects of Streptococcus salivarius on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Tamura, S; Yonezawa, H; Motegi, M; Nakao, R; Yoneda, S; Watanabe, H; Yamazaki, T; Senpuku, H


    The effects of Streptococcus salivarius on the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans were investigated. Biofilms were grown on 96-well microtiter plates coated with salivary components in tryptic soy broth without dextrose supplemented with 0.25% sucrose. Biofilm formations were stained using safranin and quantification of stained biofilms was performed by measuring absorbance at 492 nm. S. mutans formed substantial biofilms, whereas biofilms of S. salivarius were formed poorly in the medium conditions used. Furthermore, in combination cultures, S. salivarius strongly inhibited biofilm formation when cultured with S. mutans. This inhibition occurred in the early phase of biofilm formation and was dependent on inactivation of the CSP of S. mutans, which is associated with competence, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial activity of the bacterium, and is induced by expression of the comC gene. Comparisons between the S. mutans clinical strains FSC-3 and FSC-3DeltaglrA in separate dual-species cultures with S. salivarius indicated that the presence of the bacitracin transport ATP-binding protein gene glrA caused susceptibility to inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation by S. salivarius, and was also associated with the regulation of CSP production by com gene-dependent quorum sensing systems. It is considered that regulation of CSP by glrA in S. mutans and CSP inactivation by S. salivarius are important functions for cell-to-cell communication between biofilm bacteria and oral streptococci such as S. salivarius. Our results provide useful information for understanding the ecosystem of oral streptococcal biofilms, as well as the competition between and coexistence of multiple species in the oral cavity.

  4. Splicing stimulates siRNA formation at Drosophila DNA double-strand breaks.

    Karin Merk


    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation. We validated this observation through site-specific DNA cleavage with CRISPR-cas9 followed by deep sequencing of small RNAs. DNA breaks in intron-less genes or upstream of a gene's first intron did not efficiently trigger siRNA production. When DNA double-strand breaks were induced downstream of an intron, however, this led to robust siRNA generation. Furthermore, a downstream break slowed down splicing of the upstream intron and a detailed analysis of siRNA coverage at the targeted locus revealed that unspliced pre-mRNA contributes the sense strand to the siRNA precursor. Since splicing factors are stimulating the response but unspliced transcripts are entering the siRNA biogenesis, the spliceosome is apparently stalled in a pre-catalytic state and serves as a signaling hub. We conclude that convergent transcription at DNA breaks is stimulated by a splicing dependent control process. The resulting double-stranded RNA is converted into siRNAs that instruct the degradation of cognate mRNAs. In addition to a potential role in DNA repair, the break-induced transcription may thus be a means to cull improper RNAs from the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster. Since the splicing factors identified in our screen also stimulated siRNA production from high copy transgenes, it is possible that this surveillance mechanism serves in genome defense beyond DNA double-strand breaks.


    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos


    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced rein...

  6. Stimulation of bone formation and fracture healing with pulsed electromagnetic fields: biologic responses and clinical implications.

    Chalidis, B; Sachinis, N; Assiotis, A; Maccauro, G


    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used for several years to supplement bone healing. However, the mode of action of this non-invasive method is still debated and quantification of its effect on fracture healing is widely varied. At cellular and molecular level, PEMF has been advocated to promote the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins and exert a direct effect on the production of proteins that regulate gene transcription. Electromagnetic fields may also affect several membrane receptors and stimulate osteoblasts to secrete several growth factors such as bone morphogenic proteins 2 and 4 and TGF-beta. They could also accelerate intramedullary angiogenesis and improve the load to failure and stiffness of the bone. Although healing rates have been reported in up to 87 % of delayed unions and non-unions, the efficacy of the method is significantly varied while patient or fracture related variables could not be clearly associated with a successful outcome.

  7. Platelet lysate gel and endothelial progenitors stimulate microvascular network formation in vitro: tissue engineering implications.

    Fortunato, Tiago M; Beltrami, Cristina; Emanueli, Costanza; De Bank, Paul A; Pula, Giordano


    Revascularisation is a key step for tissue regeneration and complete organ engineering. We describe the generation of human platelet lysate gel (hPLG), an extracellular matrix preparation from human platelets able to support the proliferation of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) in 2D cultures and the formation of a complete microvascular network in vitro in 3D cultures. Existing extracellular matrix preparations require addition of high concentrations of recombinant growth factors and allow only limited formation of capillary-like structures. Additional advantages of our approach over existing extracellular matrices are the absence of any animal product in the composition hPLG and the possibility of obtaining hPLG from patients to generate homologous scaffolds for re-implantation. This discovery has the potential to accelerate the development of regenerative medicine applications based on implantation of microvascular networks expanded ex vivo or the generation of fully vascularised organs.

  8. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia;


    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... levels. These findings provide novel insight into the role of adenosine in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation and vascular function by revealing that both interstitial and plasma adenosine have a stimulatory effect on NO and prostacyclin formation. In addition, both skeletal muscle and microvascular...

  9. On the Formation of the C2H6O Isomers Ethanol (C2H5OH) and Dimethyl Ether (CH3OCH3) in Star-forming Regions

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I.


    The structural isomers ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) were detected in several low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star-forming regions, including Sgr B2, Orion, and W33A, with the relative abundance ratios of ethanol/dimethyl ether varying from about 0.03 to 3.4. Until now, no experimental data regarding the formation mechanisms and branching ratios of these two species in laboratory simulation experiments could be provided. Here, we exploit tunable photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) to detect and analyze the production of complex organic molecules (COMs) resulting from the exposure of water/methane (H2O/CH4) ices to energetic electrons. The main goal is to understand the formation mechanisms in star-forming regions of two C2H6O isomers: ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3). The results show that the experimental branching ratios favor the synthesis of ethanol versus dimethyl ether (31 ± 11:1). This finding diverges from the abundances observed toward most star-forming regions, suggesting that production routes on interstellar grains to form dimethyl ether might be missing; alternatively, ethanol can be overproduced in the present simulation experiments, such as via radical-radical recombination pathways involving ethyl and hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the PI-ReTOF-MS data suggest the formation of methylacetylene (C3H4), ketene (CH2CO), propene (C3H6), vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), and methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH), in addition to ethane (C2H6), methanol (CH3OH), and CO2 detected from infrared spectroscopy. The yield of all the confirmed species is also determined.

  10. PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation while inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.

    Patel, Jessal J; Butters, Oliver R; Arnett, Timothy R


    Drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, have been reported to affect bone cell function and fracture risk. In this study, we assessed the direct effects of PPAR-γ agonists (rosiglitazone and troglitazone), used in the treatment of diabetes, and a PPAR-α agonist (fenofibrate), used to treat hyperlipidaemia, on the function of primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Formation of 'trabecular' bone structures by rat calvarial osteoblasts was reduced by up to 85% in cultures treated with rosiglitazone and by 45% in troglitazone-treated or fenofibrate-treated cultures; at the same time, lipid droplet formation was increased by 40-70%. The expression of key osteogenic markers was similarly downregulated in cultures treated with PPAR agonists, whereas adipogenesis markers were upregulated. Formation of osteoclasts in cultures derived from mouse marrow diminished with fenofibrate treatment, whereas both glitazones reduced resorptive activity without affecting osteoclast number. Metformin, although not a PPAR agonist, is also commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, metformin was found to have no effect on bone cell function. Taken together, these data suggest that PPAR-γ agonists may enhance bone loss via increased adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation. In contrast, PPAR-α agonists may prevent bone loss. Given that the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise significantly, greater attention may need to be paid to the effects of PPAR agonists on bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    Aisha Waheed Qurashi


    Full Text Available To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98 growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity.

  12. Acidity and complex formation studies of 3-(adenine-9-yl)-propionic and 3-(thymine-1-yl)-propionic acids in ethanol-water media

    Hammud, Hassan H.; El Shazly, Shawky; Sonji, Ghassan; Sonji, Nada; Bouhadir, Kamal H.


    The ligands 3-(adenine-9-yl)propionic acid (AA) and 3-(thymine-1-yl)propionic acid (TA) were prepared by N9-alkylation of adenine and N1-alkylation of thymine with ethylacrylate in presence of a base catalyst, followed by acid hydrolysis of the formed ethyl esters to give the corresponding propionic acid derivatives. The products were characterized by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), which confirm their structures. The dissociation constants of ligands, were potentiometrically determined in 0.3 M KCl at 20-50 °C temperature range. The work was extended to study complexation behavior of AA and TA with various biologically important divalent metal ions (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Pb2+) in 50% v/v water-ethanol medium at four different temperatures, keeping ionic strength constant (0.3 M KCl). The order of the stability constants of the formed complexes decreases in the sequence Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cd2+ for both ligands. The effect of temperature was also studied and the corresponding thermodynamic functions (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were derived and discussed. The formation of metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, and the stability constants were dependant markedly on the basicity of the ligands.

  13. α-Naphthoflavone Increases Lipid Accumulation in Mature Adipocytes and Enhances Adipocyte-Stimulated Endothelial Tube Formation

    Mei-Lin Wang


    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated factor that regulates biological effects associated with obesity. The AhR agonists, such as environmental contaminants 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF, inhibit preadipocyte differentiation and interfere with the functions of adipose tissue, whereas the antagonist may have opposite or protective effects in obesity. This study investigated the effects of α-naphthoflavone (α-NF, an AhR antagonist, on adipogenesis- and angiogenesis-associated factors in mature adipocytes and on cross-talk of mature adipocytes with endothelial cells (ECs. Besides, the roles of the AhR on lipid accumulation and on secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were also determined by introducing siRNA of AhR. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with α-naphthoflavone (α-NF (1–5 μM for 16 h. Lipid accumulation and the expressions of AhR-associated factors in the cells were determined. The interaction between adipocytes and ECs was investigated by cultivating ECs with conditioned medium (CM from α-NF-treated mature adipocytes, followed by the determination of endothelial tube formation. The results showed that α-NF significantly increased triglyceride (TG accumulation in mature adipocytes, which was associated with increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, estrogen receptor (ER, as well as decreased expression of AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT, cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1, and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (NRF-2 proteins. In addition, CM stimulated formation of tube-like structures in ECs, and α-NF further enhanced such stimulation in association with modulated the secretions of various angiogenic mediators by mature adipocytes. Similarly, increased TG accumulation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion were observed in AhR-knockout cells. In conclusion, α-NF increased TG accumulation in mature adipocytes and

  14. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei


    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis.

  15. ATP formation and ATP hydrolysis during fatiguing, intermittent stimulation of different types of single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis.

    Nagesser, A S; Van der Laarse, W J; Elzinga, G


    This report describes changes of the rate of ATP hydrolysis in single, intact muscle fibres during the development of fatigue induced by intermittent tetanic stimulation. High (type 3) and low (type 1) oxidative muscle fibres dissected from the iliofibularis muscle of Xenopus laevis were studied at 20 degrees C. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was calculated during different time intervals from changes in the content of nucleotides, creatine compounds and lactate, as well as lactate efflux and oxygen uptake. During the first phase of intermittent stimulation, phosphocreatine is fully reduced while the rate of oxygen consumption increases to its maximum, the lactate content increases to a maximum level, and a small amount of IMP is formed; the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres is constant while force decreases, whereas the rate decreases approximately in proportion to force in type 1 fibres. After the first phase, the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres decreases slightly and the fibres reach a steady metabolic state in which the rates of ATP formation and hydrolysis are equal; in type 1 fibres a drastic change of the rate of ATP hydrolysis occurs and a steady metabolic state is not reached. On the basis of the time courses of the metabolic changes, it is concluded that the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres is reduced by acidification and/or a reduced calcium efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas in type 1 fibres inorganic phosphate and/or acidification inhibit the rate initially and ADP is a likely candidate to explain the drastic fall of the rate of ATP hydrolysis during late phases of fatiguing stimulation.

  16. The potential impact of 4-octylphenol on the basal and stimulated testosterone formation by isolated mice Leydig cells

    Tomáš JAMBOR


    Full Text Available Octylphenol is biodegradation product of alkylphenolethoxylates frequently used in detergents, paints and other industrial applications. This compound is classified as an endocrine disruptor. Recent studies have hypothesized that occupational exposure to octylphenol poses adverse effects on reproductive system of humans and wildlife species. Enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis pathway are really sensitive targets for the action of various endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Aim of in vitro study was determined the effect of 4-octylphenol on basal and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated testosterone formation of ICR mice Leydig cells. On the other hand, was classified potential impact of mentioned endocrine disruptor on Leydig cell viability after 44 h of cultivation. Cell suspension was cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg*mL-1 of 4-octylphenol and compared to the control. Hormone quantification from the medium was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Viability of cell suspension was determined by the metabolic activity assay. Unstimulated testosterone production significantly (P˂0.001 increased with 2.5 and 5.0 μg*mL-1 4-octylphenol. Cell viability was also significantly (P˂0.001; P˂0.05 stimulated by 4-octylphenol. Although human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated testosterone secretion was significantly (P˂0.05 affected by the lowest concentration (0.04 μg*mL-1 in the cell viability was recorded significantly (P˂0.001; P˂0.05 higher mitochondrial activity (1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg*mL-1. Considerably more detailed and systematic research in this area is required for a better understanding of potential risk to humans or animals.

  17. Alpha-ketoglutarate reduces ethanol toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster by enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant capacity.

    Bayliak, Maria M; Shmihel, Halyna V; Lylyk, Maria P; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I


    Ethanol at low concentrations (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity as compared with those reared on control diet or diet with ethanol only. Native gel electrophoresis data suggested that this combination diet might promote post-translational modifications of ADH protein with the formation of a highly active ADH form. The ethanol-containing diet led to significantly higher levels of triacylglycerides stored in adult flies, and this parameter was not altered by AKG supplement. The influence of diet on antioxidant defenses was also assessed. In ethanol-fed flies, catalase activity was higher in males and the levels of low molecular mass thiols were unchanged in both sexes compared to control values. Feeding on a mixture of AKG and ethanol did not affect catalase activity but caused a higher level of low molecular mass thiols compared to ethanol-fed flies. It can be concluded that both a stimulation of some components of antioxidant defense and the increase in ADH activity may be responsible for the protective effects of AKG diet supplementation in combination with ethanol. The results suggest that AKG might be useful as a treatment option to neutralize toxic effects of excessive ethanol intake and to improve the physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals, potentially including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Aeromonas hydrophila Flagella Glycosylation in Adhesion to Hep-2 Cells, Biofilm Formation and Immune Stimulation

    Susana Merino


    Full Text Available Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34 were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous heptasaccharide glycan. Two mutants with altered (light and strong polar flagella glycosylation still able to produce flagella were previously obtained, as well as mutants lacking the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. We compared these mutants, altogether with the wild type strain, in different studies to conclude that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the polar flagella glycosylation is an important factor for the immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll receptor 5 (TLR5.

  19. Blockage of neddylation modification stimulates tumor sphere formation in vitro and stem cell differentiation and wound healing in vivo.

    Zhou, Xiaochen; Tan, Mingjia; Nyati, Mukesh K; Zhao, Yongchao; Wang, Gongxian; Sun, Yi


    MLN4924, also known as pevonedistat, is the first-in-class inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme, which blocks the entire neddylation modification of proteins. Previous preclinical studies and current clinical trials have been exclusively focused on its anticancer property. Unexpectedly, we show here, to our knowledge for the first time, that MLN4924, when applied at nanomolar concentrations, significantly stimulates in vitro tumor sphere formation and in vivo tumorigenesis and differentiation of human cancer cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. These stimulatory effects are attributable to (i) c-MYC accumulation via blocking its degradation and (ii) continued activation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and its downstream pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK, via inducing EGFR dimerization. Finally, MLN4924 accelerates EGF-mediated skin wound healing in mouse and stimulates cell migration in an in vitro culture setting. Taking these data together, our study reveals that neddylation modification could regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation and that a low dose of MLN4924 might have a therapeutic value for stem cell therapy and tissue regeneration.

  20. Cellulosic ethanol

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning


    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2...

  1. Solcoseryl, a tissue respiration stimulating agent, significantly enhances the effect of capacitively coupled electric field on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants.

    Ochi, Morio; Wang, Pao-Li; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Takashima, Shigenori; Kagami, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yukito; Kaku, Tohru; Sakaguchi, Kunihiko


    In the present study we examined the combined effect of application of a capacitively coupled electric field (CCEF) and the tissue respiration stimulating agent, Solcoseryl, on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants histologically and mechanically. After a dental implant was inserted into each femur of Japanese white rabbits, Solcoseryl (2 ml/kg) was administered intravenously in the ear vein and a CCEF was applied for 4 h per day for 14 days. The degree of bone formation on microscopic observation, bone contact ratio, bone surface area ratio, and the level of removal torque of the implant in the Solcoseryl- and CCEF-treated group were significantly higher than the respective value in the control group, which had not been treated with Solcoseryl nor CCEF. Thus, the combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl effectively promoted the formation of new bone. It is suggested that the clinical use of a combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl for dental implants promotes osseointegration.

  2. Development of excretion stimulating techniques for radioactive materials via complex formation

    Takaya, Haruo; Utsumi, Akira; Takatsu, Akiko [National Inst. of materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    This research project aimed to establish a technique for rapid excretion of RI metals (Ni, Cd, Pb) incorporated into human body and here, development of removing agents which allow complex formation with metals was attempted. The reactivities of those agents with metals such as Ni, Cd were investigated. The gluco-formazan derivatives produced in the previous year; PF, PCF, PHF, PPF, PPCF and PPHF were investigated in the respect of reactivities with various metals. Those formazan derivatives were mixed with a metal ion (alkaline earth metals, lanthanoids, 1st transition metal) in buffered sodium-perchlorate solution to determine the chelating activity and the stability of metal chelation was estimated by spectrophotometric method. In formazan derivative with glucose, mannose or galactose, N atom of imino, azo and pyridyl groups, and O atoms of carboxyl and hydroxy groups possibly mediate the bonding with a metal ion. These chelate agents were little reactive for alkali metals, alkaline earth metals (Mg, Sr, Ba) or lanthanoid elements, but their affinities to Zn, Cd, Ni and Co were very high. It was demonstrated that either of the formazan derivatives was able to make chelate complex, suggesting that those are usable for excretion of RI metal ({sup 63}Ni and {sup 109}Cd). These gluco-formazan thus obtained were able to excrete these RI metals in the human body without affecting the metabolism of physiologically indispensable metals such as Ca, Mg, Fe etc. Furthermore, it seems necessary to make pharmacokinetic study on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of the gluco-formazan derivatives. (M.N.)

  3. [Formation of a depside-caffeine complex during cold conservation of coffee leaf samples in a hydro-ethanolic medium. Methodologic implications for the extraction of depsides].

    Colonna, J P


    The depsides present in coffee leaves are not apparent upon extraction with ethanol if the plant material has been fixed in boiling ethanol then maintained at - 25 degrees C. A complex formed with cafein prevents the extraction and this artefact from cold conservation concerns chlorogenic acid and its isomers. A treatment with chloroform can break the complex and allows the depsides to be dosed. The complex does not seem to exist in living tissues.

  4. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos


    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  5. Storage of specimens at 4 degrees C or addition of sodium fluoride (1%) prevents formation of ethanol in urine inoculated with Candida albicans.

    Jones, A W; Hylén, L; Svensson, E; Helander, A


    The microbial synthesis of ethanol was investigated in urine specimens containing 0.5% or 1.0% (w/v) glucose and inoculated with the yeast Candida albicans (100 cfu/mL). Aliquots (10 mL) of urine were dispensed into plastic tubes containing enough sodium fluoride to give final concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2% (w/v), and C. albicans was added. The tubes were tightly stoppered and allowed to stand either at room temperature (22 degrees C) or in a refrigerator (4 degrees C) for up to 34 days before concentrations of ethanol were determined by headspace gas chromatography. Urine samples stored at 22 degrees C without sodium fluoride produced 0.25 g/L ethanol after two days, and the concentration increased to 2.10 g/L and 4.50 g/L after eight days for specimens containing 0.5% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) glucose, respectively. The ratio of the serotonin metabolites 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine remained within the reference range (Urine samples kept at 4 degrees C did not produce any ethanol (albicans was stopped completely by adding 1% or 2% (w/v) sodium fluoride but not by concentrations of 0.75% (w/v) or less. The microbial synthesis of ethanol in urine samples initially stored at room temperature without sodium fluoride was slowed down considerably by moving them into a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, the production of ethanol in urine by C. albicans can be prevented by storage of samples in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C or by adding sodium fluoride > or = 1% (w/v). Measuring the ratio of 5HTOL/5HIAA can help to distinguish postsampling production of ethanol from metabolism and excretion processes.

  6. Haze Formation and the Influence of Severe Cold Area of Ethanol Gasoline on Haze%雾霾成因及严寒地区乙醇汽油对雾霾影响

    常文涛; 白莉; 车文昊; 化亚魏


    By analyzing the composition of haze, its formation mechanism, this thesis studies the impact of ethanol gasoline combustion products: aerosol particles, particulate matter, additional products ( aldehydes and ketones, etc. ) and water on severe cold area regional haze formation. The results show that the effect of ethanol gasoline combustion products of haze is also very serious. It does not recommend excessive use of ethanol gasoline in the cold winter.%本文通过分析雾霾的组成成分及其形成机理,分别研究了乙醇汽油燃烧产物气溶胶粒子、颗粒物、附加产物(醛酮等)和水分对严寒地带区域性雾霾形成的影响。研究结果表明,乙醇汽油燃烧产物对雾霾的影响也是比较严重的,在严寒地区冬季不建议过量使用乙醇汽油。

  7. Reversible bleb formation in mast cells stimulated with antigen is Ca2+-calmodulin –dependent and bleb size is regulated by ARF6

    Yanase, Yukki; Carvou, Nicolas; Frohman, Michael A.; Cockcroft, Shamshad


    Abstract Mast cells stimulated with antigen undergo extensive changes in their cytoskeleton. We assess here the impact of actin-modifying drugs and report that in the presence of cytochalasin D, mast cells stop membrane ruffling but instead bleb. Bleb formation is reversible following washout of the cytochalasin D and occurs in an actin polymerization-dependent manner. Bleb formation is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative ezrin-T567D. Blebbing is also inhibited by blebbist...

  8. Ultrasound to stimulate early bone formation in a distraction gap : a double blind randomised clinical pilot trial in the edentulous mandible

    Schortinghuis, J; Bronckers, ALLJ; Stegenga, B; Raghoebar, GM; de Bont, LGM


    Objective: In a double blind randomised clinical pilot trial, it was investigated whether tow intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy stimulates early bone formation in a distraction gap created in a severely resorbed mandible. Design: Eight patients underwent a mandibular vertical distraction over an a

  9. Projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus: differential effects of chronic khat and ethanol exposure in adult male rats

    Alele, Paul E; Matovu, Daniel; Imanirampa, Lawrence; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Kasule, Gyaviira T


    Background Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group. Treatments were administered orally for 28 continuous days; brains were then harvested, sectioned, and routine hematoxylin–eosin staining was done. Following photomicrography, ImageJ® software captured data regarding neuron number and size. Results No differences occurred in counts of both granular and pyramidal projection neurons in the motor cortex and all four subfields of the hippocampal formation. Khat dose-dependently increased pyramidal neuron size in the motor cortex and the CA3 region, but had different effects on granular neuron size in the dentate gyrus and the motor cortex. Mean pyramidal neuron size for the ethanol-only treatment was larger than that for the 2 g/kg khat group, and the saline control group, in CA3 and in the motor cortex. Concomitant khat and ethanol increased granular neuron size in the motor cortex, compared to the 2 g/kg khat group, the 4 g/kg khat group, and the 4 g/kg ethanol group. In the CA3 region, the 4 g/kg ethanol group showed a larger mean pyramidal neuron size than the combined khat and ethanol group. Conclusion These results suggest that concomitant khat and ethanol exposure changes granular and pyramidal projection neuron sizes differentially in the motor cortex and hippocampus, compared to the effects of chronic exposure to these two drugs separately.

  10. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J


    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    McMillan, J.D.


    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  12. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel


    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  13. The therapeutic effect of memantine through the stimulation of synapse formation and dendritic spine maturation in autism and fragile X syndrome.

    Hongen Wei

    Full Text Available Although the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autism are not well understood, there is evidence showing that metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors are hyper-stimulated and the GABAergic system is hypo-stimulated in autism. Memantine is an uncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and is widely prescribed for treatment of Alzheimer's disease treatment. Recently, it has been shown to improve language function, social behavior, and self-stimulatory behaviors of some autistic subjects. However the mechanism by which memantine exerts its effect remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs from Fmr1 knockout (KO mice, a mouse model for fragile X syndrome (FXS and syndromic autism, to examine the effects of memantine on dendritic spine development and synapse formation. Our results show that the maturation of dendritic spines is delayed in Fmr1-KO CGCs. We also detected reduced excitatory synapse formation in Fmr1-KO CGCs. Memantine treatment of Fmr1-KO CGCs promoted cell adhesion properties. Memantine also stimulated the development of mushroom-shaped mature dendritic spines and restored dendritic spine to normal levels in Fmr1-KO CGCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that memantine treatment promoted synapse formation and restored the excitatory synapses to a normal range in Fmr1-KO CGCs. These findings suggest that memantine may exert its therapeutic capacity through a stimulatory effect on dendritic spine maturation and excitatory synapse formation, as well as promoting adhesion of CGCs.

  14. Effect of Propanoic Acid on Ethanol Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an Ethanol-Methane Coupled Fermentation Process

    张成明; 杜风光; 王欣; 毛忠贵; 孙沛勇; 唐蕾; 张建军


    Propanoic acid accumulated in an ethanol-methane coupled fermentation process affects the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of propanoic acid on ethanol production were examined in cassava mash under different pH conditions. Final ethanol concentrations increased when undissociated propanoic acid was 〈30.0 mmol·L-1 . Propanoic acid, however, stimulated ethanol production, as much as 7.6% under proper conditions, but ethanol fermentation was completely inhibited when undissociated acid was 〉53.2 mmol·L-1 . Therefore, the potential inhibitory effect of propanoic acid on ethanol fermentation may be avoided by controlling the undissociated acid concentrations through elevated medium pH. Biomass and glycerol production decreased with propanoic acid in the medium, partly contributing to increased ethanol concentration.

  15. Bone formation of human mesenchymal stem cells harvested from reaming debris is stimulated by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein-7 application in vivo.

    Westhauser, Fabian; Höllig, Melanie; Reible, Bruno; Xiao, Kai; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash


    Stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) leads to superior bone formation in vitro. In this in vivo-study we evaluated the use of BMP-7 in combination with MSC isolated from reaming debris (RIA-MSC) and iliac crest bone marrow (BMSC) with micro-computed tomography (mCT)-analysis. β-Tricalciumphosphate scaffolds coated with BMSC and RIA-MSC were stimulated with three different BMP-7-concentrations and implanted ectopically in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Our results demonstrate that RIA-MSC show a higher osteogenic potential in vivo compared to BMSC. Ossification increased in direct correlation with the BMP-7-dose applied, however low-dose-stimulation by BMP-7 was more effective for RIA-MSC.

  16. Formation of tetrahydroharman (1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline) by Helicobacter pylori in the presence of ethanol and tryptamine.

    Callaway, J C; Airaksinen, M M; Salmela, K S; Salaspuro, M


    Helicobacter pylori contains alcohol dehydrogenase which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. In the present study, H. pylori cytosol was incubated in a buffered media at pH 6.0 and 7.4 in the presence of ethanol and tryptamine. Under these conditions, tetrahydroharman (1-methyl-tetrahydro-beta-carboline) was produced as a condensation product of tryptamine and acetaldehyde. At pH 6.0, 20.60 +/- 5.00% of the added tryptamine was converted to tetrahydroharman, while 27.00 +/- 4.80% (mean +/-SD) was converted at pH 7.4. Similar reactions between acetaldehyde and other dietary amines seem likely. Such biogenic alkaloids, if formed in vivo, might contribute to the dysphoric effects of alcohol.

  17. Formation of acetic acid by aqueous-phase oxidation of ethanol with air in the presence of a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    Christensen, Claus H.; Jørgensen, Betina; Hansen, Jeppe Rass


    Wine into vinegar: It is possible to selectively oxidize ethanol into acetic acid in aqueous solution with air as the oxidant and a heterogeneous gold catalyst (see TEM image of supported gold particles) at temperatures of about 423 K and O2 pressures of 0.6 MPa. This reaction proceeds readily...... in aqueous acidic media with yields of up to 90 % and CO2 as the only major by-product....

  18. Formation of Acetic Acid by Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of Ethanol with Air in the Presence of a Heterogeneous Gold Catalyst

    Christensen, Claus H.; Jørgensen, B.; Hansen, Jeppe Rass


    Die selektive Oxidation von Ethanol zu Essigsäure gelingt in wässriger Lösung mit dem Oxidans Luft an einem Gold-Heterogenkatalysator (siehe Bild). Bei 423 K und einem O2-Druck von 0.6 MPa verläuft diese Reaktion glatt in saurer wässriger Lösung in Ausbeuten um 90 %. CO2 ist das einzige Nebenprod...

  19. JTT-305, an orally active calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, stimulates transient parathyroid hormone release and bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Kimura, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Matsuo, Yushi; Ishida, Yuji; Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Mikio


    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has a potent anabolic effect on bone in humans and animals. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists stimulate endogenous PTH secretion through CaSR on the surface of parathyroid cells and thereby may be anabolic agents for osteoporosis. JTT-305 is a potent oral short-acting CaSR antagonist and transiently stimulates endogenous PTH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of JTT-305 on PTH secretion and bone in ovariectomized rats. Female rats, immediately after ovariectomy (OVX), were orally administered vehicle or JTT-305 (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The serum PTH concentrations were transiently elevated with increasing doses of JTT-305. In the proximal tibia, JTT-305 prevented OVX-induced decreases in both the cancellous and total bone mineral density (BMD) except for the 0.3mg/kg dose. At the 3mg/kg dose, JTT-305 increased the mineralizing surface and bone formation rate in histomorphometry. The efficacy of JTT-305 at the 3mg/kg dose on the BMD corresponded to that of exogenous rat PTH1-84 injection at doses between 3 and 10 μg/kg. In conclusion, JTT-305 stimulated endogenous transient PTH secretion and bone formation, and consequently prevented bone loss in OVX rats. These results suggest that JTT-305 is orally active and has the potential to be an anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

    Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Meneses, Alfredo; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Gaona, Andres; Rocha, Luisa


    Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans.

  1. Ethanol-induced leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: kinetics and relationship to yeast ethanol tolerance and alcohol fermentation productivity

    Salgueiro, S.P.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.


    Ethanol stimulated the leakage of amino acids and 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efflux followed first-order kinetics over an initial period. In the presence of lethal concentrations of ethanol, the efflux rates at 30 and 36/sup 0/C were an exponential function of ethanol concentration. At 36/sup 0/C, as compared with the corresponding values at 30/sup 0/C, the efflux rates were higher and the minimal concentration of ethanol was lower. The exponential constants for the enhancement of the rate of leakage had similar values at 30 or 36/sup 0/C and were of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding exponential constants for ethanol-induced death. Under isothermic conditions (30/sup 0/C) and up to 22% (vol/vol) ethanol, the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds was found to be closely related with the ethanol tolerance of three strains of yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus. The resistance to ethanol-induced leakage indicates the possible adoption of the present method for the rapid screening of ethanol-tolerant strains. The addition to a fermentation medium of the intracellular material obtained by ethanol permeabilization of yeast cells led to improvements in alcohol fermentation by S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The action of the intracellular material, by improving yeast ethanol tolerance, and the advantages of partially recycling the fermented medium after distillation were discussed.

  2. Stimulation of inositol phosphate formation in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells by catecholamines and its relationship to changes in 45Ca2+ efflux and cyclic AMP accumulation.

    Berman, M I; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N


    Catecholamines specifically stimulated the rapid formation of inositol phosphates, bisphosphates and trisphosphates in a concentration-dependent manner in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. Further analysis by high performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of two isomers of inositol trisphosphate, 1,4,5- and 1,3,4-trisphosphate, suggesting that the 1,4,5-trisphosphate of inositol is further metabolized to the 1,3,4-trisphosphate isomer. The alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, inhibited the effects of epinephrine, while the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, was without effect. Treatment of FRTL-5 cells with pertussis toxin (to inhibit Ni) did not abolish the epinephrine effect on inositol trisphosphate formation. Carbachol, N6-[L-2-phenylisopropyl]-adenosine and forskolin were without effect on phosphoinositide metabolism. Both epinephrine and the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from 45Ca2+-loaded FRTL-5 cells. The time-course of the epinephrine effect indicates that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation (t1/2 approximately 1 s) precedes both the efflux of 45Ca2+ (t1/2 approximately 30 s) as well as the reduction of cyclic AMP levels (t1/2 approximately 90 s) in response to epinephrine. These results strongly suggest that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate has the appropriate properties to act as a second messenger by which alpha 1-adrenergic hormones, through mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and activation of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, reduce cyclic AMP levels in FRTL-5 cells.

  3. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal


    small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...... fermentation product was obtained by further inactivating the phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and the native alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE)....

  4. Melatonin Stimulates Dendrite Formation and Complexity in the Hilar Zone of the Rat Hippocampus: Participation of the Ca++/Calmodulin Complex

    Aline Domínguez-Alonso


    Full Text Available Melatonin (MEL, the main product synthesized by the pineal gland, stimulates early and late stages of neurodevelopment in the adult brain. MEL increases dendrite length, thickness and complexity in the hilar and mossy neurons of hippocampus. Dendrite formation involves activation of Ca2+/Calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII by CaM. Previous work showed that MEL increased the synthesis and translocation of CaM, suggesting that MEL activates CaM-dependent enzymes by this pathway. In this work we investigated whether MEL stimulates dendrite formation by CaMKII activation in organotypic cultures from adult rat hippocampus. We found that the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-62, abolished the MEL stimulatory effects on dendritogenesis and that MEL increased the relative amount of CaM in the soluble fraction of hippocampal slices. Also, PKC inhibition abolished dendritogenesis, while luzindole, an antagonist of MEL receptors (MT1/2, partially blocked the effects of MEL. Moreover, autophosphorylation of CaMKII and PKC was increased in presence of MEL, as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Our results indicate that MEL stimulates dendrite formation through CaMKII and the translocation of CaM to the soluble fraction. Dendritogenesis elicited by MEL also required PKC activation, and signaling through MT1/2 receptors was partially involved. Data strongly suggest that MEL could repair the loss of hippocampal dendrites that occur in neuropsychiatric disorders by increasing CaM levels and activation of CaMKII.

  5. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering


    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  6. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J


    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory.

  7. Ethanol increases plasma vasopressin shortly after intraperitoneal injection in rats

    Colbern, D.L.; ten Haaf, J.; Tabakoff, B.; van Wimersma Greidanus, T.B.


    In rats, ethanol has generally been thought to inhibit vasopressin (VP) release into the peripheral circulation; however, the primary evidence for this conclusion has been indirect. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure VP in the plasma of rats decapitated 5 or 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Confirming the popular notion that ethanol inhibits VP release, VP levels were decreased 60 min after treatment. But radioimmunoassay techniques also revealed that VP release is markedly stimulated shortly after an injection of ethanol. 14 references, 1 figure.

  8. Formats

    Gehmann, Ulrich


    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  9. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)


    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  10. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.


    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  11. (3H)-isoproterenol binding to subcellular fractions of mouse parotid: relationship to cyclic nucleotide formation and the stimulation of DNA synthesis.

    Durham, J P; Galanti, N


    (3H) Isoproterenol binding to subcellular fractions of mouse parotid: Relationship to cyclic nucleotide formation and the stimulation of DNA synthesis. (Unión the (3H) Isoproterenol a fracciones subcelulares de parótida de ratón y su relacón con la formacón de nucleótidos cíclicos y la estimulación de la síntesis de DNA). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 105-114, 1976. Tritiated isoproterenol binds to all subcellular fractions of mouse parotid but 70% of the binding is to the nuclear fraction. Binding to other mouse tissues was less than to the parotid. The patterns of binding did not correlate with the distribution of adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase or catechol-O-methyl transferase among the fractions or tissues nor with the extent of response in stimulation of DNA synthesis among the tissues. Inhibition of (3H) Isoproterenol binding to parotid fractions by catecholamine analogs was studied. There was no correlation between their ability to inhibit binding and the ability of the analogs themselves to raise cyclic AMP levels or stimulate DNA synthesis.

  12. Metabolic engineering to improve ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just


    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii can produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass at high temperatures, but its biotechnological exploitation will require metabolic engineering to increase its ethanol yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii, it may become crucial...... to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol yield beyond that obtained with glucose and xylose. The ldh gene coding for lactate dehydrogenase was previously deleted from T. mathranii to eliminate...... an NADH oxidation pathway. To further facilitate NADH regeneration used for ethanol formation, a heterologous gene gldA encoding an NAD+-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase was expressed in T. mathranii. One of the resulting recombinant strains, T. mathranii BG1G1 (Δldh, P xyl GldA), showed increased ethanol...

  13. Reversible bleb formation in mast cells stimulated with antigen is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and bleb size is regulated by ARF6.

    Yanase, Yuhki; Carvou, Nicolas; Frohman, Michael A; Cockcroft, Shamshad


    Mast cells stimulated with antigen undergo extensive changes in their cytoskeleton. In the present study, we assess the impact of actin-modifying drugs and report that, in the presence of cytochalasin D, mast cells stop membrane ruffling, but instead bleb. Bleb formation is reversible following washout of cytochalasin D and occurs in an actin-polymerization-dependent manner. Bleb formation is inhibited by expression of constitutively active ezrin-T567D. Blebbing is also inhibited by blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, implying myosin II activation in the process. We used a selection of inhibitors and observed that myosin II activation is dependent mainly on Ca2+-calmodulin, with only a small contribution from Rho kinase. The signalling pathways stimulated by antigen include PLC (phospholipase C) and PLD (phospholipase D). Bleb formation was dependent on activation of PLC, but not PLD. Primary alcohols, used previously as a means to reduce PLD-derived phosphatidic acid, were potent inhibitors of membrane blebbing, but a more selective inhibitor of PLD, FIPI (5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide), was without effect. FIPI also did not inhibit membrane ruffling or degranulation of mast cells, indicating that inhibition by primary alcohols works through an unidentified mechanism rather than via diversion of PLD activity as assumed. We also examined the requirement for ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) and observed that its expression led to an increase in bleb size and a further increase was observed with the dominant-active mutant, ARF6-Q67L. Since ARF6-T27N had no effect on bleb size, we conclude that ARF6 needs to be active to regulate the size of the blebs.

  14. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E


    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  15. Spontaneous Binding of Molecular Oxygen at the Qo-Site of the bc1 Complex Could Stimulate Superoxide Formation

    Husen, Peter; Solov'yov, Ilia A


    to drive ATP synthesis. This molecular machinery, however, is suspected to be a source of superoxide, which is toxic to the cell, even in minuscular quantities, and believed to be a factor in aging. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate here the migration of molecular oxygen in the bc1...... complex in order to identify possible reaction sites that could lead to superoxide formation. It is found, in particular, that oxygen penetrates spontaneously the Qo binding site of the bc1 complex in the presence of an intermediate semiquinone radical, thus making the Qo-site a strong candidate for being...... a center of superoxide production....

  16. Ethanol production and a case study of ethanol produced from sweet sorghum stalks via solid state fermentation

    Geng, X. [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Resource and Environmental Engineering College; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology; Li, S.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology


    Ethanol has excellent fuel properties, such as high octane, high heat of vaporization and low photochemical reactivity in the atmosphere. It is less volatile than gasoline and there is lower smog formation from evaporative emissions of pure ethanol compared to gasoline. As such, ethanol has emerged as an important alternative energy source that is sustainable, efficient, cost effective, convenient and safe. In 2006, global production of ethanol reached 13.5 billion gallons, up from 12.1 billion gallons in 2005. However, in light of the current debate of food versus fuel, the industry must shift to non-food feedstocks. This paper described an emerging technology to cost-effectively produce ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks, the most promising alternative feedstock to corn, via solid state fermentation (SSF). Experiments of advanced solid state fermentation (ASSF) for ethanol production from sweet sorghum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in laboratory and pilot scales studies. The process parameters were monitored during the fermentation in three scales. The highest ethanol concentration was achieved in pilot fermentation after 44 hours of incubation when a high yield of ethanol of 94.48 per cent was obtained. In comparison, corn ethanol fermentation yielded 91.5 per cent ethanol after 55 hours of incubation. Ethanol concentration decreased slowly after 44 hours of incubation due to the consumption of sugars and the inhibitory effects of ethanol. Ethanol is a typical primary metabolite whose production closely couples with the growth of yeast cell, indicating yeast is produced as a co-product. Under the same fermentation conditions the fermentation in non-sterilized medium gave the similar ethanol concentration to that of a sterilized medium, which has the advantages of saving in equipment and energy costs for industrialization of ethanol production from sweet sorghum via SSF. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  17. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model.

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke; Ai, Hongjun


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2.

  18. Cholecystokinin rapidly stimulates CrkII function in vivo in rat pancreatic acini. Formation of CrkII-protein complexes.

    Andreolotti, Alberto G; Bragado, Maria J; Tapia, Jose A; Jensen, Robert T; Garcia-Marin, Luis J


    Crk belongs to a family of adapter proteins whose structure allows interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and is therefore an important modulator of downstream signals, representing a convergence of the actions of numerous stimuli. Recently, it was demonstrated that cholecystokinin (CCK) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins related to fiber stress formation in rat pancreatic acini. Here, we investigated whether CCK receptor activation signals through CrkII and forms complexes with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in rat pancreatic acini. We demonstrated that CCK promoted the transient formation of CrkII-paxillin and CrkII-p130Cas complexes with maximal effect at 1 min. Additionally, CCK decreased the electrophoretic mobility of CrkII. This decrease was time- and concentration-dependent and inversely related with its function. Carbachol and bombesin also decreased CrkII electrophoretic mobility, whereas epidermal growth factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide had no effect. CCK-induced CrkII electrophoretic shift was dependent on the Src family of tyrosine kinases and occurred in the intact animal, suggesting a physiological role of CrkII mediating CCK actions in the exocrine pancreas in vivo.

  19. Intermittent hypoxia stimulates formation of binuclear neurons in brain cortex- a role of cell fusion in neuroprotection?

    Paltsyn, Alexander A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Goryacheva, Anna V; Downey, H Fred; Dubrovin, Ivan P; Komissarova, Svetlana V; Kubatiev, Aslan A


    Oligodendrocyte fusion with neurons in the brain cortex is a part of normal ontogenesis and is a possible means of neuroregeneration. Following such fusion, the oligodendrocyte nucleus undergoes neuron-specific reprogramming, resulting in the formation of binuclear neurons, which doubles the functional capability of the neuron. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the formation of binuclear neurons is involved in long-term adaptation of the brain to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, which is known to be neuroprotective. Rats were adapted to hypoxia in an altitude chamber at a simulated altitude of 4000 m above sea level for 14 days (30 min increasing to 4 h, daily). One micrometer sections of the left motor cortex were analyzed by light microscopy. Phases of the fusion and reprogramming process were recorded, and the number of binuclear neurons was counted for all section areas containing pyramidal neurons of layers III-V. For the control group subjected to sham hypoxia, the density of binuclear neurons was 4.49 ± 0.32 mm(2). In the hypoxia-adapted group, this density increased to 5.71 ± 0.39 mm(2) (P neurons did not differ from the number observed in the control group. We suggest that the increased content of binuclear neurons may serve as a structural basis for the neuroprotective effects of the adaptation to hypoxia.

  20. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen


    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  1. Novel mechanism of diglyceride formation: 12-O-tetra-decanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate stimulates the cyclic breakdown and resynthesis of phosphatidylcholine

    Daniel, L.W.; Waite, M.; Wykle, R.L.


    12-O-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells resulted in an increased incorporation of /sup 32/P/sub i/ and (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline into choline-containing phosphoglycerides (PC). In pulse-chase experiments, TPA treatment caused an increased release of (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline from the PC fraction of prelabeled cells. When cells were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)palmitic acid, TPA treatment resulted in an increased synthesis of /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-diglycerides. Further studies were done to determine the relationship between PC breakdown and diglyceride synthesis. Cells were preincubated with ether-linked 1-O-(/sup 3/H)hexadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine which was acylated to form 1-O-(/sup 3/H)hexadecyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Subsequent treatment of these cells with TPA resulted in an increased synthesis of 1-O-(/sup 3/H)hexadecyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol compared to that of cells not stimulated with TPA. These findings demonstrate that TPA stimulates PC turnover in MDCK cells and provides evidence for a novel mechanism of diglyceride formation by degradation of PC by a phospholipase C.

  2. In vitro modeling of matrix vesicle nucleation: synergistic stimulation of mineral formation by annexin A5 and phosphatidylserine.

    Genge, Brian R; Wu, Licia N Y; Wuthier, Roy E


    Annexins A5, A2, and A6 (Anx-A5, -A2, and -A6) are quantitatively major proteins of the matrix vesicle nucleational core that is responsible for mineral formation. Anx-A5 significantly activated the induction and propagation of mineral formation when incorporated into synthetic nucleation complexes made of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and Anx-A5 or of phosphatidylserine (PS) plus ACP (PS-CPLX) and Anx-A5. Incorporation of Anx-A5 markedly shortened the induction time, greatly increasing the rate and overall amount of mineral formed when incubated in synthetic cartilage lymph. Constructed by the addition of Ca(2+) to PS, emulsions prepared in an intracellular phosphate buffer matched in ionic composition to the intracellular fluid of growth plate chondrocytes, these biomimetic PS-CPLX nucleators had little nucleational activity. However, incorporation of Anx-A5 transformed them into potent nucleators, with significantly greater activity than those made from ACP without PS. The ability of Anx-A5 to enhance the nucleation and growth of mineral appears to stem from its ability to form two-dimensional crystalline arrays on PS-containing monolayers. However, some stimulatory effect also may result from its ability to exclude Mg(2+) and HCO(-)(3) from nucleation sites. Comparing the various annexins for their ability to activate PS-CPLX nucleation yields the following: avian cartilage Anx-A5 > human placental Anx-A5 > avian liver Anx-A5 > or = avian cartilage Anx-A6 > cartilage Anx-A2. The stimulatory effect of human placental Anx-A5 and avian cartilage Anx-A6 depended on the presence of PS, since in its absence they either had no effect or actually inhibited the nucleation activity of ACP. Anx-A2 did not significantly enhance mineralization.

  3. MMP-sensitive PEG diacrylate hydrogels with spatial variations in matrix properties stimulate directional vascular sprout formation.

    Michael V Turturro

    Full Text Available The spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The goal of this work was to explore whether gradients of elastic modulus, immobilized matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-sensitivity, and YRGDS cell adhesion ligands are capable of directing 3D vascular sprout formation in tissue engineered scaffolds. PEGDA hydrogels were engineered with mechanical and biofunctional gradients using perfusion-based frontal photopolymerization (PBFP. Bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with uniform mechanical properties, degradation, and immobilized biofunctionality served as controls. Gradient hydrogels exhibited an 80.4% decrease in elastic modulus and a 56.2% decrease in immobilized YRGDS. PBFP hydrogels also demonstrated gradients in hydrogel degradation with degradation times ranging from 10-12 hours in the more crosslinked regions to 4-6 hours in less crosslinked regions. An in vitro model of neovascularization, composed of co-culture aggregates of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Aggregate invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, aggregate sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the perpendicular direction after three weeks in culture. This directionality was found to be more prominent in gradient regions of increased stiffness, crosslinked MMP-sensitive peptide presentation, and immobilized YRGDS concentration.

  4. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ai, Hongjun, E-mail: [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. - Highlights: • Fluoride coating inhibited the degradation of the alloy in the early implantation. • Fluorine coating could slow down the rate of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release. • Fluorine coating could promote the deposition of Ca and P in vivo. • Fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. • Fluorine coating up-regulated the expression of BMP-2 and collagen type I protein.

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factors and RAB22A mediate formation of microvesicles that stimulate breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Wang, Ting; Gilkes, Daniele M; Takano, Naoharu; Xiang, Lisha; Luo, Weibo; Bishop, Corey J; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Green, Jordan J; Semenza, Gregg L


    Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) are shed by cancer cells, are detected in the plasma of cancer patients, and promote cancer progression, but the molecular mechanisms regulating their production are not well understood. Intratumoral hypoxia is common in advanced breast cancers and is associated with an increased risk of metastasis and patient mortality that is mediated in part by the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this paper, we report that exposure of human breast cancer cells to hypoxia augments MV shedding that is mediated by the HIF-dependent expression of the small GTPase RAB22A, which colocalizes with budding MVs at the cell surface. Incubation of naïve breast cancer cells with MVs shed by hypoxic breast cancer cells promotes focal adhesion formation, invasion, and metastasis. In breast cancer patients, RAB22A mRNA overexpression in the primary tumor is associated with decreased overall and metastasis-free survival and, in an orthotopic mouse model, RAB22A knockdown impairs breast cancer metastasis.



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  7. Transcriptional changes associated with ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Stanley, Dragana; Chambers, Paul J; Stanley, Grant A; Borneman, Anthony; Fraser, Sarah


    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used for ethanol production; however, fermentation productivity is negatively affected by the impact of ethanol accumulation on yeast metabolic rate and viability. This study used microarray and statistical two-way ANOVA analysis to compare and evaluate gene expression profiles of two previously generated ethanol-tolerant mutants, CM1 and SM1, with their parent, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A, in the presence and absence of ethanol stress. Although sharing the same parentage, the mutants were created differently: SM1 by adaptive evolution involving long-term exposure to ethanol stress and CM1 using chemical mutagenesis followed by adaptive evolution-based screening. Compared to the parent, differences in the expression levels of genes associated with a number of gene ontology categories in the mutants suggest that their improved ethanol stress response is a consequence of increased mitochondrial and NADH oxidation activities, stimulating glycolysis and other energy-yielding pathways. This leads to increased activity of energy-demanding processes associated with the production of proteins and plasma membrane components, which are necessary for acclimation to ethanol stress. It is suggested that a key function of the ethanol stress response is restoration of the NAD(+)/NADH redox balance, which increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and higher glycolytic flux in the ethanol-stressed cell. Both mutants achieved this by a constitutive increase in carbon flux in the glycerol pathway as a means of increasing NADH oxidation.

  8. The formation and continuous turnover of a fraction of phosphatidic acid on stimulation of NaC1 secretion by acetylcholine in the salt gland.

    Hokin, M R; Hokin, L E


    Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by (32)P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 micromoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-(14)C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT(32)P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O(2) uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total (32)P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process.

  9. Eldecalcitol improves mechanical strength of cortical bones by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in the senescence-accelerated SAM/P6 mice - a comparison with alfacalcidol.

    Shiraishi, Ayako; Sakai, Sadaoki; Saito, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Fumiaki


    Eldecalcitol (ELD), a 2β-hydroxypropyloxy derivative of 1α,25(OH)2D3, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption that has demonstrated a greater effect at reducing the risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients than alfacalcidol (ALF). In the present study, we used the senescence-accelerated mouse strain P6 (SAM/P6), which has low bone mass caused by osteoblast dysfunction, to evaluate the effect of ELD on cortical bone in comparison with ALF. Four-month-old SAM/P6 mice were given either ELD (0.025 or 0.05μg/kg) or ALF (0.2 or 0.4μg/kg) by oral gavage 5 times/week for 6 weeks. Both ELD and ALF increased serum calcium (Ca) in a dose-dependent manner. Serum Ca levels in the ELD 0.05μg/kg group were comparable to those of the ALF 0.2μg/kg group. ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly improved the bone biomechanical properties of the femur compared with the vehicle control group (pBone histomorphometry revealed that in the femoral endocortical surface, the suppression of bone resorption parameters (N.Oc/BS) and bone formation parameters (MS/BS) by ELD (0.05μg/kg) was greater than that by ALF (0.2μg/kg). In contrast, in the femoral periosteal surface, ELD 0.05μg/kg significantly increased bone formation parameters (BFR/BS, MS/BS) compared with the vehicle control group (pbone not only by inhibiting endocortical bone resorption but also by stimulating the periosteal bone formation in SAM/P6 mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  10. Ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole increase DNA adduct formation of furfuryl alcohol in FVB/N wild-type mice and in mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2.

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H


    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a carcinogenic food contaminant, which is formed by acid- and heat-catalyzed degradation of fructose and glucose. The activation by sulfotransferases (SULTs) yields a DNA reactive and mutagenic sulfate ester. The most prominent DNA adduct, N(2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-MF-dG), was detected in FFA-treated mice and also in human tissue samples. The dominant pathway of FFA detoxification is the oxidation via alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The activity of these enzymes may be greatly altered in the presence of inhibitors or competitive substrates. Here, we investigated the impact of ethanol and the ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) on the DNA adduct formation by FFA in wild-type and in humanized mice that were transgenic for human SULT1A1/1A2 and deficient in the mouse (m) Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 genes (h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-)). The administration of FFA alone led to hepatic adduct levels of 4.5 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 33.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female wild-type mice, respectively, and of 19.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 95.4 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 1.6g ethanol/kg body weight increased N(2)-MF-dG levels by 2.3-fold in male and by 1.7-fold in female wild-type mice and by 2.5-fold in male and by 1.5-fold in female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 100mg 4MP/kg body weight had a similar effect on the adduct levels. These findings indicate that modulators of the oxidative metabolism, e.g. the drug 4MP or consumption of alcoholic beverages, may increase the genotoxic effects of FFA also in humans.

  11. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G


    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol.

  12. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with α-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 μM. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-κB activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  13. Alcohol oxidizing enzymes and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells.

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Falzon, Miriam; Ansari, G A S; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S


    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is a serious inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. Due to lack of a suitable animal model, the underlying mechanism of ACP is poorly understood. Chronic alcohol abuse inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas frequently damaged during chronic ethanol abuse. Earlier, we reported a concentration-dependent formation of FAEEs and cytotoxicity in ethanol-treated rat pancreatic tumor (AR42J) cells, which express high FAEE synthase activity as compared to ADH and cytochrome P450 2E1. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the role of various ethanol oxidizing enzymes in ethanol-induced pancreatic acinar cell injury. Confluent AR42J cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of ADH class I and II [4-methylpyrazole (MP)] or class I, II, and III [1,10-phenanthroline (PT)], cytochrome P450 2E1 (trans-1,2-dichloroethylene) or catalase (sodium azide) followed by incubation with 800 mg% ethanol at 37°C for 6 h. Ethanol metabolism, cell viability, cytotoxicity (apoptosis and necrosis), cell proliferation status, and formation of FAEEs in AR42J cells were measured. The cell viability and cell proliferation rate were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with 1,10-PT + ethanol followed by those with 4-MP + ethanol. In situ formation of FAEEs was twofold greater in cells incubated with 1,10-PT + ethanol and ∼1.5-fold in those treated with 4-MP + ethanol vs. respective controls. However, cells treated with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2E1 or catalase in combination of ethanol showed no significant changes either for FAEE formation, cell death or proliferation rate. Therefore, an impaired ADH class I-III catalyzed oxidation of ethanol appears to be a key contributing factor in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury via formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol.

  14. Alcohol oxidizing enzymes and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Falzon, Miriam; Ansari, G. A. S.


    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is a serious inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. Due to lack of a suitable animal model, the underlying mechanism of ACP is poorly understood. Chronic alcohol abuse inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas frequently damaged during chronic ethanol abuse. Earlier, we reported a concentration-dependent formation of FAEEs and cytotoxicity in ethanol-treated rat pancreatic tumor (AR42J) cells, which express high FAEE synthase activity as compared to ADH and cytochrome P450 2E1. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the role of various ethanol oxidizing enzymes in ethanol-induced pancreatic acinar cell injury. Confluent AR42J cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of ADH class I and II [4-methylpyrazole (MP)] or class I, II, and III [1,10-phenanthroline (PT)], cytochrome P450 2E1 (trans-1,2-dichloroethylene) or catalase (sodium azide) followed by incubation with 800 mg% ethanol at 37°C for 6 h. Ethanol metabolism, cell viability, cytotoxicity (apoptosis and necrosis), cell proliferation status, and formation of FAEEs in AR42J cells were measured. The cell viability and cell proliferation rate were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with 1,10-PT + ethanol followed by those with 4-MP + ethanol. In situ formation of FAEEs was twofold greater in cells incubated with l,10-PT + ethanol and ~1.5-fold in those treated with 4-MP + ethanol vs. respective controls. However, cells treated with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2E1 or catalase in combination of ethanol showed no significant changes either for FAEE formation, cell death or proliferation rate. Therefore, an impaired ADH class I—III catalyzed oxidation of ethanol appears to be a key contributing factor in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury via formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24281792

  15. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber


    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  16. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael


    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017.

  17. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    Nalakath Abubackar, Haris; Veiga, María C.; Kennes, Christian


    The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE) were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L), EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L) and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L). When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L) and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L) and ethanol (352.6 mg/L). This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54. PMID:25608591

  18. Roles for the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-motivated behavior.

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J


    Alcohol use disorder represents a significant human health problem that leads to substantial loss of human life and financial cost to society. Currently available treatment options do not adequately address this human health problem, and thus, additional therapies are desperately needed. The endocannabinoid system has been shown, using animal models, to modulate ethanol-motivated behavior, and it has also been demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure can have potentially long-lasting effects on the endocannabinoid system. For example, chronic exposure to ethanol, in either cell culture or preclinical rodent models, causes an increase in endocannabinoid levels that results in down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and uncoupling of this receptor from downstream G protein signaling pathways. Using positron emission tomography (PET), similar down-regulation of CB1 has been noted in multiple regions of the brain in human alcoholic patients. In rodents, treatment with the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (Rimonabant), or genetic deletion of CB1 leads to a reduction in voluntary ethanol drinking, ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, operant self-administration of ethanol, sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol, and reinstatement/relapse of ethanol-motivated behavior. Although the clinical utility of Rimonabant or other antagonists/inverse agonists for CB1 is limited due to negative neuropsychiatric side effects, negative allosteric modulators of CB1 and inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism represent therapeutic targets worthy of additional examination.

  19. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe


    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation.

  20. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)


    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  1. Hybrid use of combined and sequential delivery of growth factors and ultrasound stimulation in porous multilayer composite scaffolds to promote both vascularization and bone formation in bone tissue engineering.

    Yan, Haoran; Liu, Xia; Zhu, Minghua; Luo, Guilin; Sun, Tao; Peng, Qiang; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Taijun; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Keliang; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie; Wang, Jianxin


    In this study, a multilayer coating technology would be adopted to prepare a porous composite scaffold and the growth factor release and ultrasound techniques were introduced into bone tissue engineering to finally solve the problems of vascularization and bone formation in the scaffold whilst the designed multilayer composite with gradient degradation characteristics in the space was used to match the new bone growth process better. The results of animal experiments showed that the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) combined with growth factors demonstrated excellent capabilities and advantages in both vascularization and new bone formation in bone tissue engineering. The degradation of the used scaffold materials could match new bone formation very well. The results also showed that only RGD-promoted cell adhesion was insufficient to satisfy the needs of new bone formation while growth factors and LIPUS stimulation were the key factors in new bone formation.

  2. Engineering Escherichia coli for improved ethanol production from gluconate.

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Schlacta, Theresa; Warmack, Rebeccah; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang


    We report on engineering Escherichia coli to produce ethanol at high yield from gluconic acid (gluconate). Knocking out genes encoding for the competing pathways (l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase A) in E. coli KO11 eliminated lactate production, lowered the carbon flow toward acetate production, and improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 97.5% of the theoretical maximum, while the growth rate of the mutant strain was about 70% of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modifications led to a small improvement of ethanol yield from 101.5% to 106.0% on glucose. Deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene (pdh) alone improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 90.4% when gluconate was a substrate. The growth rate of the mutant strain was identical to that of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modification led to no improvements on ethanol yield on glucose.

  3. Transforming growth factor-alpha abrogates glucocorticoid-stimulated tight junction formation and growth suppression in rat mammary epithelial tumor cells.

    Buse, P; Woo, P L; Alexander, D B; Cha, H H; Reza, A; Sirota, N D; Firestone, G L


    The glucocorticoid and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) regulation of growth and cell-cell contact was investigated in the Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cell line derived from a 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma. In Con8 cell monolayers cultured on permeable filter supports, the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, coordinately suppressed [3H]thymidine incorporation, stimulated monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and decreased the paracellular leakage of [3H]inulin or [14C]mannitol across the monolayer. These processes dose dependently correlated with glucocorticoid receptor occupancy and function. Constitutive production of TGF-alpha in transfected cells or exogenous treatment with TGF-alpha prevented the glucocorticoid growth suppression response and disrupted tight junction formation without affecting glucocorticoid responsiveness. Treatment with hydroxyurea or araC demonstrated that de novo DNA synthesis is not a requirement for the growth factor disruption of tight junctions. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the ZO-1 tight junction protein is localized exclusively at the cell periphery in dexamethasone-treated cells and that TGF-alpha caused-ZO-1 to relocalize from the cell periphery back to a cytoplasmic compartment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucocorticoids can coordinately regulate growth inhibition and cell-cell contact of mammary tumor cells and that TGF-alpha, can override both effects of glucocorticoids. These results have uncovered a novel functional "cross-talk" between glucocorticoids and TGF-alpha which potentially regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells.

  4. A blue-violet laser irradiation stimulates bone nodule formation of mesenchymal stromal cells by the control of the circadian clock protein

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio


    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which are present in adult bone marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and muscle. Their rapid and selective differentiation should provide the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue. However, several fundamental questions must be answered before it will be feasible to usefully predict and control MSCs responses to exogenous cytokines or genes. In particular, a better understanding of how specific factor may alter the fate of differentiation of MSCs is needed. In recent reports, circadian clock protein controls osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that a stimulation of a blue-violet laser irradiation regulates the differentiation of mouse MSCs to osteoblasts by change of the localization of a circadian rhythm protein, mouse Cryptochrome 1 (mCRY1). We found that a blue laser irradiation accelerated osteogenesis of MSCs. After laser irradiation, mCRY1 protein was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and mCRY1 mRNA level was downregulated thereafter. These results indicate that mCRY1, a blue-violet-light receptor and a master regulator of circadian rhythm, plays important roles in the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs. Since the differentiation of MSCs was easily regulated only by a laser irradiation, the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue is anticipated. Furthermore, our results obtained in this study may prove an excellent opportunity to gain insights into cross-talk between circadian rhythms and bone formation.

  5. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism in humans-from biomarkers to bioactive lipids.

    Heier, Christoph; Xie, Hao; Zimmermann, Robert


    Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings. Of note, the nonoxidative reaction of ethanol with phospholipids and fatty acids yields bioactive compounds that affect cellular signaling pathways and organelle function and may contribute to ethanol toxicity. Thus, despite low quantitative contributions of nonoxidative pathways to overall ethanol metabolism the resultant ethanol metabolites have important biological implications. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the enzymatic formation of nonoxidative ethanol metabolites in humans and discuss the implications of nonoxidative ethanol metabolites as biomarkers of ethanol intake and mediators of ethanol toxicity. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(12):916-923, 2016.

  6. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Rosemary Wood


    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  7. Effects of a single high dose of Chlorpyrifos in long-term feeding, ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in male Wistar rats with a previous history of continued ethanol drinking.

    Carvajal, Francisca; Sanchez-Amate, Maria Del Carmen; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate compound that is slowly delivered in the organism after subcutaneous injection, keeping acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity mildly inhibited for weeks. We have previously reported reduced voluntary ethanol drinking 8 weeks post-CPF administration in Wistar rats when AChE activity was almost completely recovered. Additionally, the OPs disrupt the functioning of certain neurochemical systems and modify the formation and/or degradation of some neuropeptides with a known role in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol. Moreover, chronic ethanol intake significantly alters the regional expression of some of these neurochemical systems. Thus, the present study explored whether a previous history with ethanol consumption modify the disturbance in the voluntary ethanol consumption induced by CPF administration. For this aim, we measured ethanol consumption in increasing concentrations (8%, 15% and 20% w/v) from 4 days to 8 weeks following a single dose of CPF. Two experiments were carried out; experiment 1 was conducted in ethanol-naïve rats and experiment 2, in animals with a previous history of ethanol drinking before CPF administration. Additionally, food and body weight measures were collected. We report here a significant increase in ethanol consumption and preference at high ethanol concentrations (15% and 20%) in CPF-treated animals with a previous history of ethanol consumption (experiment 1) and a long-lasting increase in food intake both in ethanol-exposed (experiment 1) and ethanol-naïve CPF-treated rats (experiment 2). Present data are discussed under the interesting idea that CPF targets neurobiological pathways critically involved with ethanol consumption. Additionally, we conclude that CPF effects on voluntary ethanol consumption are ethanol-experience dependent.

  8. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M


    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  9. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation.

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J J


    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  10. Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Walker, Jessica; Somoza, Veronika


    Wine may cause stomach irritation due to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion, although the mechanisms by which wine or components thereof activate pathways of gastric acid secretion are poorly understood. Gastric pH was measured with a noninvasive intragastric probe, demonstrating that administration of 125 mL of white or red wine to healthy volunteers stimulated gastric acid secretion more potently than the administration of equivalent amounts of ethanol. Between both beverages, red wine showed a clear trend for being more active in stimulating gastric acid secretion than white wine (p = 0.054). Quantification of the intracellular proton concentration in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1), a well-established indicator of proton secretion and, in turn, stomach acid formation in vivo, confirmed the stronger effect of red wine as compared to white wine. RT-qPCR experiments on cells exposed to red wine also revealed a more pronounced effect than white wine on the fold change expression of genes associated with gastric acid secretion. Of the quantitatively abundant organic acids in wine, malic acid and succinic acid most actively stimulated proton secretion in vitro. However, addition of ethanol to individual organic acids attenuated the secretory effect of tartaric acid, but not that of the other organic acids. It was concluded that malic acid for white wine and succinic acid for red wine are key organic acids that contribute to gastric acid stimulation.

  11. Changes in gastrointestinal DNA synthesis produced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption in the rat: a biochemical study.

    Seitz, H K; Czygan, P; Kienapfel, H; Veith, S; Schmidt-Gayk, H; Kommerell, B


    The effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on DNA synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat was investigated. Acute intragastric ethanol administration (3 g/kg; 50%) decreased significantly in vivo DNA synthesis when measured 1 hour after alcohol application in the stomach and in the upper small intestine, whereas acute intravenous ethanol administration had no significant effect. In contrast, chronic ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of in vivo and in vitro DNA synthesis in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In addition, even a more enhanced stimulation of DNA synthesis after chronic ethanol consumption was found in isolated intestinal cells. These results indicate an inhibition of gastrointestinal cell regeneration directly after the oral application of ethanol. The enhanced cellular regenerativity observed after chronic ethanol consumption may be secondary to the ethanol induced damage of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Prevention of Action of Far-Red-Absorbing Phytochrome in Rumex crispus L. Seeds by Ethanol.

    Taylorson, R B


    Phytochrome-enhanced germination of curled dock (Rumex crispus L.) seeds is further stimulated by pretreatments in solutions of 0.5 to 2 molar methanol and 0.03 to >/= 0.3 molar 2-propanol during a 2-day 20 degrees C imbibition. Similar pretreatments in 0.1 molar ethanol, acetaldehyde, and n-propanol inhibit phytochrome-enhanced germination. If exposure to ethanol is delayed until 16 hours after a red irradiation, seeds escape the ethanol inhibition indicating a mechanism other than toxicity. The rate of escape from ethanol inhibition roughly parallels the escape from phytochrome control in seeds held in water only, indicating possible ethanol effects on phytochrome. It was found that ethanol pretreatment prevents the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) from acting but does not accelerate dark decay or prevent transformation. Ethanol inhibition may be prevented if ethanol pretreatment is at 10 degrees C instead of 20 degrees C, or may be overcome by transferring ethanol-pretreated seeds to 10 degrees C in water. Similarly, ethanol inhibition can be overcome by a 2-hour 40 degrees C temperature shift concluding the pretreatment. It is proposed that the ethanol causes perturbations at a membrane which prevent Pfr from acting.

  13. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group


    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  14. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed


    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  15. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D


    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  16. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.


    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor on ethanol-mediated motivational effects in infant and adolescent rats.

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Pautassi, Ricardo M


    Activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptors attenuates ethanol drinking and prevents relapse in adult rodents. In younger rodents (i.e., infant rats), activation of NOP receptors blocks ethanol-induced locomotor activation but does not attenuate ethanol intake. The aim of the present study was to extend the analysis of NOP modulation of ethanol's effects during early ontogeny. Aversive and anxiolytic effects of ethanol were measured in infant and adolescent rats via conditioned taste aversion and the light-dark box test; whereas ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake was measured in adolescents only. Before these tests, infant rats were treated with the natural ligand of NOP receptors, nociceptin (0.0, 0.5 or 1.0 μg) and adolescent rats were treated with the specific agonist Ro 64-6198 (0.0, 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg). The activation of NOP receptors attenuated ethanol-induced anxiolysis in adolescents only, and had no effect on ethanol's aversive effects. Administration of Ro 64-6198 blocked ethanol-induced locomotor activation but did not modify ethanol intake patterns. The attenuation of ethanol stimulating and anxiolytic effect by activation of NOP receptors indicates a modulatory role of this receptor on ethanol effects, which is expressed early in ontogeny.

  18. Time- and dose-dependent effects of ethanol on mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Worley, Sarah L; Vaughn, Brittney J; Terry, Alexander I; Gardiner, Catherine S; DeKrey, Gregory K


    Ethanol is a common solvent used with mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells in protocols to test chemicals for evidence of developmental toxicity. In this study, dose-response relationships for ethanol toxicity in mES cells were examined. For cells maintained in an undifferentiated state, ethanol significantly reduced viable cell numbers with estimated half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 1.5% and 0.8% ethanol after 24 and 48h, respectively, observations which correlated with significantly increased expression of apoptotic markers. For cells cultured to induce cardiomyocyte formation, up to 0.5% ethanol during the first two days failed to alter the outcome of differentiation, whereas 0.3% ethanol for 11 days significantly reduced the fraction of cultures containing contracting areas, an observation that correlated with significantly reduced cell numbers. These results suggest that ethanol is not an inert solvent at concentrations that might be used for developmental toxicity testing.

  19. Study of complex properties of binary system of ethanol-methanol at extreme concentrations

    Nilavarasi, K; Madhurima, V


    At low concentrations of methanol in ethanol-methanol binary system, the molecular interactions are seen to be uniquely complex. It is observed that the ethanol aggregates are not strictly hydrogen-bonded complexes; dispersion forces also play a dominant role in the self- association of ethanol molecules. On the addition of small amount of methanol to ethanol, the dipolar association of ethanol is destroyed. The repulsive forces between the two moieties dominate the behavior of the binary system at lower concentration of methanol. At higher concentration of methanol (> 30%), the strength and extent (number) of formation of hydrogen bonds between ethanol and methanol increases. The geometry of molecular structure at high concentration favors the fitting of component molecules with each other. Intermolecular interactions in the ethanol-methanol binary system over the entire concentration range were investigated in detail using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, surface tension and refractive index studies...

  20. Ethanol Sensitization during Adolescence or Adulthood Induces Different Patterns of Ethanol Consumption without Affecting Ethanol Metabolism

    Carrara-Nascimento, Priscila F.; Hoffmann, Lucas B.; Contó, Marcos B.; Marcourakis, Tania; Camarini, Rosana


    In previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol preexposure may increase ethanol consumption in both adolescent and adult mice, in a two-bottle choice model. We now questioned if ethanol exposure during adolescence results in changes of consumption pattern using a three-bottle choice procedure, considering drinking-in-the-dark and alcohol deprivation effect as strategies for ethanol consumption escalation. We also analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as a measurement of ethanol metabolism. Adolescent and adult Swiss mice were treated with saline (SAL) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) during 15 days (groups: Adolescent-SAL, Adolescent-EtOH, Adult-SAL and Adult-EtOH). Five days after the last injection, mice were exposed to the three-bottle choice protocol using sucrose fading procedure (4% + sucrose vs. 8%–15% ethanol + sucrose vs. water + sucrose) for 2 h during the dark phase. Sucrose was faded out from 8% to 0%. The protocol was composed of a 6-week acquisition period, followed by four withdrawals and reexposures. Both adolescent and adult mice exhibited ethanol behavioral sensitization, although the magnitude of sensitization in adolescents was lower than in adults. Adolescent-EtOH displayed an escalation of 4% ethanol consumption during acquisition that was not observed in Adult-EtOH. Moreover, Adult-EtOH consumed less 4% ethanol throughout all the experiment and less 15% ethanol in the last reexposure period than Adolescent-EtOH. ALDH activity varied with age, in which older mice showed higher ALDH than younger ones. Ethanol pretreatment or the pattern of consumption did not have influence on ALDH activity. Our data suggest that ethanol pretreatment during adolescence but not adulthood may influence the pattern of ethanol consumption toward an escalation in ethanol consumption at low dose, without exerting an impact on ALDH activity.

  1. The ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Stanley, D; Bandara, A; Fraser, S; Chambers, P J; Stanley, G A


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production; however, its performance during fermentation is compromised by the impact of ethanol accumulation on cell vitality. This article reviews studies into the molecular basis of the ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae; such knowledge can facilitate the development of genetic engineering strategies for improving cell performance during ethanol stress. Previous studies have used a variety of strains and conditions, which is problematic, because the impact of ethanol stress on gene expression is influenced by the environment. There is however some commonality in Gene Ontology categories affected by ethanol assault that suggests that the ethanol stress response of S. cerevisiae is compromised by constraints on energy production, leading to increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis and mitochondrial function, and decreased gene expression in energy-demanding growth-related processes. Studies using genome-wide screens suggest that the maintenance of vacuole function is important for ethanol tolerance, possibly because of the roles of this organelle in protein turnover and maintaining ion homoeostasis. Accumulation of Asr1 and Rat8 in the nucleus specifically during ethanol stress suggests S. cerevisiae has a specific response to ethanol stress although this supposition remains controversial. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of soya fatty acids on cassava ethanol fermentation.

    Xiao, Dongguang; Wu, Shuai; Zhu, Xudong; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu


    Ethanol tolerance is a key trait of microbes in bioethanol production. Previous studies have shown that soya flour contributed to the increase of ethanol tolerance of yeast cells. In this paper, the mechanism of this ethanol tolerance improvement was investigated in cassava ethanol fermentation supplemented with soya flour or defatted soya flour, respectively. Experiment results showed that ethanol tolerance of cells from soya flour supplemented medium increased by 4-6% (v/v) than the control with defatted soya flour. Microscopic observation found that soya flour can retain the cell shape while dramatic elongations of cells were observed with the defatted soya flour supplemented medium. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) compositions of cell membrane were analyzed and the UFAs amounts increased significantly in all tested strains grown in soya flour supplemented medium. Growth study also showed that soya flour stimulated the cell growth rate by approximately tenfolds at 72-h fermentation. All these results suggested that soya fatty acids play an important role to protect yeast cells from ethanol stress during fermentation process.

  3. Is there a role for leukotrienes as mediators of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage

    Wallace, J.L.; Beck, P.L.; Morris, G.P. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))


    The role of leukotriene (LT) C{sub 4} as a mediator of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was investigated. Rats were pretreated with a number of compounds, including inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis and agents that have previously been shown to reduce ethanol-induced damage prior to oral administration of absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration resulted in a fourfold increase in LTC{sub 4} synthesis. LTC{sub 4} synthesis could be reduced significantly by pretreatment with L651,392 or dexamethosone without altering the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ethanol-induced damage. Furthermore, changes in LBT{sub 4} synthesis paralleled the changes in LTC{sub 4} synthesis observed after ethanol administration. The effects of ethanol on gastric eicosanoid synthesis were further examined using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation that allowed for application of ethanol to only one side of the stomach. These studies confirm that ethanol can stimulate gastric leukotriene synthesis independent of the production of hemorrhagic damage. Inhibition of LTC{sub 4} synthesis does not confer protection to the mucosa, suggesting that LTC{sub 4} does not play an important role in the etiology of ethanol-induced gastric damage.

  4. Bio-ethanol

    Wenzel, Henrik


    , that biomass substitutes gas in the heat & power sector and gas substitute oil in the transport sector. By taking this path, we overall achieve almost twice as high a CO2 reduction and save almost twice as much oil, as if we want to substitute the oil via car engines through conversion to ethanol. We must...... acknowledge that society will use natural gas and other fossil fuels for heat & power production for the next 40 years ahead. Throughout this period of time, therefore, we can save them more efficiently there, and we will only lose on CO2 and oil dependency, if we use our scarce biomass for ethanol. After...... this period of time, when we are facing a world without oil and gas, it is, moreover, very dubious if we can accept the very low efficiency of the combustion engine of say 25% energy efficiency and a conversion efficiency in ethanol fermentation of up to say 50% resulting in an overall energy conversion of 10...

  5. The influence of ethanol on hepatic transmethylation.

    Barak, A J; Beckenhauer, H C


    One of the most important biochemical pathways in the organism is the biosynthesis of methionine from the methylation of homocysteine. Two different reactions are responsible for this methylation, one utilizing N5-methyltetra-hydrofolate as a methylating agent and the other using betaine as the methyl donor. This paper reviews some recent findings in this laboratory, which demonstrate that ethanol-feeding to rats impairs the folate-induced reaction. Our findings also show that this impairment is compensated for through the adaptive increase in the enzyme using betaine in the biosynthesis of methionine. Further studies indicate that the mechanism of action in the impairment may occur through the formation of individual adducts between the folate-induced enzyme (methionine synthetase), its essential cofactors and acetaldehyde, a metabolic product of ethanol. These findings suggest a basis for why rats are more resistant to alcoholic liver injury than humans and may offer a means of protecting against alcoholic liver injury in man.

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Eliasson, Anna


    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  7. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Eliasson, Anna


    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  8. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    Yuelei Yang


    Full Text Available The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One unique characteristic of this system is that it utilizes the waste heat rejected from a power plant to vaporize the ethanol, thus it saves a significant amount of energy and at the same time reduces the pollution to the environment.

  9. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep


    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PBone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  10. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K


    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel.

  11. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)


    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  12. Metabolic engineering of ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Shou Yao


    yield beyond that obtained with glucose and xylose. The ldh gene coding for lactate dehydrogenase was deleted from strain BG1 to eliminate an NADH oxidation pathway (BG1L1). To further facilitate NADH regeneration used for ethanol formation, a heterologous gene gldA encoding an NAD+ dependent glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH) was expressed in T. mathranii with or without concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. With a functional lactate formation pathway, expression of GLDH in a recombinant T. mathranii strain (BG1G2) leads to a significantly decreased ethanol yield accompanied by an increased lactate formation, which was shown to be the preferred route for the regeneration of NAD+. However, with an inactivated lactate formation pathway, expression of GLDH in another recombinant T. mathranii strain (BG1G1) leads to an increased carbon flux channelled towards the production of ethanol over acetate, hence restoring the redox balance. Finally, it was shown that strain BG1G1 acquired the capability to utilize glycerol as an extra carbon source in the presence of xylose, and utilization of the more reuduced substrate glycerol resulted in a higher ethanol yield. (Author)

  13. Phase Memory Control in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Ensemble of Three-Level Systems and Stimulated Photon Echo FormationPlease check captured article title, if appropriate.-->

    Nefediev, L. A.; Garnaeva, G. I.; Nizamova, E. I.


    Phase memory in a three-level system that is associated with the correspondence of isochromates of inhomogeneously broadened lines excited by lasers at various resonant frequencies with a common energy level in different time intervals is studied. It is shown that external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields can control such phase memory and could be used to determine the optimum conditions for forming a stimulated photon echo in a threelevel system.

  14. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay


    Abstract: The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory ...

  15. Effects of the protein kinase C stimulant bryostatin 1 on the proliferation and colony formation of irradiated human T-lymphocytes

    Sung, S.J.; Lin, P.-S.; Schmidt-Ullrich, R.; Hall, C.E.; Walters, J.A.; McCrady, C.; Grant, S. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)


    The protein kinase C stimulant bryostatin 1 (Bryo) was used in examining human peripheral blood T-lymphocyte radiosensitivities in proliferation assays. Bryo was similar to PMA in inducing T-cell proliferation by the CD3, CD28 and CD69 pathways. No difference in radiosensitivities was observed in T-cells stimulated by the three independent surface antigen-mediated activation pathways. CD3 was chosen as the second signal for comparing the potencies of the three different first signals Bryo, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in stimulating T-cell proliferation and in maintaining this response after radiation. Though there were radioresponse differences among various individuals, the irradiated lymphocytes consistently showed significantly greater proliferation when treated with Bryo or PMA than with IL-2. These results support the important tole of protein kinase C in T-cell radiation responses, and suggest a potential role for Bryo in enhancing T-lymphocyte survival during radiation therapy. (author).


    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.


    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  17. Ethylphenidate as a selective dopaminergic agonist and methylphenidate-ethanol transesterification biomarker.

    Patrick, Kennerly S; Corbin, Timothy R; Murphy, Cristina E


    We review the pharmaceutical science of ethylphenidate (EPH) in the contexts of drug discovery, drug interactions, biomarker for dl-methylphenidate (MPH)-ethanol exposure, potentiation of dl-MPH abuse liability, contemporary "designer drug," pertinence to the newer transdermal and chiral switch MPH formulations, as well as problematic internal standard. d-EPH selectively targets the dopamine transporter, whereas d-MPH exhibits equipotent actions at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. This selectivity carries implications for the advancement of tailored attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in the era of genome-based diagnostics. Abuse of dl-MPH often involves ethanol coabuse. Carboxylesterase 1 enantioselectively transesterifies l-MPH with ethanol to yield l-EPH accompanied by significantly increased early exposure to d-MPH and rapid potentiation of euphoria. The pharmacokinetic component of this drug interaction can largely be avoided using dexmethylphenidate (dexMPH). This notwithstanding, maximal potentiated euphoria occurs following dexMPH-ethanol. C57BL/6 mice model dl-MPH-ethanol interactions: an otherwise depressive dose of ethanol synergistically increases dl-MPH stimulation; a substimulatory dose of dl-MPH potentiates a low, stimulatory dose of ethanol; ethanol elevates blood, brain, and urinary d-MPH concentrations while forming l-EPH. Integration of EPH preclinical neuropharmacology with clinical studies of MPH-ethanol interactions provides a translational approach toward advancement of ADHD personalized medicine and management of comorbid alcohol use disorder.

  18. Steam reforming of ethanol

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn


    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion...... 400 ppm of the carbon in the feed at approx. 600 °C. The different promoters did not influence the product distribution to any significant extent. Selective poisoning with small amounts of K2SO4 on Ni–CeO2/MgAl2O4 at 600 °C decreased carbon deposition from 900 to 200 ppm of the carbon in the feed...

  19. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    Haris Nalakath Abubackar


    Full Text Available The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05 on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L, EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L. When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L and ethanol (352.6 mg/L. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54.

  20. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    McMillan, J D


    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  1. Inhibition of thyrotropin-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate formation in rat thyroid cells by an adenosine analog. Evidence that the inhibition is mediated by the putative inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein.

    Berman, M I; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N


    Addition of N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (PIA) to cultured FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of TSH-stimulated cAMP formation. Half-maximal inhibition was attained with approximately 0.5 nM PIA. Forskolin and cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP production were also inhibited by PIA. 3-Isobutyl-methylxanthine inhibited the effect of PIA. These results are consistent with the presence of inhibitory adenosine receptors (Ri). Ri-sites were further demonstrated by the binding of 3H-cyclohexyl-adenosine to FRTL-5 plasma membranes. High (Kd = 0.50 +/- 0.07 nM) and low affinity (Kd = 5.95 +/- 2.33 nM) binding sites were observed. Pretreatment of FRTL-5 cells with pertussis, but not cholera, toxin effectively antagonized the inhibitory effects of PIA on cAMP production. ADP-ribosylation of FRTL-5 membranes with [32P]-NAD in the presence of cholera or pertussis toxin specifically labeled a 45,000 and 41,000 Mr species, respectively, which correspond to the alpha subunit of the stimulatory and inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins. These results demonstrate that PIA inhibits TSH-stimulated cAMP production via Ri-sites on FRTL-5 thyroid cells. PIA appears to exert its inhibitory effects through the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein.

  2. Actin-binding proteins implicated in the formation of the punctate actin foci stimulated by the self-incompatibility response in Papaver.

    Poulter, Natalie S; Staiger, Christopher J; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E


    The actin cytoskeleton is a key target for signaling networks and plays a central role in translating signals into cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism responsible for preventing self-fertilization. The SI system of Papaver rhoeas pollen involves a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling network, including massive actin depolymerization as one of the earliest cellular responses, followed by the formation of large actin foci. However, no analysis of these structures, which appear to be aggregates of filamentous (F-)actin based on phalloidin staining, has been carried out to date. Here, we characterize and quantify the formation of F-actin foci in incompatible Papaver pollen tubes over time. The F-actin foci increase in size over time, and we provide evidence that their formation requires actin polymerization. Once formed, these SI-induced structures are unusually stable, being resistant to treatments with latrunculin B. Furthermore, their formation is associated with changes in the intracellular localization of two actin-binding proteins, cyclase-associated protein and actin-depolymerizing factor. Two other regulators of actin dynamics, profilin and fimbrin, do not associate with the F-actin foci. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first insights into the actin-binding proteins and mechanisms involved in the formation of these intriguing structures, which appear to be actively formed during the SI response.

  3. Dehydration of ethanol by facile synthesized glucose-based silica.

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho


    Bioethanol is considered a potential liquid fuel that can be produced from biomass by fermentation and distillation. Although most of the water is removed by distillation, the purity of ethanol is limited to 95-96 % due to the formation of a low-boiling point, water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, many methods, such as dehydration, have been proposed to avoid distillation and improve the energy efficiency of extraction. Glucose-based silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a simple method, and was proposed for the adsorption of water from water-ethanol mixtures. After adsorption using 0.4 g of adsorbent for 3 h, the initial water concentration of 20 % (water, v/v) was decreased to 10 % (water, v/v). For water concentrations less than 5 % (water, v/v), the adsorbent could concentrate ethanol to 99 % (ethanol, v/v). The Langmuir isotherms used to describe the adsorption of water on an adsorbent showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The separation factor of the adsorbent also decreased with decreasing concentration of water in solution.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    Madronich, Sasha


    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  5. Physiology, Genomics, and Pathway Engineering of an Ethanol-Tolerant Strain of Clostridium phytofermentans.

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Zuroff, Trevor R; Ramya, Mohandass; Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Curtis, Wayne R


    Novel processing strategies for hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass in a single reactor offer large potential cost savings for production of biocommodities and biofuels. One critical challenge is retaining high enzyme production in the presence of elevated product titers. Toward this goal, the cellulolytic, ethanol-producing bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans was adapted to increased ethanol concentrations. The resulting ethanol-tolerant (ET) strain has nearly doubled ethanol tolerance relative to the wild-type level but also reduced ethanol yield and growth at low ethanol concentrations. The genome of the ET strain has coding changes in proteins involved in membrane biosynthesis, the Rnf complex, cation homeostasis, gene regulation, and ethanol production. In particular, purification of the mutant bifunctional acetaldehyde coenzyme A (CoA)/alcohol dehydrogenase showed that a G609D variant abolished its activities, including ethanol formation. Heterologous expression of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the ET strain increased cellulose consumption and restored ethanol production, demonstrating how metabolic engineering can be used to overcome disadvantageous mutations incurred during adaptation to ethanol. We discuss how genetic changes in the ET strain reveal novel potential strategies for improving microbial solvent tolerance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Effect of Ethanol on Germination and Enzyme Activities in Finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Seeds

    S.S. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Influence of ethanol the end product of alcoholic fermentation on the growth of finger millet (var. GPU-28, CO-9 seedlings of two finger millet was studied as a means of evaluating growth responses under anoxia. The germination was delayed by ethanol treatment in case of both the cultivars. Ethanol treatment affected the growth of both radicle and coleoptile of seedlings. In this respect the radicle growth is more sensitive to ethanol than the coleoptile in both varieties of finger millet. The activities of enzymes nitrate reductase, ATPase, acid phosphatase, amylase were reduced by alcohol treatment in germinating seeds of both the cultivars. However, lower concentration of alcohol (1% caused stimulation of peroxidase in var. CO-9. In case of var. GPU-28 showed stimulation of enzyme alkaline phosphatase in both concentration of alcohol.

  7. The Neurophysiological Effects of Guarana and Ethanol Intake on Daphnia magna

    Rebecca E. Kohn


    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of energy drinks and alcoholic beverages has become a prevalent habit, especially among younger generations. However, there is little scientific research surrounding the interaction of ethanol and the natural stimulant guarana, which is being utilized more frequently as the main caffeine source in energy drinks. This study utilized Daphnia magna (D. magna as a model organism to observe alterations in the functioning of the central nervous system when exposed to both ethanol and guarana in a series of time trials. As expected, ethanol significantly decreased the overall heart rate of the D. magna, while guarana increased it. In combination, the depressant effects of ethanol decreased the stimulating effects of guarana, as our results displayed a statistically significant reduction of heart rate. Therefore we propose that our findings indicated that the alcohol effects may be stronger than the effects of guarana.

  8. Effect of ethanol on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis by fetal platelets and umbilical artery

    Ylikorkala, O.; Halmesmaeki, E.; Viinikka, L.


    The effect of ethanol (10-500 mmol/1) on platelet thromboxane production and on vascular thromboxane and prostacyclin was studied in human fetal tissues. The release of thromboxane B/sub 2/ (a metabolite of thromboxane A/sub 2/) during thrombin-induced spontaneous aggregation of fetal platelets was inhibited by ethanol concentrations of 50 mmol/1 or higher. Ethanol at concentration from 100 mmol/1 also inhibited umbilical artery production of thromboxane B/sub 2/ and that of 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1a/ (a metabolite of prostacyclin). However, it stimulated the conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to thromboxane B/sub 2/ in fetal platelets and to 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1a/ in the umbilical artery. This suggests that ethanol inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/, but stimulates the enzymes distal from phospholipase A/sub 2/ in the prostaglandin-synthesizing enzyme cascade. 23 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in perinatal hamster ovary: possible involvement in primordial follicle formation and regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone.

    Wang, Cheng; Roy, Shyamal K


    We examined the expression and hormonal regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1) and N-cadherin (CDH2) with respect to primordial follicle formation. Hamster Cdh1 and Cdh2 cDNA and amino acid sequences were more than 90% similar to those of the mouse, rat, and human. Although CDH1 expression remained exclusively in the oocytes during neonatal ovary development, CDH2 expression shifted from the oocytes to granulosa cells of primordial follicles on postnatal day (P)8. Subsequently, strong CDH2 expression was restricted to granulosa cells of growing follicles. Cdh2 mRNA levels in the ovary decreased from embryonic d 13 through P10 with a transient increase on P7, which was the day before the appearance of primordial follicles. Cdh1 mRNA levels decreased from embryonic d 13 through P3 and then showed a transient increase on P8, coinciding with the formation of primordial follicles. CDH1 and CDH2 expression were consistent with that of mRNA. Neutralization of FSH in utero impaired primordial follicle formation with an associated decrease in Cdh2 mRNA and CDH2, but an increase in Cdh1 mRNA and CDH1 expression. The altered expression was reversed by equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment on P1. Whereas a CDH2 antibody significantly reduced the formation of primordial and primary follicles in vitro, a CDH1 antibody had the opposite effect. This is the first evidence to suggest that primordial follicle formation requires a differential spatiotemporal expression and action of CDH1 and CDH2. Further, FSH regulation of primordial follicle formation may involve the action of CDH1 and CDH2.

  10. Automated production GMAX-L strains of Saccharomyces cereviciae for profitable sustainable cellulosic ethanol production combined with valuable coproduct isolation in mixed biorefinery settings

    Second generation cellulosic ethanol production is beginning in a variety of formats and using various ethanologenic microbes. The best possibility would be to produce cellulosic ethanol using a Saccharomyces cereviciae that has been engineered to produce ethanol from pentose as well as hexose suga...

  11. Alcohol stimulates Na sup + /Ca sup 2+ exchange in brain mitochondria

    Rottenberg, H.; Marbach, M. (Hahnemann Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))


    Ethanol, at low concentrations, specifically stimulates the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux in brain mitochondria. In addition, at higher concentrations, ethanol inhibits the Na{sup +}-independent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux. The electrogenic Ca{sup 2+}-uptake system is not affected by ethanol. The specific stimulation of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange reaches a maximum of 60% stimulation, with half-maximal stimulation at 130 mM ethanol. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is proportional to the ethanol concentration, becoming significant only above 200 mM, with 50% inhibition at 0.5 M. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is, in large part, due to an inhibition of the activation of the Cyclosporin-sensitive pore. Long-term ethanol-feeding had no effect on the Ca{sup 2+} transport systems and their sensitivity to acute ethanol treatment. It is suggested that the stimulation of the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux, which is the dominant Ca{sup 2+} efflux pathway in brain mitochondria, contributes to the intoxicating effects of ethanol.

  12. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M


    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  13. Decomposition and aromatization of ethanol on ZSM-based catalysts.

    Barthos, R; Széchenyi, A; Solymosi, F


    The adsorption, desorption, and reactions of ethanol have been investigated on pure and promoted ZSM-5 catalysts. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the formation of a strongly bonded ethoxy species on ZSM-5(80) at 300 K. TPD experiments following the adsorption of ethanol on both ZSM-5 and Mo2C/ZSM-5 have shown desorption profiles corresponding to unreacted ethanol and decomposition products (H2O, H2, CH3CHO, C4H10O, and C2H4). The main reaction pathway of ethanol on pure ZSM-5 is the dehydration reaction yielding ethylene, small amounts of hydrocarbons, and aromatics. Deposition of different additives, such as Mo2C, ZnO, and Ga2O3 on zeolite, greatly promoted the formation of benzene and toluene at 773-973 K, very likely by catalyzing the aromatization of ethylene formed in the dehydration process of ethanol. Separate studies of the reaction of ethylene revealed that the previous additives markedly enhanced the selectivity and the yield of aromatics on ZSM-5.

  14. Ethanol-induced hepatic autophagy: Friend or foe?


    Excessive alcohol intake may induce hepatic apoptosis,steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and even cancer. Ethanolinducedactivation of general or selective autophagyas mitophagy or lipophagy in hepatocytes is generallyconsidered a prosurvival mechanism. On the otherside of the coin, upregulation of autophagy in nonhepatocytesas stellate cells may stimulate fibrogenesisand subsequently induce detrimental effects on the liver.The autophagic response of other non-hepatocytes asmacrophages and endothelial cells is unknown yet andneeds to be investigated as these cells play importantroles in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and damage.Selective pharmacological stimulation of autophagyin hepatocytes may be of therapeutic importance inalcoholic liver disease.

  15. The role of L-type calcium channels in the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol.

    Broadbent, Julie


    Behavioral sensitization is thought to play a significant role in drug addiction. L-type calcium channels have been implicated in sensitization to stimulant and opiate drugs but it is unclear if these channels also contribute to sensitization to ethanol. The effects of three L-type calcium channel blockers, nifedipine (1-7.5 mg/kg), diltiazem (12.5-50 mg/kg), and verapamil (12.5 and 25 mg/kg), on sensitization to ethanol (2 g/kg) were examined in DBA/2J mice. All three blockers reduced but did not prevent expression of sensitization. Only nifedipine blocked acquisition of sensitization. Nifedipine and verapamil decreased blood ethanol levels. The current findings suggest L-type calcium channels do not play a substantial role in sensitization to ethanol and that the neural mechanisms underlying sensitization to ethanol are distinct from those mediating sensitization to stimulants and opiates.

  16. Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria.

    Lee, Jongsung; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Hwang, Young Sun


    The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

  17. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    Kathrin Barbe


    Full Text Available Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol.

  18. Biphasic effects of ethanol and sodium oleate on synaptic transport of aspartic acid

    Foley, T.; Rhoads, D.E.


    The authors have examined the effects of ethanol and sodium oleate on the transport of aspartic acid (ASP) by nerve-ending preparations from rat cerebral cortex. Physiologically relevant ethanol concentrations of up to 100mM stimulated ASP uptake while concentrations greater than 200mM caused inhibition. A similar biphasic effect was observed with oleate stimulating ASP uptake at 0.1 to and inhibiting ASP uptake at concentrations greater than Maximum stimulation was observed at oleate and at 50mM ethanol. In contrast, when synaptosomes were prepared from rats that had been exposed for 2-3 weeks to 10% ethanol in their drinking water, higher concentrations of ethanol and oleate were required to obtain comparable stimulation of ASP uptake. These biphasic effects on ASP transport can be interpreted in terms of physicochemical alterations in the synaptic membranes, with from alcohol-exposed rats showing tolerance to these fluidizing effects.

  19. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  20. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.


    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  1. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry


    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  2. Ethanol production from waste materials

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal


    Full Text Available Experiment was designed for ethanol production using corn andother organic waste material containing starch contents andcellulosic material while barely used for diastase and acidicdigestion methods. The effect of temperature, yeast, barely diastaseand various dilutions of acid (sulfuric acids were investigated onethanol production. The result showed that corn yielded highamount of ethanol (445ml as compared to cellulosic material whichproduced 132ml of ethanol from one kg of weight. It was also notedthat with the increase of barely and yeast amount in a proper mannercan increase ethanol production from different starch sources. It wasalso noted that acid dilutions affected cellulose digestion where highyield of reducing sugar was noted at 0.75% of sulfuric acid dilution.It was concluded from the present experiment that economicalsources of starch and various dilutions of acids should be tried oncellulose digestion for bio-fuel production to withstand in thisenergy crisis time.

  3. VEGF-A/NRP1 stimulates GIPC1 and Syx complex formation to promote RhoA activation and proliferation in skin cancer cells

    Ayumi Yoshida


    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (NRP1 has been identified as a VEGF-A receptor. DJM-1, a human skin cancer cell line, expresses endogenous VEGF-A and NRP1. In the present study, the RNA interference of VEGF-A or NRP1 suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overexpression of the NRP1 wild type restored shNRP1-treated DJM-1 cell proliferation, whereas NRP1 cytoplasmic deletion mutants did not. A co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that VEGF-A induced interactions between NRP1 and GIPC1, a scaffold protein, and complex formation between GIPC1 and Syx, a RhoGEF. The knockdown of GIPC1 or Syx reduced active RhoA and DJM-1 cell proliferation without affecting the MAPK or Akt pathway. C3 exoenzyme or Y27632 inhibited the VEGF-A-induced proliferation of DJM-1 cells. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active form of RhoA restored the proliferation of siVEGF-A-treated DJM-1 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of VEGF-A/NRP1 signaling upregulated p27, a CDK inhibitor. A cell-penetrating oligopeptide that targeted GIPC1/Syx complex formation inhibited the VEGF-A-induced activation of RhoA and suppressed DJM-1 cell proliferation. In conclusion, this new signaling pathway of VEGF-A/NRP1 induced cancer cell proliferation by forming a GIPC1/Syx complex that activated RhoA to degrade the p27 protein.

  4. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  5. Microstructural Phase Changes of DPPC-Ergosterol Supported Membranes Stressed by Ethanol

    Vanegas, Juan; Block, David; Faller, Roland; Longo, Marjorie


    Microstructure of DPPC-Ergosterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) stressed by ethanol is examined at the nanoscopic level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alcohols such as ethanol are known to cause changes in the phase behavior of phospholipids as well as inducing the formation of an interdigitated phase of reduced thickness, where the hydrophobic tails of the top and bottom lipids intercalate causing an increase in the area per lipid as well as the solvent exposed surface of the headgroups. SLBs composed of 75-100 mole % 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC) and 0-25 mole % ergosterol were deposited on mica through the vesicle deposition method. In order to observe the ethanol-induced phase changes that can be observed in free bilayers, the vesicles must be prepared in buffer solution containing ethanol. The presence of salt is required to reduce the effect of the strong interaction between the bilayers and the support, which in the absence of ethanol and salt induces the formation of a tilted phase similar to the interdigitated phase in DPPC bilayers deposited above the melting temperature. As previously observer by other groups, ethanol-induced changes in SLBs often require heating above the transition temperature after addition of ethanol, or sample preparation in the presence of the alcohol. The later method was used as it produces more consistent results and the observations agree well with the previously reported phase diagram of DPPC-Ergosterol with ethanol.

  6. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production


    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  7. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a

  8. Growth Stimulants

    Matthews, Nyle J.


    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  9. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo


    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile.

  10. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco


    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  11. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.


    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transduction into human lung cancer cells differentially regulates metastasis formations in various organ microenvironments of natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    Yano, S; Nishioka, Y; Nokihara, H; Sone, S


    We investigated whether local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), responsible for migration and activation of monocytes/macrophages at a tumor growth site, affected the metastatic pattern of lung cancer. For this, highly metastatic human squamous (RERF-LC-AI) or small (H69/VP) cell lung carcinoma cells were transduced with the human M-CSF gene inserted into pRc/CMV-MCSF to establish M-CSF-producing clones (MCSF-AI-9-18, MCSF-AI-9-24, and MCSF-VP-5). M-CSF gene transduction had no effect on the expression of surface antigen or on in vitro proliferation. After s.c. injection into SCID mice, the growth rates of M-CSF-producing cells were slower than those of parent or mock-transduced cells. In the metastatic model in SCID mice depleted of natural killer cells, RERF-LC-AI cells formed metastases mainly in the liver and kidneys, whereas H69/VP cells metastasized mainly to the liver and systemic lymph nodes. The numbers of metastatic colonies of MCSF-AI-9-18 and MCSF-AI-9-24 cells in the liver but not the kidneys were significantly reduced. The development of lymph node metastases of MCSF-VP-5 cells was also less than that of parent or mock-transduced cells. Treatment of SCID mice with anti-human M-CSF antibody resulted in a significant increase in liver metastases of their M-CSF gene transfectants. No significant differences were observed in the distributions in mice or in the in vitro invasive potentials of MCSF-AI-9-18 cells and Neo-AI-3 cells. These findings indicate that the antimetastatic effect of M-CSF may be specific to particular organs, suggesting the influence of heterogeneity of organ microenvironments on the metastasis of lung cancer.

  13. Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol biodegradation in porous media

    Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan


    Numerous adverse effects are associated with the accidental release of ethanol (EtOH) and its persistence in the subsurface. Geophysical techniques may permit non-invasive, real time monitoring of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon. We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements in conjunction with geochemical data analysis on three microbial-stimulated and two control columns to investigate changes in electrical properties during EtOH biodegradation processes in porous media. A Debye Decomposition approach was applied to determine the chargeability (m), normalized chargeability (mn) and time constant (τ) of the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scale as a function of time. The CR responses showed a clear distinction between the bioaugmented and control columns in terms of real (σ‧) and imaginary (σ″) conductivity, phase (ϕ) and apparent formation factor (Fapp). Unlike the control columns, a substantial decrease in σ‧ and increase in Fapp occurred at an early time (within 4 days) of the experiment for all three bioaugmented columns. The observed decrease in σ‧ is opposite to previous studies on hydrocarbon biodegradation. These columns also exhibited increases in ϕ (up to ~ 9 mrad) and σ″ (up to two order of magnitude higher) 5 weeks after microbial inoculation. Variations in m and mn were consistent with temporal changes in ϕ and σ″ responses, respectively. Temporal geochemical changes and high resolution scanning electron microscopy imaging corroborated the CR findings, thus indicating the sensitivity of CR measurements to EtOH biodegradation processes. Our results offer insight into the potential application of CR measurements for long-term monitoring of biogeochemical and mineralogical changes during intrinsic and induced EtOH biodegradation in the subsurface.

  14. Interleukin-32 Gamma Stimulates Bone Formation by Increasing miR-29a in Osteoblastic Cells and Prevents the Development of Osteoporosis

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Kim, Sang-Min; Choi, Bongkun; Kim, Eun-Young; Chung, Yeon-Ho; Lee, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Bin; Lee, Chang-Keun; Hong, Seokchan; Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Gil; Chang, Eun-Ju


    Interleukin-32 gamma (IL-32γ) is a recently discovered cytokine that is elevated in inflamed tissues and contributes to pathogenic features of bone in human inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the role of IL-32γ and its direct involvement in bone metabolism is unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of IL-32γ in bone remodeling and the hypothetical correlation between IL-32γ and disease activity in osteoporosis patients. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human IL-32γ showed reduced bone loss with advancing age, increased bone formation, and high osteogenic capacity of osteoblast compared to wild-type (WT) mice through the upregulation of miR-29a, which caused a reduction of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) expression. IL-32γ TG mice were protected against ovariectomy (OVX)induced osteoporosis compared with WT mice. Decreased plasma IL-32γ levels were associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in human patients linked to increased DKK1 levels. These results indicate that IL-32γ plays a protective role for bone loss, providing clinical evidence of a negative correlation between IL-32γ and DKK1 as bone metabolic markers. PMID:28079119

  15. Mechanism of action of ethanol on heart contractility

    Oquendo-Muriente, I.; De Mello, W.C.


    Ethanol depresses heart contractility. To investigate the mechanism of the negative inotropic action of ethanol, rat ventricular strips were dissected and mounted vertically in a transparent chamber. The preparation was superfused initially with normal oxygenated Tyrode solution (32.5/sup 0/C) and electrically stimulated (1 Hz). After 1 hour of equilibration, contractures were elicited by exposing the muscle strips to high K/sup +/ (100 mM) solution. Studies on the influence of (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub 0/ on K/sup +/ contractures showed that the first rapid component of the contracture (58 mg/sec - S.E. +/- 8; n = 8) was greatly dependent upon (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub 0/ while the second slow component (20 mg/sec - S.E. +/- 5; n = 8) was slightly altered. The addition of ethanol (400 mg/100 ml) to high K solution abolished the fast component and reduced the amplitude of the second phase of K contractures. Similar results were obtained with verapamil (10/sup -5/ M). These results, as well as studies on the effect of the drug on /sup 45/Ca fluxes support the view that ethanol decreases the permeability of the heart cell membrane to Ca.

  16. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J


    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  17. Ethanol induces heterotopias in organotypic cultures of rat cerebral cortex.

    Mooney, Sandra M; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Miller, Michael W


    Abnormalities in the migration of cortical neurons to ectopic sites can be caused by prenatal exposure to ethanol. In extreme cases, cells migrate past the pial surface and form suprapial heterotopias or 'warts'. We used organotypic slice cultures from 17-day-old rat fetuses to examine structural and molecular changes that accompany wart formation. Cultures were exposed to ethanol (0, 200, 400 or 800 mg/dl) and maintained for 2-32 h. Fixed slices were sectioned and immunolabeled with antibodies directed against calretinin, reelin, nestin, GFAP, doublecortin, MAP-2 and NeuN. Ethanol promoted the widespread infiltration of the marginal zone (MZ) with neurons and the focal formation of warts. The appearance of warts is time- and concentration-dependent. Heterotopias comprised migrating neurons and were not detected in control slices. Warts were associated with breaches in the array of Cajal-Retzius cells and with translocation of reelin-immunoexpression from the MZ to the outer limit of the wart. Ethanol also altered the morphology of the radial glia. Thus, damage to the integrity of superficial cortex allows neurons to infiltrate the MZ, and if the pial-subpial glial barrier is also compromised these ectopic neurons can move beyond the normal cerebral limit to form a wart.

  18. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  19. Effect of acetic acid in recycling water on ethanol production for cassava in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhonggui


    Recently, the integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process has been studied to prevent wastewater pollution. However, when the anaerobic digestion reaction runs poorly, acetic acid will accumulate in the recycling water. In this paper, we studied the effect of low concentration of acetic acid (≤25 mM) on ethanol fermentation at different initial pH values (4.2, 5.2 or 6.2). At an initial pH of 4.2, ethanol yields increased by 3.0% and glycerol yields decreased by 33.6% as the acetic acid concentration was increased from 0 to 25 mM. Raising the concentration of acetic acid to 25 mM increased the buffering capacity of the medium without obvious effects on biomass production in the cassava medium. Acetic acid was metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the reason that the final concentration of acetic acid was 38.17% lower than initial concentration at pH 5.2 when 25 mM acetic acid was added. These results confirmed that a low concentration of acetic acid in the process stimulated ethanol fermentation. Thus, reducing the acetic acid concentration to a controlled low level is more advantageous than completely removing it.

  20. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bio-ethanol; Videreudvikling af kemiske og biologiske processer til produktion af bio-ethanol

    Ahring, B.K.; Clausen, A.; Loeth, A.H.


    ethanol yield from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M4, a genetic plasmid based system was identified for introduction of new genes, coding for important enzymes in ethanol formation in A3M4. The plasmid is stable by A3M4`s optimal growth temperature 70 deg. C, does not influence growth rates and remain in the cell even after 50 generations without selection pressure. (EHS)

  1. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  2. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc.


    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  3. Quantitation and analysis of the formation of HO-endonuclease stimulated chromosomal translocations by single-strand annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Liddell, Lauren; Manthey, Glenn; Pannunzio, Nicholas; Bailis, Adam


    incision by HO-endonuclease. HO endonuclease recognition sites native to the MAT locus, on both copies of chromosome III, have been deleted in all strains. This prevents interaction between the recombination substrates and other broken chromosome ends from interfering in the assay. The KAN-MX-marked galactose-inducible HO endonuclease expression cassette is inserted at the TRP1 locus on chromosome IV. The substrates share 311 bp or 60 bp of the HIS3 coding sequence that can be used by the HR machinery for repair by SSA. Cells that use these substrates to repair broken chromosomes by HR form an intact HIS3 allele and a tXV::III chromosomal translocation that can be selected for by the ability to grow on medium lacking histidine (Figure 2A). Translocation frequency by HR is calculated by dividing the number of histidine prototrophic colonies that arise on selective medium by the total number of viable cells that arise after plating appropriate dilutions onto non-selective medium (Figure 2B). A variety of DNA repair mutants have been used to study the genetic control of translocation formation by SSA using this system(12-14).

  4. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  5. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra


    Background Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Methods Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Results Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Conclusion Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure. PMID:24676223

  6. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Hadder, G.R.


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  7. CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage after ethanol administration in human primary hepatocytes

    Lie-Gang Liu; Hong Yan; Ping Yao; Wen Zhang; Li-Jun Zou; Fang-Fang Song; Ke Li; Xiu-Fa Sun


    AIM: To observe the relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, in order to address if inhibition of CYP2E1 could attenuate ethanol-induced cellular damage.METHODS: The dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) exposures of primary human cultured hepatocytes to ethanol were carried out. CYP2E1 activity and protein expression were detected by spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis respectively.Hepatotoxicity was investigated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in hepatocyte culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA).RESULTS: A dose-and time-dependent response between ethanol exposure and CYP2E1 activity in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Moreover, there was a time-dependent increase of CYP2E1 protein after 100 mmol/L ethanol exposure. Meanwhile, ethanol exposure of hepatocytes caused a time-dependent increase of ceilular MDA level, LDH, and AST activities in supernatants.Furthermore, the inhibitor of CYP2E1, diallyl sulfide (DAS) could partly attenuate the increases of MDA, LDH, and AST in human hepatocytes.CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between ethanol-induced oxidative aamage in human primary cultured hepatocytes and CYP2E1 activity was exhibited, and the inhibition of CYP2E1 could partly attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

  8. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E


    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  9. Consequences of amygdala kindling and repeated withdrawal from ethanol on amphetamine-induced behaviours.

    Ripley, Tamzin L; Dunworth, Sarah J; Stephens, David N


    It has been shown previously that chronic ethanol treatment in mice leads to accelerated behavioural sensitization to psychomotor stimulants [Manley & Little (1997) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 281, 1330-1339], whilst repeated experience of ethanol withdrawal sensitizes pathways underlying seizure activity (Becker & Hale (1993) Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 17, 94-98]. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate the consequences of repeated withdrawal from ethanol on amphetamine-induced behaviours in the rat and compare this with animals with electrical kindling of the amygdala, a procedure that has been shown to enhance alcohol withdrawal seizures [Pinel et al. (1975) Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 2, 467-475]. For the kindling experiments, electrodes were surgically implanted in the left basolateral amygdala and were stimulated daily at the afterdischarge threshold until a criterion of three consecutive stage 5 seizures was reached. Fully kindled rats showed a marginally significant reduction in sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of acute amphetamine compared with sham and partially kindled rats which had experienced subthreshold stimulation of the amygdala. Sham and partially kindled rats sensitized readily to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine (0.125 mg/kg) following repeated treatments, but the fully kindled rats did not. Fully kindled rats also failed to show place preference conditioning to amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). Rats, withdrawn three times from chronic ethanol (liquid-diet), kindled more quickly to PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p.) than rats with the same overall exposure to ethanol (24 days) followed by a single withdrawal or control animals. However, there was no difference in the locomotor stimulating effects of acute amphetamine (0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.), the rate of sensitization to amphetamine (0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) or amphetamine induced conditioned place preference (1 mg/kg, i.p.). These observations suggest that, in rats, repeated withdrawal from a

  10. Pyruvate formate lyase acts as a formate supplier for metabolic processes during anaerobiosis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Leibig, Martina; Liebeke, Manuel; Mader, Diana; Lalk, Michael; Peschel, Andreas; Götz, Friedrich


    Previous studies demonstrated an upregulation of pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl) and NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. To investigate their physiological role, we constructed fdh and pfl deletion mutants (Δfdh and Δpfl). Although formate dehydrogenase activity in the fdh mutant was lost, it showed little phenotypic alterations under oxygen-limited conditions. In contrast, the pfl mutant displayed pleiotropic effects and revealed the importance of formate production for anabolic metabolism. In the pfl mutant, no formate was produced, glucose consumption was delayed, and ethanol production was decreased, whereas acetate and lactate production were unaffected. All metabolic alterations could be restored by addition of formate or complementation of the Δpfl mutant. In compensation reactions, serine and threonine were consumed better by the Δpfl mutant than by the wild type, suggesting that their catabolism contributes to the refilling of formyl-tetrahydrofolate, which acts as a donor of formyl groups in, e.g., purine and protein biosynthesis. This notion was supported by reduced production of formylated peptides by the Δpfl mutant compared to that of the parental strain, as demonstrated by weaker formyl-peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-mediated activation of leukocytes with the mutant. FPR1 stimulation could also be restored either by addition of formate or by complementation of the mutation. Furthermore, arginine consumption and arc operon transcription were increased in the Δpfl mutant. Unlike what occurred with the investigated anaerobic conditions, a biofilm is distinguished by nutrient, oxygen, and pH gradients, and we thus assume that Pfl plays a significant role in the anaerobic layer of a biofilm. Fdh might be critical in (micro)aerobic layers, as formate oxidation is correlated with the generation of NADH/H(+), whose regeneration requires respiration.

  11. Sedimentation of DNA in ethanol-water solutions within the interval of B to A transition.

    Potaman, V N; Bannikov, Y A; Shlyachtenko, L S


    Sedimentation of DNA ethanol-water solutions has been studied over the range of ethanol concentrations corresponding to the B to A transition (65-80% ethanol, v/v). High ethanol concentrations (more than 75%) have been found to promote aggregate formation in solution. The molecular weight of DNA under fixed ionic conditions in solution (5x10(-4)M NaCl) has been shown to influence the value of ethanol concentration at which aggregates appear. On the other hand, the fact that DNA molecular weight has not been found to exert any influence on B to A transition curves obtained from CD measurements suggests that the changes observed in DNA CD spectra on adding ethanol to the solution are independent of aggregate formation. The date obtained show that, first, aggregation is not a necessary condition for the DNA transition from the B to the A-conformation and, second, changes in CD spectra of DNA under the influence of ethanol are not related to the process of aggregation.

  12. Imipramine blocks ethanol-induced ASMase activation, ceramide generation, and PP2A activation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed mice.

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Rahmini, Yasmeen; Ross, Ruth A; Zhao, Zhenwen; Xu, Yan; Crabb, David W


    Our previous data showed the inhibitory effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which appears to be mediated, in part, through increased levels of hepatic ceramide and activation of protein phosphatase 2A (Liangpunsakul S, Sozio MS, Shin E, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Ross RA, Zeng Y, Crabb DW. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298: G1004-G1012, 2010). The effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was reversed by imipramine, suggesting that the generation of ceramide via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is stimulated by ethanol. In this study, we determined the effects of imipramine on the development of hepatic steatosis, the generation of ceramide, and downstream effects of ceramide on inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, in ethanol-fed mice. The effect of ethanol and imipramine (10 μg/g body wt ip) on ceramide levels, as well as inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, was studied in C57BL/6J mice fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet. Ethanol-fed mice developed the expected steatosis, and cotreatment with imipramine for the last 2 wk of ethanol feeding resulted in improvement in hepatic steatosis. Ethanol feeding for 4 wk induced impaired glucose tolerance compared with controls, and this was modestly improved with imipramine treatment. There was a significant decrease in total ceramide concentrations in response to imipramine in ethanol-fed mice treated with and without imipramine (287 ± 11 vs. 348 ± 12 pmol/mg tissue). The magnitude and specificity of inhibition on each ceramide species differed. A significant decrease was observed for C16 (28 ± 3 vs. 33 ± 2 pmol/mg tissue) and C24 (164 ± 9 vs. 201 ± 4 pmol/mg tissue) ceramide. Ethanol feeding increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of ERK slightly and increased phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK substantially. The levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK were reduced by treatment with imipramine. The activation of ASMase and generation

  13. Spectral diffusion in glasses : a photon-echo study of zincporphin in ethanol

    Meijers, Hans C.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    Results of picosecond photon-echo experiments on zincporphin in an ethanol glass at 1.5 K are reported and discussed. At 1.5 K, the two-pulse photon echo yields a pure dephasing time constant, a factor of 5.7 larger than the long-lived stimulated photon echo for a waiting time of 25 ms. This result

  14. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.


    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  15. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...



    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential ... bacteria for ethanol production, yeast is still the primary choice for ..... who reported high invertase activity with S. cerevisiae.

  16. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    Gaykawad, S.S.; Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.


    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this.

  17. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C


    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  18. Effect of multiple substrates in ethanol fermentations from cheese whey

    Wang, C.J.; Jayanata, Y.; Bajpai, R.K.


    Ethanol fermentations from cheese whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 were investigated. Cheese whey, which contains lactose as the major sugar, has been found to have small amounts of glucose and galactose, depending on the source and operating conditions. Fermentation performance was strongly influenced by the presence of glucose and galactose. However, lactose did not significantly affect the cell growth and product formation even at a high concentration. A logistical model was proposed to take into account the effect of lactose. (Refs. 6).

  19. Efficiency of water removal from water/ethanol mixtures using supercritical carbon dioxide

    M. A. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Techniques involving supercritical carbon dioxide have been successfully used for the formation of drug particles with controlled size distributions. However, these processes show some limitations, particularly in processing aqueous solutions. A diagram walking algorithm based on available experimental data was developed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the efficiency of water removal processes under different process conditions. Ethanol feeding was the key parameter resulting in a tenfold increase in the efficiency of water extraction.

  20. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O


    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  1. Ethanol-water separation by pervaporation

    Mulder, M.H.V.; Oude Hendrickman, J.; Hegeman, H.; Smolders, C.A.


    The separation of ethanol-water mixtures is of great importance for the production of ethanol from biomass. Both ultrafiltration and pervaporation processes can be used for the continuous processing of fermentation and separation, The removal of ethanol from the ultrafiltration permeate can be

  2. Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen

    Visser, de C.L.M.


    Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.

  3. Improved ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures with Kluyveromyces lactis on high-sugar fermentation

    Yamaoka, Chizuru; Kurita, Osamu; Kubo, Tomoko


    The influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, on metabolite formation and the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures was examined on synthetic minimal medium containing 20% glucose...

  4. Engineering of the glycerol decomposition pathway and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast improves ethanol production.

    Zhang, Liang; Tang, Yan; Guo, Zhongpeng; Shi, Guiyang


    Glycerol is a major by-product of industrial ethanol production and its formation consumes up to 4 % of the sugar substrate. This study modified the glycerol decomposition pathway of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to optimize the consumption of substrate and yield of ethanol. This study is the first to couple glycerol degradation with ethanol formation, to the best of our knowledge. The recombinant strain overexpressing GCY1 and DAK1, encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, in glycerol degradation pathway, exhibited a moderate increase in ethanol yield (2.9 %) and decrease in glycerol yield (24.9 %) compared to the wild type with the initial glucose concentration of 15 % under anaerobic conditions. However, when the mhpF gene, encoding acetylating NAD⁺-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, was co-expressed in the aforementioned recombinant strain, a further increase in ethanol yield by 5.5 % and decrease in glycerol yield by 48 % were observed for the resultant recombinant strain GDMS1 when acetic acid was added into the medium prior to inoculation compared to the wild type. The process outlined in this study which enhances glycerol consumption and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast is a promising metabolic engineering strategy to increase ethanol production by reducing the formation of glycerol.

  5. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    Ullah Ikram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met and thymoquinone (TQ during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔψM, which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol

  6. Mitochondrial ROS induced by chronic ethanol exposure promote hyper-activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    Laura R. Hoyt


    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders are common both in the United States and globally, and are associated with a variety of co-morbid, inflammation-linked diseases. The pathogenesis of many of these ailments are driven by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. We hypothesized that protracted exposure of leukocytes to ethanol would amplify inflammasome activation, which would help to implicate mechanisms involved in diseases associated with both alcoholism and aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we show that long-term ethanol exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a mouse macrophage cell line (J774 amplifies IL-1β secretion following stimulation with NLRP3 agonists, but not with AIM2 or NLRP1b agonists. The augmented NRLP3 activation was mediated by increases in iNOS expression and NO production, in conjunction with increases in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption rate, and ROS generation in J774 cells chronically exposed to ethanol (CE cells, effects that could be inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor SEITU, the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO, and the mitochondrial ROS scavenger MitoQ. Chronic ethanol exposure did not alter K+ efflux or Zn2+ homeostasis in CE cells, although it did result in a lower intracellular concentration of NAD+. Prolonged administration of acetaldehyde, the product of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH mediated metabolism of ethanol, mimicked chronic ethanol exposure, whereas ADH inhibition prevented ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion. Together, these results indicate that increases in iNOS and mitochondrial ROS production are critical for chronic ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion, and that protracted exposure to the products of ethanol metabolism are probable mediators of NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation.

  7. Binding characteristics of prostaglandin E sub 2 receptor in submandibular glands: Effect of ethanol

    Wuwang, C.Y.; Lim, C.; Yao, P.; Wang, S.L.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L. (UMDNJ, Newark, NJ (United States))


    Prostaglandin (PG) of the E series are known to stimulate saliva flow and mucin secretion in salivary glands, however, the cellular mechanism of this action remains unclear. Binding of PGE to specific binding site may be the initial step in the sequence of events that result in various biological activities. The authors first characterized PGE{sub 2} receptor binding in rat submandibular glandmembranes. The binding was specific and reversible. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that the receptor consists of two binding sites. Since ethanol has been reported to diminish salivary secretion, they further investigated whether this detrimental effect was due to the alteration of PGE receptor. Submandibular glands were dissected from rats, minced, suspended in DMEM and incubated at 37C for 2 hr under 95% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2} in the absence or presence of various concentrations of ethanol. After incubation, cell membranes were prepared and receptor binding assayed. The results indicated that ethanol caused an increase in PGE{sub 2} receptor binding. The specific binding increased by 30% at 2.5% ethanol and by 50% at 5% ethanol. Scatchard analysis of 5% ethanol-treated samples indicated that ethanol-induced increase of PGE{sub 2} binding was due to a 35% decrease and a 2.3-fold decrease of Kds of the high and low affinity receptor, respectively. The binding capacities were not changed by ethanol. It is suggested that ethanol causes an up-regulation of PGE{sub 2} receptor in submandibular glands.

  8. Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.

    Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L


    Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation.

  9. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ...


    mechanism of auxin action on the enhancement of ethylene production is the formation of enzymes involved in ethylene biogenesis....The stimulation of ethylene production by auxin was inhibited by actinomycin D and other inhibitors of protein synthesis. It is concluded that the

  11. The global atmospheric budget of ethanol revisited

    W. V. Kirstine


    Full Text Available Ethanol is an important biogenic volatile organic compound, which is increasingly used as a fuel for motor vehicles; therefore, an improved understanding of its atmospheric cycle is important. In this paper we use three sets of observational data, measured emissions of ethanol from living plants, measured concentrations of ethanol in the atmosphere and measured hydroxyl concentrations in the atmosphere (by methyl chloroform titration, to make two independent estimates related to the rate of cycling of ethanol through the atmosphere. In the first estimate, simple calculations give the emission rate of ethanol from living plants as 26 (range, 10–38 Tg yr−1. This contributes significantly to the total global ethanol source of 42 (range, 25–56 Tg yr−1. In the second estimate, the total losses of ethanol from the global atmosphere are 70 (range, 50–90 Tg yr−1, with about three-quarters of the ethanol removed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the gaseous and aqueous phases of the atmosphere, and the remainder lost through wet and dry deposition to land. These values of both the source of ethanol from living plants and the removal of atmospheric ethanol via oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (derived entirely from observations are significantly larger than those in recent literature. We suggest that a revision of the estimate of global ethanol emissions from plants to the atmosphere to a value comparable with this analysis is warranted.

  12. Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not well known. With developments of genome sequencing and genomic technologies, our understanding of yeast biology has been revolutionarily advanced. More evidence of mechanisms of ethanol tolerance have been discovered involving multiple loci, multi-stress, and complex interactions as well as signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. Transcription dynamics and profiling studies of key gene sets including heat shock proteins provided insight into tolerance mechanisms. A transient gene expression response or a stress response to ethanol does not necessarily lead to ethanol tolerance in yeast. Reprogrammed pathways and interactions of cofactor regeneration and redox balance observed from studies of tolerant yeast demonstrated the significant importance of a time-course study for ethanol tolerance. In this review, we focus on current advances of our understanding for ethanol-tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae including gene expression responses, pathway-based analysis, signal transduction and regulatory networks. A prototype of global system model for mechanisms of ethanol tolerance is presented.

  13. Catalytic co-aromatization of ethanol and methane

    Wang, Aiguo; He, Peng; Yung, Matthew; Zeng, Hongbo; Qian, Hui; Song, Hua


    This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of simultaneously converting ethanol and methane into liquid hydrocarbons at mild reaction conditions (400 degrees C and 1 atm) over silver and/or zinc modified zeolite catalysts. After GC-MS analysis, it is worth noting that aromatics are the major compounds contained in the liquid product collected from the run when 1%Ag/ZSM-5, particularly after H2 pretreatment, is charged. Compared to the performance exhibited from the run with pure HZSM-5 support engaged, Ag addition into the HZSM-5 framework favors aromatics formation, which might be closely associated with better Ag dispersion and more abundance of strong surface acidic sites where aromatization might take place while Zn loading exerts a detrimental effect on the production of aromatics but promotes the ether generation possibly through dehydration reaction. Referred to that from its N2 counterpart, the increased aromatics formation of the collected liquid product when methane is present indicates that methane existence might facilitate ethanol aromatization. Moreover, combined with the increased carbon number in the formed aromatics from CH4 run when H2 run is referred and zero liquid formation from CH4-alone test as well as more prominent endothermic feature of methane run and more importantly the notably increased 13C signals in 13C NMR spectra of the liquid product collected during ethanol conversion under 13CH4 environment, all the observations suggest that methane might be activated nonoxidatively and converted into higher hydrocarbons, preferentially into aromatics if suitable catalyst is charged under the assistance of co-existing oxygenated hydrocarbon. The reported synergetic effect could potentially lead to the more economic utilization of abundant natural gas and cellulosic ethanol.

  14. Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks.

    Gouvea, B M; Torres, C; Franca, A S; Oliveira, L S; Oliveira, E S


    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Batch fermentation studies were performed employing whole and ground coffee husks, and aqueous extract from ground coffee husks. It was observed that fermentation yield decreased with an increase in yeast concentration. The best results were obtained for the following conditions: whole coffee husks, 3 g yeast/l substrate, temperature of 30 degrees C. Under these conditions ethanol production was 8.49 +/- 0.29 g/100 g dry basis (13.6 +/- 0.5 g ethanol/l), a satisfactory value in comparison to literature data for other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (5-11 g ethanol/l). Such results indicate that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production.

  15. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L


    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  16. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  17. Increased brain dopamine D4-like binding after chronic ethanol is not associated with behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Nobrega, Jose Nascimento; Hipolide, Debora Cristina; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira


    Dopaminergic D4 receptors have been hypothesized to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders and substance abuse. In mice, repeated ethanol administration may induce behavioral sensitization, a phenomenon of increased sensitivity to the drug's stimulant properties. This study aimed to analyze brain D4 receptors binding in mice with different levels of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. Male Swiss mice received 2.2 g/kg ethanol (n = 64) or saline (n = 16) intraperitoneally daily for 21 days and were weekly tested for locomotor activity and for blood ethanol levels. According to the locomotor scores presented across test days, ethanol-treated mice were classified as "sensitized" or "nonsensitized." Twenty-four hours after the last administration, mice were sacrificed and brains were processed for autoradiography. Brain D4 binding was assessed by quantitative autoradiography using [3H]nemonapride + raclopride in three groups: saline-treated controls (n = 10), ethanol-sensitized (n = 11), and ethanol-nonsensitized (n = 9) mice. Both sensitized and nonsensitized mice showed higher D4 binding densities than saline-treated controls in the posterior caudate-putamen and the olfactory tubercle (p < .02), but only sensitized mice presented higher D4 binding than controls at the lateral septal nucleus (p < .02). However, there were no differences between sensitized and nonsensitized mice in any of the brain regions analyzed. Furthermore, sensitized and nonsensitized mice presented similar blood ethanol levels during the treatment. The higher D4 binding levels observed in both ethanol-treated subgroups (sensitized and nonsensitized) suggest that chronic ethanol treatment may induce upregulation of D4 receptors in specific brain regions. However, this mechanism does not seem to be associated with the differential ability to develop behavioral sensitization to ethanol in mice.

  18. Interactions between ethanol and the endocannabinoid system at GABAergic synapses on basolateral amygdala principal neurons.

    Talani, Giuseppe; Lovinger, David M


    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays crucial roles in stimulus value coding, as well as drug and alcohol dependence. Ethanol alters synaptic transmission in the BLA, while endocannabinoids (eCBs) produce presynaptic depression at BLA synapses. Recent studies suggest interactions between ethanol and eCBs that have important consequences for alcohol drinking behavior. To determine how ethanol and eCBs interact in the BLA, we examined the physiology and pharmacology of GABAergic synapses onto BLA pyramidal neurons in neurons from young rats. Application of ethanol at concentrations relevant to intoxication increased, in both young and adult animals, the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents, indicating a presynaptic site of ethanol action. Ethanol did not potentiate sIPSCs during inhibition of adenylyl cyclase while still exerting its effect during inhibition of protein kinase A. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) in the BLA inhibited GABAergic transmission via an apparent presynaptic mechanism, and prevented ethanol potentiation. Surprisingly, ethanol potentiation was also prevented by CB1 antagonists/inverse agonists. Brief depolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons suppressed GABAergic transmission (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition [DSI]), an effect previously shown to be mediated by postsynaptic eCB release and presynaptic CB1 activation. A CB1-mediated suppression of GABAergic transmission was also produced by combined afferent stimulation at 0.1 Hz (LFS), and postsynaptic loading with the eCB arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA). Both DSI and LFS-induced synaptic depression were prevented by ethanol. Our findings indicate antagonistic interactions between ethanol and eCB/CB1 modulation at GABAergic BLA synapses that may contribute to eCB roles in ethanol seeking and drinking.

  19. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))


    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  20. Inflammatory PAF Receptor Signaling Initiates Hedgehog Signaling and Kidney Fibrogenesis During Ethanol Consumption.

    Calivarathan Latchoumycandane

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation either resolves or proceeds to fibrotic repair that replaces functional tissue. Pro-fibrotic hedgehog signaling and induction of its Gli transcription factor in pericytes induces fibrosis in kidney, but molecular instructions connecting inflammation to fibrosis are opaque. We show acute kidney inflammation resulting from chronic ingestion of the common xenobiotic ethanol initiates Gli1 transcription and hedgehog synthesis in kidney pericytes, and promotes renal fibrosis. Ethanol ingestion stimulated transcription of TGF-ß, collagens I and IV, and alpha-smooth muscle actin with accumulation of these proteins. This was accompanied by deposition of extracellular fibrils. Ethanol catabolism by CYP2E1 in kidney generates local reactive oxygen species that oxidize cellular phospholipids to phospholipid products that activate the Platelet-activating Factor receptor (PTAFR for inflammatory phospholipids. Genetically deleting this ptafr locus abolished accumulation of mRNA for TGF-ß, collagen IV, and α-smooth muscle actin. Loss of PTAFR also abolished ethanol-stimulated Sonic (Shh and Indian hedgehog (Ihh expression, and abolished transcription and accumulation of Gli1. Shh induced in pericytes and Ihh in tubules escaped to urine of ethanol-fed mice. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO is required for ethanol-induced kidney inflammation, and Shh was not present in kidney or urine of mpo-/- mice. Shh also was present in urine of patients with acute kidney injury, but not in normal individuals or those with fibrotic liver cirrhosis We conclude neither endogenous PTAFR signaling nor CYP2E1-generated radicals alone are sufficient to initiate hedgehog signaling, but instead PTAFR-dependent neutrophil infiltration with myeloperoxidase activation is necessary to initiate ethanol-induced fibrosis in kidney. We also show fibrogenic mediators escape to urine, defining a new class of urinary mechanistic biomarkers of fibrogenesis for an organ not

  1. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  2. Liver necrosis induced by acute intraperitoneal ethanol administration in aged rats.

    Giavarotti, Leandro; D'Almeida, Vania; Giavarotti, Karin A S; Azzalis, Ligia A; Rodrigues, Luciano; Cravero, Amerys A M; Videla, Luis A; Koch, Osvaldo R; Junqueira, Virginia B C


    It is generally agreed that the deleterious pathophysiological effects of ethanol are caused, at least partially by an increase in free radical production. However, little attention has been directed to the effects of ethanol upon elderly organisms. Male Wistar rats at ages 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months were treated either with a single i.p. dose of 35% ethanol (v/v) at 3 g ethanol/kg body weight or an isovolumetric amount of 0.9% saline solution. We then assessed the plasma levels of transaminases and hepatic levels of oxidative stress-related parameters, followed by liver histological evaluation. The younger rats (3 months old) were not affected by the treatment with ethanol with respect to any of the studied parameters except for a lowering of total hepatic GSH and an increase in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactants (TBARS) formation, while animals older than 3 months were increasingly more affected by the treatment. Acute ethanol treatment elicited the similar responses to those in the 3 months-old group, plus a decrease in the hepatic and plasma levels of beta-carotene and the plasma level of alpha-tocopherol, as well as an increase in the activity of plasma transaminases. In the 12,18 and 24 months old groups, there was increasing liver necrosis. These findings suggest that liver damage induced by acute ethanol administration in elderly rats may involve a lack of antioxidants.

  3. In vitro effects of ethanol on the pathways of platelet aggregation

    Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.


    Ethanol is reported to inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanisms of its action on stimulus-response coupling in platelets is unknown. Platelet aggregation to thrombin occurs through at least three pathways: released ADP; thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/); and a third pathway(s). Aggregation of rabbit platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or washed suspensions to ADP (0.5-10 was not affected by ethanol, at concentrations up to 5 mg/ml (lethal). Primary ADP-induced (5 aggregation of human platelets in PRP was also unaffected by ethanol, but secondary aggregation and release of /sup 14/C-serotonin, due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, was inhibited by ethanol (2 and 4 mg/ml). Since arachidonate (AA)-induced (25-250 aggregation and release by washed rabbit platelets was unaltered by ethanol, it may inhibit mobilization of AA from platelet membrane phospholipids. Ethanol (2-4 mg/ml) inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation and release to low concentrations of thrombin (< 10 mU/ml) or collagen, and also inhibited aggregation and release of aspirin-treated (500 M) rabbit platelets (that cannot form TXA/sub 2/) to low concentrations of thrombin (< 10 mU/ml). Thus, ethanol does not inhibit the mobilization of AA, and partially inhibits the third pathway(s) of platelet aggregation.

  4. Severe lactic acidosis in a diabetic patient after ethanol abuse and floor cleaner intake.

    Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Lagas, Jurjen S; Daling, Ratana; Hooijberg, Jan Hendrik; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Desiderius P M; Huitema, Alwin D R


    An intoxication with drugs, ethanol or cleaning solvents may cause a complex clinical scenario if multiple agents have been ingested simultaneously. The situation can become even more complex in patients with (multiple) co-morbidities. A 59-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus (without treatment two weeks before the intoxication) intentionally ingested a substantial amount of ethanol along with ~750 mL of laminate floor cleaner containing citric acid. The patient was admitted with severe metabolic acidosis (both ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis, with serum lactate levels of 22 mM). He was treated with sodium bicarbonate, insulin and thiamine after which he recovered within two days. Diabetic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis aggravated due to ethanol intoxication, thiamine deficiency and citrate. The high lactate levels were explained by excessive lactate formation caused by the combination of untreated diabetes mellitus, thiamine deficiency and ethanol abuse. Metabolic acidosis in diabetes is multi-factorial, and the clinical situation may be further complicated, when ingestion of ethanol and toxic agents are involved. Here, we reported a patient in whom diabetic ketoacidosis was accompanied by severe lactic acidosis as a result of citric acid and mainly ethanol ingestion and a possible thiamine deficiency. In the presence of lactic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis, physicians need to consider thiamine deficiency and ingestion of ethanol or other toxins. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    Wang, Jia Xu


    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  6. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    Wang, Jia Xu


    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  7. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)


    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Limitations to the use of extracellular acidification for the assessment of plasma membrane H[sup +]-ATPase activity and ethanol tolerance in yeasts

    Rosa, M.F. (Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. de Energias Renovaveis); Sa-Correia, Isabel (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Engenharia Bioquimica)


    When yeast cells are grown in low but inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, the proton-pumping activity is stimulated but no significant increase of the plasma membrane permeability is observed. These cell responses can only be appraised through the effect of ethanol on the acidification curves when cells have been grown in the presence of ethanol. In addition, and since the in vivo activation of plasma membrane H[sup +] -ATPase by ethanol is rapidly reversed in vivo after its removal, yeast cells to be used to obtain the acidification curves should be maintained in permanent contact with ethanol. However, when the differently ethanol-tolerant strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 3507 III and Kluyveromyces marxianus IGC 2671 are grown in the presence of concentrations close to the maximal for growth, the development of responses to counteract the dissipation of the proton motive force induced by ethanol is hindered. Therefore, for these high concentrations, the ethanol-induced increase of the final external pH attained after glucose addition in aqueous suspensions of deenergized cells, grown in the absence of ethanol, can be used as a rapid criterion for the evaluation of ethanol tolerance. (author)

  9. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    Rosenwasser, Alan M


    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders.

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of monodispersed magnetite nanoparticles by using an ethanol-water mixed solvent.

    Dang, Feng; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Enpuku, Keiji


    The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized in an ethanol-water solution under ultrasonic irradiation from a Fe(OH)(2) precipitate. XRD, TEM, TG, IR, VSM and UV/vis absorption spectrum were used to characterize the magnetite nanoparticles. It was found that the formation of magnetite was accelerated in ethanol-water solution in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, whereas, it was limited in ethanol-water solution under mechanical stirring. The monodispersibility of magnetite particles was improved significantly through the sonochemical synthesis in ethanol-water solution. The magnetic properties were improved for the samples synthesized under ultrasonic irradiation. This would be attributed to high Fe(2+) concentration in the magnetite cubic structure.

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker


    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control.

  12. Switch from excitatory to inhibitory actions of ethanol on dopamine levels after chronic exposure: Role of kappa opioid receptors.

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Huggins, Kimberly N; Rose, Jamie H; Jones, Sara R


    Acute ethanol exposure is known to stimulate the dopamine system; however, chronic exposure has been shown to downregulate the dopamine system. In rodents, chronic intermittent exposure (CIE) to ethanol also increases negative affect during withdrawal, such as, increases in anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, CIE exposure results in increased ethanol drinking and preference during withdrawal. Previous literature documents reductions in CIE-induced anxiety-, depressive-like behaviors and ethanol intake in response to kappa opioid receptor (KOR) blockade. KORs are located on presynaptic dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and inhibit release, an effect which has been linked to negative affective behaviors. Previous reports show an upregulation in KOR function following extended CIE exposure; however it is not clear whether there is a direct link between KOR upregulation and dopamine downregulation during withdrawal from CIE. This study aimed to examine the effects of KOR modulation on dopamine responses to ethanol of behaving mice exposed to air or ethanol vapor in a repeated intermittent pattern. First, we showed that KORs have a greater response to an agonist after moderate CIE compared to air exposed mice using ex vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Second, using in vivo microdialysis, we showed that, in contrast to the expected increase in extracellular levels of dopamine following an acute ethanol challenge in air exposed mice, CIE exposed mice exhibited a robust decrease in dopamine levels. Third, we showed that blockade of KORs reversed the aberrant inhibitory dopamine response to ethanol in CIE exposed mice while not affecting the air exposed mice demonstrating that inhibition of KORs "rescued" dopamine responses in CIE exposed mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that augmentation of dynorphin/KOR system activity drives the reduction in stimulated (electrical and ethanol) dopamine release in the NAc. Thus, blockade of

  13. Effects of ethanol in an open field apparatus: modification by U50488H and WIN 44441-3.

    Pohorecky, L A; Patel, V; Roberts, P


    The effects of U50488H, a kappa agonist, and WIN 44441-3, a kappa antagonist, and their modification of the effects of ethanol, on the behavior of rats in a modified open field apparatus, was examined. Crossover activity was increased by U50488H. Headpoke activity was decreased by WIN 44441-3 and increased by U50488H. Rearing activity was increased by WIN 44441-3 but was not affected by U50488H. The effect of both drugs was dose related, with the largest doses having no effect. Ethanol (0.5 g/kg) stimulated crossover activity while it depressed rearing, headpoke and corner activities; except for crossover activity the 2.0 g/kg dose of ethanol depressed these activities. Pretreatment with WIN 44441-3 (0.5 mg/kg) potentiated the stimulant effect of ethanol on crossover activity and partially reversed the depressant effect of ethanol on rearing and headpoke activities. U50488H potentiated the ethanol-induced depression of headpoke and reversed the depression of corner activity. Pretreatment with U50488H had no effect on ethanol's action on crossover and rearing behaviors. Our results indicate that kappa opiate receptors may mediate some behaviors exhibited by rats in a modified open field apparatus. Activation of these receptors increases locomotor and headpoke activity but had no effect on rearing activity. Furthermore, the 0.5 g/kg dose of ethanol has differential effects on different measures of open field behavior, while the 2.0 g/kg dose was largely depressant. Our data suggest that some of these effects of ethanol may be mediated via kappa opioid receptors.

  14. Fetal alcohol exposure reduces responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal chemosensory neurons to ethanol and its flavor components.

    Glendinning, John I; Tang, Joyce; Morales Allende, Ana Paula; Bryant, Bruce P; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L


    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose, and NaCl. To assess trigeminal responsiveness, we measured changes in calcium levels of isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during stimulation with ethanol, capsaicin, mustard oil, and KCl. Compared with adolescent control rats, the adolescent experimental rats exhibited diminished CT nerve responses to ethanol, quinine, and sucrose and GL nerve responses to quinine and sucrose. The reductions in taste responsiveness persisted into adulthood for quinine but not for any of the other stimuli. Adolescent experimental rats also exhibited reduced TG neuron responses to ethanol, capsaicin, and mustard oil. The lack of change in responsiveness of the taste nerves to NaCl and the TG neurons to KCl indicates that FAE altered only a subset of the response pathways within each chemosensory system. We propose that FAE reprograms development of the peripheral taste and trigeminal systems in ways that reduce their responsiveness to ethanol and surrogates for its pleasant (i.e., sweet) and unpleasant (i.e., bitterness, oral burning) flavor attributes.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pregnant mothers are advised to avoid alcohol. This is because even small amounts of alcohol can alter fetal brain development and increase the risk of adolescent alcohol abuse. We asked how fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) produces the latter effect in adolescent rats by measuring responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal

  15. Ethanol withdrawal is required to produce persisting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent hippocampal cytotoxicity during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Berry, B. Jennifer N.; Sharrett-Field, Lynda; Prendergast, Mark A.


    Chronic intermittent ethanol consumption is associated with neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits in preclinical laboratory animals and in the clinical population. While previous work suggests a role for neuroadaptations in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the development of ethanol dependence and manifestation of withdrawal, the relative roles of ethanol exposure and ethanol withdrawal in producing these effects have not been fully characterized. To examine underlying cytotoxic mechanisms associated with CIE exposure, organotypic hippocampal slices were exposed to 1–3 cycles of ethanol (50 mM) in cell culture medium for 5 days, followed by 24-hours of ethanol withdrawal in which a portion of slices were exposed to competitive NMDA receptor antagonist (2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 40 µM). Cytotoxicity was assessed using immunohistochemical labeling of neuron specific nuclear protein (NeuN; Fox-3), a marker of mature neurons, and thionine (2%) staining of Nissl bodies. Multiple cycles of CIE produced neurotoxicity, as reflected in persisting losses of neuron NeuN immunoreactivity and thionine staining in each of the primary cell layers of the hippocampal formation. Hippocampi aged in vitro were significantly more sensitive to the toxic effects of multiple CIEs than were non-aged hippocampi. This effect was not demonstrated in slices exposed to continuous ethanol, in the absence of withdrawal, or to a single exposure/withdrawal regimen. Exposure to APV significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity observed in the primary cell layers of the hippocampus. The present findings suggest that ethanol withdrawal is required to produce NMDA receptor-dependent hippocampal cytotoxicity, particularly in the aging hippocampus in vitro. PMID:25746220

  16. Extraction of cellulose with subcritical and supercritical ethanol

    Qian Xueren; Li Jian


    Cotton cellulose was extracted with ethanol in sub-and supercritical states dynamically. The degree of conversion was 95.4% and the extract yield was 55.2% when cotton cellulose was non-isothermally extracted with ethanol from 20℃ to 400℃. From an engineering standpoint, in the temperature range from 200℃ to 320℃,the rate of extract formation could adequately be described by a second-order reaction kinetics equation with the activation energy of 105.3 k J/mol and the pre-exponential factor of 3.53 × 107 s-1. With the non-isothermal experimental technique, it was possible to determine the kinetic parameters; conversion degree and extract yield by one experiment.

  17. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate by the alternative industrial ethanol yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Blomqvist, J; South, E; Tiukova, I; Tiukova, L; Momeni, M H; Hansson, H; Ståhlberg, J; Horn, S J; Schnürer, J; Passoth, V


    Testing the ability of the alternative ethanol production yeast Dekkera bruxellensis to produce ethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysate and comparing it to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Industrial isolates of D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae were cultivated in small-scale batch fermentations of enzymatically hydrolysed steam exploded aspen sawdust. Different dilutions of hydrolysate were tested. None of the yeasts grew in undiluted or 1:2 diluted hydrolysate [final glucose concentration always adjusted to 40 g l⁻¹ (0.22 mol l⁻¹)]. This was most likely due to the presence of inhibitors such as acetate or furfural. In 1:5 hydrolysate, S. cerevisiae grew, but not D. bruxellensis, and in 1:10 hydrolysate, both yeasts grew. An external vitamin source (e.g. yeast extract) was essential for growth of D. bruxellensis in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate and strongly stimulated S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol production. Ethanol yields of 0.42 ± 0.01 g ethanol (g glucose)⁻¹ were observed for both yeasts in 1:10 hydrolysate. In small-scale continuous cultures with cell recirculation, with a gradual increase in the hydrolysate concentration, D. bruxellensis was able to grow in 1:5 hydrolysate. In bioreactor experiments with cell recirculation, hydrolysate contents were increased up to 1:2 hydrolysate, without significant losses in ethanol yields for both yeasts and only slight differences in viable cell counts, indicating an ability of both yeasts to adapt to toxic compounds in the hydrolysate. Dekkera bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae have a similar potential to ferment lignocellulose hydrolysate to ethanol and to adapt to fermentation inhibitors in the hydrolysate. This is the first study investigating the potential of D. bruxellensis to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Its high competitiveness in industrial fermentations makes D. bruxellensis an interesting alternative for ethanol production from those substrates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied

  18. Age-dependent variation in behavior following acute ethanol administration in male and female adolescent rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Schwandt, Melanie L; Barr, Christina S; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, James D


    Jumping Ability, and Stimulation. Significant negative correlations between age and Ataxia were found for both males and females. Females also exhibited positive correlations between age and Impaired Jumping Ability and age and Stimulation. No significant correlations were found with either rearing condition or rh5-HTTLPR genotype. These findings suggest that ontogenetic changes during adolescence in the behavioral response to ethanol differ between rodents and primates. Furthermore, sex differences in the behavioral response to ethanol appear to develop during adolescence.

  19. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Young, Wise


    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  20. Prospects for Corn Ethanol in Argentina

    Bruce A. Babcock; Miguel Carriquiry


    Countries that export biofuel feedstocks such as grain or sugar and that are also importers of motor fuels will have a natural competitive advantage over other countries in the production of biofuels. Argentina is one of a very few countries that both export potential feedstocks and import gasoline and diesel. This combination means that an Argentine ethanol plant will pay less for feedstock and receive a higher price for ethanol than an ethanol plant located in a country that imports feedsto...

  1. Biological production of ethanol fom coal


    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  2. Catching a conserved mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity

    Lovely, Charles Ben; Eberhart, Johann Karl


    Due to its profound impact on human development, ethanol teratogenicity is a field of intense study. The complexity of variables that influence the outcomes of embryonic or prenatal ethanol exposure compels the use of animal models in which these variables can be isolated. Numerous model systems have been used in these studies. The zebrafish is a powerful model system, which has seen a recent increase in usage for ethanol studies. Those using zebrafish for alcohol studies often face two quest...

  3. Hydrogen Generation from Plasmatron Reforming Ethanol

    YOU Fu-bing; HU You-ping; LI Ge-sheng; GAO Xiao-hong


    Hydrogen generation through plasmatron reforming of ethanol has been carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The reforming of pure ethanol and mixtures of ethanol-water have been studied. The gas chromatography (GC) analysis has shown that in all conditions the reforming yield was H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 as the main products, and with little C2* . The hydrogen-rich gas can be used as fuel for gasoline engine and other applications.

  4. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  5. Low-temperature steam-reforming of ethanol over ZnO-supported Ni and Cu catalysts

    Homs, Narcis; Llorca, Jordi; De la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    ZnO-supported Ni and Cu as well as bimetallic Co-Ni and Co-Cu catalysts containing ca. 0.7wt% sodium promoter and prepared by the co-precipitation method were tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at low temperature (523-723K), using a bioethanol-like mixture diluted in Ar. Monometallic ZnO-supported Cu or Ni samples do not exhibit good catalytic performance in the steam-reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production. Copper catalyst mainly dehydrogenates ethanol to acetaldehyde, whereas nickel catalyst favours ethanol decomposition. However, the addition of Ni to ZnO-supported cobalt has a positive effect both on the production of hydrogen at low temperature (<573K), and on catalyst stability. Evidence for alloy formation as well as mixed oxides at the microstructural level was found in the bimetallic systems after running the ethanol steam-reforming reaction by HRTEM-EELS. (author)

  6. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia


    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  7. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.


    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  8. Changes in Chinese Standard for Ethanol Gasoline

    Zhang Xin; Zhang Yongguang


    At the beginning of the tests on application of ethanol gasoline in 2001, Chinese government promulgated a national standard, GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles". The standard specifies three kinds of ethanol gasoline, namely E10 (90 RON), E 10 (93 RON) and E10(95RON). There were ethanol gasoline grades (90 RON and 93 RON) and conventional unleaded gasoline(97 RON) available in the areas where tests were carried out. Vehicle owners were worried about the harmful action of ethanol to their vehicles because of lack of knowledge regarding ethanol fuel,and they only refueled their cars with conventional 97 RON unleaded gasoline. This idea might cause unnecessary costs to customers and could bring about difficulty to the tests as well. Besides, some other technical questions emerged during the experimental application of ethanol gasoline, such as water content, ethanol content in gasoline, etc. Based on the experiences accumulated during the application tests, the national standard GB 18351-2001 "Ethanol Gasoline for Motor Vehicles" was revised. The revised edition is designated as GB 18351-2004.

  9. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  10. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  11. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  12. Preparation and characterization of Pt-Sn/C and Pt-Ir/C catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Masombuka, T


    Full Text Available to be the most active metal for ethanol oxidation, however the formation of CO-intermediates poison the Pt catalyst. Literature studies have indicated that the modification of platinum by tin gives the more pronounced enhancement. Pt-Sn/C activity for ethanol...

  13. Calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux and ethanol intoxication: studies of human red blood cells and rodent brain synaptosomes.

    Yamamoto, H A; Harris, R A


    Effects of ethanol on calcium-dependent potassium efflux were investigated in red blood cells (RBC) from humans and brain synaptosomes from rats and mice. 86 Rb was used as a tracer for potassium. Synaptosomes and RBC were lysed and resealed with 86 Rb and calcium-EGTA buffers to regulate intracellular levels of ionized calcium. In vitro addition of ethanol (100 mM) stimulated the calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of synaptosomes. This stimulation was blocked by apamin, an inhibitor of the calcium-dependent potassium current of nerve cells. In addition, intracerebroventricular injection of apamin inhibited ethanol-induced narcosis in mice, providing behavioral evidence for the importance of calcium-stimulated potassium efflux in alcohol intoxication. In vitro addition of ethanol, propanol or butanol increased calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of human RBC at low concentrations of free calcium, but did not change the calcium-independent efflux of 86 Rb. These results suggest that the calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of nerve endings may have an important role in the pharmacological and toxicological effects of ethanol.

  14. [Ethanol metabolism and pathobiochemistry of organ damage--1992. IV. Ethanol in relation to the cardiovascular system. Hematologic, immunologic, endocrine disorders and muscle and bone damage caused by ethanol. Fetal alcohol syndrome].

    Zima, T


    Peripheral vasodilatation with increased cardiac output, tachycardia and increased blood pressure are described after alcohol administration. An increased HDL-cholesterol is found in moderate drinkers (both HDL-2 and HDL-3 fractions), with diminishing risk of coronary heart diseases. Acute ethanol intake causes an increased the level of triglycerides without changes in HDL-cholesterol level. This may be put into correlation with higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in so-called "week-end" drinkers. Alcohol abuse may result in central diabetes insipidus. An increased elimination of lactate diminishes tubular secretion of uric acid with subsequent secondary hyperuricemia. Ethanol reduced the number of lymphocytes, reduces phagocytosis by macrophages and diminishes the activity of NK-cells. Bone marrow cellulity diminishes with the subsequent reduction in erythropoiesis, trombopoiesis and leukopoiesis. Alcohol may cause sideropenic and megaloblastic anemia. There are two forms of alcohol muscle injury: the acute one, with myonecrosis and inflammatory reaction, and chronic one, with muscle weakness and atrophy. Alcohol is one of etiologic factors of osteoporosis. An acute intoxication result in transitory hypoparatthyreoidism, while chronic ethanol intake make grow the PTH level and decreases the level of D vitamin metabolises. Stimulation of cortisol secretion, decrease of testosterone level and a reversible decrease of T3 and T4 levels have been described following ethanol administration. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suffers alteration in alcoholics, and secondary amenorrhea is observed in female alcoholics. Ethanol behaves as an agonist on GABA receptor. Fetal alcohol syndrome together with Down's syndrome and spina bifida are the most frequent reasons of mental retardation in developed countries. Toxicity of ethanol affects the whole pregnancy period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Hepatocytes to Protect Them From Ethanol-induced Cytotoxicity



    We investigated the relationship between ethanol exposure and heme oxygenase (HO-1) in human hepatocytes in order to ascertain if induction of HO-1 can prevent ethanol induced cellular damage. Methods Dose-dependent (25-100 mmol/L) and time-dependent (0-24 h) ethanol exposure were used in the present study. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by PT-PCR and Western blot respectively. HO-1 activity was indicated by bilirubin and Fe2+ formation. Cytotoxicity was investigated by means of lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) level in culture supernatants, as well as the intracellular formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), cellular glutathione (GSH) status and CYP 2E1 activity. Results We first demonstrated a dose-dependent response between ethanol exposure and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatocytes. We further observed a time-dependent increase of HO-1 mRNA expression using 100 mmol/L ethanol starting 30 minutes after ethanol exposure, reaching its maximum between 3 h and 9 h. Being similar to what had been demonstrated with the mRNA level, increased protein expression started at 6 h after ethanol exposure, and kept continuous elevated over 18 h. In addition, we found that ethanol exposure to hepatocytes markedly increased HO-1 enzyme activity in a time-dependent manner measured as bilirubin and Fe2+ formation in human hepatocytes. Our results clearly showed that ethanol exposure caused a significant increase of LDH, AST, and MDA levels, while the antioxidant GSH was time-dependently reduced. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pre-administration of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced HO-1 in human hepatocytes, and prevented an increase of MDA and a decrease of GSH. These effects could be partially reversed by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an antagonist of HO-1 induction. Conclusion HO-1 expression in cells or organs could lead to new strategies for better prevention and treatment of ethanol-induced oxidative damage in human

  16. Physiological response of Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 of ethanol production under different fermentation conditions.

    Xie, Bin-Tao; Liu, Zi-Yong; Tian, Lei; Li, Fu-Li; Chen, Xiao-Hua


    In this study, cell growth, gene expression and ethanol production were monitored under different fermentation conditions. Like its heterotrophical ABE-producing relatives, a switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis of Clostridium ljungdahlii during the autotrophic fermentation with CO/CO2 could be observed, which occurred surprisingly in the late-log phase rather than in the transition phase. The gene expression profiles indicated that aor1, one of the putative aldehyde oxidoreductases in its genome played a critical role in the formation of ethanol, and its transcription could be induced by external acids. Moreover, a low amount of CaCO3 was proved to have positive influences on the cell density and substrate utilization, followed by an increase of over 40% ethanol and 30% acetate formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Paolo eBotta


    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  18. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Sudesh Vasdev


    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  19. Zonation of the action of ethanol on gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis studied in the bivascularly perfused rat liver.

    Lopez, Carlos Henrique; Suzuki-Kemmelmeier, Fumie; Constantin, Jorgete; Bracht, Adelar


    Zonation of the actions of ethanol on gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis from lactate were investigated in the bivascularly perfused rat liver. Livers from fasted rats were perfused bivascularly in the antegrade and retrograde modes. Ethanol and lactate were infused into the hepatic artery (antegrade and retrograde) and portal vein. A previously described quantitative analysis that takes into account the microcirculatory characteristics of the rat liver was extended to the analysis of zone-specific effects of inhibitors. Confirming previous reports, gluconeogenesis and the corresponding oxygen uptake increment due to saturable lactate infusions were more pronounced in the periportal region. Arterially infused ethanol inhibited gluconeogenesis more strongly in the periportal region (inhibition constant=3.99+/-0.22mM) when compared to downstream localized regions (inhibition constant=8.64+/-2.73mM). The decrease in oxygen uptake caused by ethanol was also more pronounced in the periportal zone. Lactate decreased ketogenesis dependent on endogenous substrates in both regions, periportal and perivenous, but more strongly in the former. Ethanol further inhibited ketogenesis, but only in the periportal zone. Stimulation was found for the perivenous zone. The predominance of most ethanol effects in the periportal region of the liver is probably related to the fact that its transformation is also clearly predominant in this region, as demonstrated in a previous study. The differential effect on ketogenesis, on the other hand, suggest that the net effects of ethanol are the consequence of a summation of several partial effects with different intensities along the hepatic acini.

  20. Ethanol production from bread residues

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Roodpeyma, Shapoor [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Isfahan Center for the Research of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-50190 Boraas (Sweden)


    Bread residues were converted into a suitable fermentation feed via a two-step starch hydrolysis using amylolytic enzymes. Wheat flour hydrolysis was also carried out at the same conditions for comparison. For the first stage, namely liquefaction, effects of temperature (50-85{sup o}C) and substrate concentration (20% and 35%) were investigated. The 3-h liquefaction of the 20% bread suspension made 70% of initial dry matter soluble regardless of the temperature. The liquefaction of the 35% bread suspension had to be carried out by a fed-batch method due to the pasty behavior of the suspension. It resulted in a 65% dissolution of the suspended bread at 85{sup o}C. Saccharification of the latter product led to a fermentation feedstock having a dextrose equivalent (DE) of more than 95 and almost 80% dissolution of the initial dry matter. The prepared feedstock was then cultivated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which resulted in an overall yield of 350 g ethanol per kg of initial bread dry matter. Staling of the bread for a week had no effect on liquefaction, saccharification and ethanol yield. (author)

  1. Production of Ethanol from Sugars and Lignocellulosic Biomass by Thermoanaerobacter J1 Isolated from a Hot Spring in Iceland

    Jan Eric Jessen


    Full Text Available Thermophilic bacteria have gained increased attention as candidates for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study investigated ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter strain J1 from hydrolysates made from lignocellulosic biomass in batch cultures. The effect of increased initial glucose concentration and the partial pressure of hydrogen on end product formation were examined. The strain showed a broad substrate spectrum, and high ethanol yields were observed on glucose (1.70 mol/mol and xylose (1.25 mol/mol. Ethanol yields were, however, dramatically lowered by adding thiosulfate or by cocultivating strain J1 with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen with acetate becoming the major end product. Ethanol production from 4.5 g/L of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (grass, hemp stem, wheat straw, newspaper, and cellulose pretreated with acid or alkali and the enzymes Celluclast and Novozymes 188 was investigated. The highest ethanol yields were obtained on cellulose (7.5 mM·g−1 but the lowest on straw (0.8 mM·g−1. Chemical pretreatment increased ethanol yields substantially from lignocellulosic biomass but not from cellulose. The largest increase was on straw hydrolysates where ethanol production increased from 0.8 mM·g−1 to 3.3 mM·g−1 using alkali-pretreated biomass. The highest ethanol yields on lignocellulosic hydrolysates were observed with hemp hydrolysates pretreated with acid, 4.2 mM·g−1.

  2. The Impact of Ethanol and Ethanol Subsidies on Corn Prices: Revisiting History

    Bruce A. Babcock


    The rapid rise in corn prices that began in the fall of 2006 coincided with exponential growth in U.S. corn ethanol production. At about the same time, new ethanol consumption mandates were added to existing ethanol import tariffs and price subsidies. This troika of subsidies leads critics to view the ethanol industry as being beholden to subsidies, which then leads to the conclusion that ethanol subsidies lead to high corn prices. But droughts, floods, a severe U.S. recession, and two genera...

  3. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott


    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  4. Electrical stimulation of experimental nonunions

    Jacobs, R.R.; Luethi, U.; Dueland, R.T.; Perren, S.M.

    Hypertrophic and oligotrophic nonunions were prepared by resection of a portion of the proximal ulna in dogs. In the hypertrophic nonunions, 20 muamps of direct current for eight weeks produced an increase in bone formation compared to the opposite control limb by radiography, photometry, point counting of new bone, and growth rate by sequential fluorochrome labeling and the dynamic uptake of 99mTc-labeled methylene disphosphonate. Oligotrophic nonunions were treated by plating and aspiration grafting in addition to direct-current stimulation. Ony the point counting of new bone showed a significant increase in bone formation with stimulation. Sequential fluorochrome labeling demonstrated that the new bone was laid down on existing bone and not primarily adjacent to the cathode within the fibrous nonunion. This finding supports the cell-mediated rather than physicochemical effect of electrostimulation.

  5. Ethanol-derived immunoreactive species formed by free radical mechanisms.

    Moncada, C; Torres, V; Varghese, G; Albano, E; Israel, Y


    Recent studies have shown that the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical (CH3CHOH), a metabolite of ethanol, is produced in vitro and in vivo. We report studies that establish the immunogenicity of alpha-hydroxyethyl radical-derived protein adducts. Rat liver microsomes incubated in the presence of [14C]ethanol and NADPH (under aerobic conditions) incorporate 14C into acid-stable adducts. Incorporation was markedly inhibited by the free-radical scavenger alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone. Rabbits immunized with rat liver microsomes that had been preincubated with ethanol and NADPH generated antibodies that recognized polylysine-acetaldehyde adducts and adducts formed by incubation of proteins with an alpha-hydroxyethyl radical-generating system (ethanol plus H2O2 plus Fe2+). Rabbits immunized with microsomes that had been preincubated with ethanol and NADPH plus alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone generated antibodies that recognized polylysine-acetaldehyde adducts. However, their reactivity against alpha-hydroxyethyl-derived protein epitopes was greatly reduced or was virtually abolished. Data indicate that microsomes metabolizing ethanol generate two types of adducts, acetaldehyde-derived adducts and alpha-hydroxyethyl radical-derived adducts, both of which are immunogenic. Immunization of rabbits with alpha-hydroxyethyl-bovine serum albumin adducts led to the production of antibodies that recognized alpha-hydroxyethyl-rabbit serum albumin adducts but did not recognize the native protein. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats led to the production of antibodies that recognized alpha-hydroxyethyl-rat serum albumin adducts but did not recognize rat serum albumin. The study (i) indicates that alpha-hydroxyethyl radical-derived protein adducts are immunogenic, (ii) supports earlier work that proposed that alpha-hydroxyethyl radicals generated in different systems bind covalently to proteins, and (iii) demonstrates the formation of antibodies to alpha

  6. Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova


    Full Text Available The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective producers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the strain Candida catenulata VKM Y-5 produced succinic acid up to 5.2 g/L with mass yield of 32.6 % and energy yield of 14.8 %; the other strain, Candida zeylanoides VKM Y-2324, excreted 9.4 g/L of succinic acid with mass and energy yields of 39 and 17.8 %, respectively. It was indicated that succinic acid formation in the yeasts was accompanied by the synthesis of considerable amounts of malic acid, which was apparently due to a high activity of the glyoxylate cycle. Growth characteristics of both strains were studied in dependence on the concentrations of ethanol, zinc ions and nitrogen in the medium.

  7. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Barium Ferrite in Ethanol/Water Media

    M.Montazeri-Pour; A.Ataie


    Nanocrystalline particles of barium ferrite magnetic material have been prepared by co-precipitation route using aqueous and non-aqueous solutions of iron and barium chlorides with a Fe/Ba molar ratio of 11 and subsequent drying-annealing treatment. Water and ethanol/water mixture with volume ratio of 3:1 were used as solvents in the process. Coprecipitated powders were annealed at various temperatures for 1 h. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DTA/TGA (differential thermal analy-sis/thermogravimetric analysis) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques were used to evaluate powder particle characteristics. DTA/TGA results confirmed by those obtained from XRD indicated that the formation of barium ferrite occurs in sample synthesized in ethanol/water solution at a relatively low temperature of 631℃. Nano-size particles of barium ferrite with mean particle size of almost 75 and 100 nm were observed in the SEM micrographs of the samples synthesized in ethanol/water solution after annealing at 700 and 800℃ for 1 h, respectively.

  8. Enhanced deficits in long-term potentiation in the adult dentate gyrus with 2nd trimester ethanol consumption.

    Jennifer L Helfer

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1(st or 3(rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2(nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  9. Effect of Ethanol Stress on Fermentation Performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Immobilized on Nypa fruticans Leaf Sheath Pieces

    Hoang Phong Nguyen


    Full Text Available The yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces were tested for ethanol tolerance (0, 23.7, 47.4, 71.0 and 94.7 g/L. Increase in the initial ethanol concentration from 23.7 to 94.7 g/L decreased the average growth rate and concentration of ethanol produced by the immobilized yeast by 5.2 and 4.1 times, respectively. However, in the medium with initial ethanol concentration of 94.7 g/L, the average growth rate, glucose uptake rate and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 3.7, 2.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. The ethanol stress inhibited ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and the yeast responded to the stress by changing the fatty acid composition of cellular membrane. The adsorption of yeast cells on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces of the growth medium increased the saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 mass fraction in the cellular membrane and that improved alcoholic fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast.

  10. Ethanol induced astaxanthin accumulation and transcriptional expression of carotenogenic genes in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Wen, Zewen; Liu, Zhiyong; Hou, Yuyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Fangjian


    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the most promising natural sources of astaxanthin. However, inducing the accumulation process has become one of the primary obstacles in astaxanthin production. In this study, the effect of ethanol on astaxanthin accumulation was investigated. The results demonstrated that astaxanthin accumulation occurred with ethanol addition even under low-light conditions. The astaxanthin productivity could reach 11.26 mg L(-1) d(-1) at 3% (v/v) ethanol, which was 2.03 times of that of the control. The transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenogenic genes were evaluated using real-time PCR. The results showed that ethanol greatly enhanced transcription of the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase genes (ipi-1 and ipi-2), which were responsible for isomerization reaction of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This finding suggests that ethanol induced astaxanthin biosynthesis was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1 and ipi-2 at transcriptional level, promoting isoprenoid synthesis and substrate supply to carotenoid formation. Thus ethanol has the potential to be used as an effective reagent to induce astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis.

  11. Hydrophobic pore array surfaces: wetting and interaction forces in water/ethanol mixtures.

    Hansson, Petra M; Hormozan, Yashar; Brandner, Birgit D; Linnros, Jan; Claesson, Per M; Swerin, Agne; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C; Thormann, Esben


    Interactions between and wetting behavior of structured hydrophobic surfaces using different concentrations of water/ethanol mixtures have been investigated. Silica surfaces consisting of pore arrays with different pore spacings and pore depths were made hydrophobic by silanization. Their static and dynamic contact angles were found to be independent of the pore depth while fewer pores on the surface, i.e. a closer resemblance to a flat surface, gave a lower contact angle. As expected, a higher amount of ethanol facilitated wetting on all the surfaces tested. Confocal Raman microscopy measurements proved both water and ethanol to penetrate into the pores. AFM colloidal probe force measurements clearly showed that formation of air cavitation was hindered between the hydrophobic surfaces in presence of ethanol, and an increase in ethanol concentration was followed by a smaller jump-in distance and a weaker adhesion force. On separation, an immediate jump-out of contact occurred. The measured forces were interpreted as being due to capillary condensation of ethanol between the surfaces giving rise to very unstable cavities immediately rupturing on surface separation.

  12. Ethanol precipitation analysis of thymus histone

    Bijvoet, P.


    An analytical ethanol precipitation technique, similar to 's salting-out procedure, was used for the characterisation of whole thymus histone and the products obtained by preparative ethanol fractionation. The analysis was carried out at —5° C and pH 6.5. Whole histone prepared according to et al.,


    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  14. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.


    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  15. Antidepressant Effect of Aminophylline After Ethanol Exposure

    Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Soares, Paula Matias; Almeida, Anália Barbosa; de Freitas Guimarães Lobato, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Dayane Pessoa; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes


    This work investigated the association of acute ethanol and aminophylline administration on behavioral models of depression and prefrontal monoamine levels (i.e. norepinephrine and dopamine) in mice. The animals received a single dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) or aminophylline (5 or 10 mg/kg) alone or in association. Thirty minutes after the last drug administration, the animals were assessed in behavioral models by the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. After these tests, the animals were sacrificed and the prefrontal cortices dissected to measure monoamine content. Results showed that ethanol presented depression-like activity in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. These effects were reversed by the association with aminophylline in all tests. Norepinephrine and dopamine levels decreased, while an increase in the dopamine metabolite, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid (DOPAC), after ethanol administration was observed. On the contrary, the association of ethanol and aminophylline increased the norepinephrine and dopamine content, while it decreased DOPAC when compared to the ethanol group, confirming the alterations observed in the behavioral tests. These data reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system on ethanol effects, highlighting the importance of the norepinephrine and dopamine pathways in the prefrontal cortex to the effects of ethanol. PMID:23641339

  16. Low Doses of Ethanol Enhance LTD-like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex.

    Fuhl, Anna; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Toennes, Stefan W; Ziemann, Ulf


    Humans liberally use ethanol for its facilitating effects on social interactions but its effects on central nervous system function remain underexplored. We have recently described that very low doses of ethanol abolish long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in human cortex, most likely through enhancement of tonic inhibition [Lücke et al, 2014, Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1508-18]. Here, we studied the effects of low-dose ethanol on long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity. LTD-like plasticity was induced in human motor cortex by paired associative transcranial magnetic stimulation (PASLTD), and measured as decreases of motor evoked potential input-output curve (IO-curve). In addition, sedation was measured by decreases in saccade peak velocity (SPV). Ethanol in two low doses (EtOHethanol, easily reached during social drinking, enhance LTD-like plasticity in human cortex. This effect is most likely explained by the activation of extrasynaptic α4-subunit containing gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors by low-dose EtOH, resulting in increased tonic inhibition. Findings may stimulate cellular research on the role of tonic inhibition in regulating excitability and plasticity of cortical neuronal networks.

  17. An integrative analysis of transcriptomic response of ethanol tolerant strains to ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kasavi, Ceyda; Eraslan, Serpil; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Kirdar, Betul


    The accumulation of ethanol is one of the main environmental stresses that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to in industrial alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production processes. Despite the known impacts of ethanol, the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance are still not fully understood. Novel gene targets leading to ethanol tolerance were previously identified via a network approach and the investigations of the deletions of these genes resulted in the improved ethanol tolerance of pmt7Δ/pmt7Δ and yhl042wΔ/yhl042wΔ strains. In the present study, an integrative system based approach was used to investigate the global transcriptional changes in these two ethanol tolerant strains in response to ethanol and hence to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the observed tolerant phenotypes. In addition to strain specific biological processes, a number of common and already reported biological processes were found to be affected in the reference and both ethanol tolerant strains. However, the integrative analysis of the transcriptome with the transcriptional regulatory network and the ethanol tolerance network revealed that each ethanol tolerant strain had a specific organization of the transcriptomic response. Transcription factors around which most important changes occur were determined and active subnetworks in response to ethanol and functional clusters were identified in all strains.

  18. Ethanol fermentation of sugar beet thick juice diluted with crude cheese whey by the flex yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15

    Oda, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Shinomiya, N; Ohba, K.; 小田, 有二


    Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15, called flex yeast, is a strain that is insensitive tocatabolite repression and has the capacity to produce ethanol efficiently from a mixtureof beet molasses and whey powder. When a fermentation test was conducted in 50 mLof a medium containing 200 mg mL-1 of sugar as sugar beet thick juice diluted with anarbitrary amount of crude whey, strain KD-15 produced over 99 mg mL-1 ethanol in allthe media tested, and ethanol formation decreased in proportion to the volu...

  19. Complex plastic changes in the neuropeptide Y system during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat brain

    Olling, J D; Ulrichsen, J; Christensen, D Z;


    and NPY-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS functional binding. Rats received intragastric ethanol repeatedly for 4 days, and the NPY system was studied in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, CA1, and piriform cortex (PirCx) and neocortex (NeoCx) during intoxication, peak withdrawal (16 hr), late withdrawal...

  20. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando


    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H2O2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic correlations with ethanol withdrawal severity.

    Crabbe, J C; Young, E R; Kosobud, A


    A major goal of pharmacogenetic research on alcoholism remains the identification of some "marker" that could predict the liability of a particular individual for a genetic susceptibility to develop alcoholism. The present paper presents evidence that the severity of withdrawal from physical dependence on ethanol varies widely among inbred strains of mice, and that withdrawal severity is negatively genetically correlated with initial sensitivity and magnitude of tolerance to ethanol hypothermia. These correlations are supported by differences in hypothermic response between replicate lines of mice genetically selected for susceptibility and resistance to ethanol withdrawal seizures. The genetic relationships reported suggest that the effects of ethanol on thermoregulation in mice may offer a predictive marker for susceptibility to ethanol physical dependence.

  2. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata


    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  3. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo


    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  4. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)


    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  5. Inhibition of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase attenuates ethanol-induced hyperactivity in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Nowicki, Magda; Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert


    Zebrafish have been successfully employed in the study of the behavioural and biological effects of ethanol. Like in mammals, low to moderate doses of ethanol induce motor hyperactivity in zebrafish, an effect that has been attributed to the activation of the dopaminergic system. Acute ethanol exposure increases dopamine (DA) in the zebrafish brain, and it has been suggested that tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis, may be activated in response to ethanol via phosphorylation. The current study employed tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), a selective inhibitor of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, for the first time, in zebrafish. We treated zebrafish with a THP dose that did not alter baseline motor responses to examine whether it can attenuate or abolish the effects of acute exposure to alcohol (ethanol) on motor activity, on levels of DA, and on levels of dopamine's metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). We found that 60-minute exposure to 1% alcohol induced motor hyperactivity and an increase in brain DA. Both of these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with THP. However, no differences in DOPAC levels were found among the treatment groups. These findings suggest that tyrosine hydroxylase is activated via phosphorylation to increase DA synthesis during alcohol exposure in zebrafish, and this partially mediates alcohol's locomotor stimulant effects. Future studies will investigate other potential candidates in the molecular pathway to further decipher the neurobiological mechanism that underlies the stimulatory properties of this popular psychoactive drug.

  6. Epicardial isolation of pulmonary veins with ethanol in open chest dogs

    YIN Xian-dong; DONG Jian-zeng; MA Chang-sheng; NING Man; SANG Cai-hua; MIAO Cheng-long; LIANG Cui; TANG Ri-bo; LONG De-yong; YU Rong-hui; LIU Xing-peng


    Background Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become a widely accepted treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to identify the efficacy and safety of pulmonary vein (PV) ablation with ethanol and to explore an alternative energy source for catheter ablation of AF.Methods Twelve open-chest mongrel dogs were randomized into ethanol ablation group and control group. Both the injections and electrophysiological mapping procedures were performed epicardialy. In ethanol ablation group (n=6),injections were performed to circumferentially ablate the root of each PV (0.2 ml each site, 3 mm apart) with 95% ethanol using an 1 ml injector. In control group (n=-6), saline was injected other than ethanol. PV isolation was confirmed with a circular catheter immediately after the procedure and at follow up of 30 days. PV isolation was defined as the absence of PV potentials at each electrode of the circular catheter positioned at the PV side of the lesions, as well as complete conduction block into left atrium (LA) during PV pacing.Results PV electrical isolation with complete bidirectional conduction block was achieved with ethanol immediately and at 30 days in 95% of PVs, while saline injection caused only transient conduction changes between LA and PVs. In ethanol group, histologic analysis showed transmural lesions at 30 days. And there was no evidence of PV stenosis or thrombus formation. Mean LA diameter was not significantly different between baseline and 30 days.Conclusion Ethanol is a safe energy source to effectively isolate PV in canine model and may be promising in endocardial ablation procedure of AF patients in the future.

  7. Effects of Volatile Components and Ethanolic Extract from Eclipta prostrata on Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Osteoblasts

    Jin-Zhong Wu


    Full Text Available Eclipta prostrata, an aromatic plant, is known in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In the present study, the volatile components were isolated from the aerial parts of this plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC–MS. A total of 55 compounds, which were the major part (91.7% of the volatiles, were identified by matching mass spectra with a mass spectrum library (NIST 05.L. The main components were as follows: heptadecane (14.78%, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (12.80%, n-hexadecanoic acid (8.98%, pentadecane (8.68%, eudesma-4(14,11-diene (5.86%, phytol (3.77%, octadec-9-enoic acid (3.35%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester (2.74%, (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (2.36%, (Z-7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene (2.08% and (Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (2.07%. The effects of volatile components and ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of this plant on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts were evaluated by the MTT method and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Both volatile components and ethanolic extract (1 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL significantly (p < 0.01 stimulated the proliferation and increased the ALP activity of primary osteoblasts. These results propose that E. prostrata can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation, and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.


    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos


    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  9. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    Guvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Ernie J. M.


    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400 degrees C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to format

  10. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: role of the TNF signaling axis

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-alpha signaling. The effects in mice are unreported....

  11. Oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over carbon nanofiber supported Co catalysts

    da Silva, A.L.M.; Mattos, L.V.; den Breejen, J.P.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.; Noronha, F.B.


    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol oxidative steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. The smallest (4 nm) were quite stable during OSR reaction but significant carbon formation was detected.

  12. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada


    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol

  13. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats.

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E; Cubero, Inmaculada


    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in the limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kgi.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge

  14. Immature Hippocampal Neuronal Networks do not Develop Tolerance to the Excitatory Actions of Ethanol

    Galindo, Rafael; Valenzuela, C. Fernando


    EtOH (ethanol) damages the hippocampus, a brain region that is involved in learning and memory processes. The mechanisms responsible for this effect of EtOH are not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that acute EtOH exposure potently stimulates oscillatory activity driven by the excitatory actions of GABA in the CA3 region of the neonatal rat hippocampus. This activity can be recorded during the growth spurt period as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Here, we characterized the ef...

  15. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Lynd, L; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles


    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  16. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J


    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol.

  17. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela


    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  18. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos


    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy.

  19. The effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ethanol withdrawal seizures.

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L


    Physical dependence on ethanol results in an ethanol withdrawal (ETX) syndrome including susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rodents after abrupt cessation of ethanol. Chronic ethanol administration and ETX induce functional changes of neurons in several brain regions, including the amygdala. Amygdala neurons are requisite elements of the neuronal network subserving AGS propagation during ETX induced by a subacute "binge" ethanol administration protocol. However, the effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ETX seizure behaviors are unknown. In the present study ethanol (5g/kg) was administered intragastrically in Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 28days [chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) protocol]. One week later the rats began receiving ethanol intragastrically three times daily for 4days (binge protocol). Microwire electrodes were implanted prior to CIE or on the day after CIE ended to record extracellular action potentials in lateral amygdala (LAMG) neurons. The first dose of ethanol administered in the binge protocol following CIE treatment did not alter LAMG neuronal firing, which contrasts with firing suppression seen previously in the binge protocol alone. These data indicate that CIE induces neuroadaptive changes in the ETX network which reduce LAMG response to ethanol. LAMG neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli prior to AGS were significantly decreased during ETX as compared to those before ethanol treatment. LAMG neurons fired tonically throughout the tonic convulsions during AGS. CIE plus binge treatment resulted in a significantly greater mean seizure duration and a significantly elevated incidence of death than was seen previously with the binge protocol alone, indicating an elevated seizure severity following chronic ethanol administration.

  20. Ethanol tolerance of immobilized brewers' yeast cells.

    Norton, S; Watson, K; D'Amore, T


    A method based on the survival of yeast cells subjected to an ethanol or heat shock was utilized to compare the stress resistance of free and carrageenan-immobilized yeast cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase of yeast survival against ethanol for immobilized cells as compared to free cells, while no marked difference in heat resistance was observed. When entrapped cells were released by mechanical disruption of the gel beads and submitted to the same ethanol stress, they exhibited a lower survival rate than entrapped cells, but a similar or slightly higher survival rate than free cells. The incidence of ethanol- or heat-induced respiratory-deficient mutants of entrapped cells was equivalent to that of control or non-stressed cells (1.3 +/- 0.5%) whereas ethanol- and heat-shocked free and released cells exhibited between 4.4% and 10.9% average incidence of respiration-deficient mutants. It was concluded that the carrageenan gel matrix provided a protection against ethanol, and that entrapped cells returned to normal physiological behaviour as soon as they were released. The cell growth rate was a significant factor in the resistance of yeast to high ethanol concentrations. The optimum conditions to obtain reliable and reproducible results involved the use of slow-growing cells after exhaustion of the sugar substrate.

  1. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Jia Luo


    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  2. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin


    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production. PMID:27321949

  3. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Dan eGoldowitz*


    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    Fanmuyi Yang


    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1, and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6. UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Huntington’s disease (HD, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  5. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  6. Use of clinoptilolite in ethanol dehydration

    Tihmillioglu, F. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey); Ulku, S. [Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)


    Clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite, which exists in various regions of Turkey, has been experimentally studied. For the ethanol-water-local clinoptilolite system, uptake and breakthrough curves were determined under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. In adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies, the effects of particle size, temperature and, amount of zeolite on the uptake rate have been investigated. The breakthrough curves for four different flow rates of ethanol and three different bed heights were determined in dynamic column studies. The results of the experiments show that intraparticle diffusion is the main resistance. The local clinoptilolite is a promising adsorbent for water adsorption from aqueous ethanol.

  7. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.


    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.


    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  9. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas


    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  10. Ethanol dry reforming for syngas production over Ir/CeO2 catalyst

    侯腾飞; 雷雨声; 张绍印; 张江华; 蔡伟杰


    Syngas production from CO2 reforming of ethanol over an Ir/CeO2 catalyst was investigated. Catalysts characterization was conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The Ir/CeO2 catalyst was more active and stable toward syngas formation (molar ratio~1). The superior catalytic performance was interpreted in terms of the strong interaction between Ir particles and ceria support which was crucial for efficient ethanol/CO2 activation and coke removal on the catalyst surface.

  11. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong


    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  12. p53 and the ribosomal protein L5 participate in high molecular mass complex formation with protein kinase CK2 in murine teratocarcinoma cell line F9 after serum stimulation and cisplatin treatment

    Guerra, B; Issinger, O G


    Using the murine teratocarcinoma cell line F9 we investigated the influence of serum stimulation and cisplatin treatment on the p53, CK2, MDM2 levels. Both treatments led to an increase of p53, though with different kinetics; the other proteins investigated were not affected. We present direct...

  13. Survey of U.S. fuel ethanol plants

    The ethanol industry is progressively growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so too ...


    Valerian Cerempei


    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  15. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa


    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  16. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa


    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  17. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.


    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  18. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasohol and ethanol vehicles

    de Abrantes, Rui; Vicente de Assunção, João; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Bruns, Roy Edward; Nóbrega, Raimundo Paiva

    The exhaust emission of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered toxic to human health were investigated on two spark ignition light duty vehicles, one being gasohol (Gasohol, in Brazil, is the generic denomination for mixtures of pure gasoline plus 20-25% of anhydrous ethyl alcohol fuel (AEAF).)-fuelled and the other a flexible-fuel vehicle fuelled with hydrated ethanol. The influence of fuel type and quality, aged lubricant oil type and use of fuel additives on the formation of these compounds was tested using standardized tests identical to US FTP-75 cycle. PAH sampling and chemical analysis followed the basic recommendations of method TO-13 (United States. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Compendium Method TO-13A - Determination of polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (CG/MS). Center for environmental research information, Cincinnati, p. 78), with the necessary modification for this particular application. Results showed that the total PAH emission factor varied from 41.9 μg km -1 to 612 μg km -1 in the gasohol vehicle, and from 11.7 μg km -1 to 27.4 μg km -1 in the ethanol-fuelled vehicle, a significant difference in favor of the ethanol vehicle. Generally, emission of light molecular weight PAHs was predominant, while high molecular weights PAHs were not detected. In terms of benzo( a)pyrene toxicity equivalence, emission factors varied from 0.00984 μg TEQ km -1 to 4.61 μg TEQ km -1 for the gasohol vehicle and from 0.0117 μg TEQ km -1 to 0.0218 μg TEQ km -1 in the ethanol vehicle. For the gasohol vehicle, results showed that the use of fuel additive causes a significant increase in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at a confidence level of 90% or higher; the use of rubber solvent on gasohol showed a reduction in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at the same confidence level; the use of synthetic oil instead of mineral oil also contributed

  19. Effects of the novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist PF 514273 on the acquisition and expression of ethanol conditioned place preference.

    Pina, Melanie M; Cunningham, Christopher L


    The centrally expressed cannabinoid receptor (CB1) has been considered a potential therapeutic target in treating alcoholism. Though CB1 receptors have been shown to modulate primary and conditioned ethanol reward, much of this research employed animal models that require ethanol ingestion or oral routes of administration. This is problematic considering CB1 antagonist drugs have high anorectic liability and have been used clinically in the treatment of obesity. Therefore, the present study examined CB1 antagonism in DBA/2J mice using an unbiased ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, a paradigm that does not require ethanol ingestion. To evaluate the role of CB1 receptors in primary ethanol reward, the highly potent and selective novel CB1 antagonist 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(2,2-difluoropropyl)-6,7-dihydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-f][1,4]oxazepin-8(5H)-one (PF 514273) was administered 30 min before place preference conditioning with a fixed dose of ethanol (acquisition). To evaluate the role of CB1 receptors in ethanol-conditioned reward, PF 514273 was administered 30 min before place preference testing (expression). Although PF 514273 reduced ethanol-stimulated and basal locomotor activity, it did not perturb the acquisition or expression of ethanol-induced CPP. Results from the present study appear inconsistent with other studies that have demonstrated a role for CB1 antagonism in ethanol reward using oral administration paradigms. Our findings suggest that CB1 antagonism may have greater involvement in consummatory behavior than ethanol reward.

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    ... is preferred by many doctors, patients and families. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) works through a device implanted under ... skin that sends electrical pulses through the left vagus nerve, half of a prominent pair of nerves that ...

  1. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    Jain, Mayank


    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  2. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol



    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  3. Application of quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit to measure ethanol concentration in blood samples.

    Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y


    In this paper, the applicability of the quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit for screening of ethanol concentrations in blood samples was investigated. The pretreatment of blood using the sulfosalicylic acid solution and the three-way stopcock followed by membrane filtration gave satisfactory results. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood samples (n=61) determined by QED correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficient indicated 0.990. Because a high correlation coefficient (0.928) was also confirmed in trial by investigators, QED test should be highly considered for ethanol screening in forensic praxis.

  4. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K


    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism.

  5. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...



    Feb 11, 2015 ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 yeast strains using 500 ml ... provides recovery of up to 90% of fermentable sugars ..... ethanol production in the clarified broth of sugarcane juice.

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie


    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  7. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane juice with yeasts that ... yeast strains using 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with 180 ml of must prepared ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ...

  8. Ethanol consumption as inductor of pancreatitis

    José; A; Tapia; Ginés; M; Salido; Antonio; González


    Alcohol abuse is a major cause of pancreatitis, a condition that can manifest as both acute necroinflammation and chronic damage (acinar atrophy and f ibrosis). Pancreatic acinar cells can metabolize ethanol via the oxidative pathway, which generates acetaldehyde and involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and possibly cytochrome P4502E1. Additionally, ethanol can be metabolized via a nonoxidative pathway involving fatty acid ethyl ester synthases. Metabolism of ethanol by acinar and other pancreatic cells and the consequent generation of toxic metabolites, are postulated to play an important role in the development of alcohol-related acute and chronic pancreatic injury. This current work will review some recent advances in the knowledge about ethanol actions on the exocrine pancreas and its relationship to inflammatory disease and cancer.

  9. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)


    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  10. Evidence of anomalous behavior of intermolecular interactions at low concentration of methanol in ethanol-methanol binary system.

    Nilavarasi, K; Kartha, Thejus R; Madhurima, V


    At low concentrations of methanol in a binary system of ethanol and methanol, uniquely complex molecular interactions are reported here. Previous studies indicate that ethanol molecules form aggregates held together by hydrogen bonding (O-H-O) and also dispersive forces. Addition of small amount of methanol tends to break the hydrogen bond network of ethanol due to the larger polarity of methanol. This leads to the ethanol molecules becoming somewhat isolated from each other within a scaffolding network of methanol molecules, as seen from the present molecular dynamics simulations. This is an indication of a repulsive force that dominates among the two different alcohols. At higher molar concentration of methanol (Xm > 0.3817), the strength and extent (number) of formation of hydrogen bonds between ethanol and methanol increase. The geometry of molecular structure at high concentration favors the fitting of component molecules with each other. Intermolecular interactions in the ethanol-methanol binary system over the entire concentration range were investigated in detail using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, surface tension and refractive index studies. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the hydrogen bond density is a direct function of the number of methanol molecules present, as the ethanol aggregates are not strictly hydrogen-bond constructed which is in agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Overview of Stimulators

    Mohd. Suhaib Kidwai; Mohd Maroof Siddiqui; Ahmad Nafees; Qazi saeed Ahmad


    This paper aims to bring forth the significance of stimulators , recent advancements in the field of stimulators and how electrical signals can be utilized for pain relief and to cure other diseases of human body ,by using stimulators. This paper aims to create awareness about stimulators and also focuses on their advantages as compared to theconventional medicine .Moreover,it also bring forth that how an electrical signal can be utilized for treating various human disorders and diseases.

  12. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.


    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  13. Use of clinoptilolite in ethanol dehydration

    Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda; Ülkü, Semra


    Clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite, which exists in various regions of Turkey, has been experimentally studied. For the ethanol-water-local clinoptilolite system, uptake and breakthrough curves were determined under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. In adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies, the effects of particle size, temperature and, amount of zeolite on the uptake rate have been investigated. The breakthrough curves for four different flow rates of ethanol and three different b...

  14. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    M. Clark Dale


    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  15. Tris(3-aminophenylphosphine oxide ethanol solvate

    Jun Han


    Full Text Available The title compound crystallized as an ethanol solvate, C18H18N3OP·C2H6O. It is the reduction product of tris(3-nitrophenylphosphine oxide. In the crystal, there are intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds between neighbouring tris(3-aminophenylphosphine oxide molecules and O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the ethanol solvent molecule.

  16. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Ester Foppa Pedretti


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  17. Low temperature hydrolysis for ethanol production

    Garcia, A.; Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.


    Hydrolysis of corn was compared at two temperatures of 100/sup 0/C and 75/sup 0/C. Starch conversion to dextrose and then ethanol were determined. Yields were 10.69% ethanol in the fermented beer for 100/sup 0/C and 9.89% for 75/sup 0/C. The 75/sup 0/C hydrolysis required about 100 MJ less thermal energy than the 100/sup 0/C hydrolysis. The effects of contamination and respiration were also assessed.

  18. Cellulose ethanol is ready to go

    Hladik, M. [Iogen Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Ottawa-based Iogen Corporation is a leader in industrial biotechnology with a focus on cellulose-based enzyme technology. The company designed and operates the world's first and largest cellulose ethanol demonstration facility making ethanol from biomass. This presentation described Iogen's cellulose ethanol demonstration facility and outlined the innovative process in which enzymes prepare the plant fibres for fermentation, distillation and finally conversion to cellulose ethanol fuel. Hydrolysis and fermentation are achieved using a multi-stage hydrolysis process. It is anticipated that biorefineries will use the residues from locally grown agriculture to produce the ethanol, but stakeholder alliances will have to be built in order to form the elements of commercialization. Feedstocks, government policy, infrastructure issues, investment climate and ethanol sales all contribute to the success of a commercial plant. An assessment of preliminary global feedstock availability was presented with reference to total wheat, coarse grains, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, rice straw and sugar cane production. To date, the use of cellulose ethanol fuel has been demonstrated in vehicle trials in Bonn, Germany, as well as fleet vehicles operated by Natural Resources Canada and Agriculture Canada. Sample feedstock basins in Germany, Canada and the United States were highlighted. The supply of cellulose feedstock is large enough to contribute significantly to reductions in fossil fuel consumption. The United States Department of Energy claims that cellulose ethanol could displace over 30 per cent of the current petroleum consumption in the United States, and that land resources in the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass. However, technology, financing and government policies are the factors which currently affect the commercialization of emerging technologies. tabs., figs.

  19. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol



    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  20. The effects of naltrexone on cadmium-induced increases in oral ethanol self-administration.

    Nation, J R; Horger, B A; Pugh, C K; Bratton, G R; Rowe, L D


    Adult male rats were exposed to a standard laboratory diet (N = 20), or an adulterated diet containing 100 ppm added cadmium (N = 20), for 60 days. On Day 61, half the animals from each dietary condition received subcutaneous implants of two 30 mg naltrexone pellets, and the remaining half the animals received identical implants of 30 mg placebo pellets. One week later, animals from groups created by this interaction (Groups Control-Placebo, Control-Naltrexone, Cadmium-Placebo, Cadmium-Naltrexone) were tested in an ethanol self-administration paradigm that presented a 10% ethanol solution (v/v) in both a choice and nonchoice format. The results indicated that cadmium exposure increased the oral self-administration of ethanol in the choice setting where water was offered as an alternative, and the opiate antagonist naltrexone failed to attenuate this effect.

  1. Protective effects of polysaccharide from Dendrobium nobile against ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hongxin; Mei, Nana; Ma, Chaoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Lv, Wenping; He, GuoHua


    Dendrobium nobile is a medicinal herb in traditional China and Southeast Asian countries. Employing a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, we examined the protective effect of polysaccharide (JCP) extracted from Dendrobium nobile and explored the related mechanisms. Oral administration with 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight JCP for days can significant prevent the formation of gastric ulcer. Moreover, JCP pretreatment could alleviate ethanol-induced histological damage, antioxidant activities, the level of epidermal growth factor, gastric concentration of prostaglandin E, and regulate the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases and matrix metalloproteinases. This study investigated the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer protective effect of JCP for the first time, and elucidated that the protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An alternative synthetic approach for efficient catalytic conversion of syngas to ethanol.

    Yue, Hairong; Ma, Xinbin; Gong, Jinlong


    Ethanol is an attractive end product and a versatile feedstock because a widespread market exists for its commercial use as a fuel additive or a potential substitute for gasoline. Currently, ethanol is produced primarily by fermentation of biomass-derived sugars, particularly those containing six carbons, but coproducts 5-carbon sugars and lignin remain unusable. Another major process for commercial production of ethanol is hydration of ethylene over solid acidic catalysts, yet not sustainable considering the depletion of fossil fuels. Catalytic conversion of synthetic gas (CO + H2) could produce ethanol in large quantities. However, the direct catalytic conversion of synthetic gas to ethanol remains challenging, and no commercial process exists as of today although the research has been ongoing for the past 90 years, since such the process suffers from low yield and poor selectivity due to slow kinetics of the initial C-C bond formation and fast chain growth of the C2 intermediates. This Account describes recent developments in an alternative approach for the synthesis of ethanol via synthetic gas. This process is an integrated technology consisting of the coupling of CO with methanol to form dimethyl oxalate and the subsequent hydrogenation to yield ethanol. The byproduct of the second step (methanol) can be separated and used in circulation as the feedstock for the coupling step. The coupling reaction of carbon monoxide for producing dimethyl oxalate takes place under moderate reaction conditions with high selectivity (∼95%), which ideally leads to a self-closing, nonwaste, catalytic cycling process. This Account also summarizes the progress on the development of copper-based catalysts for the hydrogenation reaction with remarkable efficiencies and stability. The unique lamellar structure and the cooperative effect between surface Cu(0) and Cu(+) species are responsible for the activity of the catalyst with high yield of ethanol (∼91%). The understanding of

  3. The effects of ethanol on the developing cerebellum and eyeblink classical conditioning.

    Green, John T


    In rats, developmental ethanol exposure has been used to model the central nervous system deficits associated with human fetal alcohol syndrome. Binge-like ethanol exposure of neonatal rats depletes cells in the cerebellum, including Purkinje cells, granule cells, and deep nuclear cells, and produces deficits in simple tests of motor coordination. However, the extent to which anatomical damage is related to behavioral deficits has been difficult to estimate. Eyeblink classical conditioning is known to engage a discrete brain stem-cerebellar circuit, making it an ideal test of cerebellar functional integrity after developmental ethanol exposure. Eyeblink conditioning is a simple form of motor learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as a tone) comes to elicit an eyeblink when repeatedly paired with a stimulus that evokes an eyeblink prior to training (such as mild periorbital stimulation). In eyeblink conditioning, one of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the interpositus nucleus, as well as specific Purkinje cell populations, are sites of convergence for tone conditioned stimulus and somatosensory unconditioned stimulus information, and, together with brain stem nuclei, provide the necessary and sufficient substrate for the learned response. A series of studies have shown that eyeblink conditioning is impaired in both weanling and adult rats given binge-like exposure to ethanol as neonates. In addition, interpositus nucleus neurons from ethanol-exposed rats showed impaired activation during eyeblink conditioning. These deficits are accompanied by a permanent reduction In the deep cerebellar nuclear cell population. Because particular cerebellar cell populations are utilized in well-defined ways during eyeblink conditioning, conclusions regarding the underlying neural substrates of behavioral change after developmental ethanol exposure are greatly strengthened.

  4. Protective Effects of Manassantin A against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats.

    Song, Ji-Won; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Tae-In; Moon, Og-Sung; Won, Young-Suk; Son, Hwa-Young; Son, Jong-Keun; Kwon, Hyo-Jung


    Manassantin A, a neolignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, is a major phytochemical compound that has various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, neuroleptic, and human acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of manassantin A against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the manassantin A group were given oral doses of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or manassantin A (15 mg/kg), respectively, 1 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. Our examinations revealed that manassantin A pretreatment reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and epithelial cell loss in the gastric mucosa. Manassantin A pretreatment also attenuated the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, increased the mucosal glutathione (GSH) content, and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were clearly decreased in the manassantin A-pretreated group. In addition, manassantin A pretreatment enhanced the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduced the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) overproduction and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that manassantin A protects the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, and suggest that these protective effects might be associated with COX/PGE2 stimulation, inhibition of iNOS production and NF-κB activation, and improvements in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status.

  5. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre


    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  6. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Fecht, B.


    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  7. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)


    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  8. Electrophoretic painting on AZ31 Mg alloy pretreated in cerium conversion coating solutions prepared in ethanol-water mixtures

    Van Phuong, Nguyen; Fazal, Basit Raza; Moon, Sungmo


    Electrophoretic painting (E-paint) was prepared on AZ31 Mg alloy samples pretreated in cerium conversion coating (CeCC) solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water mixture and its characteristics, adhesion and corrosion resistance were investigated. It was found that CeCC formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in a CeCC solution without ethanol was partly cracked structure and mainly consisted of Mg(OH)2/MgO, which exhibited weak adhesion with E-painting layer after water immersion test, and low corrosion resistance, as indicated by rapid formation of blisters and paint delamination during salt spray test. The addition of ethanol promoted the growth of a fine nano-crystalline CeO2 layer over the entire substrate surface. The E-paint on AZ31 pretreated in the CeCC solutions with addition of ethanol showed also improved corrosion resistance, as represented by the delayed time for paint delamination and blister formation. The E-paint layers on the CeCC layers formed in solutions containing 50-80 vol% ethanol showed stronger adhesion and better corrosion resistance than those formed on the samples treated in a non-ethanol containing CeCC solution.

  9. Ethanol steam reforming on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: Effect of Mg addition

    Vizcaino, A.J.; Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Arena, P.; Baronetti, G.; Laborde, M.A.; Amadeo, N. [Chemical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Ethanol steam reforming is an interesting alternative for hydrogen production since ethanol can be renewably obtained. Use of lamellar double hydroxides (LDHs) as precursors of nickel catalysts leads to highly dispersed metal particles in an aluminium structure. In this sense, a Ni(II)Al(III) catalyst was synthesized from a LDH precursor and tested in ethanol steam reforming. Although this catalyst presents high stability, acidity of alumina promotes carbon deposition from ethylene through ethanol dehydration. For this reason, in order to neutralize acid sites, a series of catalysts was prepared by Mg addition to LDH precursors varying Mg/Ni ratio. The effect of Mg/Ni ratio in the catalyst on coke formation during ethanol steam reforming was studied, resulting in significant reduction of the amount of deposited carbon for Mg/Ni ratio higher than 0.1. Moreover, Mg addition increases the catalytic activity due to lower ethylene formation, which competes with ethanol for the same Ni active sites. (author)

  10. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. I: Model development and parameter estimation

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    The cybernetic approach to modeling of microbial kinetics in a mixed-substrate environment has been used in this work for the fermentative production of ethanol from cheese whey. In this system, the cells grow on multiple substrates and generate metabolic energy during product formation. This article deals with the development of a mathematical model in which the concept of cell maintenance was modified in light of the specific nature of product formation. Continuous culture data for anaerobic production of ethanol by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 on glucose and lactose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters for subsequent use in predicting the behavior of microbial growth and product formation in new situations. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa


    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers.

  12. Ethanol Production Kinetics by a Thermo-Tolerant Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from Starch Industry Waste (Hydrol

    Farman Ali Shah


    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant and deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed and employed to convert them to fuel ethanol in a 150 litre fermenter. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when fermentation of dextrozyme- treated hydrol was carried out for about 36 hours under optimized fermenting conditions. The maximum specific ethanol production rate (qP, and overall ethanol yield (YP/S were found to be 2.82 g L-1 h-1 and 0.49 g/g respectively. Determination of activation energy for cell growth (Ea= 20.8 kJ/mol and death (Ed = 19.1 kJ/mol and product formation and inactivation (EP=35.8 kJ/mol and Edp = 33.5 kJ/mol revealed the thermo-stability of the organism for up to 47°C.

  13. Effect of ethanol on hepatobiliary transport of cationic drugs. A study in the isolated perfused rat liver, rat hepatocytes and rat mitochondria

    Steen, H.; Merema, M.; Meijer, D.K.F. (Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University Centre for Pharmacy, Groningen State Univrsity, Groningen (Netherlands))


    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation tri-n-butylmethylammonium was found to be markedly stimulated by ethanol in a concentration-dependent fashion. The uptake of tri-n-butylmethylammonium at 1 [mu]M was increased to 120% and 137% at 0.5% (v/v, (=87 mM)) and 1% (v/v, (=174 mM)) ethanol, respectively. At 25 [mu]M, tri-n-butylmethylamonium uptake was increased to 124% and 152% at 0.5% (v/v) and 1% (v/v) of ethanol, respectively. The uptake of the organic cations azidoprocainamide methoiodide, vecuronium, ORG 9426 and ORG 6368, the anionic compound taurocholate and the uncharge compound ouabain was not markedly increased at these ethanol concentrations. The mechanism of action of ethanol on the uptake of tri-n-butylmethylammonium was further studied. Competitive inhibitors for the type I organic cation uptake system, procainamide ethobromide and verapamil, almost completely blocked uptake of tri-n-butyl-methylammonium (1 [mu]M) in the presence of 1% (v/v) ethanol, indicating that carrier-mediated uptake is still involved and that additional passive diffusion is unlikely. Neither the plasma membrane potential nor the accumulation of the cation in mitochondria was altered after ethanol treatment, suggesting that potential driving forces for uptake and sequestration were not affected. The results of our study indicate that ethanol selectively stimulates the uptake of the aliphatic organic cation tri-n-butylmethylammonium rather than through generally alterated hepatobiliary transport processes. (EG) (28 refs.).

  14. Adsorption and solvation of ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface: a molecular dynamics study

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.


    The free energy profiles of methanol and ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface at 310K were calculated using molecular dynamics computer simulations. Both alcohols exhibit a pronounced free energy minimum at the interface and, therefore, have positive adsorption at this interface. The surface excess was computed from the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Neither compound exhibits a free energy barrier between the bulk and the surface adsorbed state. Scattering calculations of ethanol molecules from a gas phase thermal distribution indicate that the mass accommodation coefficient is 0.98, and the molecules become thermalized within 10 ps of striking the interface. It was determined that the formation of the solvation structure around the ethanol molecule at the interface is not the rate-determining step in its uptake into water droplets. The motion of an ethanol molecule in a water lamella was followed for 30 ns. The time evolution of the probability distribution of finding an ethanol molecule that was initially located at the interface is very well described by the diffusion equation on the free energy surface.

  15. Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes

    Vanegas, Juan M.


    We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.

  16. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar


    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Biomass Degradation Products on Ethanol Fermentation and a Strategy to Overcome Them

    Shiyu Fu


    Full Text Available The influence of buffers, as well as inhibitors such as formic acid, furfural, HMF, guaiacol, and vanillin, on ethanol formation was investigated. Compared to phosphoric buffer, the acetic and citric buffers were less inhibitory on ethanol fermentation. The addition of formic acid (2.5 g/L to the buffer reduced the ethanol yield by 8%. Guaiacol (3 g/L and vanillin (2.5 g/L decreased ethanol production by 50% and 20%, respectively. Furfural and HMF delayed the yeast fermentation without reducing the total yield. The fermentation was seriously inhibited by the mixture of furfural (1 g/L, HMF (1 g/L, formic acid (1 g/L, vanillin (1 g/L, and guaiacol (1 g/L. The ethanol yield of the fermentation based on enzymatic hydrolyzate from treated biomass was 82%. The addition of 1 g/L MgSO4 as a shielding protector rehabilitated nearly 100% of the total yield.

  18. Ethanol steam reforming on Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts: Effect of the aluminium content

    Lindo, M.; Vizcaino, A.J.; Calles, J.A.; Carrero, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933, Mostoles (Spain)


    A series of Ni catalysts supported on Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials (Si/Al = 20, 60, 140, 240, {infinity}) was prepared and tested in ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, NH{sub 3}-TPD, TEM, ICP-AES, {sup 27}Al-MAS-NMR and N{sub 2}-sorption measurements. It was found that the incorporation of Al atoms into SBA-15 structure is responsible for the formation of catalyst acid sites, an increase of the size of nickel species and stronger metal-support interaction between Ni and Al-SBA-15 carrier. Regarding ethanol steam reforming, catalysts with higher Al content keep ethanol conversion along time. However, Ni/Al-SBA-15 catalysts produce larger amounts of ethylene and coke, with slightly lower hydrogen selectivity than Ni/SBA-15. This is the consequence of ethanol dehydration in Ni/Al-SBA-15 acid sites, while ethanol dehydrogenation mechanism predominates in Ni/SBA-15 catalyst. (author)

  19. Adsorption and solvation of ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface: a molecular dynamics study

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.


    The free energy profiles of methanol and ethanol at the water liquid-vapor interface at 310K were calculated using molecular dynamics computer simulations. Both alcohols exhibit a pronounced free energy minimum at the interface and, therefore, have positive adsorption at this interface. The surface excess was computed from the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Neither compound exhibits a free energy barrier between the bulk and the surface adsorbed state. Scattering calculations of ethanol molecules from a gas phase thermal distribution indicate that the mass accommodation coefficient is 0.98, and the molecules become thermalized within 10 ps of striking the interface. It was determined that the formation of the solvation structure around the ethanol molecule at the interface is not the rate-determining step in its uptake into water droplets. The motion of an ethanol molecule in a water lamella was followed for 30 ns. The time evolution of the probability distribution of finding an ethanol molecule that was initially located at the interface is very well described by the diffusion equation on the free energy surface.

  20. Hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of ethanol over noble metal catalysts supported on oxides

    Hongqing Chen; Hao Yu; Yong Tang; Minqiang Pan; Guangxing Yang; Feng Peng; Hongjuan Wang; Jian Yang


    Hydrogen was produced over noble metal (Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd) catalysts supported on various oxides, including γ-Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2 and La2O3, via the autothermai reforming reaction of ethanol (ATRE) and oxidative reforming reaction of ethanol (OSRE). The conversion of ethanol and selectivites for hydrogen and byproducts such as methane, ethylene and acetaldehyde were studied. It was found that lanthana alone possessed considerable activity for the ATRE reaction, which could be used as a functional support for ATRE catalysts. It was demonstrated that Ir/La2O3 prevented the formation of methane, and Rh/La2O3 encumbered the production of ethylene and acetaldehyde. ATRE reaction was carried out over La2O3-supported catalysts (Ir/La2O3) with good stability on stream, high conversion, and excellent hydrogen selectivity approaching thermodynamic limit under autothermal condition. Typically, 3.4 H2 molecules can be extracted from a pair of ethanol and water molecules over Ir(5wt%)/La2O3. The results presented in this paper indicate that Ir/La2O3 can be used as a promising catalyst for hydrogen production via ATRE reaction from renewable ethanol.

  1. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Xing, Mingyou [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Liegang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yao, Ping, E-mail: [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China)


    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/ or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  2. A DFT study of ethanol adsorption and decomposition on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) surface

    Chiang, Hsin-Ni; Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi, E-mail:; Cheng, Ya-Chin; Damayanti, Nur Pradani; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ethanol decomposition has been studied over α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) surface. • EDD and DOS results confirm the stable adsorption of ethanol on the surface. • DFT calculations favor ethylene formation via C{sub β}−H bond scission. • The formation of acetaldehyde has higher energy barrier. - Abstract: Ethanol adsorption and decomposition on the clean α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) surface have been systematically investigated by density functional theory calculations. The nature of the surface-ethanol bonding has studied through the density of states (DOS) and the electron density difference (EDD) contour plots. The DOS patterns confirm that the lone pair electrons of EtOH are involved in the formation of a surface Al−O dative bond and the EDD plots provide evidences for the bond weakening/forming, which are consistent with the DOS analysis. Our ethanol decomposition results indicate that ethanol dehydration to ethylene (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH{sub (a)} → C{sub 2}H{sub 4(g)} + OH{sub (a)} + H{sub (a)}), is the main reaction pathway with the energy barrier of 1.46 eV. Although the cleavage of the hydroxyl group of ethanol has lower energy barrier, the further decomposition of ethoxy owns much higher energy barrier.

  3. Ethanol inhibits LPS-induced signaling and modulates cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages in vivo in a model for binge drinking

    Pruett Stephen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports indicate that ethanol, in a binge drinking model in mice, inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. However, the inhibition of signaling through TLR4 has not been investigated in this experimental model in vivo. Considering evidence that signaling can be very different in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conducted to determine if effects of ethanol on TLR4 signaling reported for cells in culture or cells removed from ethanol treated mice and stimulated in culture also occur when ethanol treatment and TLR4 activation occur in vivo. Results Phosphorylated p38, ERK, and c-Jun (nuclear were quantified with kits or by western blot using samples taken 15, 30, and 60 min after stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide in vivo. Effects of ethanol were assessed by administering ethanol by gavage at 6 g/kg 30 min before administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Cytokine concentrations in the samples of peritoneal lavage fluid and in serum were determined at 1, 2, and 6 hr after lipopolysaccharide administration. All of these data were used to measure the area under the concentration vs time curve, which provided an indication of the overall effects of ethanol in this system. Ethanol suppressed production of most pro-inflammatory cytokines to a similar degree as it inhibited key TLR4 signaling events. However, NF-κB (p65 translocation to the nucleus was not inhibited by ethanol. To determine if NF-κB composed of other subunits was inhibited, transgenic mice with a luciferase reporter were used. This revealed a reproducible inhibition of NF-κB activity, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of cytokines whose expression is known to be NF-κB dependent. Conclusion Overall, the effects of ethanol on signalling in vivo were similar to those reported for in vitro exposure to ethanol and/or lipopolysaccharide. However, inhibition of the activation of NF-κB was

  4. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar


    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  5. Development of an ethanol model using social insects: III. Preferences for ethanol solutions.

    Abramson, Charles I; Kandolf, Andreja; Sheridan, Audrey; Donohue, Darius; Bozic, Janko; Meyers, Julia E; Benbassat, Danny


    Experiments are designed to assess whether free-flying honey bees have an aversion to an ethanol solution when given a choice between targets containing an ethanol solution in sucrose or sucrose only. Animals given a choice between a 1% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no aversion to the ethanol solution either in acquisition or extinction. Honey bees given a choice between a 5% ethanol solution and sucrose only show no differences in the initial choice of targets but some ees do switch over to the sucrose-only target. Performance during extinction indicates that bees landed on the previously reinforced sucrose-only target more than the target previously containing the 5% ethanol solution. An experiment in which bees were given a single 5%, ethanol target showed that of 20 bees, 11 returned for the entire 12 trials of the experiment. All bees returned at least 6 times to the 5% ethanol target. Additional experiments were run on harnessed foragers in a palatability study of alcoholic beverages consumed by humans. The results of the palatability experiment indicate that in general, bees prefer more sweet drinks with less alcohol.

  6. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie


    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of bioventing on a gasoline-ethanol contaminated undisturbed residual soil.

    Osterreicher-Cunha, Patricia; Vargas, Eurípedes do Amaral; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; de Campos, Tácio Mauro Pereira; Nunes, Cassiane Maria Ferreira; Costa, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Franklin dos Santos; da Silva, Maria Isabel Pais; Mano, Denise Maria


    Remediation methods for environmental contamination problems based on physical or chemical processes frequently present low efficiency and/or high costs. On the other hand, biological treatment is being proved to be an accessible alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing is commonly used for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) spills. This process provides better subsurface oxygenation, thus stimulating degradation by indigenous microorganisms. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are routinely mixed; some authors suggest that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in the aquifer is hindered by the presence of much rapidly degrading ethanol. The present study evaluates a bioventing treatment of a gasoline-ethanol contaminated undisturbed residual soil from Rio de Janeiro. Contamination and treatment effects were monitored by conventional microbiology methods, chemical analysis, and ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Results of culturable bacterial population counts show the effect of contamination and bioventing on the microbiota of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol containing soils; however, GPR responses to these variations are not conclusive and still need to be assessed.

  8. Methylphenidate and its ethanol transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate: brain disposition, monoamine transporters and motor activity.

    Williard, Robin L; Middaugh, Lawrence D; Zhu, Hao-Jie B; Patrick, Kennerly S


    Ethylphenidate is formed by metabolic transesterification of methylphenidate and ethanol. Study objectives were to (a) establish that ethylphenidate is formed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice; (b) compare the stimulatory effects of ethylphenidate and methylphenidate enantiomers; (c) determine methylphenidate and ethylphenidate plasma and brain distribution and (d) establish in-vitro effects of methylphenidate and ethylphenidate on monoamine transporter systems. Experimental results were that: (a) coadministration of ethanol with the separate methylphenidate isomers enantioselectively produced l-ethylphenidate; (b) d and dl-forms of methylphenidate and ethylphenidate produced dose-responsive increases in motor activity with stimulation being less for ethylphenidate; (c) plasma and whole-brain concentrations were greater for ethylphenidate than methylphenidate and (d) d and DL-methylphenidate and ethylphenidate exhibited comparably potent low inhibition of the dopamine transporter, whereas ethylphenidate was a less potent norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. These experiments establish the feasibility of the B6 mouse model for examining the interactive effects of ethanol and methylphenidate. As reported for humans, concurrent exposure of B6 mice to methylphenidate and ethanol more readily formed l-ethylphenidate than d-ethylphenidate, and the l-isomers of both methylphenidate and ethylphenidate were biologically inactive. The observed reduced stimulatory effect of d-ethylphenidate relative to d-methylphenidate appears not to be the result of brain dispositional factors, but rather may be related to its reduced inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter, perhaps altering the interaction of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neural systems.

  9. Ethanol and isopropanol trigger rapid egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

    Yan, Xinlei; Liu, Xianyong; Ji, Yongsheng; Tao, Geru; Suo, Xun


    Egress from host cells is a vital step of the intracellular life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii. This phenomenon has attracted attentions from many research groups. Previous studies have shown that ethanol could stimulate the release of microneme proteins by elevating intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of T. gondii, resulting in the parasite egress from host cells. However, little information about egress is known on Eimeria species, the causative agent of coccidiosis in poultry and livestock. In this report, we studied the effect of ethanol and isopropanol on the egress of eimerian parasites. Eimeria tenella sporozoites cultured in primary chicken kidney cells were treated with ethanol and isopropanol, then the egressed parasites were analyzed. Ethanol and isopropanol could induce the rapid egress of E. tenella sporozoites from host cells. No substantial damage was found in parasite-egressed host cells. Compared to the freshly isolated sporozoites, the re-invading ability and reproductivity of the egressed parasites significantly decreased by 43.4 and 44.1 % individually. We also found that fewer sporozoites egressed from host cells when the parasites developed for a longer time before the alcohol treatment. These results demonstrate an in vitro egress mode different from that of T. gondii, facilitating the deciphering of the mechanisms of egress of eimerian parasites.

  10. Fermentation of glycerol into ethanol in a microbial electrolysis cell driven by a customized consortium.

    Speers, Allison M; Young, Jenna M; Reguera, Gemma


    The in situ generation of ethanol from glycerol-containing wastewater shows promise to improve the economics of the biodiesel industry. Consequently, we developed a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) driven by the synergistic metabolisms of the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens and the bacterium Clostridium cellobioparum, which fermented glycerol into ethanol in high yields (90%) and produced fermentative byproducts that served as electron donors for G. sulfurreducens. Syntrophic cooperation stimulated glycerol consumption, ethanol production, and the conversion of fermentation byproducts into cathodic H2 in the MEC. The platform was further improved by adaptively evolving glycerol-tolerant strains with robust growth at glycerol loadings typical of biodiesel wastewater and by increasing the buffering capacity of the anode medium. This resulted in additional increases in glycerol consumption (up to 50 g/L) and ethanol production (up to 10 g/L) at rates that greatly exceeded the capacity of the anode biofilms to concomitantly remove the fermentation byproducts. As a result, 1,3-propanediol was generated as a metabolic sink for electrons not converted into electricity syntrophically. The results highlight the potential of consortia to process glycerol in MECs and provide insights into genetic engineering and system design approaches that can be implemented to further improve MEC performance to satisfy industrial needs.

  11. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    Mayeli Peralta-Contreras


    Full Text Available A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P and high gravity (20°P worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI was higher (9.8 percentage units and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN, pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency.

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  13. Neurosteroid effects on sensitivity to ethanol

    Christa M Helms


    Full Text Available Harrison and Simmonds (1984 provided the first clear evidence that neuroactive steroids act at specific neurotransmitter receptors, investigating the potentiation of muscimol-induced GABAA responses by alphaxalone (3α-hydroxy 5α -pregnane l l,20-dione in cortical slices. Within 2 years, a progesterone metabolite (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone and a deoxycorticosterone metabolite (3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α,5α-THDOC, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, THDOC were shown to be positive modulators of GABAA receptors (Majewska et al., 1986. That same year, publications showed that ethanol has direct action at GABAA receptors (Allan and Harris, 1986, Suzdak et al., 1986. Thus, the GABAA receptor complex was identified as a membrane-bound target providing a pharmacological basis for shared sensitivity between neurosteroids and ethanol. The common behavioral effects of ethanol and neuroactive steroids were compared directly using drug discrimination procedures (Ator et al., 1993. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor complex, a membrane-bound ionophore important for excitatory glutamate neurotransmission, was shown to be antagonized by low concentrations of ethanol (Lovinger et al., 1989. Since data were emerging for neurosteroid activity at NMDA receptors (Wu et al., 1991, the stage was set for the suggestion that neurosteroids, and physiological states that alter circulating neuroactive steroids, could affect sensitivity to alcohol (Grant et al., 1997. The unique interface of ethanol and neurosteroids encompasses molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral processes. This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including metabolic pathways, physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis and Reduction of Bismuth Oxide by Ethanol

    Korkmaz, Fatih; Cetinkaya, Senol; Eroglu, Serafettin


    In this study, ethanol (C2H5OH) was used as an alternative reducing agent for Bi2O3 because ethanol is renewable, increasingly available, and low in toxicity. Thermodynamic analysis was performed to predict experimental conditions for Bi formation in the Bi2O3-C2H5OH-Ar system at Ar/C2H5OH molar ratio of 10.5. Ar was used as a carrier gas for ethanol. Bi2O3 reduction kinetics was investigated at 600 K to 800 K (327 °C to 527 °C) at Ar flow rate 85 sccm. Ar flow rate was also varied at 600 K and 800 K (327 °C and 527 °C) in order to clarify the mechanism controlling the process. Mass measurements and XRD analyses were carried out to determine the extent of reduction. Fractional conversion increased with time and temperature. Full reduction time decreased from ~180 minutes at 600 K (327 °C) to ~30 minutes at 700 K and 800 K (427 °C and 527 °C). The reduction process was external mass transfer limited ( Q a = 7.2 kJ/mole) above 700 K (427 °C). It was controlled by intrinsic chemical kinetics ( Q a = 54.7 kJ/mole) below 700 K (427 °C). In the mass-transport-controlled regime, the extent of reduction increased with flow rate as predicted by a mass-transport theory. Possible reaction pathways were discussed using the thermodynamic and experimental results.

  15. Immunomodulating properties of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam and ethanol in 'club drugs' users.

    Pichini, Simona; Farré, Magi; Abanades, Sergio; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Langohr, Klaus; de la Torre, Rafael


    Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) toxicity in users, no studies have addressed GHB and other club drugs effects on the immune system under controlled administration. Lymphocyte subsets and functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation were measured in 10 healthy male recreational users of GHB who participated in five experimental sessions within the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double blind, double dummy and cross-over. Drug conditions were: a single oral dose of GHB (40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg) and placebo. Acute GHB produced a time-dependent immune impairment in the first 4 hours after drug administration associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio, as well as in the percentage of mature T lymphocytes, probably because of a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of T helper cells. A significant decrease was also observed in natural killer cells and in functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. Flunitrazepam administration did not produce any change in the immune system, while ethanol intake produced a decrease in B lymphocytes and in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. These results provide the first evidence that GHB intake under a controlled environmental setting impairs the immunological status and confirms the alterations in the immune function caused by ethanol.

  16. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, L. (Libuše); Jeřábek, K.; E Ramírez; Tejero, J.


    Ethyl octyl ether (EOE) can be obtained by the ethylation of 1-octanol by means of ethanol or diethyl carbonate over acidic ion-exchange resins. However, EOE formation has to compete with the less steric demanding formation of diethyl ether, by-product obtained from ethanol dehydration or diethyl carbonate decomposition. In the present work, the influence of the resin functionalization degree on EOE formation has been evaluated. A series of partially sulfonated resins were prepared by the sul...

  17. Variation of fermentation redox potential during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation.

    Thani, Arthit; Lin, Yen-Han; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana


    Fermentation redox potential was monitored during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation. The cell-recycling system (CRS) was operated using two hollow fibre (HF) membranes (pore sizes 0.20 and 0.65μm) at three dilution rates (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08h(-1)). Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 were recycled in the fermenter at a recycle ratio of 0.625. Aeration was provided at 2.5vvm for the first 4h and then further supplied continuously at 0.25vvm. As steady state was established, results showed that the fermentation redox potential was lower for processes employing CRS than those without. At the same dilution rates, the sugar utilization and ethanol production with CRS were higher than those without CRS. The highest fermentation efficiency (87.94g/l of ethanol, ∼90% of theoretical yield) was achieved using a 0.2-μm HF membrane CRS at a dilution rate of 0.02h(-1). It was found that 7.53-10.07% of the carbon derived from glucose was incorporated into the yeast. Further, at the same dilution rates, yeast in the processes with CRS incorporated less carbon into ethanol than in those grown without CRS. This result suggests that processes involving CRS utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation. This indicated that the processes with CRS could utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation.

  18. Glass Dynamics Probed by the Long-Lived Stimulated Photon Echo

    Meijers, Hans C.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    The dynamics in an ethanol glass at 1.5 K has been investigated from picoseconds to milliseconds by two-dimensional stimulated-photon-echo measurements on zinc porphin. In this time frame the distribution of relaxation rates exhibits a 1/R dependence except for a gap stretching from about 1 kHz to 1

  19. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San


    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues.

  20. Biological production of ethanol from coal


    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  1. Autophagy and ethanol-induced liver injury

    Terrence M Donohue Jr


    The majority of ethanol metabolism occurs in the liver. Consequently, this organ sustains the greatest damage from ethanol abuse. Ethanol consumption disturbs the delicate balance of protein homeostasis in the liver, causing intracellular protein accumulation due to a disruption of hepatic protein catabolism.Evidence indicates that ethanol or its metabolism impairs trafficking events in the liver, including the process of macroautophagy, which is the engulfment and degradation of cytoplasmic constituents by the lysosomal system. Autophagy is an essential, ongoing cellular process that is highly regulated by nutrients,endocrine factors and signaling pathways. A great number of the genes and gene products that govern the autophagic response have been characterized and the major metabolic and signaling pathways that activate or suppress autophagy have been identified. This review describes the process of autophagy, its regulation and the possible mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts the process of autophagic degradation. The implications of autophagic suppression are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury.

  2. Survey of US fuel ethanol plants.

    Saunders, J A; Rosentrater, K A


    The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to alter current drying time and temperature if it could result in a higher quality coproduct. Other managers indicated hesitation, based on lack of economic incentives, potential cost and return, and capital required. Respondents also reported the desire to use their coproducts in some of the following products: fuels, extrusion, pellets, plastics, and human food applications. These results provide a snapshot of the industry, and indicate that operational changes to the current production of DDGS must be based upon the potential for positive economic returns.

  3. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.


    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  4. Batchwise ethanol fermentation with shochu distillery waste

    Ueda, S.; Teramoto, Y.; Oba, R.; Ueki, T.; Kimura, K. (Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)); Shiota, S. (Tohi Jozo Co. Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan))


    In order to produce a shochu with a mild aroma, a new vacuum distillation precedure at low temperature of 35 to 40 centigrade was applied to shochu distillation. The resulting rice shochu distillery waste contained a large amount of viable yeast glucoamylase activity, acid protease activity, and neutral protease activity. About 10% of ethanol was produced in the fermented mash at 30 centigrade within three days. In contrast, distillery waste discharged by conventional distillation at high temperature of 55 to 60 centigrade could not be used for secondary ethanol fermentation at all. It was provided that the filtrate of secondarily-fermented distillery waste, which is containing ethanol and possessing a fine aroma fortified with higher alcohols and volatile esters during ethanol fermentation, can be useful for the production of a mirin-like liquor for cooking, Akazake,'' a characteristic red-colored, sweet alcoholic beverage produced in Kumamoto prefecture only, and a bath additive containing ethanol, a fine aroma, and enzymes. 15 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Epigenetic effects of ethanol on liver and gastrointestinal injury

    Shivendra D Shukla; Annayya R Aroor


    Alcohol consumption causes cellular injury. Recent developments indicate that ethanol induces epigenetic alterations, particularly acetylation, methylation of histones, and hypo- and hypermethylation of DNA. This has opened up a new area of interest in ethanol research and is providing novel insight into actions of ethanol at the nucleosomal level in relation to gene expression and patho-physiological consequences. The epigenetic effects are mainly attributable to ethanol metabolic stress (Emess), generated by the oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol, and dysregulation of methionine metabolism. Epigenetic changes are important in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, carcinoma and gastrointestinal injury. This editorial highlights these new advances and its future potential.

  6. Evaluation of proposed natural corrosion inhibitors for X-52 carbon steel in ethanol media

    Oliveira, Rafael F.

    This work describes the testing performed for corrosion control actions for X-52 carbon steel in ethanol media by using inhibitors, the following compounds were included: linalyl formate, linalyl acetate, linalyl butyrate, citronellyl acetate and 1-pentylallyl acetate. The experiments were performed in an electrochemical 3 electrode system with an X-52 steel rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) with rotational speed adjusted to 130 RPM. The system was deaerated by bubbling nitrogen gas into the ethanol solution. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to characterize the metal/electrolyte interface. Experimental testing was performed in anhydrous ethanol solution with 5 mM or 10 mM of one inhibitor. Surface analyses for the corroded surfaces were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and White light interferometry (WLI). The results suggest that linalyl formate promotes the highest corrosion inhibition efficiency at 10 mM, followed by citronellyl acetate and linalyl butyrate. At this concentration, 1-pentylallyl acetate and linalyl acetate have not promoted corrosion inhibition. At a concentration of 5 mM, linalyl formate, linalyl acetate and linalyl butyrate promoted high inhibition efficiencies during the first hours but none was able to promote a longer protection than one day, possibly due to chemical degradation, chemical reactions and/or reduced surface coverage. The linalyl formate is considered the best chemical for inhibition purposes, especially at the concentration of 10 mM.

  7. Presynaptic CRF1 Receptors Mediate the Ethanol Enhancement of GABAergic Transmission in the Mouse Central Amygdala

    Zhiguo Nie


    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is a 41-amino-acid neuropeptide involved in stress responses initiated from several brain areas, including the amygdala formation. Research shows a strong relationship between stress, brain CRF, and excessive alcohol consumption. Behavioral studies suggest that the central amygdala (CeA is significantly involved in alcohol reward and dependence. We recently reported that the ethanol augmentation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in rat CeA involves CRF1 receptors, because both CRF and ethanol significantly enhanced the amplitude of evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs in CeA neurons from wild-type (WT and CRF2 knockout (KO mice, but not in neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The present study extends these findings using selective CRF receptor ligands, gene KO models, and miniature IPSC (mIPSC analysis to assess further a presynaptic role for the CRF receptors in mediating ethanol effects in the CeA. In whole-cell patch recordings of pharmacologically isolated GABAAergic IPSCs from slices of mouse CeA, both CRF and ethanol augmented evoked IPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with low EC50s. A CRF1 (but not CRF2 KO construct and the CRF1-selective nonpeptide antagonist NIH-3 (LWH-63 blocked the augmenting effect of both CRF and ethanol on evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, the new selective CRF1 agonist stressin1, but not the CRF2 agonist urocortin 3, also increased evoked IPSC amplitudes. Both CRF and ethanol decreased paired-pulse facilitation (PPF of evoked IPSCs and significantly enhanced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneous miniature GABAergic mIPSCs in CeA neurons of WT mice, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. The PPF effect of ethanol was abolished in CeA neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The CRF1 antagonist NIH-3 blocked the CRF- and ethanol-induced enhancement of mIPSC frequency in CeA neurons. These data indicate that presynaptic CRF1 receptors play a critical role in permitting

  8. Synergistic effects of ethanol and isopentenyl pyrophosphate on expansion of γδ T cells in synovial fluid from patients with arthritis.

    Agneta J Laurent

    Full Text Available Low to moderate ethanol consumption has been associated with protective effects in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, RA. An expansion of γδ T cells induced by isopentenyl pyrophosphate, IPP, likewise seems to have a protective role in arthritis. The aim of this project was to test the hypothesis that low doses of ethanol can enhance IPP-induced expansion of synovial fluid γδ T cells from patients with arthritis and may thereby potentially account for the beneficial effects of ethanol on symptoms of the arthritic process. Thus, mononuclear cells from synovial fluid (SF from 15 patients with arthritis and from peripheral blood (PB from 15 healthy donors were stimulated with low concentrations of ethanol and IPP for 7 days in vitro. IPP in combination with ethanol 0.015%, 2.5 mM, equivalent to the decrease per hour in blood ethanol concentration due to metabolism, gave a significantly higher fractional expansion of SF γδ T cells compared with IPP alone after 7 days (ratio 10.1+/-4.0, p<0.0008, n = 12 in patients with arthritis. Similar results were obtained for PB γδ T cells from healthy controls (ratio 2.0+/-0.4, p<0.011, n = 15. The augmented expansion of γδ T cells in SF is explained by a higher proliferation (p = 0.0034, n = 11 and an increased survival (p<0.005, n = 11 in SF cultures stimulated with IPP plus ethanol compared to IPP alone. The synergistic effects of IPP and ethanol indicate a possible allosteric effect of ethanol. Similar effects could be seen when stimulating PB with ethanol in presence of risedronate, which has the ability to increase endogenous levels of IPP. We conclude that expansion of γδ T cells by combinatorial drug effects, possibly in fixed-dose combination, FDC, of ethanol in the presence of IPP might give a protective role in diseases such as arthritis.

  9. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)


    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  10. Theoretical kinetic study of the low temperature oxidation of ethanol

    Fournet, René; Bounaceur, Roda; Molière, Michel


    In order to improve the understanding of the low temperature combustion of ethanol, high-level ab initio calculations were performed for elementary reactions involving hydroxyethylperoxy radicals. These radicals come from the addition of hydroxethyl radicals (?CH3CHOH and ?CH2CH2OH) on oxygen molecule. Unimolecular reactions involving hydroxyethylperoxy radicals and their radical products were studied at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The results allowed to highlight the principal ways of decomposition of these radicals. Calculations of potential energy surfaces showed that the principal channels lead to the formation of HO2 radicals which can be considered, at low temperature, as slightly reactive. However, in the case of CH3CH(OOH)O? radicals, a route of decomposition yields H atom and formic peracid, which is a branching agent that can strongly enhance the reactivity of ethanol in low temperature oxidation. In addition to these analyses, high-pressure limit rate constants were derived i