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Sample records for ethanol ingestion impairs

  1. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  2. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol.

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    Farr, Susan A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Banks, William A; Flood, James F; Morley, John E

    2005-06-01

    Acute consumption of ethanol results in reversible changes in learning and memory whereas chronic ethanol consumption of six or more months produces permanent deficits and neural damage in rodents. The goal of the current paper was determine whether shorter durations of chronic ethanol ingestion in mice would produce long-term deficits in learning and memory after the cessation of ethanol. We first examined the effects of four and eight weeks of 20% ethanol followed by a three week withdrawal period on learning and memory in mice. We determined that three weeks after eight, but not four, weeks of 20% ethanol consumption resulted in deficits in learning and long-term memory (seven days) in T-maze footshock avoidance and Greek Cross brightness discrimination, step-down passive avoidance and shuttlebox active avoidance. Short-term memory (1 hr) was not affected. The deficit was not related to changes in thiamine status, caloric intake, or nonmnemonic factors, such as, activity or footshock sensitivity. Lastly, we examined if the mice recovered after longer durations of withdrawal. After eight weeks of ethanol, we compared mice after three and 12 weeks of withdrawal. Mice that had been off ethanol for both three and 12 weeks were impaired in T-maze footshock avoidance compared to the controls. The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal.

  3. Effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rat macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanmugam, P.; Boudreau, M.; Hymel, G.; Jeffers, G.; Hwang, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous report, preincubation of rat platelets with ethanol resulted in dose dependent inhibition of AA metabolites whereas chronic ingestion of ethanol enhanced the synthesis of AA metabolites. Thus, the authors studied whether chronic ethanol ingestion also affects AA metabolism in MACS. Two groups of rats (10 each) were fed DeCarli/Lieber liquid diet containing 36 caloric % ethanol for 3 weeks. The control group was pair fed the same diet made isocaloric with dextrin-maltose. Resident MACS were collected by peritoneal lavage. The monolayers of MACS were incubated for 20 min with calcium ionophore (5μg/ml), and the incubation stopped with 4 vol. of ethanol. PGE 2 , LTB 4 and 5-HETE were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that chronic ethanol ingestion did not affect the capacity of MACS to synthesize AA metabolites. There was also no difference in the levels of AA metabolites in heart and lung homogenates between the two groups

  4. Pharmacological effects of ethanol on ingestive behavior of the preweanling rat.

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    Kozlov, Andrey P; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2009-12-14

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that sensitivity of ingestive behavior of infant rat to the pharmacological effects of ethanol changes between postnatal (P) days 9 and 12. The intake of 0.1% saccharin and water, general motor activity, and myoclonic twitching activity were assessed following administration of three doses of ethanol (0, 0.25, and 0.5 g/kg) while fluids were free available to the animals. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ethanol attenuated saccharin intake in P9 pups and enhanced saccharin intake in P12 rats. On P12 some sex-related differences emerged at 0.5 g/kg of ethanol, with saccharin intake being higher in females than in their male counterparts. Taste reactivity probe revealed that 0.5 g/kg of ethanol increased taste responsiveness to saccharin on P12 but only to infusions presented at a high rate. The results of the present study indicate that ontogenetic changes in sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on ingestive behavior occur during the second postnatal week, with P9 animals being more sensitive to the inhibitory (sedative) effects on saccharin intake and P12 rats being more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of ethanol. We suggest that acute ethanol enhanced saccharin intake via sensitization of oral response to appetitive taste stimulation.

  5. Death caused by ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

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    Schneir, Aaron B; Clark, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    The use of hand sanitizer is effective in preventing the transmission of disease. Many hand sanitizers are alcohol-based, and significant intoxications have occurred, often in health care facilities, including the emergency department (ED). We present this case to highlight potential toxicity after the ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. A 36-year-old man presented to the ED with ethanol intoxication. Ethanol breath analysis was measured at 278 mg/dL. After 4 h, the patient was less intoxicated and left the ED. Thirty minutes later, he was found apneic and pulseless in the ED waiting room bathroom after having ingested an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. Soon after a brief resuscitation, his serum ethanol was 526 mg/dL. He never regained consciousness and died 7 days later. No other cause of death was found. The case highlights the potential for significant toxicity after the ingestion of a product found throughout health care facilities. Balancing the benefit of hand sanitizers for preventing disease transmission and their potential misuse remains a challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The rising incidence of intentional ingestion of ethanol-containing hand sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Nicole J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Rasimas, Joseph J; Pao, Maryland; Wratney, Angela T; Sun, Junfeng; Austin, Howard A; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of intentional ingestion of hand sanitizer in our hospital and to review published cases and those reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System. A case report, a literature review of published cases, and a query of the National Poison Data System. Medical intensive care unit. Seventeen-yr-old male 37-kg with an intentional ingestion of a hand sanitizer product into his gastrostomy tube. Intubation, ventilation, and hemodialysis. Incidence and outcome of reported cases of unintentional and intentional ethanol containing-hand sanitizer ingestion in the United States from 2005 through 2009. A literature search found 14 detailed case reports of intentional alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestions with one death. From 2005 to 2009, the National Poison Data System received reports of 68,712 exposures to 96 ethanol-based hand sanitizers. The number of new cases increased by an average of 1,894 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1266-2521) cases per year (p =.002). In 2005, the rate of exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents was 33.7 (95% CI 28.4-39.1); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 5.87 per year (95% CI 3.70-8.04; p = .003). In 2005, the rate of intentional exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents, was 0.68 (95% CI 0.17-1.20); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 0.32 per year (95% CI 0.11-0.53; p = .02). The number of new cases per year of intentional hand sanitizer ingestion significantly increased during this 5-yr period. Although the majority of cases of hand sanitizer ingestion have a favorable outcome, 288 moderate and 12 major medical outcomes were reported in this National Poison Data System cohort. Increased awareness of the risks associated with intentional ingestion is warranted, particularly among healthcare providers caring for persons with a history of substance abuse, risk-taking behavior, or suicidal ideation.

  7. Pathophysiology of esophageal impairment due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Johannes; Völker, Christine; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Schraven, Sebastian P; Radeloff, Andreas; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf; Rak, Kristen

    2017-09-01

    The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi. The lithium button battery type CR2032, used most frequently in daily life, was exposed in preparations of porcine esophagi and incubated under the addition of artificial saliva at 37 °C. A total of eight esophagi were analysed by different methods. Measurements of the pH value around the battery electrodes and histological studies of the tissue damage were carried out after 0.5-24 h exposure time. In addition, macroscopic time-lapse images were recorded. Measurements of the battery voltage and the course of the electric current supplemented the experiments. The investigations showed that the batteries caused an electrolysis reaction in the moist environment. The positive electrode formed an acidic and the negative electrode a basic medium. Consequently, a coagulation necrosis at the positive pole, and a deep colliquation necrosis at the minus pole occurred. After an exposure time of 12 h, tissue damage caused by the lye corrosion was observed on the side of the negative electrode up to the lamina muscularis. The corrosion progressed up to the final exposure time of 24 h, but the batteries still had sufficient residual voltage, such that further advancing damage would be expected. Button battery ingestion in humans poses an acute life-threatening danger and immediate endoscopic removal of the foreign body is essential. After only 2

  8. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists

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    Jill J. Leckey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM carbohydrate (CHO] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day. Cyclists were randomized to consume either the ketone diester (2 × 250 mg/kg or a placebo drink, followed immediately by 200 mL diet cola, given ~ 30 min before and immediately prior to commencing a 20 min incremental warm-up. Blood samples were collected prior to and during the warm-up, pre- and post- TT and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia in elite professional cyclists when in a carbohydrate fed state, and impairs performance of a cycling TT lasting ~50 min.

  9. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exercise training on skeletal muscle in rat.

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    Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise training in treadmill and ethanol administration plus exercise for 12 weeks. Ethanol administration decreased capillarity and increased piruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in white gastrocnemius; in plantaris muscle, ethanol increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa, and IIb fibres. Exercise increased capillarity in all four limb muscles and decreased type I fibre area in plantaris. The decreased capillarity effect induced by ethanol in some muscles, was ameliorated when alcohol was combined with exercise. While alcoholic myopathy affects predominantly type IIb fibres, ethanol administration and aerobic exercise in some cases can affect type I and type IIa fibre areas. The exercise can decrease some harmful effects produced by ethanol in the muscle, including the decrease in the fibre area and capillary density.

  10. Acute ethanol poisoning in a 4-year-old as a result of ethanol-based hand-sanitizer ingestion.

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    Engel, Jeffrey S; Spiller, Henry A

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become widely available because of widespread usage in schools, hospitals, and workplaces and by consumers. We report what we believe is the first unintentional ingestion in a small child producing significant intoxication. A 4-year-old 14-kg girl was brought to the emergency department with altered mental status after a history of ingesting an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Physical examination revealed an obtunded child with periods of hypoventilation and a hematoma in the central portion of her forehead from a fall at home that occurred after the ingestion. Abnormal vital signs included a heart rate of 139 beats/min and temperature of 96.3 degrees F, decreasing to 93.6 degrees F. Abnormal laboratory values consisted of potassium of 2.6 mEq/L and a serum alcohol of 243 mg/dL. A computed tomography scan of her brain without contrast showed no acute intracranial abnormality. A urine drug screen for common drugs of abuse was reported as negative. The child was intubated, placed on mechanical ventilation, and admitted for medical care. She recovered over the next day without sequelae. As with other potentially toxic products, we would recommend caution and direct supervision of use when this product is available to young children.

  11. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

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    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  12. A low concentration of ethanol impairs learning but not motor and sensory behavior in Drosophila larvae.

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    Brooks G Robinson

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system for the genetic analysis of ethanol-associated behaviors. However, past studies have focused on the response of the adult fly to large, and often sedating, doses of ethanol. The pharmacological effects of low and moderate quantities of ethanol have remained understudied. In this study, we tested the acute effects of low doses of ethanol (∼7 mM internal concentration on Drosophila larvae. While ethanol did not affect locomotion or the response to an odorant, we observed that ethanol impaired associative olfactory learning when the heat shock unconditioned stimulus (US intensity was low but not when the heat shock US intensity was high. We determined that the reduction in learning at low US intensity was not a result of ethanol anesthesia since ethanol-treated larvae responded to the heat shock in the same manner as untreated animals. Instead, low doses of ethanol likely impair the neuronal plasticity that underlies olfactory associative learning. This impairment in learning was reversible indicating that exposure to low doses of ethanol does not leave any long lasting behavioral or physiological effects.

  13. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50 ± 6 mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy.

  14. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-05-16

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50±6mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low concentrations of ethanol but not of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) impair reciprocal retinal signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapich, Siarhei A; Akhtar, Isha; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni; Lüke, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The model of the isolated and superfused retina provides the opportunity to test drugs and toxins. Some chemicals have to be applied using low concentrations of organic solvents as carriers. Recently, E-/R-type (Cav2.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were identified as participating in reciprocal inhibitory retinal signaling. Their participation is apparent, when low concentrations of NiCl2 (15 μM) are applied during superfusion leading to an increase of the ERG b-wave amplitude, which is explained by a reduction of amacrine GABA-release onto bipolar neurons. During these investigations, differences were observed for the solvent carrier used. Recording of the transretinal receptor potentials from the isolated bovine retina. The pretreatment of bovine retina with 0.01 % (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide did not impair the NiCl2-mediated increase of the b-wave amplitude, which was 1.31-fold ± 0.03 of initial value (n = 4). However, pretreatment of the retina with the same concentration of ethanol impaired reciprocal signaling (0.96-fold ± 0.05, n = 4). Further, the implicit time of the b-wave was increased, suggesting that ethanol itself but not DMSO may antagonize GABA-receptors. Ethanol itself but not DMSO may block GABA receptors and cause an amplitude increase by itself, so that reciprocal signaling is impaired.

  16. Avoiding the ingestion of cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol may reduce the risk of cancer associated with alcohol consumption.

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    Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, we recently proposed that the possible cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the tissues in direct contact with alcoholic beverages could explain the local carcinogenic effect of alcohol. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 s) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, may be a simple and effective way to reduce the risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also reduce the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

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    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  18. The effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on memory performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Riby, L M; Marriott, A; Bullock, R; Hancock, J; Smallwood, J; McLaughlin, J

    2009-04-01

    Previous research investigating the impact of glucose ingestion and/or improvements in glucose regulation has found selective cognitive facilitation on episodic memory tasks in successful ageing and dementia. The present study aimed to extend this research to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a repeated-measures design, 24 older adults with and 24 older adults without MCI performed a battery of memory and attention tasks after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness matched placebo. In addition, to assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken throughout the testing session. Consistent with previous research, cognitive facilitation was observed for episodic memory tasks only in both successful ageing and MCI. Older adults with MCI had a similar glucose regulatory response as controls but their fasting levels were elevated. Notably, higher levels of blood glucose were associated with impaired memory performance in both the glucose and placebo conditions. Importantly, both blood glucose and memory performance indices were significant predictors of MCI status. The utility of glucose supplementation and the use of glucose regulation as a biological marker are discussed in relation to these data.

  19. Acute ethanol poisoning in a 6-year-old girl following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer at school.

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    Joseph, Madeline Matar; Zeretzke, Cristina; Reader, Sara; Sollee, Dawn R

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) have been widely used in homes, workplaces and schools to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. We report a young child unintentionally ingested ABHS at a school, resulting in intoxication. The child was a 6-year-old girl who had been brought to the emergency department (ED) for hypothermia, altered mental status (AMS), periods of hypoventilation, hypothermia and vomiting. Computed tomography of her head revealed nothing abnormal in intracranial pathology. Urine drug screening was negative. Alcohol level was 205 mg/dL on admission. Other abnormal values included potassium of 2.8 mEq/L, osmolality of 340 mOsm/kg and no hypoglycemia. Further investigation revealed that the patient had gone frequently to the class restroom for ingestion of unknown quantities of ABHSs during the day. The patient was admitted for one day for intravenous fluid hydration and close observation of her mental status. The patient was discharged from the hospital the next day without any complications. Despite the large safety margin of ABHSs, emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential risk of ingestion of a large amount of such products in children and consider it in the assessment and management of school-age children with acute AMS.

  20. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence in rats induces motor impairments and cerebral cortex damage associated with oxidative stress.

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    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Santana, Luana Nazaré da Silva; Bezerra, Fernando Romualdo; De Carvalho, Sabrina; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we evaluated motor performance and tissue alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to intermittent intoxication with ethanol from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage to complete 90 days of age. The open field, inclined plane and the rotarod tests were used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination performance in adult animals. Following completion of behavioral tests, half of animals were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation of NeuN (marker of neuronal bodies), GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (microglia marker) in the cerebral cortex while the other half of the animals were subjected to analysis of oxidative stress markers by biochemical assays. Chronic ethanol intoxication in rats from adolescence to adulthood induced significant motor deficits including impaired spontaneous locomotion, coordination and muscle strength. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by marked changes in all cellular populations evaluated as well as increased levels of nitrite and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate that continuous ethanol intoxication from adolescence to adulthood is able to provide neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative damage to cerebral cortex.

  1. Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life.

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    MacIlvane, Nicole M; Pochiro, Joseph M; Hurwitz, Nicole R; Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay. No treatment group differences were observed in object exploration during the sample session for any task. In the 20 min NOR test session the 5E rats explored the novel object significantly less than controls, relative to the total time exploring both objects. Postnatal ethanol exposure is hypothesized to impede object memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex of 5E rats, hindering their ability to discriminate between familiar and novel objects at short delays. The 5E rats performed as well or better than control rats in the 240 min NOR and the 20 min OIC tasks, indicating developmental ethanol exposure selectively impairs the retention and expression of recognition memories in young adult rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood alcohol analysis alone versus comprehensive toxicological analysis - Systematic investigation of missed co-ingested other drugs in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers.

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    Steuer, Andrea E; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (DUID) is a safety issue of increasing public concern. When a police officer has reasonable grounds to classify a driver as impaired, he may arrange for a blood sample to be taken. In many countries, alcohol analysis only is ordered if impairment is suspected to be exclusively due to alcohol while comprehensive toxicological screening will be performed if additional suspicion for other illegal drugs of abuse (DoA) or medicinal drugs is on hand. The aim of the present study was firstly to evaluate whether signs of impairment can be differentiated to be caused by alcohol alone or a combination of alcohol and other driving-impairing drugs and secondly to which extent additional drugs are missed in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. A total of 293 DUID cases (negative n=41; alcohol positive only, n=131; alcohol+active drug positive, n=121) analyzed in 2015 in the Canton of Zurich were evaluated for their documented impairment symptoms by translating these into a severity score and comparing them applying principle component analysis (PCA). Additional 500 cases suspected for alcohol-impaired driving only were reanalyzed using comprehensive LC-MS/MS screening methods covering about 1500 compounds. Drugs detected were classified for severity of driving impairment using the classification system established in the DRUID study of the European Commission. As partly expected from the pharmacological and toxicological point of view, PCA analysis revealed no differences between signs of impairment caused by alcohol alone and those caused by alcohol plus at least one active drug. Breaking it down to different blood alcohol concentration ranges, only between 0.3 and 0.5g/kg trends could be observed in terms of more severe impairment for combined alcohol and drug intake. In the 500 blood samples retrospectively analyzed in this study, a total of 330 additional drugs could be detected; in some cases up to 9 co-ingested ones. In

  3. Low serum levels of short-chain fatty acids after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undseth R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Undseth,1 Greta Jakobsdottir,2 Margareta Nyman,2 Arnold Berstad,3 Jørgen Valeur3 1Department of Radiology, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 3Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, Oslo, Norway Background: Ingestion of low-digestible carbohydrates triggers symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. These carbohydrates become substrates for microbial fermentation in the colon, yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs that are readily absorbed. Aiming to compare colonic fermentation in patients with IBS and healthy controls, we analyzed the concentrations of SCFA in serum at fasting and 90 minutes following ingestion of an unabsorbable, but fermentable carbohydrate, lactulose. Methods: Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n=22 and healthy controls (n=20 ingested 10 g lactulose dissolved in water. Symptoms were graded by questionnaires and SCFA were analyzed using hollow fiber-supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography. Results: Lactulose induced more symptoms in patients with IBS than in healthy controls (P=0.0001. Fasting serum levels of SCFA did not differ between patients with IBS and controls. However, the postprandial levels of total SCFA (P=0.0002, acetic acid (P=0.005, propionic acid (P=0.0001, and butyric acid (P=0.01 were significantly lower in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. There was no correlation between the levels of serum SCFA and symptom severity. Conclusion: Low-serum levels of SCFA after lactulose ingestion may indicate impaired colonic fermentation in patients with IBS. Conceivably, this disturbance is related to symptom generation, but the mechanism is not clear. Keywords: fermentation, FODMAP, irritable bowel syndrome, microbiota, short-chain fatty acids 

  4. The Interaction of Ethanol Ingestion and Social Interaction with an Intoxicated Peer on the Odor-Mediated Response to the Drug in Adolescent Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eade, Amber M; Youngentob, Lisa M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    Using a social transmission of food preference paradigm in rats, we previously demonstrated that ethanol (EtOH) exposure during adolescence, as either an observer (interaction with an intoxicated conspecific) or demonstrator (intragastric infusion with EtOH), altered the reflexive odor-mediated responses to the drug. The 2 modes of exposure were equivalent in the magnitude of their effects. Human adolescents, however, are likely to experience the drug in a social setting as both an EtOH observer and demonstrator. That is, both interacting with an intoxicated peer and experiencing EtOH's postingestive consequences in conjunction with hematogenic olfaction. Therefore, we tested whether combined adolescent exposure as both an observer and demonstrator differed from either form of individual experience. Beginning on postnatal day (P) 29, naïve rats received EtOH or water exposures in a social interaction paradigm as either an observer, a demonstrator, or combined experience (where each animal in the interaction was, itself, an observer and demonstrator). Exposures occurred 4 times, once every 48 hours. On P37, the reflexive behavioral response to EtOH odor was tested, using whole-body plethysmography. The odor-mediated responses of adolescent EtOH observers, demonstrators, and combined exposure animals all significantly differed from controls. Compared to controls, however, the magnitude of the behavioral effect was greatest in the combined exposure animals. Moreover, combined exposure as both an EtOH observer and demonstrator significantly differed from either form of individual EtOH experience. EtOH's component chemosensory qualities are known to be central contributors to its acceptance and increases in the acceptability of EtOH's odor, resulting from a social transmission experience, are predictive of enhanced EtOH avidity in adolescence. Our findings demonstrate that combined exposure as an observer and demonstrator, within a socially relevant framework, may

  5. Industrial antifoam agents impair ethanol fermentation and induce stress responses in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Rasmussen, Thomas Gundelund

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry constitutes one of the biggest and most efficient ethanol production processes in the world. Brazilian ethanol production utilizes a unique process, which includes cell recycling, acid wash, and non-aseptic conditions. Process characteristics, such as extensive CO2...... and glucose uptake rates, while commercial AFA had no effect in concentrations relevant for defoaming purposes. Industrial AFA were further tested in laboratory scale simulations of the Brazilian ethanol production process and proved to decrease cell viability compared to the control, and the effects were...

  6. Correction to: Industrial antifoam agents impair ethanol fermentation and induce stress responses in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian Frøslev; Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Rasmussen, Thomas Gundelund

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry constitutes one of the biggest and most efficient ethanol production processes in the world. Brazilian ethanol production utilizes a unique process, which includes cell recycling, acid wash, and non-aseptic conditions. Process characteristics, such as extensive CO2...... and glucose uptake rates, while commercial AFA had no effect in concentrations relevant for defoaming purposes. Industrial AFA were further tested in laboratory scale simulations of the Brazilian ethanol production process and proved to decrease cell viability compared to the control, and the effects were...

  7. Industrial antifoam agents impair ethanol fermentation and induce stress responses in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Rasmussen, Thomas Gundelund; Thykær, Jette; Workman, Christopher T; Basso, Thiago Olitta

    2017-11-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry constitutes one of the biggest and most efficient ethanol production processes in the world. Brazilian ethanol production utilizes a unique process, which includes cell recycling, acid wash, and non-aseptic conditions. Process characteristics, such as extensive CO 2 generation, poor quality of raw materials, and frequent contaminations, all lead to excessive foam formation during fermentations, which is treated with antifoam agents (AFA). In this study, we have investigated the impact of industrial AFA treatments on the physiology and transcriptome of the industrial ethanol strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1. The investigated AFA included industrially used AFA acquired from Brazilian ethanol plants and commercially available AFA commonly used in the fermentation literature. In batch fermentations, it was shown that industrial AFA compromised growth rates and glucose uptake rates, while commercial AFA had no effect in concentrations relevant for defoaming purposes. Industrial AFA were further tested in laboratory scale simulations of the Brazilian ethanol production process and proved to decrease cell viability compared to the control, and the effects were intensified with increasing AFA concentrations and exposure time. Transcriptome analysis showed that AFA treatments induced additional stress responses in yeast cells compared to the control, shown by an up-regulation of stress-specific genes and a down-regulation of lipid biosynthesis, especially ergosterol. By documenting the detrimental effects associated with chemical AFA, we highlight the importance of developing innocuous systems for foam control in industrial fermentation processes.

  8. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Ethanol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 differentially impairs hepatic protein trafficking and growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Erin E; Groebner, Jennifer L; Walker, Jetta R; Frizol, Brittnee M; Tuma, Dean J; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2017-12-01

    The liver metabolizes alcohol using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P 450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Both enzymes metabolize ethanol into acetaldehyde, but CYP2E1 activity also results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote oxidative stress. We have previously shown that microtubules are hyperacetylated in ethanol-treated polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells and livers from ethanol-fed rats. We have also shown that enhanced protein acetylation correlates with impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis, constitutive secretion, and nuclear translocation and that the defects are likely mediated by acetaldehyde. However, the roles of CYP2E1-generated metabolites and ROS in microtubule acetylation and these alcohol-induced impairments have not been examined. To determine if CYP2E1-mediated alcohol metabolism is required for enhanced acetylation and the trafficking defects, we coincubated cells with ethanol and diallyl sulfide (DAS; a CYP2E1 inhibitor) or N -acetyl cysteine (NAC; an antioxidant). Both agents failed to prevent microtubule hyperacetylation in ethanol-treated cells and also failed to prevent impaired secretion or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Somewhat surprisingly, both DAS and NAC prevented impaired STAT5B nuclear translocation. Further examination of microtubule-independent steps of the pathway revealed that Jak2/STAT5B activation by growth hormone was prevented by DAS and NAC. These results were confirmed in ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells expressing only ADH or CYP2E1. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we further determined that ethanol exposure led to blunted growth hormone-mediated gene expression. In conclusion, we determined that alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation and associated defects in microtubule-dependent trafficking are mediated by ADH metabolism whereas impaired microtubule-independent Jak2/STAT5B activation is mediated by CYP2E1 activity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired growth hormone-mediated signaling is observed in ethanol

  10. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  11. The protective effect of platelet released growth factors and bone augmentation (Bio-Oss®) on ethanol impaired osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Tillman; Hock, Jennifer Vanessa Phi; Lethaus, Bernd; Kweider, Nisreen; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Drescher, Wolf; Jahr, Holger; Lippross, Sebastian; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh

    2017-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a known limiting factor for bone healing. One promising strategy to improve bone augmentation techniques with Bio-Oss ® in oral and maxillofacial surgery might be the supportive application of platelet-concentrated biomaterials as platelet-released growth factor (PRGF). To address this matter, we performed an in vitro study investigating the protective effects of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in ethanol (EtOH) treated osteoblasts. The SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line, with and without EtOH pretreatment was used. The cell viability, proliferation and alkali phosphatase activity (ALP) after application of 0%, 5% and 10% PRGF and Bio-Oss ® were assessed. The application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in EtOH impaired osteoblasts showed a significant beneficial influence increasing the viability of the osteoblasts in cell culture. The synergistic effect of Bio-Oss ® and 5% PRGF on the proliferation of osteoblasts was also demonstrated. Bio-Oss ® only in combination with PRGF increases the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in EtOH pretreated cells. These results indicate that the simultaneous application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® inhibits EtOH induced bone healing impairment. Furthermore, in the cells, PRGF induced a protective mechanism which might promote bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  13. Alcohol levels do not accurately predict physical or mental impairment in ethanol-tolerant subjects: relevance to emergency medicine and dram shop laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Dollard, Denis

    2010-12-01

    The human body and the central nervous system can develop tremendous tolerance to ethanol. Mental and physical dysfunctions from ethanol, in an alcohol-tolerant individual, do not consistently correlate with ethanol levels traditionally used to define intoxication, or even lethality, in a nontolerant subject. Attempting to relate observed signs of alcohol intoxication or impairment, or to evaluate sobriety, by quantifying blood alcohol levels can be misleading, if not impossible. We report a case demonstrating the disconnect between alcohol levels and generally assigned parameters of intoxication and impairment. In this case, an alcohol-tolerant man, with a serum ethanol level of 515 mg/dl, appeared neurologically intact and cognitively normal. This individual was without objective signs of impairment or intoxication by repeated evaluations by experienced emergency physicians. In alcohol-tolerant individuals, blood alcohol levels cannot always be predicted by and do not necessarily correlate with outward appearance, overt signs of intoxication, or physical examination. This phenomenon must be acknowledged when analyzing medical decision making in the emergency department or when evaluating the ability of bartenders and party hosts to identify intoxication in dram shop cases.

  14. Frontline Science: ATF3 is responsible for the inhibition of TNF-α release and the impaired migration of acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaojie; Meng, Xiaoming; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking represses host innate immunity and leads to a high risk of infection. Acute EtOH-pretreated macrophages exhibit a decreased production of proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS. ATF3 is induced and counter-regulates the LPS/TLR4 inflammatory cascade. Here, we investigated the potential role of ATF3 in LPS tolerance in acute ethanol-pretreated macrophages. We found that there was an inverse correlation between ATF3 and LPS-induced TNF-α production in acute ethanol-pretreated murine monocytes and macrophages. The knockdown of ATF3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of acute ethanol treatment on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Furthermore, ChIP assays and co-IP demonstrated that ATF3, together with HDAC1, negatively modulated the transcription of TNF-α. In binge-drinking mice challenged with LPS, an up-regulation of ATF3 and HDAC1 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-α were observed. Given that HDAC1 was concomitantly induced in acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages, we used the HDACi TSA or silenced HDAC1 to explore the role of HDAC1 in acute ethanol-treated macrophages. Our results revealed that TSA treatment and HDAC1 knockdown prevented acute ethanol-induced ATF3 expression and the inhibition of TNF-α transcription. These data indicated a dual role for HDAC1 in acute ethanol-induced LPS tolerance. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of ATF3 led to the impaired migration of BM monocytes and macrophages. Overall, we present a novel role for ATF3 in the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and in the impairment of monocyte and macrophage migration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure alters hippocampal GABA(A) receptors and impairs spatial learning in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, U; Dringenberg, H C; Brien, J F; Reynolds, J N

    2004-04-02

    Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) can injure the developing brain, and may lead to the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Previous studies have demonstrated that CPEE upregulates gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor expression in the cerebral cortex, and decreases functional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, in the adult guinea pig. This study tested the hypothesis that CPEE increases GABA(A) receptor expression in the hippocampus of guinea pig offspring that exhibit cognitive deficits in a hippocampal-dependent spatial learning task. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight per day), isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding, or water throughout gestation. GABA(A) receptor subunit protein expression in the hippocampus was measured at two development ages: near-term fetus and young adult. In young adult guinea pig offspring, CPEE increased spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field and impaired task acquisition in the Morris water maze. CPEE did not change GABA(A) receptor subunit protein expression in the near-term fetal hippocampus, but increased expression of the beta2/3-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the hippocampus of young adult offspring. CPEE did not change either [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding or GABA potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding, but decreased the efficacy of allopregnanolone potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding, to hippocampal GABA(A) receptors in adult offspring. Correlational analysis revealed a relationship between increased spontaneous locomotor activity and growth restriction in the hippocampus induced by CPEE. Similarly, an inverse relationship was found between performance in the water maze and the efficacy of allopregnanolone potentiation of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding in the hippocampus. These data suggest that alterations in hippocampal GABA(A) receptor expression and pharmacological properties contribute to hippocampal-related behavioral and cognitive deficits

  16. Caustic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafeey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention has a main role in reducing the occurrence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. Because of the accidental nature of the ingestions, the case fatality rate for pediatric patients is significantly less than that of adolescents and adults.  Currently, esophagoscopy is recommended for all patients with a history of caustic substance ingestion because clinical criteria have not proved to be reliable predictors of esophageal injury. The presence or absence of three serious signs and symptoms-vomiting, drooling, and stridor—as well as the presence and location of oropharyngeal burns could be  compared with the findings on subsequent esophagoscopy. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. The purpose of this lecture is to outline the current epidemiology, mechanism of injury, clinical manifestations, management and long-term complications of caustic ingestions in pediatric patients.   Key Words: Caustic, Children, Ingestions.

  17. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  18. Ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi prevents oxidative damage and neuroinflammation and memorial impairments in artificial senescense mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Youkyung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging is a progressive process related to the accumulation of oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. We tried to find the anti-amnesic effect of the Scutellaria baicalens Georgia (SBG ethanol extract and its major ingredients. The antioxidative effect of SBG on the mice model with memory impairment induced by chronic injection of D-galactose and sodium nitrate was studied. The Y-maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory function of mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the content of malondialdehyde in brain tissue were used for the antioxidation activities. Neuropathological alteration and expression of bcl-2 protein were investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemical staining. ROS, neuroinflammation and apoptosis related molecules expression such as Cox-2, iNOS, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, 8 and 9, bcl-2 and bax protein and the products of iNOS and Cox-2, NO, PGE2, were studied using LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells and microglia BV2 cells. The cognition of mice was significantly improved by the treatment of baicalein and 50 and 100 mg/kg of SBG in Y-maze test. Both SBG groups showed strong antioxidation, antiinflammation effects with significantly decreased iNOS and Cox-2 expression, NO and PGE2 production, increased bcl-2 and decreased bax and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in LPS induced Raw 264.7 and BV2 cells. We also found that apoptotic pathway was caused by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway with the decreased cleaved caspase-9 and unchanged cleaved caspase-8 expression. These findings suggest that SBG, especially high dose, 100 mg/kg, improved the memory impairments significantly and showed antioxidation, antiinflammation and intrinsic caspase-mediated apoptosis effects.

  19. The combination of ethanol with mephedrone increases the signs of neurotoxicity and impairs neurogenesis and learning in adolescent CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Duart-Castells, Leticia; Camarasa, Jorge; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A new family of psychostimulants, under the name of cathinones, has broken into the market in the last decade. In light of the fact that around 95% of cathinone consumers have been reported to combine them with alcoholic drinks, we sought to study the consequences of the concomitant administration of ethanol on mephedrone -induced neurotoxicity. Adolescent male Swiss-CD1 mice were administered four times in one day, every 2 h, with saline, mephedrone (25 mg/kg), ethanol (2; 1.5; 1.5; 1 g/kg) and their combination at a room temperature of 26 ± 2 °C. The combination with ethanol impaired mephedrone-induced decreases in dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase in the frontal cortex; and in serotonin transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase in the hippocampus by approximately 2-fold, 7 days post-treatment. Furthermore, these decreases correlated with a 2-fold increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 24 h post-treatment, and were accompanied by changes in oxidative stress-related enzymes. Ethanol also notably potentiated mephedrone-induced negative effects on learning and memory, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis, measured through the Morris water maze (MWM) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining, respectively. These results are of special significance, since alcohol is widely co-abused with amphetamine derivatives such as mephedrone, especially during adolescence, a crucial stage in brain maturation. Given that the hippocampus is greatly involved in learning and memory processes, normal brain development in young adults could be affected with permanent behavioral consequences after this type of drug co-abuse. - Highlights: • Mice were administered a binge regimen of mephedrone plus/minus ethanol. • Ethanol exacerbated mephedrone-induced changes in 5-HT and DA function markers. • Neurochemical alterations were accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. • Ethanol potentiated mephedrone-induced learning

  20. The combination of ethanol with mephedrone increases the signs of neurotoxicity and impairs neurogenesis and learning in adolescent CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Duart-Castells, Leticia; Camarasa, Jorge; Pubill, David, E-mail: d.pubill@ub.edu; Escubedo, Elena

    2016-02-15

    A new family of psychostimulants, under the name of cathinones, has broken into the market in the last decade. In light of the fact that around 95% of cathinone consumers have been reported to combine them with alcoholic drinks, we sought to study the consequences of the concomitant administration of ethanol on mephedrone -induced neurotoxicity. Adolescent male Swiss-CD1 mice were administered four times in one day, every 2 h, with saline, mephedrone (25 mg/kg), ethanol (2; 1.5; 1.5; 1 g/kg) and their combination at a room temperature of 26 ± 2 °C. The combination with ethanol impaired mephedrone-induced decreases in dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase in the frontal cortex; and in serotonin transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase in the hippocampus by approximately 2-fold, 7 days post-treatment. Furthermore, these decreases correlated with a 2-fold increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 24 h post-treatment, and were accompanied by changes in oxidative stress-related enzymes. Ethanol also notably potentiated mephedrone-induced negative effects on learning and memory, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis, measured through the Morris water maze (MWM) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining, respectively. These results are of special significance, since alcohol is widely co-abused with amphetamine derivatives such as mephedrone, especially during adolescence, a crucial stage in brain maturation. Given that the hippocampus is greatly involved in learning and memory processes, normal brain development in young adults could be affected with permanent behavioral consequences after this type of drug co-abuse. - Highlights: • Mice were administered a binge regimen of mephedrone plus/minus ethanol. • Ethanol exacerbated mephedrone-induced changes in 5-HT and DA function markers. • Neurochemical alterations were accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. • Ethanol potentiated mephedrone-induced learning

  1. Study of ethanol-induced Golgi disorganization reveals the potential mechanism of alcohol-impaired N-glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Carol A.; Bhat, Ganapati; Holzapfel, Melissa S.; Petrosyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Background It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi, however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation. Methods HepG2 cells transfected with mouse ADH1 (VA-13 cells) were treated with 35 mM ethanol for 72 h. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed Lieber-DeCarli diets for 5 to 8 weeks. Characterization of Golgi-associated mannosyl (α-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1), α-1,2-mannosidase (Man-I) and α-mannosidase II (Man-II) were performed in VA-13 cells and rat hepatocytes followed by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results First, we detected that EtOH administration results in the loss of sialylated N-glycans on asialoglycoprotein receptor, however the high mannose-type N-glycans are increased. Further analysis by 3D SIM microscopy revealed that EtOH treatment despite Golgi disorganization does not change cis-Golgi localization for Man-I, but does induce medial-to-cis relocation of MGAT1 and Man-II. Using different approaches, including electron microscopy, we revealed that EtOH treatment results in dysfunction of Arf1 GTPase followed by a deficiency in COPI vesicles at the Golgi. Silencing beta-COP or expression of GDP-bound mutant Arf1(T31N) mimics the EtOH effect on retaining MGAT1 and Man-II at the cis-Golgi, suggesting that (a) EtOH specifically blocks activation of Arf1, and (b) EtOH alters the proper localization of Golgi enzymes through impairment of COPI. Importantly, the level of MGAT1 was reduced, because likely MGAT1, contrary to Man-I and Man

  2. Impairment of Akt activity by CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress is involved in chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt plays important roles in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and impairment of Akt activity has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Previous studies suggest that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 plays causal roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL. We hypothesized that Akt activity might be impaired due to CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we found that chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis was accompanied with reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 in mice liver. Chronic ethanol exposure had no effects on the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN, and led to a slight decrease of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1 protein level. Ethanol exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE-Akt adducts, which was significantly inhibited by chlormethiazole (CMZ, an efficient CYP2E1 inhibitor. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC significantly attenuated chronic ethanol-induced hepatic fat accumulation and the decline of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308. In the in vitro studies, Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 (CYP2E1-HepG2 cells compared with the negative control HepG2 (NC-HepG2 cells, and 4-HNE treatment led to significant decrease of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 in wild type HepG2 cells. Lastly, pharmacological activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 significantly alleviated chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Collectively, these results indicate that CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for ethanol-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation and pharmacological modulation of Akt in liver may be an effective strategy for the treatment of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Keywords

  3. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  4. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  5. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol Study of ultrastructural alterations in gastrocnemius muscle of C57 BL10 mice after prolonged ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Guedes e Silva

    1996-06-01

    foi vista no citoplasma dos hepatócitos parecendo constituir uma evidência a mais da ação tóxica do etanol sobre o organismo. Concluímos que a ingestão prolongada de etanol, representando 14,4% de calorias totais, produz no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57BL10 bem nutridos um elenco de alterações ultraestruturais que refletem um efeito tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. As alterações constatadas são semelhantes àquelas descritas na miopatia alcoólica crônica humanaThe effects of chronic alcoholism on gastrocnemius muscle of well-nourished mice were morphologically studied to test the direct toxic role of ethanol on skeletal muscle. Thirty male young adult C57BL10 mice were divided in two groups: Group A (control consisting of ten mice that drank water and Group B (alcoholic consisting of twenty mice that drank 25% ethanol. All mice were allowed a balanced laboratory chow. The animals were kept on this ad libitum regimen under the same conditions of environment for 48 weeks and were weighed once a week. The daily dietary consumption and caloric intake were estimated, the animals having had a substantial weight gain, showing no signs of malnutrition. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed for morphological studies. No abnormalities were observed by conventional microscopy.Striking deviations from normal were verified by electron microscopy in all specimens. Dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum was a common feature, sometimes resulting in the formation of large vesicles and involving the terminal cisternae with the displacement of the triads. Areas of narrowing, splitting and loss of myofibrils were seen. Zones of complete disorganization of miofibrils could be occasionally observed. Mitochondria were generally normal. Peculiar tubular aggregates seen commonly in periodic paralysis and other human pathological conditions, were encountered in both control and alcoholic mice. Intramuscular nerves and neuromuscular junctions

  6. Effect of ethanol on placenta and liver of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Eapen, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of ethanol in drinking water for 15 days induces fatty liver in non-pregnant female mice. A similar regimen fails to produce the same effect in liver and placenta of pregnant mice. In vivo incorporation of 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolysate into hepatic proteins, however, is impaired in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant mice following ethanol treatment. Placental and foetal liver protein syntheses remain unaffected by the treatment. A single intraperitoneal dose of ethanol in fed and fasted non-pregnant mice elicits a differential response with respect to incorporation of the labelled precursor. The results are discussed with reference to the apparent metabolic alterations due to pregnancy. (author)

  7. Impaired TFEB-mediated Lysosome Biogenesis and Autophagy Promote Chronic Ethanol-induced Liver Injury and Steatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shaogui; Zhao, Katrina; Li, Yuan; Williams, Jessica A; Li, Tiangang; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng; Ballabio, Andrea; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2018-05-18

    Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfeb flox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls). TFEB was overexpressed from adenoviral vectors or knocked down with small interfering RNAs in mouse livers. Mice were placed on diets of chronic ethanol feeding plus an acute binge to induce liver damage (ethanol diet); some mice were also given injections of torin1, an inhibitor of the kinase activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblots, and quantitative real-time PCR to monitor lysosome biogenesis. We analyzed levels of TFEB in liver tissues from patients with alcoholic hepatitis and from healthy donors (controls) by immunohistochemistry. Liver tissues from mice on the ethanol diet had lower levels of total and nuclear TFEB, compared with control mice, and hepatocytes had reduced lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. Hepatocytes from mice on the ethanol diet had increased translocation of mTOR into lysosomes, resulting increased mTOR activation. Administration of torin1 increased liver levels of TFEB and reduced steatosis and liver injury induced by ethanol. Mice that overexpressed TFEB in liver developed less-severe ethanol-induced liver injury and had increased lysosomal biogenesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics compared to mice carrying a control vector. Mice with knockdown of TFEB, as well as TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice, developed more severe liver injury in response to the

  8. Effect of chronic ethanol administration on iron metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Casas, M.; Rama, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study shows that the ingestion of ethanol provokes alterations in iron metabolism which may lead to iron overload. Impaired release of reticuloendothelial iron was shown by a decrease of the maximum red blood cell utilization when radioactive iron was supplied as colloidal iron. An impairment in the erythropoietic activity of ethanoltreated animals was also observed, as can be seen from the reduced plasma iron turnover and red blood cell utilization within 24 h of iron administration. A rise in marrow transit time was also observed. In ethanol-treated rats there was an increase in the amount of iron retained both in the liver and the spleen. This was observed in both sexes and also in the offspring from ethanol-treated mothers. (author)

  9. Chemical and radiological effects of chronic ingestion of uranium in the rat brain: biochemical impairment of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neuro-transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, C.

    2005-09-01

    Uranium is an environmental ubiquitous metal-trace element. It has both chemical and radiological toxicity. After chronic ingestion, uranium can distribute in any part of the body and accumulate in the brain. The aims of this study was 1) to determine and estimate the effects of uranium on dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems and 2) to measure the uranium amount in the brain, after chronic exposure by ingestion of depleted (D.U.) or enriched (E.U.) uranium during 1.5 to 18 months at 40 mg.L -1 (40 ppm) in different rat brain areas. At any time of exposure, the results show that both the neurotransmission alterations and the uranium brain accumulation were moderate, area specific, time-evolutive and depended on uranium specific activity. After D.U. exposure, monoamine perturbations are chronic and progressive. On the contrary, monoamine alterations occurred only after long term of E.U. exposure. These mono-aminergic modifications are not always dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas. Moreover, although the cholinergic system was not affected at both 1.5 and 9 months of D.U. exposure, the alteration of ChE activity after E.U. exposure are both dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas and on uranium specific activity. After E.U. exposure, cholinergic modification and uranium accumulation in hippocampus could partially explain the short-term memory disturbances which have been previously reported. (author)

  10. Both basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates, following the ingestion of a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement, are not impaired in sarcopenic older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Irene Fleur; Verdijk, Lex B; Hamer, Henrike M; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Kouw, Imre W K; Senden, Joan M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Gijsen, Annemarie P; Bierau, Jörgen; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-10-01

    Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men. A total of 15 healthy (69 ± 1 y) and 15 sarcopenic (81 ± 1 y) older men ingested a leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement containing 21 g of protein, 9 g of carbohydrate, and 3 g of fat. Stable isotope methodology combined with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples was applied to assess basal and post-prandial muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Handgrip strength, muscle mass, and gait speed were assessed to identify sarcopenia, according to international criteria. Basal mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) averaged 0.040 ± 0.005 and 0.032 ± 0.003%/h (mean ± SEM) in the sarcopenic and healthy group, respectively (P = 0.14). Following protein ingestion, FSR increased significantly to 0.055 ± 0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.004%/h in the post-prandial period in the sarcopenic (P = 0.003) and healthy groups (P protein synthesis rates during the early (0.058 ± 0.007 vs 0.060 ± 0.008%/h, sarcopenic vs healthy, respectively) and late (0.052 ± 0.004 vs 0.048 ± 0.003%/h) stages of the post-prandial period (P = 0.93 and P = 0.34, respectively). Basal muscle protein synthesis rates are not lower in sarcopenic older men compared to healthy older men. The ingestion of 21 g of a leucine-enriched whey protein effectively increases muscle protein synthesis rates in both sarcopenic and healthy older men. Public trial registry number: NTR3047. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  11. The relation of age to the acute effects of ethanol on acetanilide disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, H A; Mutch, E; Williams, F M; James, O F; Rawlins, M D; Woodhouse, K W

    1989-03-01

    The activity of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes, the mono-oxygenases, can be inhibited by an acute dose of ethanol. We set out to determine whether age has any relation to the degree of inhibition produced by ethanol, using acetanilide as a model substrate. Eight healthy young subjects (mean age 26 years) and eight healthy elderly subjects (mean age 72 years) were studied on two occasions, once receiving acetanilide alone and once acetanilide with 75 ml vodka (30 g ethanol). The clearance of acetanilide was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the elderly subjects at 27 +/- 3 l/h compared to 38 +/- 2 l/h in young subjects. No age-related differences in peak blood ethanol concentrations or ethanol elimination rates were noted. After ethanol, acetanilide clearance fell 18% to 31 +/- 3 l/h in young subjects (p = 0.05) and by 15% to 23 +/- 2 l/h in elderly subjects (p = 0.08). This suggests that the elderly do not suffer greater impairment of drug oxidation after acute ethanol ingestion than do the young.

  12. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  13. Modifications in adrenal hormones response to ethanol by prior ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaza, C; Borrell, S

    1985-03-01

    Ethanol was administered to rats by means of a liquid diet for 16 days; after an ethanol-free interval of four weeks, animals received a test (IP) dose of ethanol (2 g/kg), and the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary responses were evaluated. Chronically ethanol-exposed animals showed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of ethanol in the pituitary-adrenal axis. Likewise, previously dependent rats showed tolerance to the increase in the activity of the adrenomedullary function induced by acute administration of the drug. Our results indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion can induce persistent changes after complete alcohol abstinence.

  14. High ethanol and acetaldehyde impair spatial memory in mouse models: opposite effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and apolipoprotein E on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ono, Junichiro; Shirakami, Gotaro; Sultana, Ruby; Yu, Nakamura; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency may directly contribute to excess acetaldehyde (AcH) accumulation after ethanol (EtOH) drinking and AcH mediates some of the behavioral effects of EtOH. Apolipoprotein E has been suggested to be involved in the alteration of attention and memory. We have chosen Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO), ApoE-KO, and their wild-type (WT) control mice to examine the effects of EtOH and AcH on spatial memory and to compare the possible relationship between genetic deficiency and memory using two behavioral assessments. Mice were trained for 4 days, with EtOH (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg) being given intraperitoneally on day 4. A probe trial was given on day 5 in the non-EtOH state in the Morris water maze (MWM). The results showed that 2.0 g/kg EtOH increased errors, indicating memory impairment on the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) for all the mice studied. One gram per kilogram EtOH impaired the performance of Aldh2-KO and ApoE-KO mice, but not WT mice. We found similar effects of EtOH on the MWM performance, with 2.0 g/kg EtOH increasing the latencies. One gram per kilogram EtOH increased the latencies of Aldh2-KO and WT mice, but not ApoE-KO mice. The 2.0 g/kg EtOH-induced memory impairment in Aldh2-KO mice was greater, suggesting an AcH effect. Furthermore, time spent on the probe trial was shorter in mice that had previously received 2.0 g/kg EtOH. ApoE-KO mice learned more slowly, while Aldh2-KO mice learned more quickly. Both the RAM and MWM results suggest that high EtOH and AcH impair spatial memory in mice, while lower doses do not have consistent memory effects. In addition, we conclude that genetic differences might underlie some of EtOH's effects on memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tiliacora triandra, an Anti-Intoxication Plant, Improves Memory Impairment, Neurodegeneration, Cholinergic Function, and Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus of Ethanol Dependence Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Phunchago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain dysfunctions induced by alcohol. Since less therapeutic agent against cognitive deficit and brain damage induced by chronic alcohol consumption is less available, we aimed to assess the effect of Tiliacora triandra extract, a plant possessing antioxidant activity, on memory impairment, neuron density, cholinergic function, and oxidative stress in hippocampus of alcoholic rats. Male Wistar rats were induced ethanol dependence condition by semivoluntary intake of alcohol for 15 weeks. Alcoholic rats were orally given T. triandra at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1BW for 14 days. Memory assessment was performed every 7 days while neuron density, activities of AChE, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px and, MDA level in hippocampus were assessed at the end of study. Interestingly, the extract mitigated the increased escape latency, AChE and MDA level. The extract also mitigated the decreased retention time, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, and neurons density in hippocampus induced by alcohol. These data suggested that the extract improved memory deficit in alcoholic rats partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AChE. Therefore, T. triandra is the potential reagent for treating brain dysfunction induced by alcohol. However, further researches are necessary to understand the detail mechanism and possible active ingredient.

  16. Ethanol-drug absorption interaction: potential for a significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ethanol vulnerable formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Generally, gastric emptying of a drug to the small intestine is controlled by gastric motor activity and is the main factor affecting the onset of absorption. Accordingly, the emptying rate from the stomach is mainly affected by the digestive state, the properties of the pharmaceutical formulation and the effect of drugs, posture and circadian rhythm. Variability in the gastric emptying of drugs is reflected in variability in the absorption rate and the shape of the plasma pharmacokinetic profile. When ethanol interacts with an oral controlled release product, such that the mechanism controlling drug release is impaired, the delivery of the dissolved dose into the small intestine and the consequent absorption may result in dangerously high plasma concentrations. For example, the maximal plasma concentration of hydromorphone has individually been shown to be increased as much as 16 times through in vivo testing as a result of this specific pharmacokinetic ethanol-drug formulation interaction. Thus, a pharmacokinetic ethanol-drug interaction is a very serious safety concern when substantially the entire dose from a controlled release product is rapidly emptied into the small intestine (dose dumping), having been largely dissolved in a strong alcoholic beverage in the stomach during a sufficient lag-time in gastric emptying. Based on the literature, a two hour time frame for screening the in vitro dissolution profile of a controlled release product in ethanol concentrations of up to 40% is strongly supported and may be considered as the absolute minimum standard. It is also evident that the dilution, absorption and metabolism of ethanol in the stomach are processes with a minor effect on the local ethanol concentration and that ethanol exposure will be highly dependent on the volume and ethanol concentration of the fluid ingested, together with the rate of intake and gastric emptying. When and in which patients a clinically significant dose dumping will happen is

  17. Striatal modulation of BDNF expression using microRNA124a-expressing lentiviral vectors impairs ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference and voluntary alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major health, economic and social concern in modern societies, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol addiction remain elusive. Recent findings show that small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) signaling contributes to complex behavioral disorders including drug addiction. However, the role of miRNAs in ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (CPP) and voluntary alcohol consumption has not yet been directly addressed. Here, we assessed the expression profile of miR124a in the dorsal striatum of rats upon ethanol intake. The results show that miR124a was downregulated in the dorso-lateral striatum (DLS) following alcohol drinking. Then, we identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a direct target of miR124a. In fact, BDNF mRNA was upregulated following ethanol drinking. We used lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer technology to further address the role of miR124a and its direct target BDNF in ethanol-induced CPP and alcohol consumption. Results reveal that stereotaxic injection of LV-miR124a in the DLS enhances ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm. Moreover, miR124a-silencer (LV-siR124a) as well as LV-BDNF infusion in the DLS attenuates ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption. Importantly, LV-miR124a, LV-siR124a and LV-BDNF have no effect on saccharin and quinine intake. Our findings indicate that striatal miR124a and BDNF signaling have crucial roles in alcohol consumption and ethanol conditioned reward. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  19. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  1. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of paraffin ingestion is higher in the summer months. This is because ... where the average cost per patient was R348 per day. The total cost to ... petroleum companies and/or entrepreneurs and distributed ... paraffin, coal and gas. As South Africa ... and more people become involved, making control difficult.

  3. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Margoles

    Full Text Available Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43 and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion.

  4. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoles, Lindsay M; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Lyons, John D; Liang, Zhe; Serbanescu, Mara A; Wagener, Maylene E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43) and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF) as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion.

  5. Pavlovian conditioning with ethanol: sign-tracking (autoshaping), conditioned incentive, and ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D

    2003-10-01

    Conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling a drug's reinforcing effects activate a central motivational state. Incentive motivation enhances drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral response to cues associated with ethanol and their interaction with operant self-administration of ethanol. In two experiments, rats received operant training to press a lever for a sweetened ethanol solution. After operant training, the animals were given Pavlovian pairings of a brief and localized cue light with the sweetened ethanol solution (no lever present). Lever pressing for ethanol was then re-established, and the behavioral effects of the cue light were tested during an ethanol self-administration session. The conditioned responses resulting from pairing cue lights with the opportunity to ingest ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (magazine entries), and (3) signal-directed behavior (i.e., autoshaping, or sign-tracking). Signal-directed behavior interacted with the other two effects in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light. These conditioned responses interact with operant responding for ethanol reinforcement. These findings demonstrate the importance of Pavlovian conditioning effects on ethanol self-administration and are consistent with conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior.

  6. Chemical and radiological effects of chronic ingestion of uranium in the rat brain: biochemical impairment of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neuro-transmissions; Effets chimique et radiologique d'une ingestion chronique d'uranium sur le cerveau du rat. Effets sur les neurotransmissions dopaminergique, serotoninergique et cholinergique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussy, C

    2005-09-15

    Uranium is an environmental ubiquitous metal-trace element. It has both chemical and radiological toxicity. After chronic ingestion, uranium can distribute in any part of the body and accumulate in the brain. The aims of this study was 1) to determine and estimate the effects of uranium on dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems and 2) to measure the uranium amount in the brain, after chronic exposure by ingestion of depleted (D.U.) or enriched (E.U.) uranium during 1.5 to 18 months at 40 mg.L{sup -1} (40 ppm) in different rat brain areas. At any time of exposure, the results show that both the neurotransmission alterations and the uranium brain accumulation were moderate, area specific, time-evolutive and depended on uranium specific activity. After D.U. exposure, monoamine perturbations are chronic and progressive. On the contrary, monoamine alterations occurred only after long term of E.U. exposure. These mono-aminergic modifications are not always dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas. Moreover, although the cholinergic system was not affected at both 1.5 and 9 months of D.U. exposure, the alteration of ChE activity after E.U. exposure are both dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas and on uranium specific activity. After E.U. exposure, cholinergic modification and uranium accumulation in hippocampus could partially explain the short-term memory disturbances which have been previously reported. (author)

  7. Chemical and radiological effects of chronic ingestion of uranium in the rat brain: biochemical impairment of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neuro-transmissions; Effets chimique et radiologique d'une ingestion chronique d'uranium sur le cerveau du rat. Effets sur les neurotransmissions dopaminergique, serotoninergique et cholinergique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussy, C

    2005-09-15

    Uranium is an environmental ubiquitous metal-trace element. It has both chemical and radiological toxicity. After chronic ingestion, uranium can distribute in any part of the body and accumulate in the brain. The aims of this study was 1) to determine and estimate the effects of uranium on dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems and 2) to measure the uranium amount in the brain, after chronic exposure by ingestion of depleted (D.U.) or enriched (E.U.) uranium during 1.5 to 18 months at 40 mg.L{sup -1} (40 ppm) in different rat brain areas. At any time of exposure, the results show that both the neurotransmission alterations and the uranium brain accumulation were moderate, area specific, time-evolutive and depended on uranium specific activity. After D.U. exposure, monoamine perturbations are chronic and progressive. On the contrary, monoamine alterations occurred only after long term of E.U. exposure. These mono-aminergic modifications are not always dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas. Moreover, although the cholinergic system was not affected at both 1.5 and 9 months of D.U. exposure, the alteration of ChE activity after E.U. exposure are both dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas and on uranium specific activity. After E.U. exposure, cholinergic modification and uranium accumulation in hippocampus could partially explain the short-term memory disturbances which have been previously reported. (author)

  8. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Sorin; Angelescu, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  9. Suicide attempt using pure methanol with hospitalization of the patient soon after ingestion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Madureira, Paulo Roberto de; Cesconetto, Danielle Menezes; Lanaro, Rafael; Vieira, Ronan José

    2009-05-01

    Most patients with methanol poisoning typically show up one to several days after ingestion, presenting severe acidosis, visual disorders, or both. Reports of hospitalization less than 6 h after exposure are unusual. We describe a case of attempted suicide using methanol admitted 3 h after ingestion. A 52-year-old male was hospitalized 3 h after intentional ingestion of 150 ml of 99.9% methanol with no co-ingestion of ethanol. He was alert and cooperative, presenting nausea and vertigo, and reporting six episodes of vomiting. Physical examination showed no remarkable features. A blood sample for methanol and ethanol determination was obtained 4 h after ingestion. The result (available 10 h after ingestion) showed 70 mg/dl of methanol, without detectable ethanol. He was treated with a loading dose of 10% ethanol solution (7 ml/kg, intravenously), followed by a maintenance dose of 0.9-1.0 ml/kg/h intravenously (10 to 51 h); hemodialysis (19 to 27 h, together with 2.1 ml/kg/h of 10% ethanol intravenously); and folinic acid intravenously (50 mg every 6 h, from 4 to 51 h). He developed mild/moderate metabolic acidosis without acidemia and was discharged on day four after ophthalmological evaluation and cerebral computed tomography scan, without abnormalities. Follow-up revealed no sequelae. This could be classified as a potentially severe case of methanol poisoning, according to the amount and concentration of methanol ingested, and blood methanol concentration at 4 h. The good outcome was attributable to early hospitalization and early antidotal therapy with hemodialysis, starting at 10 and 19 h, respectively.

  10. Suicide attempt using pure methanol with hospitalization of the patient soon after ingestion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bucaretchi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Most patients with methanol poisoning typically show up one to several days after ingestion, presenting severe acidosis, visual disorders, or both. Reports of hospitalization less than 6 h after exposure are unusual. We describe a case of attempted suicide using methanol admitted 3 h after ingestion. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old male was hospitalized 3 h after intentional ingestion of 150 ml of 99.9% methanol with no co-ingestion of ethanol. He was alert and cooperative, presenting nausea and vertigo, and reporting six episodes of vomiting. Physical examination showed no remarkable features. A blood sample for methanol and ethanol determination was obtained 4 h after ingestion. The result (available 10 h after ingestion showed 70 mg/dl of methanol, without detectable ethanol. He was treated with a loading dose of 10% ethanol solution (7 ml/kg, intravenously, followed by a maintenance dose of 0.9-1.0 ml/kg/h intravenously (10 to 51 h; hemodialysis (19 to 27 h, together with 2.1 ml/kg/h of 10% ethanol intravenously; and folinic acid intravenously (50 mg every 6 h, from 4 to 51 h. He developed mild/moderate metabolic acidosis without acidemia and was discharged on day four after ophthalmological evaluation and cerebral computed tomography scan, without abnormalities. Follow-up revealed no sequelae. CONCLUSION: This could be classified as a potentially severe case of methanol poisoning, according to the amount and concentration of methanol ingested, and blood methanol concentration at 4 h. The good outcome was attributable to early hospitalization and early antidotal therapy with hemodialysis, starting at 10 and 19 h, respectively.

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  12. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  13. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungavkar, S.A.; Joshi, V.; Patkar, D.P.; Lawande, M.; Gadani, S.; Shah-Mehta, N.

    2006-01-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  16. Hampered long-term depression and thin spine loss in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Saturnino; Talani, Giuseppe; Mulas, Giovanna; Licheri, Valentina; Fois, Giulia R; Muggironi, Giulia; Masala, Nicola; Cannizzaro, Carla; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico; Diana, Marco

    2014-09-02

    Alcoholism involves long-term cognitive deficits, including memory impairment, resulting in substantial cost to society. Neuronal refinement and stabilization are hypothesized to confer resilience to poor decision making and addictive-like behaviors, such as excessive ethanol drinking and dependence. Accordingly, structural abnormalities are likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunctions that occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic ingestion. Here we show that ethanol-dependent rats display a loss of dendritic spines in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell, accompanied by a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and postsynaptic density 95-positive elements. Further analysis indicates that "long thin" but not "mushroom" spines are selectively affected. In addition, patch-clamp experiments from Nacc slices reveal that long-term depression (LTD) formation is hampered, with parallel changes in field potential recordings and reductions in NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These changes are restricted to the withdrawal phase of ethanol dependence, suggesting their relevance in the genesis of signs and/or symptoms affecting ethanol withdrawal and thus the whole addictive cycle. Overall, these results highlight the key role of dynamic alterations in dendritic spines and their presynaptic afferents in the evolution of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, they suggest that the selective loss of long thin spines together with a reduced NMDA receptor function may affect learning. Disruption of this LTD could contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in alcohol dependence.

  17. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  18. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  19. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  20. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  1. Acute ethanol administration reduces the antidote effect of N-acetylcysteine after acetaminophen overdose in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Hansen, P B; Ott, P

    1991-01-01

    given ethanol or saline alone only 7% and 3%, respectively, survived 96 h. 4. The data suggest that the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in fed mice is reduced by concomitant administration of ethanol. This may explain the clinical observation that ingestion...

  2. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P K; Park, J G

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  3. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  4. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  5. Subacute ethanol consumption reverses p-xylene-induced decreases in axonal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, S.; Lyerly, D.L.; Pope, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Organic solvants, as a class, have been implicated as neurotoxic agents in humans and laboratory animals. The study was designed to assess the interaction between subacute ingestion of moderate levels of ethanol and the p-xylene-induced decreases in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and axonal transport in the rat optic system. The results indicated that animals maintained on 10% ethanol as a drinking liquid show less p-xylene-induced neurotoxicity than animals receiving no ethanol supplement.

  6. Gastrobronchial fistula after toothbrush ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Jan Christoph; von Buch, Christoph; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2006-10-01

    Gastrobronchial fistulous communications are uncommon complications of disease processes with only 36 previously reported cases. Described as complication of a number of conditions, such as previous gastroesophageal surgery, subphrenic abscess, and gastric ulcers (Jha P, Deiraniya A, Keeling-Robert C, et al. Gastrobronchial fistula--a recent series. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Sur 2003;2:6-8), we report a case of fistulization caused by ingestion of a foreign body. A patient with mental retardation, admitted for the treatment of osteomyelitis, presented during hospitalization symptoms of high fever, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Endoscopy showed the presence of a gastrobronchial fistula, which developed after ingestion of a toothbrush. The toothbrush was extracted endoscopically, and the fistula was subsequently closed by surgery. The patient recovered completely. We report the first case of a gastrobronchial fistula as a complication of foreign body ingestion.

  7. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  8. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnappa, B.C.; Hoek, J.B.; Rubin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas

  9. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  10. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyuk Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion in children is common and most children are observed to be between 6 months and 3 years of age. Although most FBs in the gastrointestinal tract pass spontaneously without complications, endoscopic or surgical removal may be required in a few children. Thus, FB ingestion presents a significant clinical difficulty in pediatric gastroenterological practice. Parameters that need to be considered regarding the timing of endoscopic removal of ingested FBs in children are the children’s age or body weight, the clinical presentation, time lapse since ingestion, time of last meal, type as well as size and shape of the FB, and its current location in the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal button batteries require emergency removal regardless of the presence of symptoms because they can cause serious complications. Coins, magnets, or sharp FBs in the esophagus should be removed within 2 hours in symptomatic and within 24 hours in asymptomatic children. Among those presenting with a single or multiple magnets and a metallic FB that have advanced beyond the stomach, symptomatic children need a consultation with a pediatric surgeon for surgery, and asymptomatic children may be followed with serial X-rays to assess progression. Sharp or pointed, and long or large and wide FBs located in the esophagus or stomach require endoscopic removal.

  11. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  12. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Willias, D B; Gorman, S E; Sanftleban, J

    1996-01-01

    There are limited data concerning accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American Mistletoe). The only published reports include a review of 14 cases which revealed no symptoms and a single fatality from an intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries. The risk of serious toxicity from accidental exposure to this plant appears to be minimal, yet it continues to be regarded as a dangerous plant. We reviewed charts for four years (1990-1993) from three poison centers where Phoradendron flavescens is indigenous. Ninety-two human cases were located. Age ranged from four months to 42 years, with a mean of six years (SD 8.8) and median of two years. There were 14 symptomatic cases of which 11 were determined to be related to mistletoe exposure. There were six gastrointestinal upset, two mild drowsiness, one eye irritation, one ataxia (21 months), one seizure (13 months). Treatments included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients (59%), ocular irrigation in one and IV benzodiazepine in one. Decontamination did not appear to affect outcome. Amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. In cases with a known amount ingested, eight of ten cases with > or = 5 berries remained symptom free. In the 11 cases with leaf-only ingestion (range 1-5 leaves), three patients had gastrointestinal upset. The one case with five leaves ingested remained asymptomatic. The infant with seizures was an unwitnessed exposure, found with both berries and leaves in the crib. No arrhythmias or cardiovascular changes were reported in any case. All symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms in Cardiovascular effects were not seen.

  13. Foreign body ingestion in an adolescent – A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion (FBI more commonly occurs in paediatric, psychiatric and intellectually impaired patients. Current guidelines primarily focus on paediatrics and adults with less emphasis on the adolescent population. We present a case of a 16-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, who presented with generalised abdominal tenderness. Abdominal X-Ray showed a radioopaque sharp object in the right upper quadrant. Subsequent CT revealed a needle-like object in the proximal small bowel. Clinically, his symptoms continued to worsen despite no radiographic evidence of complications. However, his symptoms markedly improved without intervention and he was managed conservatively. This patient subsequently passed a 5cm needle three days after presentation. This article discusses the challenges involved in managing and communicating with intellectually impaired patients who present with foreign body ingestion. Guidelines from the most recent literature on managing adolescents with foreign body ingestion, particularly sharp object ingestion, are also discussed.

  14. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  15. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  16. Acute kidney injury due to star fruit ingestion: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehruba Alam Ananna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Star fruit (Avarrhoa carambola is a fruit from oxalidace family. lt is found in many countries of the world including Bangladesh. But its ingestion or drinking star fruit juice may lead to intoxication especially in patients with chronic kidney disease and manifestations might be neurological or nephrological. lt may also cause acute kidney injury in patients with previously normal renal function. Here we are presenting a case who presented with acute kidney injury after star fruit ingestion with previously unknown renal function impairment. The etiology was confirmed by histopathological exami­nation after doing renal biopsy. This renal function impairment is mainly due to oxalate crystal induce nephropathy which is richly abundant in star fruit. His renal function was improved ·with conservative management. Physicians should be alert to consider the ingestion of star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury in a patient even in the absence of previous renal function impairment.

  17. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  18. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  19. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  20. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  1. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  2. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  3. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  4. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endo...

  5. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  6. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if ingestions in an urban county hospital occurred primarily in psychiatric patients who had repeated episodes of intentional ingestions. Endoscopic extraction was unsuccessful in 10% of cases. Long delays from ingestion to presentation and intervention may account for relatively high rates of surgery and perforation. Strategies to prevent ingestions and delays in endoscopic management are needed in this population.

  7. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  9. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  10. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Downs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC. The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  12. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both presented with a history of fever and passage of bloody stools. There was a positive history of NSAID ingestion in both patients that was prescribed in the referring hospitals. ..... Bostwick HE, Halata MS, Feerick J, Newman LJ, Medow MS. Gastrointestinal bleeding in children following ingestion of low-dose. Ibuprofen.

  13. Mutation of the inhibitory ethanol site in GABAA ρ1 receptors promotes tolerance to ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Borghese, Cecilia M; Ruiz, Carlos I; Cullins, Madeline A; Da Costa, Adriana; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Homanics, Gregg E; Harris, R Adron

    2017-09-01

    Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABA A receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine). We generated ρ1 (T6'Y) knockin (KI) mice using CRISPR/Cas9 to test the behavioral importance of the inhibitory actions of ethanol on this receptor. Both ρ1 KI and knockout (KO) mice showed faster recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination compared to WT mice. Both KI and KO mutant strains also showed increased tolerance to motor impairment produced by ethanol. The KI mice did not differ from WT mice in other behavioral actions, including ethanol intake and preference, conditioned taste aversion to ethanol, and duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex. WT and KI mice did not differ in levels of ρ1 or ρ2 mRNA in cerebellum or in ethanol clearance. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory site for ethanol in GABA A ρ1 receptors regulates acute functional tolerance to moderate ethanol intoxication. We note that low sensitivity to alcohol intoxication has been linked to risk for development of alcohol dependence in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  15. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  16. Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Celso Martins Mamede

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the complications in patients who ingested caustic substances and correlate them with the amount of caustic soda ingested. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital, a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 patients who ingested caustic soda. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The amount of granulated caustic substance ingested was measured as tablespoonfuls and the following complications were analyzed: esophagitis, esophageal stenosis and progression to cancer, fistulas, perforations, stomach lesions, brain abscesses, and death. Stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the radiological findings. RESULTS: We observed an 89.3% incidence of esophagitis; 72.6% of the cases involved progression to stenosis and 1% died during the acute phase. Stenosis was mild in 17.6% of cases, moderate in 59.3% and severe in 23%. The incidence of stenosis was 80.8% in women and 62.5% in men. The incidence of stenosis was 46.9% in the group that ingested "fragments" and 93.6% in the group that ingested one or more tablespoonfuls of caustic substances. Among subjects who ingested one or more tablespoonfuls, 32.2% developed lesions of the stomach-duodenum, whereas the ingestion of "fragments" was not sufficient to induce these lesions. There was no correlation between the intensity of lesions of the esophagus and of the stomach. Progression to cancer of the esophagus occurred in 1.8% of cases, death during the chronic phase in 1.4%, perforations in 4.6%, fistulas in 0.9%, and brain abscesses in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested. Small amounts caused esophagitis or stenosis and large amounts increased the risk of fistulas, perforations and

  17. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  18. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  19. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  20. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing; Sun, Junyi; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling; Yang, Chun; Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I Kv1.5 ) were markedly inhibited by 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0 mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I hERG ). Ethanol under 6.25–50.0 mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I Kir2.1 ). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I Kv1.5 and I hERG , which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. - Highlights: • Moderate ethanol prevented the development of AF in animal models. • Moderate ethanol prolonged APD in guinea pig atrial myocytes. • Moderate ethanol inhibited Kv1.5 currents.

  1. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  3. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  5. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  6. Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the main constituent of alcoholic beverages that exerts toxicity to neuronal development. Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third trimester of pregnancy, and in rodents this period corresponds to the initial few weeks of postnatal development. In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations. Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol’s harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening of neuronal plasticity. Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the signaling mechanisms that are required for proper neuronal development, and how these processes are impaired by ethanol resulting in harmful consequences to brain development.

  7. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  8. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspiration include attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome,[9] low levels of parental ... the environment combined with inadequate caregiver supervision put children ... Increased primary prevention of ingestion through community awareness ...

  9. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  10. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  11. Acute chloroform ingestion successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Sutter, Mark E; Schwartz, Michael D; Koch, David D; Algren, D A; Morgan, Brent W

    2010-06-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabilization was complete. His vital signs were normal. Admission laboratory values revealed normal serum electrolytes, AST, ALT, PT, BUN, creatinine, and bilirubin. Serum ethanol level was 15 mg/dL, and aspirin and acetaminophen were undetectable. The patient was extubated but developed liver function abnormalities with a peak AST of 224 IU/L, ALT of 583 IU/L, and bilirubin level reaching 16.3 mg/dL. NAC was continued through hospital day 6. Serum chloroform level obtained on admission was 91 μg/mL. The patient was discharged to psychiatry without known sequelae and normal liver function tests. The average serum chloroform level in fatal cases of inhalational chloroform poisoning was 64 μg/mL, significantly lower than our patient. The toxicity is believed to be similar in both inhalation and ingestion routes of exposure, with mortality predominantly resulting from anoxia secondary to central nervous system depression. Hepatocellular toxicity is thought to result from free radical-induced oxidative damage. Previous reports describe survival after treatment with orally administered NAC, we report the first use of intravenously administered NAC for chloroform ingestion. Acute oral ingestion of chloroform is extremely rare. Our case illustrates that with appropriate supportive care, patients can recover from chloroform ingestion, and intravenously administered NAC may be of benefit in such cases.

  12. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-01-01

    To study fallout 3 H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3 H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3 H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3 H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3 H. Total 3 H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3 H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  13. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  15. Caustic ingestion and esophageal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadranel, S.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Rodesch, P.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R. (Children University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1990-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate esophageal motor function by means of krypton-81m esophageal transit scintigraphy and to compare the results with the functional and morphological data obtained by means of triple lumen manometry and endoscopy. In acute and subacute stages of the disease, all clinical, anatomical, and functional parameters were in good agreement, revealing significant impairment. In chronic stages, the severity of the dysphagia was not correlated to the importance of the residual stenosis. Conversely, 81mKr esophageal transit and manometric's findings were in good agreement with the clinical symptoms, during the entire follow-up period ranging between 3 months to 7 years. The 81mKr test is undoubtedly the easiest and probably the most physiological technique currently available for long-term functional evaluation of caustic esophagitis.

  16. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  17. Speichim cuts ethanol energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-08

    France's Speichim has reported low-pressure steam consumption of only 0.7kg/l in the production of industrial-grade ethanol. Mechanical compression of distillation vapours can reduce this energy demand even more.

  18. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary evidence that glucose ingestion facilitates prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ingestion of Fireworks: Rare Cause of Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksekkaya, Hasan; Gumus, Meltem; Yucel, Aylin; Energin, Meltem; Demirci, Serafettin

    2018-03-12

    Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed. The most common initial symptom was vomiting except for 2 cases in this group. Biochemical tests indicated that hyperphosphatemia was present in all patients, 8 patients (72.7%) had subclinical hepatic injury, 1 (9%) had acute hepatic failure, and 2 patients had no clinical or biochemical evidence of hepatic damage. Three patients had renal impairment, but none of them required dialysis. All of the patients recovered with supportive therapy except for 2 cases. One patient underwent cadaveric liver transplantation, whereas the other died because of circulatory dysfunction and respiratory failure due to pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage. Without prompt intervention, poisoning with fireworks carries high morbidity and mortality in children. It can cause pulmonary hemorrhage, in addition to other organ damage, including liver and kidney. Hyperphosphatemia is common, as it was seen in all of the study patients.

  1. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  2. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  3. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  4. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  5. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  6. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  7. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35 S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ( 35 S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35 S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35 S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35 S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl - channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (≤ 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35 S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35 S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35 S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35 S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  8. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  9. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  10. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  11. Caffeine reversal of ethanol effects on the multiple sleep latency test, memory, and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Turner, Lauren; Scofield, Holly M; Roth, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043+/-0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the highest dose increased mean latency (greater alertness) significantly beyond placebo levels. Ethanol also impaired psychomotor performance and memory. The 300-mg caffeine dose restored performance and memory measures to placebo levels. Although visual analog ratings of dizziness were increased by ethanol, they were not diminished by either caffeine dose. In conclusion, Low-dose caffeine prevented the sleepiness and performance impairment associated with a moderate dose of ethanol. Thus, caffeine, similar to other stimulants, can reverse the physiologically sedating effects of ethanol, although other negative effects remain.

  12. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS

  13. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  14. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue

  16. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  17. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  18. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  19. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  20. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  2. Data ingestion and assimilation in ionospheric models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Nava, B.; Galkin, I.; Angling, M.; Stankov, S. M.; Coisson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 235-253 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * models * data assimilation * data ingestion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  3. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  5. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  6. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivendra D. Shukla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4% for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart. Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9, dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10, and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10 and H3 ser 28 (H3S28 increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

  7. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  8. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  9. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  10. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  11. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 86 adults admitted to hospital following caustic ingestion were reviewed. Eighteen patients (21%) developed complications; of these, six were fatal. Patients without symptoms or signs did not develop complications. Complications occurred only following lye ingestion, or intentional...

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  13. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion | Corduk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  14. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  16. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  17. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  18. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  19. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  20. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  1. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  2. Severe Neurotoxicity Following Ingestion of Tetraethyl Lead

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Brandon K.; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80–90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symp...

  3. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  4. The Effect of Acute Ethanol and Gabapentin Administration on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Yeganeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Patients with epilepsy can have impaired cognitive abilities. Many factors contribute to this impairment, including the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs like Gabapentin (GBP. Apart from anti-epilectic action, Gabapentin is used to relieve ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Because both GBP and ethanol act on GABA ergic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their effect and interaction on spatial learning and memory. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day, a probe test was performed to assess the retention phase or spatial rats’ memory ability. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p. and GBP (30 mg/kg i.p. was administered each day 30 and 40 minutes before testing respectively. Results: Acute ethanol administration selectively impaired spatial memory (p<0.05, yet it failed to impair the acquisition phase (learning. Contradictorily GBP selectively impaired learning on second and forth days. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GBP and acute ethanol impair different phases of learning probably by modifying different neuronal pathways in cognitive areas of the brain.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Villada, Juan C; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Vieira, Nívea Moreira; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; da Silveira, Wendel Batista

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displays a potential to be used for ethanol production from both whey and lignocellulosic biomass at elevated temperatures, which is highly alluring to reduce the cost of the bioprocess. Nevertheless, contrary to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, K. marxianus cannot tolerate high ethanol concentrations. We report the transcriptional profile alterations in K. marxianus under ethanol stress in order to gain insights about mechanisms involved with ethanol response. Time-dependent changes have been characterized under the exposure of 6% ethanol and compared with the unstressed cells prior to the ethanol addition. Our results reveal that the metabolic flow through the central metabolic pathways is impaired under the applied ethanol stress. Consistent with these results, we also observe that genes involved with ribosome biogenesis are downregulated and gene-encoding heat shock proteins are upregulated. Remarkably, the expression of some gene-encoding enzymes related to unsaturated fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis decreases upon ethanol exposure, and free fatty acid and ergosterol measurements demonstrate that their content in K. marxianus does not change under this stress. These results are in contrast to the increase previously reported with S. cerevisiae subjected to ethanol stress and suggest that the restructuration of K. marxianus membrane composition differs in the two yeasts which gives important clues to understand the low ethanol tolerance of K. marxianus compared to S. cerevisiae.

  6. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of thildren homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 {mu}m 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 {mu}m 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  7. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  8. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  9. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  10. Studies on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane following maternal ethanol ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinski, B

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the developing rat liver and on the structure and function of the postnatal rat liver plasma membrane were carried out following maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and lactation. A developmental study of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) indicated that both the activity and certain kinetic properties of the enzyme from the progeny of alcohol-fed and pair-fed mothers were similar. Fatty liver, however, developed in the alcoholic progeny only after ADH appeared on a day 19 of gestation. Further studies on structural and functional changes were then undertaken on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane. Radioligand binding studies performed using the hapatic alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor as a plasma membrane probe demonstrated a significant decrease in receptor density in the alcoholic progeny, but no changes in binding affinity. Finally, the fatty acid composition of constituent phospholipids and the cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes were determined. All these observations suggest that membrane alterations in the newborn may be partially responsible for the deleterious action(s) of maternal alcoholism at the molecular level.

  11. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. “Drinking in the Dark” (DID) Procedures: A Model of Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking in Non-Dependent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Todd E.; Navarro, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called “drinking in the dark” (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes et al. (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2 to 4 hours, beginning 3 hours into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal’s dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to ethanol

  13. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from conta...

  14. The acute effects of MDMA and ethanol administration on electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, D B; Dumont, G J H; Verkes, R J; De Bruijn, E R A

    2014-07-01

    Knowing how commonly used drugs affect performance monitoring is of great importance, because drug use is often associated with compromised behavioral control. Two of the most commonly used recreational drugs in the western world, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and ethanol (alcohol), are also often used in combination. The error-related negativity (ERN), correct-related negativity (CRN), and N2 are electrophysiological indices of performance monitoring. The present study aimed to investigate how ethanol, MDMA, and their co-administration affect performance monitoring as indexed by the electrophysiological correlates. Behavioral and EEG data were obtained from 14 healthy volunteers during execution of a speeded choice-reaction-time task after administration of ethanol, MDMA, and combined ethanol and MDMA, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design. Ethanol significantly reduced ERN amplitudes, while administration of MDMA did not affect the ERN. Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol did not further impair nor ameliorate the effect of ethanol alone. No drug effects on CRN nor N2 were observed. A decreased ERN following ethanol administration is in line with previous work and offers further support for the impairing effects of alcohol intoxication on performance monitoring. This impairment may underlie maladaptive behavior in people who are under influence. Moreover, these data demonstrate for the first time that MDMA does not affect performance monitoring nor does it interact with ethanol in this process. These findings corroborate the notion that MDMA leaves central executive functions relatively unaffected.

  15. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Sun, Junyi [Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling [Basic Medical Experiment Teaching Center, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yang, Chun [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education of China, Xi' an (China); Hu, Hao, E-mail: huhao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education of China, Xi' an (China)

    2017-05-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I{sub Kv1.5}) were markedly inhibited by 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0 mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I{sub hERG}). Ethanol under 6.25–50.0 mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I{sub Kir2.1}). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I{sub Kv1.5} and I{sub hERG}, which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. - Highlights: • Moderate ethanol prevented the development of AF in animal models. • Moderate ethanol prolonged APD in guinea pig atrial myocytes. • Moderate ethanol inhibited Kv1.5 currents.

  16. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  18. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  19. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  20. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  1. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  2. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  3. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  4. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  5. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [ 14 C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  6. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  7. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  8. Disk Battery Ingestion A Malpractice Case that Results in Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Şarkış

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline batteries have become the second most swallowed foreign bodies following coins. Most cases have an uncomplicated course, but some may lead to serious complications and even death. Here we report a 28 months old boy who had experienced discomfort, eating refusal, vomiting and slightly wheezing after falling from a sofa bed. He has been in three different county hospitals and two private hospitals due to complaints, has been examined by two pediatricians and a cranial surgeon. A cranial CT imaging, a cranial X-ray radiograph and a chest X-ray radiograph was obtained. Firstly, diagnosed as head and neck trauma, then diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis, and finally pneumonia. Hospitalized twice. Finally, a chest radiograph revealed a button battery in the esophagus. The foreign body was endoscopic removed. The child had a quick clinical impairment after removal of the battery. As a result, alkaline batteries with their increasing risk of engulfment poses very serious problems. The parents and physicians should be informed against increasing frequency of ingestion of alkaline batteries by infants and children. Also, clinicians should be careful about the risk of these batteries that they can cause pneumonia and infiltration which may make it difficult to detect the foreign body.

  9. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  10. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  11. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  12. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  14. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  15. Too attractive: the growing problem of magnet ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2013-11-01

    Small, powerful magnets are increasingly available in toys and other products and pose a health risk. Small spherical neodymium magnets marketed since 2008 are of particular concern. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and management of single and multiple-magnet ingestions over time. Magnet ingestion cases at a tertiary children's hospital were identified using radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012. Cases were verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk regressions were used to determine changes in the incidence of ingestions and interventions over time. Of 56 cases of magnet ingestion, 98% occurred in 2006 or later, and 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range, 0-18 years). Overall, 21% of single and 88% of multiple ingestions had 2 or more imaging series obtained, whereas no single and 56.3% of multiple ingestions required intervention (25.0% endoscopy, 18.8% surgery, 12.5% both). Magnet ingestions increased in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). Small, spherical magnets likely from magnet sets comprised 27% of ingestions, all ingested 2010 or later: 86% involved multiple magnets, 50% of which required intervention. Excluding these cases, ingestions of other magnets did not increase in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.4). The incidence of pediatric magnet ingestions and subsequent interventions has increased over time. Multiple-magnet ingestions result in high utilization of radiological imaging and surgical interventions. Recent increases parallel the increased availability of small, spherical magnet sets. Young and at-risk children should not have access to these and other small magnets. Improved regulation and magnet safety standards are needed.

  16. Ingestion and digestion of erythrocytes by non-irradiated and irradiated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorbrodt, A; Grabska, A; Krzyzowska-Gruca, S; Gruca, S

    1975-01-01

    The effect of x rays (1300 R) and gamma irradiation (3000 R) on phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages cultivated in vitro was studied using human glutaraldehyde-fixed red blood cells. The peroxidative activity of haemoglobin was cytochemically detected by the DAB method. The obtained results indicate that the applied dose of x irradiation does not affect the phagocytic activity of macrophages. On the contrary, the gamma irradiation (3000 R) causes acceleration of phagocytic activity of macrophages with concomitant impairment of intracellular digestion of ingested material. Weakened cytochemical reaction for acid phosphatase suggests that sufficiently high doses of irradiation cause some disturbances in the biosynthesis of lysosomal enzymes in exposed macrophages.

  17. Brazilian third world ethanol pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P

    1981-01-01

    A financial cost model has been developed in Brazil, under contract from th United Nations Industrial Development Organization, for fermentation ethanol production based on sugar cane molasses, sugar cane juice and cassava. The model is designed to help in analysing the feasibility and implementation of ethanol programs in developing countries.

  18. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  19. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  20. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  1. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  2. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  3. Adenylyl cylases 1 and 8 mediate select striatal-dependent behaviors and sensitivity to ethanol stimulation in the adolescent period following acute neonatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susick, Laura L; Lowing, Jennifer L; Bosse, Kelly E; Hildebrandt, Clara C; Chrumka, Alexandria C; Conti, Alana C

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure in rodents causes dramatic neurodegenerative effects throughout the developing nervous system, particularly in the striatum, acutely after exposure. These acute neurodegenerative effects are augmented in mice lacking adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8 (AC1/8) as neonatal mice with a genetic deletion of both AC isoforms (DKO) have increased vulnerability to ethanol-induced striatal neurotoxicity compared to wild type (WT) controls. While neonatal ethanol exposure is known to negatively impact cognitive behaviors, such as executive functioning and working memory in adolescent and adult animals, the threshold of ethanol exposure required to impinge upon developmental behaviors in mice has not been extensively examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of neonatal ethanol exposure using various striatal-dependent developmental benchmarks and to assess the impact of AC1/8 deletion on this developmental progression. WT and DKO mice were treated with 2.5 g/kg ethanol or saline on postnatal day (P)6 and later subjected to the wire suspension, negative geotaxis, postural reflex, grid hang, tail suspension and accelerating rotarod tests at various time points. At P30, mice were evaluated for their hypnotic responses to 4.0 g/kg ethanol by using the loss of righting reflex assay and ethanol-induced stimulation of locomotor activity after 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly impaired DKO performance in the negative geotaxis test while genetic deletion of AC1/8 alone increased grid hang time and decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test with a concomitant increase in hindlimb clasping behavior. Locomotor stimulation was significantly increased in animals that received ethanol as neonates, peaking significantly in ethanol-treated DKO mice compared to ethanol-treated WT controls, while sedation duration following high-dose ethanol challenge was unaffected. These data indicate that the

  4. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  5. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  6. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  7. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well

  8. Early phase glucagon and insulin secretory abnormalities, but not incretin secretion, are similarly responsible for hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuroe, Akira; Watanabe, Koin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Hypersecretion of glucagon and reduced insulin secretion both contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the relative contributions of impaired glucagon and insulin secretions in glucose excursions at the various stages of T2DM development remain to be determined. METHODS...... secretions but not incretin secretion are involved in hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients in T2DM of even a short duration....

  9. Ethanol modulates cortical activity: direct evidence with combined TMS and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, S; Kesäniemi, M; Nikouline, V V; Karhu, J; Ollikainen, M; Holi, M; Ilmoniemi, R J

    2001-08-01

    The motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects was stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after ethanol challenge (0.8 g/kg resulting in blood concentration of 0.77 +/- 0.14 ml/liter). The electrical brain activity resulting from the brief electromagnetic pulse was recorded with high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) and located using inversion algorithms. Focal magnetic pulses to the left motor cortex were delivered with a figure-of-eight coil at the random interstimulus interval of 1.5-2.5 s. The stimulation intensity was adjusted to the motor threshold of abductor digiti minimi. Two conditions before and after ethanol ingestion (30 min) were applied: (1) real TMS, with the coil pressed against the scalp; and (2) control condition, with the coil separated from the scalp by a 2-cm-thick piece of plastic. A separate EMG control recording of one subject during TMS was made with two bipolar platinum needle electrodes inserted to the left temporal muscle. In each condition, 120 pulses were delivered. The EEG was recorded from 60 scalp electrodes. A peak in the EEG signals was observed at 43 ms after the TMS pulse in the real-TMS condition but not in the control condition or in the control scalp EMG. Potential maps before and after ethanol ingestion were significantly different from each other (P = 0.01), but no differences were found in the control condition. Ethanol changed the TMS-evoked potentials over right frontal and left parietal areas, the underlying effect appearing to be largest in the right prefrontal area. Our findings suggest that ethanol may have changed the functional connectivity between prefrontal and motor cortices. This new noninvasive method provides direct evidence about the modulation of cortical connectivity after ethanol challenge. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Phospholipase D mediated transphosphatidylation as a possible new pathway of ethanol metabolism in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydzewska, G.; Jurkowska, G.; Gabryelewicz, A.

    1996-01-01

    mechanism for pancreatic tissue injury after ethanol ingestion. (author). 32 refs, 5 figs

  11. Phospholipase D mediated transphosphatidylation as a possible new pathway of ethanol metabolism in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzewska, G.; Jurkowska, G.; Gabryelewicz, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Activation of pancreatic phospholipase D (PLD) has been previously observed in response to caerulein (Cae), phorbol myristate acetate and growth factors. The physiological role of PLD in pancreatic cells still remains unclear. In the presence of ethanol, PLD catalysed transphosphatidylation reaction, forming phosphatidylethanol (PEt). This study was thus undertaken to determine the involvement of PLD in ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acini and to show the potential physiological consequences of transphosphatidylation. Dispersed pancreatic acini prelabelled with 3H myristic acid were incubated with 500 pM Cae in the presence or absence of different concentrations of ethanol, and labelled phosphatidylethanol (3H PEt) production or phosphatidic acid (3H PA) accumulation were measured. The production of PEt after Cae stimulation in pancreatic acini was significant from 0.5% up to 4% of ethanol in the medium and was not dependent on increasing concentration of ethanol. Prolonged up to 2 h stimulation with Cae in the presence of 1% ethanol did not increase PEt production which was almost stable since 5 min of stimulation. In the presence of different concentrations of ethanol (1-4%), the significant inhibition of PA accumulation was obtained after Cae stimulation, similar to inhibition with a specific PLD inhibitor-wortmannin. These data indicate that Cae activated PLD in the presence of ethanol caused PEt production in pancreatic acini. During formation of PEt in pancreatic acinar cells significant and parallel inhibition of PA accumulation was observed. This indicates the relation of PLD activation in isolated pancreatic acini to ethanol metabolism. Ethanol can act as an inhibitor of PLD activity. Since PA, a product of PLD, is known as a second messenger probably involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, this may suggest a potentially new mechanism for pancreatic tissue injury after ethanol ingestion. (author). 32 refs, 5 figs.

  12. Data, Meet Compute: NASA's Cumulus Ingest Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) houses nearly 30PBs of critical Earth Science data and with upcoming missions is expected to balloon to between 200PBs-300PBs over the next seven years. In addition to the massive increase in data collected, researchers and application developers want more and faster access - enabling complex visualizations, long time-series analysis, and cross dataset research without needing to copy and manage massive amounts of data locally. NASA has looked to the cloud to address these needs, building its Cumulus system to manage the ingest of diverse data in a wide variety of formats into the cloud. In this talk, we look at what Cumulus is from a high level and then take a deep dive into how it manages complexity and versioning associated with multiple AWS Lambda and ECS microservices communicating through AWS Step Functions across several disparate installations

  13. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  14. Cancer risks from ingestion of radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O. G.

    2004-07-01

    Studies have been conducted of the lifetime effects in 403 beagles of the skeletal uptake in seven logarithmically increasing dosage groups of ingested Sr-90. The Sr-90 was fed during skeletal developmental from mid-gestation to adulthood at age 540 days resulting in lifetime protracted beta radiation exposure of the skeleton and some adjacent tissues. Statistical analysis of all types of cancer deaths in the 403 exposed beagles and in 162 unexposed controls indicated that deaths caused by five types of cancer were significantly elevated by high level exposure to Sr-90; these were (1) myeloid leukemia, (2) bone sarcoma, (3) squamous cell carcinoma of periodontal origin, (4) nasal carcinoma, and (5) oral carcinoma. Dose response analysis of these radiation-induced cancer deaths showed non-linear relationships with marked thresholds. A mean lifetime skeletal absorbed dose of 22.5 +/-5.7 Gy SD (22.5 +/-5.7 Sv SD) was associated with the lowest dosage group in which any radiation induced cancer deaths were observed. Three-dimensional models of the observed dose-rate/time/response relationships were fir with maximum likelihood regression methods to describe the risks of death associated with the different types of radiation-induced cancer. The models show that a life-time virtual threshold for cancer risk occurs because the time required to induce cancer is longer at lower radiation dose rates and may exceed the natural life span. Scaling these results to predict human cancer risks from ingestion of Sr-90 shows negligible risks for people whose lifetime cumulative skeletal dose is less than 10 Sv. (Author)

  15. The effect of hemoperfusion on patients with toxic encephalopathy induced by silkworm chrysalis ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixia; Wang, Xu; Lv, Jiaqi; Sun, Jing; Xing, Jihong; Liu, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to determine therapeutic effect of hemoperfusion on patients with acute toxic encephalopathy induced by silkworm chrysalis ingestion. Three patients who developed toxic encephalopathy after chrysalis ingestion were analysed. Two patients lost their consciousness, while two patients had typical extrapyramidal tremor symptoms. Further neurological examination revealed various degrees of muscle strength impairment in these patients. All of them received treatments of omeprazole (40 mg/day), furosemide (one dose of 20 mg), vitamin C (2.0 g/day), calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day) and rehydration with glucose and sodium chloride (1500 ml/day). In addition, they received hemoperfusion treatment for 1.5 h. All patients recovered well after hemoperfusion. Two patients with loss of consciousness significantly recovered at 45 min and 65 min after hemoperfusion, respectively. All tremor symptoms were completely resolved in these patients at 30 min, 50 min, and 70 min following treatment, respectively. After the hemoperfusion treatment, encephalopathy symptoms of two patients had completely disappeared. All patients were followed up for one month and did not report any abnormalities. Our study indicates that hemoperfusion could be a useful and efficient treatment strategy for patients with acute encephalopathy after silkworm chrysalis ingestion. Larger clinical trials with longer follow-up are warranted to confirm the clinical benefit of hemoperfusion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  17. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations. -- Highlights: • Experiments show the potential of ingestion of plastics by various zooplankton taxa. • This ingestion of plastics can be indirect via other zooplankton organisms. • There may be several alternate routes for microplastic transfer in the food webs. -- Experiments with zooplankton and microspheres showed ingestion of spheres by zpl and the transfer of ingested microspheres to higher trophic level organisms via labelled zooplankton

  18. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyadh Mohamad Hasan

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl. Riyadh Mohamad Hasan. University of Baghdad ... ray imaging and retrieved with the aid of C-arm fluoroscope at a laparotomy. Her postoperative period ... In our patient the foreign bodies were long sharp ones (sewing needles). Foreign body ingestion can be ...

  19. The anesthetic management of button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Richard J; Hoagland, Monica; Mayes, Lena; Twite, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Injuries related to button battery ingestion are common in children. This review provides an outline of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and anesthetic implications in children who have ingested a button battery. A literature search was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the terms "button battery ingestion" and "children' and "removal" and "surgery" and "anesthesia". Ninety-six articles published in English were found from 1983-2017, and 62 of these articles were incorporated into this review. Additionally, the Internet was searched with the terms "button battery ingestion and children" to identify further entities, organizations, and resources affiliated with button battery ingestion in children. These additional sources were studied and included in this review. Button batteries are ubiquitous in homes and electronic devices. Since 2006, larger-diameter and higher-voltage batteries have become available. These are more likely to become impacted in the esophagus after ingestion and lead to an increase in severe morbidity and mortality due to caustic tissue injury. Children at the highest risk for complications are those under six years of age who have ingested batteries > 20 mm in diameter and sustain prolonged esophageal impaction at the level of the aortic arch with the negative pole oriented anteriorly. Anesthesiologists need to know about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, complications, and anesthetic management of children who have ingested button batteries.

  20. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  1. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  2. Pediatric magnet ingestions: the dark side of the force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric magnet ingestions are increasing. Commercial availability of rare-earth magnets poses a serious health risk. This study defines incidence, characteristics, and management of ingestions over time. Cases were identified by searching radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012 at a children's hospital and verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk (RR) regressions determined changes in incidence and interventions over time. In all, 98% of ingestions occurred since 2006; 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range 0 to 18); 0% of single and 56% of multiple ingestions required intervention. Compared with 2007 to 2009, ingestions increased from 2010 to 2012 (RR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.0). Intervention proportion was unchanged (RR = .94, 95% confidence interval .4 to 2.2). Small spherical magnets comprised 26.8% of ingestions since 2010; 86% involved multiple magnets and 47% required intervention. Pediatric magnet ingestions and interventions have increased. Multiple ingestions prompt more imaging and surgical interventions. Magnet safety standards are needed to decrease risk to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children: report of three cases. O Abdelhadi, AE Ali, O Taha, A Abdalla, F Nugud. Abstract. We report three cases of foreign body esophagus, in two of them the foreign body was a coin, and the third child ingested a disc battery. In all three cases the foreign body ...

  4. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    volunteers orally ingested an ITS (VitalSense Jonah Ingestible Capsule ; Minimitter Inc.). From 1300 to 1700 h, volunteers per- formed structured...emptying and gastrointes- tinal transit. Clin Investig. 1992;70(6):487–91. 24. Rao SS, Welcher K, Zimmerman B, Stumbo P. Is coffee a colonic stimulant? Eur J

  5. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  6. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Rohrmann, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. (orig.)

  7. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  8. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  9. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  11. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  12. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Heavy Chronic Ethanol Exposure From Adolescence to Adulthood Induces Cerebellar Neuronal Loss and Motor Function Damage in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. R. da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, heavy ethanol consumption by teenagers/younger adults has increased considerably among females. However, few studies have addressed the long-term impact on brain structures’ morphology and function of chronic exposure to high ethanol doses from adolescence to adulthood in females. In line with this idea, in the current study we investigated whether heavy chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence to adulthood may induce motor impairments and morphological and cellular alterations in the cerebellum of female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (35 days old were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v during 55 days by gavage. At 90 days of age, motor function of animals was assessed using open field (OF, pole, beam walking and rotarod tests. Following completion of behavioral tests, morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of the cerebellum were performed. Chronic ethanol exposure impaired significantly motor performance of female rats, inducing spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, bradykinesia, incoordination and motor learning disruption. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that ethanol exposure induced atrophy and neuronal loss in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that heavy ethanol exposure during adolescence is associated with long-lasting cerebellar degeneration and motor impairments in female rats.

  14. Hops (Humulus lupulus) Content in Beer Modulates Effects of Beer on the Liver After Acute Ingestion in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Jung, Finn; Brombach, Christine; Bergheim, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol. Female C57BL/6 J mice were either fed one iso-alcoholic and iso-caloric bolus dose of ethanol, beer, beer without hops (6 g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric bolus of maltodextrin control solution. Markers of steatosis, intestinal barrier function, activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascades, lipid peroxidation and lipogenesis were determined in liver, small intestine and plasma 2 h and 12 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Alcohol-induced hepatic fat accumulation was significantly attenuated in mice fed beer whereas in those fed beer without hops, hepatic fat accumulation was similar to that found in ethanol-fed mice. While markers of intestinal barrier function e.g. portal endotoxin levels and lipogenesis only differed slightly between groups, hepatic concentrations of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 protein as well as of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts were similarly elevated in livers of mice fed ethanol or beer without hops when compared with controls. Induction of these markers was markedly attenuated in mice fed hops-containing beer. Taken together, our data suggest that hops in beer markedly attenuated acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in female mice through mechanisms involving a suppression of iNOS induction in the liver. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  16. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Perceived Wellbeing Associated with the Ingestion of Water: The Water Ingestion-Related Wellbeing Instrument (WIRWI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Espinosa-Montero

    Full Text Available Ingestion of water has been associated with general wellbeing. When water intake is insufficient, symptoms such as thirst, fatigue and impaired memory result. Currently there are no instruments to assess water consumption associated with wellbeing. The objective of our study was to develop and validate such an instrument in urban, low socioeconomic, adult Mexican population.To construct the Water Ingestion-Related Wellbeing Instrument (WIRWI, a qualitative study in which wellbeing related to everyday practices and experiences in water consumption were investigated. To validate the WIRWI a formal, five-process procedure was used. Face and content validation were addressed, consistency was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory psychometric factor analyses, repeatability, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed by conducting correlation tests with other measures of wellbeing such as a quality of life instrument, the SF-36, and objective parameters such as urine osmolality, 24-hour urine total volume and others.The final WIRWI is composed of 17 items assessing physical and mental dimensions. Items were selected based on their content and face validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The final confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model estimates were satisfactory for the constructs. Statistically significant correlations with the SF-36, total liquid consumption and simple water consumption were observed.The resulting WIRWI is a reliable tool for assessing wellbeing associated with consumption of plain water in Mexican adults and could be useful for similar groups.

  17. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  18. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  19. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maves, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the hazards by posed the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible stepoff. (orig.)

  20. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  1. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical management and morbidity of pediatric magnet ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alicia M; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Thorne, Vivian; Bousvaros, Athos; Noel, R Adam; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Foreign body ingestion remains a common reason for emergency room visits and operative interventions in the pediatric population. Rare earth magnet ingestion represents a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children; however, magnets swallowed in multiplicity can result in severe injuries. Pediatric surgeons with membership in the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the magnitude and consequences of magnet ingestions in the pediatric population. About 100 (16%) participant responses reported on 99 magnet ingestions. The median age at ingestion was 3.7 y, and the majority of ingestions (71%) occurred after year 2010. Thirty-two children underwent endoscopy with successful removal in 70% of cases, and multiple magnets were found in 65% of these patients. Seventy-three children required either laparotomy (51) or laparoscopy (22) for magnet removal, and 90% of these children were discovered to have ingested more than one magnet. In addition, 17% of the children were found to have at least one perforation or fistula, and 34% of the children had multiple perforations or fistulae. Nine children required long-term care for their injuries including repeat endoscopies. One child died after hemorrhage from an esophago-aortic fistula. These results demonstrated the increasing need for magnet regulations and public awareness to prevent potentially serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Causes Reduced Feeding and Reveals a Critical Role for Neuropeptide F in Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Amanda; Gates, Hillary; Urbina, Brianna; French, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    Food intake is necessary for survival, and natural reward circuitry has evolved to help ensure that animals ingest sufficient food to maintain development, growth, and survival. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, co-opt the natural reward circuitry in the brain, and this is a major factor in the reinforcement of drug behaviors leading to addiction. At the junction of these two aspects of reward are alterations in feeding behavior due to alcohol consumption. In particular, developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) results in a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disorders collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The deleterious effects of DAE include intellectual disabilities and other neurobehavioral changes, including altered feeding behaviors. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism to study the effects of DAE on feeding behavior and the expression and function of Neuropeptide F. We show that addition of a defined concentration of ethanol to food leads to reduced feeding at all stages of development. Further, genetic conditions that reduce or eliminate NPF signaling combine with ethanol exposure to further reduce feeding, and the distribution of NPF is altered in the brains of ethanol-supplemented larvae. Most strikingly, we find that the vast majority of flies with a null mutation in the NPF receptor die early in larval development when reared in ethanol, and provide evidence that this lethality is due to voluntary starvation. Collectively, we find a critical role for NPF signaling in protecting against altered feeding behavior induced by developmental ethanol exposure. PMID:29623043

  4. Dietary zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy protects against fetal dysmorphology and improves postnatal survival after prenatal ethanol exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Brooke L; Rofe, Allan M; Coyle, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity is associated with metallothionein-induced fetal zinc (Zn) deficiency, and that maternal subcutaneous Zn treatment given with ethanol in early pregnancy prevents fetal abnormalities and spatial memory impairments in mice. Here we investigated whether dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy can also prevent ethanol-related dysmorphology. Pregnant mice were injected with saline or 25% ethanol (0.015 ml/g intraperitoneally at 0 and 4 hours) on gestational day (GD) 8 and fed either a control (35 mg Zn/kg) or a Zn-supplemented diet (200 mg Zn/kg) from GD 0 to 18. Fetuses from the saline, saline + Zn, ethanol and ethanol + Zn groups were assessed for external birth abnormalities on GD 18. In a separate cohort of mice, postnatal growth and survival of offspring from these treatment groups were examined from birth until postnatal day 60. Fetuses from dams treated with ethanol alone in early pregnancy had a significantly greater incidence of physical abnormalities (26%) compared to those from the saline (10%), saline + Zn (9%), or ethanol + Zn (12%) groups. The incidence of abnormalities in ethanol + Zn-supplemented fetuses was not different from saline-treated fetuses. While ethanol exposure did not affect the number of fetal resorptions or pre- or postnatal weight, there were more stillbirths with ethanol alone, and cumulative postnatal mortality was significantly higher in offspring exposed to ethanol alone (35% deaths) compared to all other treatment groups (13.5 to 20.5% deaths). Mice supplemented with Zn throughout pregnancy had higher plasma Zn concentrations than those in un-supplemented groups. These findings demonstrate that dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy ameliorates dysmorphology and postnatal mortality caused by ethanol exposure in early pregnancy.

  5. Taurine supplementation improves economy of movement in the cycle test independently of the detrimental effects of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulucio, Dailson; Costa, Bruno M; Santos, Caleb G M; Nogueira, Fernando; Koch, Alexander; Machado, Marco; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Ams

    2017-12-01

    Taurine (TA) ingestion has been touted as blunting the deleterious effects of ethanol (ET) ingestion on motor performance. This study investigated the effects of ingestion of 0.6 mL·kg -1 of ET, 6 grams of TA, and ethanol in combination with taurine (ET+TA) on economy of movement (EM) and heart rate (HR). Nine volunteers, five female (22 ± 3 years) and four male (26 ± 5 years), participated in a study that used a counterbalanced experimental design. EM and HR were measured for 6 min while the subjects were pedalling at a fixed load 10% below the anaerobic threshold. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was similar between ET and ET+TA treatments at 30 min after ingestion and after exercise (12.3 mmol·L -1 vs. 13.7 mmol·L -1 , and 9.7 mmol • L -1 vs 10.9 mmol·L -1 , respectively). EM was significantly different among treatments, with lower mL·W -1 following ingestion of TA (-7.1%, p<0.001) than placebo and ET+TA (-2.45%, p=0.001) compared to ET. HR (bpm) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for ET (137 ± 14 bpm) than the other three treatments (placebo = 129 ± 14 bpm; TA = 127 ± 11 bpm; TA+ET = 133 ± 12 and ET = 137 ± 14 bpm). Taurine improved EM when compared to placebo or ET, and reduced HR when compared to ET. The combination of ET+TA also enhanced EM compared to placebo, and reduced HR in comparison to ET alone. Therefore, these findings indicate that taurine improves EM and counteracts ethanol-induced increases in HR during submaximal exercise.

  6. Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; Visser, Margot; Hulst, Jessie M; Wolters, Victorien M; Van den Neucker, Anita M; de Meij, Tim; van der Doef, Hubert P J; Norbruis, Obbe F; Benninga, Marc A; Smit, Margot J M; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-05-02

    Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0-18 years) between 2008 and 2016 retrospectively.Sixteen serious complications were reported: death after massive bleeding through esophageal-aortal fistula (n = 1), esophageal-tracheal fistula (n = 5), stenosis after (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 5), (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 3), vocal cord paralysis (n = 1), and required reintubation for dyspnea and stridor (n = 1). The median time interval between ingestion and presentation was 5 (IQR 2-258) h. All children were ≤ 5 (median 1.4; IQR 0.9-2.1) years. Vomiting (31.3%), swallowing/feeding problems (31.3%), and fever (31.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms; however, 18.8% of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 1 missing). All batteries were button batteries (75% ≥ 20 mm; 18.8% batteries were removed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (50%) and rigid endoscopy (37.5%) or surgically (12.5%). Sixteen serious complications occurred after small and large button batteries ingestion between 2008 and 2016 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children in the Netherlands. Therefore, immediate intervention after (suspected) button battery ingestion is required. What is Known: • Button battery ingestion may result in serious and fatal complications. • Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. What is New: • Sixteen serious complications after button battery ingestion occurred during 2008-2016 in children in the Netherlands. • Serious complications were also caused by small batteries (< 20 mm) in the Netherlands and also occurred

  7. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  8. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  9. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  10. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  11. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  12. The relative importance of ingestion for multiple pathway dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicker, W.; Grogan, H.; Bergstroem, U.; Hoffman, O.

    1991-01-01

    The general purpose of this report is to examine the relative importance of ingestion pathways, and particularly food chain transport in overall dose assessment. The importance of ingestion pathways is examined for various release scenarios and radionuclides because the findings are expected to differ with circumstances. The degree to which contaminated food products contribute to the total dose will affect the importance of accuracy and uncertainty of food chain model predictions, which is the main thrust of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). This analysis requires that all modes of radiation exposure be examined, including inhalation, external exposure, and the various ingestion pathways. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. 32 P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice

  14. Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hai; Cai Ping; Clemens, Dahn L.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs

  15. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  16. The ingestion pathway comments and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, Lawrence J.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Ingestion Pathway and its recent emphasis on planning for nuclear power plant emergencies has created activity at all levels of government. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines have been developed and there has been an urgency placed on implementing these guides and planning standards at all levels of government. This global approach has led to confusion and in some cases rapid development of public brochures at the state level. These brochures are meant to educate the public in the need for protective action in the ingestion pathway. Some forethought on the planning process and the integration of the protective action guidelines seems in order. Some issues that should be addressed are listed below: Suggested consideration of issues to facilitate the planning process: - Review existing technical specifications of nuclear power plants requiring environmental monitoring. This should provide at least the baseline sampling of food products for site specific plants; - Review state monitoring/analysis of sampling programs and NRC contracts to states for radiological monitoring of nuclear power facilities; - Encourage each state to involve food producers at an early date in the planning development. Such producer associations as the Daily Associations, Marketing Boards, and Cooperatives are valuable resources in implementing plans because they represent the affected economic impacted parties; - Involve and educate the agricultural extension agencies in the planning process so they can inform the public through their usual points of contact; - Set up principle agency responsibilities in existing state specific framework. For example, the farm or food producers normally are familiar with their extension agents. Use this relationship to help the affected producers understand the protective actions that will be implemented in case of severe nuclear power plant accidents; - Recognize that the disaster services agencies are lead agencies for

  17. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  18. Physiological stress and ethanol accumulation in tree stems and woody tissues at sublethal temperatures from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Douglas J. Westlind

    2017-01-01

    The lethal temperature limit is 60 degrees Celsius (°C) for plant tissues, including trees, with lower temperatures causing heat stress. As fire injury increases on tree stems, there is an accompanying rise in tissue ethanol concentrations, physiologically linked to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation energy production. We theorize that sublethal tissue...

  19. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  20. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  1. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  3. The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

  4. Predictors of Recurrent Ingestion of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Grimes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients.

  5. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  6. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an isocaloric carbohydrate and protein supplement and ingested the assigned ..... week, and day showed that the 4-way interaction with “condition” ..... on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study.

  7. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  8. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  9. Building scalable digital library ingestion pipelines using microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Cancellieri, Matteo; Pontika, Nancy; Pearce, Samuel; Anastasiou, Lucas; Knoth, Petr

    2017-01-01

    CORE, a harvesting service offering access to millions of open access research papers from around the world, has shifted its harvesting process from following a monolithic approach to the adoption of a microservices infrastructure. In this paper, we explain how we rearranged and re-scheduled our old ingestion pipeline, present CORE's move to managing microservices and outline the tools we use in a new and optimised ingestion system. In addition, we discuss the ineffciencies of our old harvest...

  10. Food control concept: Food safety/ingestion issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, B.

    1995-01-01

    This talk outlines the issues in food safety/ingestion in the case of radiation accidents at nuclear power plants and how emergency preparedness plans can/should be tailored. The major topics are as follows: In Washington: food safety/ingestion issues exist at transition between response and regulatory worlds; agricultural concerns; customer concerns; Three Mile Island: detailed maps; development of response procedures; development of tools; legal issues

  11. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  12. Acute abdomen caused by ingested chicken wishbone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...

  13. Heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy: the effect of fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Alba, Valesca; Fornari, Fernando; Krahe, Cláudio; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Silva de Barros, Sérgio Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Reflux symptoms are common in pregnancy, but their association with fat ingestion is unclear. To investigate an association of dietary fats with heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy. This is a prospective study in which 89 pregnant women (gestational age 34 +/- 4 weeks) attending a low-risk prenatal outpatient clinic were asked to provide information on the frequency they experienced heartburn and regurgitation. Fat ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-h diet record. Symptomatic patients were compared with those with no reflux symptoms (n = 20). Heartburn once a week or more often occurred in 56 of the 89 patients (63%). The ingested amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn (11.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.5 mg; P = 0.022) than in controls after adjusting for age, gain weight during pregnancy, ingestion of caffeine and vitamin C, and total energetic intake. The ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn, but with a borderline statistical significance (16.1 +/- 11 vs. 11.8 +/- 6.5 mg; P = 0.061). No association was observed between the consumption of fats and regurgitation. This study suggests that heartburn in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Ingested razor blades within the appendix: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cui

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical presentation with less than 1% of the cases requiring surgical intervention. In this report, we present a rare case of razor blades lodged in the appendix as a result of intentional ingestion. Presentation of case: A 25 year old male prisoner presented to our hospital with persistent right iliac fossa pain after razor blade ingestion. After 5 days of conservative management, there was no sign of transition on serial X-Rays. Laparoscopy with intraoperative image intensification confirmed the presence of the razor blades in the appendix and appendicectomy was subsequently performed without complications. Discussion: Most ingested objected with diameter less than 2.5 cm and length less than 6 cm can pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously in less than one week. The entry of foreign objects into the appendix is thought to be due to relative low motility of the caecum, the dependent position of the appendix and the size of the appendiceal orifice. Radiographic localisation to the appendiceal lumen was complicated by metallic artefact, but was consistent with failure to transit. Appendicectomy was felt to be the safest mode of retrieval. Conclusion: Ingested foreign body lodged in the appendix is a rare event. Once the exact location is confirmed, a simple laparoscopic appendicectomy can be performed to facilitate the removal. Keywords: Appendicitis, Laparoscopy, Appendicectomy, Foreign body ingestion, Razor blades, Case report

  15. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the female arcuate nucleus morphology and neurochemistry after chronic ethanol consumption and long-term withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Elce C C; Leal, Sandra; Silva, Susana M; Sá, Susana I

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol is a macronutrient whose intake is a form of ingestive behavior, sharing physiological mechanisms with food intake. Chronic ethanol consumption is detrimental to the brain, inducing gender-dependent neuronal damage. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) is a modulator of food intake that expresses feeding-regulatory neuropeptides, such as alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Despite its involvement in pathways associated with eating disorders and ethanol abuse, the impact of ethanol consumption and withdrawal in the ARN structure and neurochemistry in females is unknown. We used female rat models of 20% ethanol consumption for six months and of subsequent ethanol withdrawal for two months. Food intake and body weights were measured. ARN morphology was stereologically analyzed to estimate its volume, total number of neurons and total number of neurons expressing NPY, α-MSH, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Ethanol decreased energy intake and body weights. However, it did not change the ARN morphology or the expression of NPY, α-MSH and TH, while increasing ERα expression. Withdrawal induced a significant volume and neuron loss that was accompanied by an increase in NPY expression without affecting α-MSH and TH expression. These findings indicate that the female ARN is more vulnerable to withdrawal than to excess alcohol. The data also support the hypothesis that the same pathways that regulate the expression of NPY and α-MSH in long-term ethanol intake may regulate food intake. The present model of long-term ethanol intake and withdrawal induces new physiological conditions with adaptive responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon discharge in ethanol-intoxicated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Ronald; Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Miner, James R

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the physiologic effects of prolonged conducted electrical weapon (CEW) exposure on alcohol-intoxicated adult subjects. Adult volunteers were recruited at a TASER International training conference. All subjects ingested mixed drinks until clinical intoxication or until a minimum breath alcohol level of 0.08 mg/dL was achieved. Blood samples for venous pH, Pco(2), bicarbonate, and lactate were measured in all subjects at baseline, immediately after alcohol ingestion, immediately after exposure to a 15-second TASER X26 discharge (Taser International Inc, Scottsdale, AZ), and 24 hours post-alcohol ingestion. Laboratory values were compared at sampling times using repeated-measure analysis of variance. A focused analysis comparing time points within groups was then performed using paired t tests. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled into the study. There was a decrease in pH and bicarbonate and an increase in lactate after alcohol ingestion. There was a further increase in lactate and drop in pH after CEW exposure. No subject experienced a significant adverse event. All values had returned to baseline levels at 24 hours except lactate, which demonstrated a small but clinically insignificant increase. Prolonged continuous CEW exposure in the setting of acute alcohol intoxication has no clinically significant effect on subjects in terms of markers of metabolic acidosis. The acidosis seen is consistent with what occurs with ethanol intoxication or moderate exertion. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  19. Abnormal accumulation of intestinal fluid following ingestion of an unabsorbable carbohydrate in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undseth, R; Berstad, A; Kløw, N-E; Arnljot, K; Moi, K S; Valeur, J

    2014-12-01

    Postprandial discomfort following intake of poorly absorbable, but fermentable carbohydrates is a common complaint in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We used lactulose as a model substance for this group of symptom triggering carbohydrates, aiming to visualize the intestinal response in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 16) underwent a lactulose challenge test. By using magnetic resonance imaging, we measured small bowel water content (SBWC), and distension (diameter) of the distal ileum and the colon, both in fasting state and 1 h after ingestion of 10 g lactulose. We recorded symptoms after lactulose ingestion. Lactulose provoked significantly more symptoms in IBS patients than in healthy controls (p intestine or impaired function of the ileocecal segment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  1. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  2. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  3. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  4. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  5. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  6. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  7. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

  8. The lateral neostriatum is necessary for compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular dehydration in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelos, M J; Harrison, D J; Rosser, A E; Dunnett, S B

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant striatal function results in an array of physiological symptoms, including impaired consummatory and regulatory behaviours, which can lead to weight loss and dehydration. It was hypothesised, therefore, that cell loss in the neostriatum may contribute to altered fluid intake by regulating physiological signals related to dehydration status. To test this theory, rats with lesions of the lateral neostriatum and sham controls underwent a series of physiological challenges, including the experimental induction of intracellular and intravascular dehydration. No baseline differences in prandial or non-prandial drinking were observed, nor were differences in locomotor activity evident between groups. Furthermore, intracellular dehydration increased water intake in lesion rats in a manner comparable to sham rats. Interestingly, a specific impairment was evident in lesion rats after subcutaneous injection of poly-ethylene glycol was used to induce intravascular dehydration, such that lesion rats failed to adapt their water intake to this physiological change. The results suggest that the striatal lesions resulted in regulatory dysfunction by impairing motivational control over compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular hydration, while the physiological signals related to dehydration remain intact. Loss of these cells in neurodegenerative disorders, such Huntington's disease, may contribute to regulatory changes evident in the course of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma K; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Wesnes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at baseline and again 15- and 60 min post drink. Mood was assessed at baseline and then 10-, 35- and 80 min post drink. Attention and speed were enhanced 15 min following fat or glucose ingestion and working memory was enhanced 15 min following protein ingestion. Sixty minutes post drink memory enhancements were observed after protein and memory impairment was observed following glucose. All drinks increased ratings of alertness. The findings suggest that macronutrients: (i) have different windows of opportunity for effects (ii) target different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Osmoregulatory function in ducks following ingestion of the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water before, during, and after ingestion of mash containing 21 ppm fenthion. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture after I, 7. and 12 days of treatment, and were then killed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-61% and 14-36%) by fenthion. However, salt gland weight and Na + -K + -ATPase activity, and plasma Na + , CI- , and osmolality, were uniformly elevated in all groups receiving salt water including those ingesting fenthion. In a second study, salt gland Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mallards (A. platyrhynchos) was not affected after in vitro incubation with either fenthion or fenthion oxon at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 400 ?M, but was reduced in the presence of 40 and 400 ?M DDE (positive control). These findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not markedly affect osmoregulatory function in adult black ducks.

  11. Aging Is Accompanied by a Blunted Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Protein Ingestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Toby Wall

    Full Text Available Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging (sarcopenia forms a global health concern. It has been suggested that an impaired capacity to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in response to protein intake is a key contributor to sarcopenia. We assessed whether differences in post-absorptive and/or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates exist between large cohorts of healthy young and older men.We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing in vivo post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates determined with stable isotope methodologies between 34 healthy young (22±1 y and 72 older (75±1 y men, and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between 35 healthy young (22±1 y and 40 older (74±1 y men.Post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ significantly between the young and older group. Post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates were 16% lower in the older subjects when compared with the young. Muscle protein synthesis rates were >3 fold more responsive to dietary protein ingestion in the young. Irrespective of age, there was a strong negative correlation between post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates and the increase in muscle protein synthesis rate following protein ingestion.Aging is associated with the development of muscle anabolic inflexibility which represents a key physiological mechanism underpinning sarcopenia.

  12. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Dana; Tamaiev, Jonathan; Zeigler, H Philip; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ingestive behaviors in mice are dependent on orosensory cues transmitted via the trigeminal nerve, as confirmed by transection studies. However, these studies cannot differentiate between deficits caused by the loss of the lemniscal pathway vs. the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system. A knockout of Prrxl1 abolishes somatotopic barrellette patterning in the lemniscal brainstem nucleus, but not in the parallel paralemniscal nucleus. Null animals are significantly smaller than littermates by postnatal day 5, but reach developmental landmarks at appropriate times, and survive to adulthood on liquid diet. A careful analysis of infant and adult ingestive behavior reveals subtle impairments in suckling, increases in time spent feeding and the duration of feeding bouts, feeding during inappropriate times of the day, and difficulties in the mechanics of feeding. During liquid diet feeding, null mice display abnormal behaviors including extensive use of the paws to move food into the mouth, submerging the snout in the diet, changes in licking, and also have difficulty consuming solid chow pellets. We suggest that our Prrxl1(-/-) animal is a valuable model system for examining the genetic assembly and functional role of trigeminal lemniscal circuits in the normal control of eating in mammals and for understanding feeding abnormalities in humans resulting from the abnormal development of these circuits.

  13. Big increase in US ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-10

    US ethanol capacity is expected to reach 600 million US gal/year by the end of 1982, according to a report from the AIChE. Although this is a six-fold increase over capacity installed in 1979 it is still less than 1% of US domestic motor fuel supply.

  14. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  15. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  16. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha results in increased ethanol yield in high-temperature fermentation of xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Stasyk, Oleh V; Gayda, Galina Z; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2008-11-01

    Improvement of xylose fermentation is of great importance to the fuel ethanol industry. The nonconventional thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha naturally ferments xylose to ethanol at high temperatures (48-50 degrees C). Introduction of a mutation that impairs ethanol reutilization in H. polymorpha led to an increase in ethanol yield from xylose. The native and heterologous (Kluyveromyces lactis) PDC1 genes coding for pyruvate decarboxylase were expressed at high levels in H. polymorpha under the control of the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH). This resulted in increased pyruvate decarboxylase activity and improved ethanol production from xylose. The introduction of multiple copies of the H. polymorpha PDC1 gene driven by the strong constitutive promoter led to a 20-fold increase in pyruvate decarboxylase activity and up to a threefold elevation of ethanol production.

  18. Mitigation of postnatal ethanol-induced neuroinflammation ameliorates trace fear memory deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Shin, Youn Ju; Lindquist, Derick H

    2018-02-15

    Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats. Phosphate buffered saline vehicle (VEH) or IBU was injected 2h following ethanol exposure over PD4-9, followed by quantification of inflammation-related genes in the dorsal hippocampus of PD10 rats. The 5E-VEH rats exhibited significant increases in Il1b and Tnf, but not Itgam or Gfap, relative to NC, SI-VEH, and 5E-IBU rats. In separate groups of PD31-33 rats, conditioned fear (freezing) was significantly reduced in 5E-VEH rats during TFC testing, but not acquisition, compared to SI-VEH and, critically, 5E-IBU rats. Results suggest neuroimmune activation in response to ethanol within the neonate hippocampus contributes to later-life cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P < 0.05), while waterborne microplastic concentrations (P < 0.01) and incidence of ingestion decreased. This study provides baseline ecological data illustrating the correlation between waterborne microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyuria, acidosis, and coma following massive ibuprofen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Khurana, Amandeep; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2010-09-01

    Ibuprofen was the first over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug available in the United States. Despite being a common agent of ingestion, significant toxicity in overdose is rare. We report a case of a massive ibuprofen ingestion who developed polyuria, acidosis, and coma but survived, despite having a serum ibuprofen concentration greater than previous fatal cases. A 19-year-old man ingested 90 g (1,200 mg/kg) ibuprofen. He was initially awake and alert, but his level of consciousness deteriorated over several hours. Seven hours following the ingestion, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated secondary to loss of airway reflexes. He developed a lactic acidosis and polyuria, which lasted for nearly 24 h. His serum creatinine peaked at 1.12 mg/dL. An ibuprofen level drawn 7 h postingestion was 739.2 mg/L (therapeutic 5-49 mg/L). We describe a case of a massive ibuprofen overdose characterized by metabolic acidosis, coma, and a state of high urine output who survived with aggressive supportive care. This case is unique in several ways. First, ibuprofen levels this high have only rarely been described. Second, polyuria is very poorly described following ibuprofen ingestions.

  1. Magnet foreign body ingestion: rare occurrence but big consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Richard; Rosenfeld, Eric H; Yu, Yangyang R; St Peter, Shawn D; Shah, Sohail R

    2017-08-24

    To review the outcomes of magnet ingestions from two children's hospitals and develop a clinical management pathway. Children magnet were reviewed from 1/2011 to 6/2016 from two tertiary center children's hospitals. Demographics, symptoms, management and outcomes were analyzed. From 2011 to 2016, there were 89 magnet ingestions (50 from hospital 1 and 39 from hospital 2); 50 (56%) were males. Median age was 7.9 (4.0-12.0) years; 60 (67%) presented with multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic co-ingestion. Suspected locations found on imaging were: stomach (53%), small bowel (38%), colon (23%) and esophagus (3%). Only 35 patients (39%) presented with symptoms and the most common symptom was abdominal pain (33%). 42 (47%) patients underwent an intervention, in which 20 (23%) had an abdominal operation. For those undergoing abdominal surgery, an exact logistic regression model identified multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic object co-ingestion (OR 12.9; 95% CI, 2.4 - Infinity) and abdominal pain (OR 13.0; 95% CI, 3.2-67.8) as independent risk factors. Magnets have a high risk of requiring surgical intervention for removal. Therefore, we developed a management algorithm for magnet ingestion. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result...... of strong alkali ingestion (sensitivity = 1.0). Among the 102 incident patients, 36.8% of lye ingestions resulted in complications, whereas only 2.7% (one) of automatic dishwasher detergent (ADD) ingestions caused any complications (p

  4. Gastroprotective effect of esculin on ethanol-induced gastric lesion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    The gastroprotective effect of esculin was investigated in a mouse model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. Administration of esculin at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion led to significant gastroprotection compared with untreated mice. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations, lesion index, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Pretreatment with esculin significantly reduced macroscopic and histopathological damage, gastric lesion index, and MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculin significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression in gastric tissues after ethanol challenge. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines indicated that esculin pretreatment markedly suppressed the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ethanol-treated mice. The results demonstrate a protective effect of esculin against gastric injury and suggest that the underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation, which subsequently reduces expression of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  5. Methods to Evaluate the Effect of Ethanol on the Folate Analogue: Fluorescein Methotrexate Uptake in Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar JT Gowder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol-induced folate deficiency is due to effects of ethanol on folate metabolism and absorption. We have already shown by using different methods that ethanol interferes with reabsorption of folate from the proximal tubule. In this study, we have used the folate analogue, the fluorescein methotrexate (FL-MTX, in order to evaluate effects of ethanol on FL-MTX uptake by the human proximal tubular (HPT cells by using a confocal microscope and fluoroskan microplate reader. Since endothelins (ETs play a major role in a number of diseases and also in the damage induced by a variety of chemicals, we have used endothelin-B (ET-B and protein kinase-C (PKC inhibitors to evaluate the role of endothelin in ethanol-mediated FL-MTX uptake by using fluoroskan microplate reader. Confocal microscope and fluoroskan studies reveal that cellular absorption of FL-MTX is concentration-dependent. Moreover, ethanol concentration has an impact on FL-MTX uptake. Fluoroskan studies reveal that the ethanol-induced decrease in FL-MTX uptake is reversed by adding the ET-B receptor antagonist (RES-701-1 or PKC-selective inhibitor (BIM. Thus, we can conclude that ethanol may act via ET and ET in turn may act via ET-B receptor and the PKC signaling pathway to impair FL-MTX transport.

  6. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal leads to adaptations in nucleus accumbens core postsynaptic density proteome and dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; McGuier, Natalie S; Gass, Justin T; Griffin, William C; Ball, Lauren E; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by the loss of ability to control alcohol (ethanol) intake despite knowledge of detrimental health or personal consequences. Clinical and pre-clinical models provide strong evidence for chronic ethanol-associated alterations in glutamatergic signaling and impaired synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the neural mechanisms that contribute to aberrant glutamatergic signaling in ethanol-dependent individuals in this critical brain structure remain unknown. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on neuroadaptations in postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched proteins in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice. Compared with controls, CIE exposure significantly changed expression levels of 50 proteins in the PSD-enriched fraction. Systems biology and functional annotation analyses demonstrated that the dysregulated proteins are expressed at tetrapartite synapses and critically regulate cellular morphology. To confirm this latter finding, the density and morphology of dendritic spines were examined in the NAc core of ethanol-dependent mice. We found that CIE exposure and withdrawal differentially altered dendrite diameter and dendritic spine density and morphology. Through the use of quantitative proteomics and functional annotation, these series of experiments demonstrate that ethanol dependence produces neuroadaptations in proteins that modify dendritic spine morphology. In addition, these studies identified novel PSD-related proteins that contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms of ethanol dependence that drive maladaptive structural plasticity of NAc neurons. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde inhibits the induction of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuho; Yamaguchi, Shinichi; Sugiura, Minoru; Saito, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Ethanol has been reported to inhibit the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. However, the correlation between the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro remained unclear. In addition, previous works have little considered the possibility that the effect of ethanol is mediated by its metabolites. To solve these problems, we investigated the effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the metabolism of ethanol, on the induction of LTP at medial perforant path-granule cell synapses in the dentate gyrus of anaesthetized rats in vivo.Oral administration of 1 g kg−1 ethanol significantly inhibited the induction of LTP, confirming the effectiveness of ethanol in vivo.A lower dose of ethanol (0.5 g kg−1) failed to inhibit the induction of LTP in intact rats, but significantly inhibited LTP in rats treated with disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, demonstrating that LTP is inhibited by acetaldehyde accumulation following ethanol administration.Intravenous injection of acetaldehyde (0.06 g kg−1) significantly inhibited the induction of LTP.The inhibitory effect of acetaldehyde on LTP induction was also observed when it was injected into the cerebroventricules, suggesting that acetaldehyde has a direct effect on the brain. The intracerebroventricular dose of acetaldehyde effective in inhibiting LTP induction (0.1–0.15 mg brain−1) was approximately 10 fold lower than that of ethanol (1.0–1.5 mg brain−1).It is possible that acetaldehyde is partly responsible for memory impairments induced by ethanol intoxication. PMID:10482910

  8. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  9. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-04-09

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body.

  10. An Ingested Orthodontic Wire Fragment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryer, James; McNamara, Catherine; Sandy, Jonathan; Ireland, Tony

    2016-08-01

    Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies has been widely documented, including incidents which occur whilst undertaking dental treatment. Most ingested objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) spontaneously, but approximately 10%-20% need to be removed endoscopically and 1% require surgery. This case reports a complication arising from the accidental loss of an archwire fragment during maxillary archwire placement. It describes the immediate and subsequent management, including the use of radiographs to track the passage of the fragment through the gastro-intestinal tract. This case stresses the vigilance that dentists must take to prevent inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies and the consequences of time-delays when management decisions are needed.

  11. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  12. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  15. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...

  16. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  17. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  18. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention

  19. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  20. Blunted suppression of acyl-ghrelin in response to fructose ingestion in obese adolescents: the role of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Name, Michelle; Giannini, Cosimo; Santoro, Nicola; Jastreboff, Ania M; Kubat, Jessica; Li, Fangyong; Kursawe, Romy; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira; Dziura, James; Sinha, Rajita; Sherwin, Robert S; Cline, Gary; Caprio, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Fructose consumption has risen alongside obesity and diabetes. Gut hormones involved in hunger and satiety (ghrelin and PYY) may respond differently to fructose compared with glucose ingestion. This study evaluated the effects of glucose and fructose ingestion on ghrelin and PYY in lean and obese adolescents with differing insulin sensitivity. Adolescents were divided into lean (n = 14), obese insulin sensitive (n = 12) (OIS), and obese insulin resistant (n = 15) (OIR). In a double-blind, cross-over design, subjects drank 75 g of glucose or fructose in random order, serum was obtained every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Baseline acyl-ghrelin was highest in lean and lowest in OIR (P = 0.02). After glucose ingestion, acyl-ghrelin decreased similarly in lean and OIS but was lower in OIR (vs. lean, P = 0.03). Suppression differences were more pronounced after fructose (lean vs. OIS, P = 0.008, lean vs. OIR, P < 0.001). OIS became significantly hungrier after fructose (P = 0.015). PYY was not significantly different at baseline, varied minimally after glucose, and rose after fructose. Compared with lean, OIS adolescents have impaired acyl-ghrelin responses to fructose but not glucose, whereas OIR adolescents have blunted responses to both. Diminished suppression of acyl-ghrelin in childhood obesity, particularly if accompanied by insulin resistance, may promote hunger and overeating. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Ethanol enhances arsenic-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via both NFAT and NF-κB signalings in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wise, James T.F. [Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia [Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen to humans, and chronic exposure to environmental arsenic is a worldwide health concern. As a dietary factor, ethanol carries a well-established risk for malignancies, but the effects of co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol on tumor development are not well understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that ethanol would enhance the function of an environmental carcinogen such as arsenic through increase in COX-2 expression. Our in vitro results show that ethanol enhanced arsenic-induced COX-2 expression. We also show that the increased COX-2 expression associates with intracellular ROS generation, up-regulated AKT signaling, with activation of both NFAT and NF-κB pathways. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes have an inhibitory effect on arsenic/ethanol-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the responsive signaling pathways from co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol relate to ROS generation. In vivo results also show that co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol increased COX-2 expression in mice. We conclude that ethanol enhances arsenic-induced COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells via both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways. These results imply that, as a common dietary factor, ethanol ingestion may be a compounding risk factor for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis/cancer development. - Highlights: • Arsenic is able to induce Cox-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells. • Ethanol, a diet nutritional factor, could enhance arsenic-induced Cox-2. • The up-regulation of Cox-2 via both NFAT and NF-κB activities.

  2. Ethanol enhances arsenic-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via both NFAT and NF-κB signalings in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew; Wise, James T.F.; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen to humans, and chronic exposure to environmental arsenic is a worldwide health concern. As a dietary factor, ethanol carries a well-established risk for malignancies, but the effects of co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol on tumor development are not well understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that ethanol would enhance the function of an environmental carcinogen such as arsenic through increase in COX-2 expression. Our in vitro results show that ethanol enhanced arsenic-induced COX-2 expression. We also show that the increased COX-2 expression associates with intracellular ROS generation, up-regulated AKT signaling, with activation of both NFAT and NF-κB pathways. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes have an inhibitory effect on arsenic/ethanol-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the responsive signaling pathways from co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol relate to ROS generation. In vivo results also show that co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol increased COX-2 expression in mice. We conclude that ethanol enhances arsenic-induced COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells via both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways. These results imply that, as a common dietary factor, ethanol ingestion may be a compounding risk factor for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis/cancer development. - Highlights: • Arsenic is able to induce Cox-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells. • Ethanol, a diet nutritional factor, could enhance arsenic-induced Cox-2. • The up-regulation of Cox-2 via both NFAT and NF-κB activities.

  3. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  5. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  6. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  7. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  8. Foreign body ingestion in children: case report and literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common occurrence in children. In most cases these foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. The important considerations for intervention include size, shape, and composition of the FB. Also, the site of lodgement and underlying pathology in the patient with the ...

  9. Foreign body ingestion in a neonate | Ugwu | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had an emergency tracheostomy and subsequent extraction of the foreign body. She was extubated after four days and was discharged on the eighth day in good clinical condition. Conclusion: Foreign body ingestion in the neonate although very uncommon is possible. Paediatricians should therefore remember that ...

  10. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, O.; Razzaq, K.; Abbas, W.; Zarrin, F.

    2015-01-01

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  11. The relationship between sward structure, ingestive behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals adjusted biting rates to compensate for changes in bite size and thus maintained rates of intake. Bite size and dietary CP were negatively correlated. It was argued that, in the present study, leaf table height, stemminess, leaf density and leaf % were the main determinants of dietary CP and ingestive behaviour.

  12. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  13. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Renske J.E.; Koelmans, Bart; Besseling, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and are ingested by zooplankton with possible negative effects on survival, feeding, and fecundity. The majority of laboratory studies has used new and pristine microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as

  14. Benign hepatic portal venous gas following caustic ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Maite; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pocard, Marc; Caplin, Scott; Parc, Rolland; Blain, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic portal vein gas has been documented in numerous conditions and is traditionally regarded as a poor prognostic sign. There are, however, several reports of portal vein gas with a benign course. We report the first case of transient hepatic portal vein gas secondary to the ingestion of a caustic substance. The literature of hepatic portal vein gas in benign disease is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Severe hypokalaemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); J.M. van der Klooster; D.M. Zuidgeest; R.J.T. Ouwendijk (Rob); A. Dees

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChronic ingestion of liquorice induces a syndrome with findings similar to those in primary hyperaldosteronism. We describe a patient who, with a plasma K+ of 1.8 mmol/l, showed a paralysis and severe rhabdomyolysis after the habitual consumption of natural liquorice.

  16. Thermal Esophageal Injury following Ingestion of Boiling Mushroom Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Prevost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal esophageal and gastric damage from ingestion of hot liquids is poorly studied in pediatrics. Limited case reports exist in the literature. Many cases presented with chest pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Variable histologic findings were reported. No definitive management guidelines exist for such injuries. We provide a report of the acute assessment and management of an obvious thermal esophageal injury and contribute to what is known about this presentation. A 16-year-old male presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, and hematemesis following ingestion of “nearly boiling” mushroom water. Ondansetron, pantoprazole, ketorolac, maintenance intravenous fluids, and a clear liquid diet were started. At sixty hours after ingestion, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed blistering and edema of the soft palate and epiglottis, circumferential erythema of the entire esophagus with an exudate likely to be desquamated mucosa, and linear erythema of the body and fundus of the stomach. An EGD one month after ingestion showed no residual effects from the injury. The pantoprazole was weaned and restrictions to his diet were lifted. To better standardize care in these rare esophageal injuries, the development of a clinical care algorithm may be beneficial to provide clinicians with a guide for management based on outcomes of previously reported cases.

  17. [Intestinal perforation due to multiple magnet ingestion: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Mehmet Nuri; Karadağ, Cetin Ali; Demir, Mesut; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2012-03-01

    Multiple magnet ingestion during childhood may result in emergency situations. A single magnet may be discharged with intestinal peristalsis, but multiple magnets may stick together and cause significant intestinal complications. Here we present a case with intestinal perforation due to ingestion of multiple magnets and metal pieces. An eight-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. She had abdominal tenderness and defense on the physical examination. Abdominal X-ray showed air and fluid levels. Metallic images were not considered at first as important in the diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was reported as acute appendicitis. During the abdominal exploration, the appendix was normal, but there were dense adherences around the ileum and cecum. After adhesiolysis, intestinal perforations were seen in the cecum and 15 and 45 cm proximal to the cecum. Magnet and metal pieces were present in the perforated segments. Wedge resection and primary repair was performed. There were no postoperative complications, and she was discharged on the postoperative fifth day. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of the complications of multiple magnet ingestion. If the patient has a history of multiple magnet ingestion, follow-up with daily abdominal X-rays should be done, and in cases where magnets seem to cluster together or if acute abdominal signs develop, surgical exploration should be considered.

  18. Foreign body ingestions in a schizophrenic patient | Alao | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we report a case of ingestion of a rolled, metal tuna can lid in a male prison inmate previously diagnosed with depression and paranoid schizophrenia. Following evaluation by the surgical team, the foreign body was removed by laparotomy and the patient was discharged back to the prison without complication.

  19. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  20. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  1. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl | Hasan | Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 16 year old patient had ingested two sewing needles about 4.5 cm long accidentally that eventually resided in extra intestinal tract position, and being asymptomatic, she ignored the problem for a long period about 2 years. She only consulted the hospital after having symptoms. The needles were located by Xray imaging ...

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton. Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again. Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, η(p)(2) = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

  3. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  4. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  5. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  6. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  7. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  8. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  9. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  10. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  11. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  12. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero

    2015-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p0.05 different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  14. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  15. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  16. Performance of the Hack's Impairment Index Score: A Novel Tool to Assess Impairment from Alcohol in Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Jason B; Goldlust, Eric J; Ferrante, Dennis; Zink, Brian J

    2017-10-01

    Over 35 million alcohol-impaired (AI) patients are cared for in emergency departments (EDs) annually. Emergency physicians are charged with ensuring AI patients' safety by identifying resolution of alcohol-induced impairment. The most common standard evaluation is an extemporized clinical examination, as ethanol levels are not reliable or predictive of clinical symptoms. There is no standard assessment of ED AI patients. The objective was to evaluate a novel standardized ED assessment of alcohol impairment, Hack's Impairment Index (HII score), in a busy urban ED. A retrospective chart review was performed for all AI patients seen in our busy urban ED over 24 months. Trained nurses evaluated AI patients with both "usual" and HII score every 2 hours. Patients were stratified by frequency of visits for AI during this time: high (≥ 6), medium (2-5), and low (1). Within each category, comparisons were made between HII scores, measured ethanol levels, and usual nursing assessment of AI. Changes in HII scores over time were also evaluated. A total of 8,074 visits from 3,219 unique patients were eligible for study, including 7,973 (98.7%) with ethanol levels, 5,061 (62.7%) with complete HII scores, and 3,646 (45.2%) with health care provider assessments. Correlations between HII scores and ethanol levels were poor (Pearson's R 2  = 0.09, 0.09, and 0.17 for high-, medium-, and low-frequency strata). HII scores were excellent at discriminating nursing assessment of AI, while ethanol levels were less effective. Omitting extrema, HII scores fell consistently an average 0.062 points per hour, throughout patients' visits. The HII score applied a quantitative, objective assessment of alcohol impairment. HII scores were superior to ethanol levels as an objective clinical measure of impairment. The HII declines in a reasonably predictable manner over time, with serial evaluations corresponding well with health care provider evaluations. © 2017 by the Society for Academic

  17. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  18. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  19. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  20. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  1. Effects of Preceding Ethanol Intake on Glucose Response to Low-Dose Glucagon in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Tetzschner, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether preceding ethanol intake impairs glucose response to low-dose glucagon in individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 12 insulin pump-treated individuals (median...... ethanol compared with placebo. The second glucagon bolus had similar responses between visits, but PG remained 1.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L lower after ethanol compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of low-dose glucagon to treat mild hypoglycemia persisted with preceding ethanol intake, although it tended...... to be metabolized, and a subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin bolus was given to induce mild hypoglycemia. When plasma glucose (PG) was ≤3.9 mmol/L, 100 µg glucagon was given s.c., followed by another s.c. 100 µg glucagon 2 h later. Primary end point was incremental peak PG induced by the first glucagon bolus. RESULTS...

  2. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Karlvin; Apor, Khristine; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-11-01

    In two studies, we evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing on Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats. In these studies, the brief insertion of an ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US), inducing sipper CS-directed drinking conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the ethanol concentration in the sipper CS [0%-16% volume/volume (vol./vol.), in increments of 1%] was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions. Groups of rats received sipper CS-food US pairings (Paired/Ethanol), a CS-US random procedure (Random/Ethanol), or water sipper CS paired with food US (Paired/Water). In Experiment 2, saccharin-fading procedures were used to initiate, in the Ethanol group, drinking of 6% (vol./vol.) ethanol in 0.1% saccharin or, in the Water group, drinking of tap water in 0.1% saccharin. After elimination of saccharin, and across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS during each autoshaping trial was increased (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 s), and subsequently, across days, the duration of the mean intertrial interval (ITI) was increased (60, 90, 120, and 150 s). In Experiment 1, Paired/Ethanol and Random/Ethanol groups showed higher intake of ethanol, in terms of grams per kilogram of body weight, at higher ethanol concentrations, with more ethanol intake recorded in the Paired/Ethanol group. In Experiment 2, the Ethanol group drank more than was consumed by the Water group, and, for both groups, fluid intake increased with longer ITIs. Results support the suggestion that autoshaping contributes to sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking.

  3. Ethanol-Induced Upregulation of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Helps Relieve Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Jen; Chung, Yi-Shao; Lee, Gang-Hui; Kao, Tseng-Ting; Chang, Wen-Ni; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hung, Jan-Jong; Fu, Tzu-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism induces folate deficiency and increases the risk for embryonic anomalies. However, the interplay between ethanol exposure and embryonic folate status remains unclear. To investigate how ethanol exposure affects embryonic folate status and one-carbon homeostasis, we incubated zebrafish embryos in ethanol and analyzed embryonic folate content and folate enzyme expression. Exposure to 2% ethanol did not change embryonic total folate content but increased the tetrahydrofolate level app...

  4. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  5. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  6. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_v...itro/ethanol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/et...hanol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single.../ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  7. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  8. Enhanced deficits in long-term potentiation in the adult dentate gyrus with 2nd trimester ethanol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Helfer

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1(st or 3(rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2(nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  9. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  10. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  11. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  12. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  13. Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Gongora, Mariana; Alvarenga, Renato; Alonso, Luciano; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design). In each of the 4 treatments (Placebo—PL, TA, ET and TA+ET), electroencephalography (EEG) tests were conducted in order to analyze changes in absolute beta power (ABP) in the frontal lobe in 3 moments: baseline (before ingestion), peak (before exercise) and post-exercise. In the PL treatment, the frontal areas showed decrease in ABP after exercise. However, in the ET+TA treatment, ABP values were greater after exercise, except for Fp1. The ET treatment had no effect on the Superior Frontal Gyrus area (F3, Fz and F4) and ABP decreased after exercise in Fp1 and Fp2. In the TA treatment, ABP increased after exercise, while it decreased at the peak moment in most of the frontal regions, except for Fp1, F3 and Fz. We concluded that after a moderate intensity exercise, a decrease in cortical activity occurs in placebo treatment. Moreover, we found a inhibitory effect of TA on cortical activity before exercise and a increased in cortical activity after exercise. A small ET dose is not enough to alter ABP in all regions of the frontal cortex and, in combination with TA, it showed an increase in the frontal cortex activity at the post-exercise moment. PMID:29538445

  14. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  15. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  16. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2010-01-01

    /PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm

  17. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  18. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lianxiang; Lin, Xiangtao; Cao, Jinfeng; Wang, Xueyu; Wu, Lebin

    2011-09-01

    Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lianxiang; Lin Xiangtao; Cao Jinfeng; Wang Xueyu; Wu Lebin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  20. A mouse model of prenatal ethanol exposure using a voluntary drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrea M; Chynoweth, Julie; Tyler, Lani A; Caldwell, Kevin K

    2003-12-01

    The incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is estimated to be as high as 1 in 100 births. Efforts to better understand the basis of prenatal ethanol-induced impairments in brain functioning, and the mechanisms by which ethanol produces these defects, will rely on the use of animal models of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). Using a saccharin-sweetened alcohol solution, we developed a free-choice, moderate alcohol access model of prenatal alcohol exposure. Stable drinking of a saccharin solution (0.066%) was established in female mice. Ethanol then was added to the saccharin in increasing concentrations (2%, 5%, 10% w/v) every 2 days. Water was always available, and mice consumed standard pellet chow. Control mice drank saccharin solution without ethanol. After a stable baseline of ethanol consumption (14 g/kg/day) was obtained, females were impregnated. Ethanol consumption continued throughout pregnancy and then was decreased to 0% in a step-wise fashion over a period of 6 days after pups were delivered. Characterization of the model included measurements of maternal drinking patterns, blood alcohol levels, food consumption, litter size, pup weight, pup retrieval times for the dams, and effects of FAE on performance in fear-conditioned learning and novelty exploration. Maternal food consumption, maternal care, and litter size and number were all found to be similar for the alcohol-exposed and saccharin control animals. FAE did not alter locomotor activity in an open field but did increase the time spent inspecting a novel object introduced into the open field. FAE mice displayed reduced contextual fear when trained using a delay fear conditioning procedure. The mouse model should be a useful tool in testing hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying the learning deficits present in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Moreover, a mouse prenatal ethanol model should increase the opportunity to use the power of genetically defined and genetically altered mouse

  1. Ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli by human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C. E.; Brouwer-Steenbergen, J. J.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Meijer, S.; Krediet, R. T.; Beelen, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether mesothelial cells can ingest and digest bacteria. The results showed that all strains were ingested. Ingested staphylococci proliferated abundantly, and only a few were digested. Escherichia coli, however, was digested during the first 8 h, whereafter the

  2. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  3. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  5. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  7. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  8. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  9. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African treePausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required inse...

  10. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  11. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBinali Ali M; AlShehri, Mohammed A; AlFifi, Suliman H; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S

    2009-01-01

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  13. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  15. Insulin binding to erythrocytes after acute 16-methyleneprednisolone ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, A; Holle, W; Zick, R; Trautschold, I

    1982-10-01

    The binding of [125I]insulin to erythrocytes, glucose and insulin were determined before and 1, 7 and 35 days after ingestion of 2 X 60-methyleneprednisolone. None of two groups of volunteers (7 males, 4 females showed clear alterations of the insulin binding parameters (Ka and R0), or of the fasting cortisol, glucose and insulin concentrations. These results exclude the possibility that the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides is accompanied by an alteration of the insulin receptor characteristics of erythrocytes.

  16. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  17. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  19. Low-Dose Ethanol Preconditioning Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation-Induced Neuronal Injury By Activating Large Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Su; An-Chen Guo; Wei-Wei Li; Yi-Long Zhao; Zheng-Yi Qu; Yong-Jun Wang; Qun Wang; Yu-Lan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low to moderate ethanol ingestion protects against the deleterious effects of subsequent ischemia/reperfusion;however,the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated.In the present study,we showed that expression of the neuronal large-conductance,Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) α-subunit was upregulated in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivatior/reoxygenation (OGD/R) compared with controls.Preconditioning with low-dose ethanol (10 mmol/L) increased cell survival rate in neurons subjected to OGD/R,attenuated the OGD/R-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels,and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons.Western blots revealed that ethanol preconditioning upregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and downregulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax.The protective effect of ethanol preconditioning was antagonized by a BKCa channel inhibitor,paxilline.Inside-out patches in primary neurons also demonstrated the direct activation of the BKCa channel by 10 mmol/L ethanol.The above results indicated that low-dose ethanol preconditioning exerts its neuroprotective effects by attenuating the elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and preventing neuronal apoptosis,and this is mediated by BKCa channel activation.

  20. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-02

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-Dose Ethanol Preconditioning Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation-Induced Neuronal Injury By Activating Large Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fang; Guo, An-Chen; Li, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Long; Qu, Zheng-Yi; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Qun; Zhu, Yu-Lan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low to moderate ethanol ingestion protects against the deleterious effects of subsequent ischemia/reperfusion; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study, we showed that expression of the neuronal large-conductance, Ca 2+ -activated K + channel (BK Ca ) α-subunit was upregulated in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) compared with controls. Preconditioning with low-dose ethanol (10 mmol/L) increased cell survival rate in neurons subjected to OGD/R, attenuated the OGD/R-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons. Western blots revealed that ethanol preconditioning upregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and downregulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The protective effect of ethanol preconditioning was antagonized by a BK Ca channel inhibitor, paxilline. Inside-out patches in primary neurons also demonstrated the direct activation of the BK Ca channel by 10 mmol/L ethanol. The above results indicated that low-dose ethanol preconditioning exerts its neuroprotective effects by attenuating the elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ and preventing neuronal apoptosis, and this is mediated by BK Ca channel activation.

  2. A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON NEURONAL NUMBERS IN RAT DENTATE GYRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Miki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol ingestion during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in their offspring. Among the symptoms of FAS, damage to the central nervous system has emerged as one of the most serious problems. We have previously shown that a relatively high dose of ethanol exposure during early postnatal life can cause alterations in spatial learning ability. This ability is controlled, at least in part, by the hippocampal formation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of rat pups to ethanol during early postnatal life had effects on the total number of the dentate gyrus neurons. Wistar rats were exposed to a relatively high daily dose of ethanol between postnatal days 10 to 15. Ethanol exposure was achieved by placing rat pups in a chamber containing ethanol vapour for 3 hours a day. The blood ethanol concentration was found to be about 430 mg/dL at the end of the exposure period. Groups of ethanol treated (ET, separation controls (SC and mother reared controls (MRC were anaesthetised and killed at 16-days-of-age by perfusion with phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The Cavalieri principle was used to determine the volume of subdivisions of the dentate gyrus, and the physical disector method was used to estimate the numerical densities of neurons within each subdivision. The total number of neurons was calculated by multiplying estimates of the numerical density with the volume. There was, on average, about 421,000 granule cells in all three treatment groups. In the hilus region, ET rats had about 27,000 neuronal cells. This value was significantly smaller than the average of 38,000 such neurons estimated to be present in both MRC and SC animals. It is concluded that neurons in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of a high dose of ethanol exposure during PND 10-15. It is likely that this deficit was due to neuronal death induced by some mechanisms related to

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers

  4. Efficacy of Carbohydrate Ingestion on CrossFit Exercise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jaden A.; Krings, Ben M.; Peterson, Timothy J.; Thigpen, Adam G.; McAllister, Matthew J.; Holmes, Megan E.

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during high-intensity strength and conditioning type exercise has yield mixed results. However, little is known about shorter duration high-intensity exercise such as CrossFit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance impact of CHO ingestion during high-intensity exercise sessions lasting approximately 30 min. Eight healthy males participated in a total of four trials; two familiarizations, a CHO trial, and a similarly flavored, non-caloric placebo (PLA) trial. CrossFit’s “Fight Gone Bad Five” (FGBF) workout of the day was the exercise model which incorporated five rounds of maximal repetition exercises, wall throw, box jump, sumo deadlift high pull, push press, and rowing, followed by one minute of rest. Total repetitions and calories expended were summated from each round to quantify total work (FGBF score). No difference was found for the total work between CHO (321 ± 51) or PLA (314 ± 52) trials (p = 0.38). There were also no main effects (p > 0.05) for treatment comparing exercise performance across rounds. Based on the findings of this study, it does not appear that ingestion of CHO during short duration, high-intensity CrossFit exercise will provide a beneficial performance effect.

  5. Epidemiology and prevention of caustic ingestion in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1994-01-01

    A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety-four ...... of toddlers is recommended. Information material should stress that caustics should always be inaccessible to children and stored separately, and should never be decanted.......A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety......-four percent of the children were less than 5 years old. For this age group, the incidence rates of admission and esophageal burns were 34.6:100,000 and 15.8:100,000, respectively. All ingestions were accidental. The incidence rates of esophageal burns in children 0-4 years old (p = 0.019) decreased...

  6. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  7. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  8. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  9. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  11. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf.

  12. Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Performance in Young Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Camilla; Souza, Diego; Polito, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    To compare the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on performance in young judo athletes. In a randomized double-blind design, eighteen judo athletes (16.1 ± 1.4 yrs.) were evaluated on three nonconsecutive days. On the first day, the special judo fitness test (SJFT) was used as a control session. On the second day, the sample was randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received 4 mg.kg -1 of caffeine (capsule) and the other group received a placebo. After resting for 60 min, the sample performed the SJFT. On the final day of testing, the same procedure was performed but the substance ingested was exchanged between the groups. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the applications of the SJFTs. Caffeine ingestion did not induce changes in HR, but reduced the RPE compared with the placebo session (7.0 ± 1.1 vs 8.2 ± 2.0; p performance on SJFT in young judo athletes and reduced the RPE.

  13. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  14. Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-07-14

    The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.

  15. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  16. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  17. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  18. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  19. Acute ethanol has biphasic effects on short- and long-term memory in both foreground and background contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Gould, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is a frequently abused, addictive drug that impairs cognitive function. Ethanol may disrupt cognitive processes by altering attention, short-term memory, and/or long-term memory. Interestingly, some research suggests that ethanol may enhance cognitive processes at lower doses. The current research examined the dose-dependent effects of ethanol on contextual and cued fear conditioning. In addition, the present studies assessed the importance of stimulus salience in the effects of ethanol and directly compared the effects of ethanol on short-term and long-term memory. This study employed both foreground and background fear conditioning, which differ in the salience of contextual stimuli, and tested conditioning at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 1 week in order to assess the effects of ethanol on short-term and long-term memory. Foreground conditioning consisted of 2 presentations of a foot shock unconditioned stimulus (US) (2 seconds, 0.57 mA). Background conditioning consisted of 2 auditory conditioned stimulus (30 seconds, 85 dB white noise)-foot shock (US; 2 seconds, 0.57 mA) pairings. For both foreground and background conditioning, ethanol enhanced short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning at a low dose (0.25 g/kg) and impaired short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning at a high dose (1.0 g/kg). These results suggest that ethanol has long-lasting, biphasic effects on short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning. Furthermore, the effects of ethanol on contextual fear conditioning are independent of the salience of the context.

  20. Acute effects of ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, J A; Cooper-Vastola, S A; Meirelles, R F; Bagchi, S; Caboclo, J L; Holm, C; Eisenberg, M M

    1993-07-01

    The effects of intravenous ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) were investigated using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control, (2) 80% ethanol, (3) 80% ethanol plus furosemide, and (4) furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Levels of serum amylase, calcium, electrolytes, ethanol, and furosemide (groups 3 and 4) were measured, and samples of pancreatic tissue were obtained. The ethanol and furosemide levels were statistically different (p 0.05) between groups 1 and 4. Histopathologic analysis revealed swollen acini in group 2 and sparse focal necrosis without acinar swelling in group 3. The depressant effect of ethanol on PCBF may be the result of its direct action on pancreatic cells causing edema and capillary compression rather than on primary vascular control mechanisms that adjust blood flow. Furosemide counters this effect.

  1. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  3. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  4. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  5. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  6. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  8. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  9. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  10. Ethanol negatively regulates hepatic differentiation of hESC by inhibition of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Alcohol insult triggers complex events in the liver, promoting fibrogenic/inflammatory signals and in more advanced cases, aberrant matrix deposition. It is well accepted that the regenerative capacity of the adult liver is impaired during alcohol injury. The liver progenitor/stem cells have been shown to play an important role in liver regeneration -in response to various chronic injuries; however, the effects of alcohol on stem cell differentiation in the liver are not well understood.We employed hepatic progenitor cells derived from hESCs to study the impact of ethanol on hepatocyte differentiation by exposure of these progenitor cells to ethanol during hepatocyte differentiation.We found that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was also a moderate cell cycle arrest at G1/S checkpoint in the ethanol treated cells, which is associated with a reduced level of cyclin D1 in these cells. Ethanol treatment specifically inhibited the activation of the ERK but not JNK nor the p38 MAP signaling pathway. At the same time, the WNT signaling pathway was also reduced in the cells exposed to ethanol. Upon evaluating the effects of the inhibitors of these two signaling pathways, we determined that the Erk inhibitor replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation and attenuated the WNT/β-catenin signaling, however, inhibitors of WNT only partially replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation.Our results demonstrated that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitors through inhibiting the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, and subsequently attenuating the WNT signaling pathway. Thus, our finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which alcohol regulates cell fate selection of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, and the identified pathways may provide therapeutic targets

  11. Alcohol-induced retrograde memory impairment in rats: prevention by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Michael J; Woodlee, Martin T; Feinberg, Leila M; Stroud, Chris; Schallert, Kellan; Cormack, Lawrence K; Schallert, Timothy

    2008-12-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, often used in the same setting. Animal models may help to understand the conditions under which incidental memories formed just before ethanol intoxication might be lost or become difficult to retrieve. Ethanol-induced retrograde amnesia was investigated using a new odor-recognition test. Rats thoroughly explored a wood bead taken from the cage of another rat, and habituated to this novel odor (N1) over three trials. Immediately following habituation, rats received saline, 25 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (a seizure-producing agent known to cause retrograde amnesia) to validate the test, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol. The next day, they were presented again with N1 and also a bead from a new rat's cage (N2). Rats receiving saline or the lower dose of ethanol showed overnight memory for N1, indicated by preferential exploration of N2 over N1. Rats receiving pentylenetetrazol or the higher dose of ethanol appeared not to remember N1, in that they showed equal exploration of N1 and N2. Caffeine (5 mg/kg), delivered either 1 h after the higher dose of ethanol or 20 min prior to habituation to N1, negated ethanol-induced impairment of memory for N1. A combination of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, mimicking two major mechanisms of action of caffeine, likewise prevented the memory impairment, though either drug alone had no such effect. Binge alcohol can induce retrograde, caffeine-reversible disruption of social odor memory storage or recall.

  12. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  13. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  14. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  15. Autoshaping induces ethanol drinking in nondeprived rats: evidence of long-term retention but no induction of ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Kuo, Teresa; Apor, Khristine R; Salomon, Kimberly E; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of autoshaping procedures (paired vs. random) and sipper fluid (ethanol vs. water) on sipper-directed drinking were evaluated in male Long-Evans rats maintained with free access to food and water. For the paired/ethanol group (n=16), autoshaping procedures consisted of presenting the ethanol sipper (containing 0% to 28% unsweetened ethanol) conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US). The random/ethanol group (n=8) received the sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. The paired/water group (n=8) received only water in the sipper CS. The paired/ethanol group showed higher grams per kilogram ethanol intake than the random/ethanol group did at ethanol concentrations of 8% to 28%. The paired/ethanol group showed higher sipper CS-directed milliliter fluid consumption than the paired/water group did at ethanol concentrations of 1% to 6%, and 15%, 16%, 18%, and 20%. Following a 42-day retention interval, the paired/ethanol group showed superior retention of CS-directed drinking of 18% ethanol, relative to the random/ethanol group, and superior retention of CS-directed milliliter fluid drinking relative to the paired/water group. When tested for home cage ethanol preference using limited access two-bottle (28% ethanol vs. water) procedures, the paired/ethanol and random/ethanol groups did not differ on any drinking measures.

  16. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  17. Bolus Ingestion of Whey Protein Immediately Post-Exercise Does Not Influence Rehydration Compared to Energy-Matched Carbohydrate Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gethin H. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP or maltodextrin (MD at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13C breath tests. Recovery was monitored for a further 3 h by the collection of blood and urine samples. The time taken to empty half of the initial solution (T1/2 was different between the trials (WP = 65.5 ± 11.4 min; MD = 56.7 ± 6.3 min; p = 0.05; however, there was no difference in cumulative urine volume throughout the recovery period (WP = 1306 ± 306 mL; MD = 1428 ± 443 mL; p = 0.314. Participants returned to net negative fluid balance 2 h after the recovery period with MD and 3 h with WP. The results of this study suggest that whey protein empties from the stomach at a slower rate than MD; however, this does not seem to exert any positive or negative effects on the maintenance of fluid balance in the post-exercise period.

  18. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  19. Acidic and neutral liquid ingestion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dafne Calsoni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0) and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8). The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  20. Ingestive behavior of grazing heifers receiving crude glycerin supplementation during the dry-rainy season transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Visintin Silva de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search to find food alternatives for corn and feeding alternatives that reduce the cost of production has been constant. The use of oleaginous grains to produce ethanol and biodiesel has produced an excess of byproducts, especially biodiesel which produces crude glycerin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including crude glycerin on the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers supplemented with pasture. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with an initial mean weight of 301.5 ± 31 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replicates per treatment. The animals were kept in a Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf 'Marandu' pasture in a rotational-grazing system. The treatments tested were 0.0%, 3.33%, 6.66%, and 9.99% crude glycerin included in total DM to replace corn (Tea mays L. Including crude glycerin reduced the time for grazing and eating at the trough and increased idle time. Rumination was quadratically influenced. Eating time (min kg-1 DM and neutral detergent fiber [NDF] was reduced, while rumination time (min kg-1 DM and NDF was quadratically affected by adding glycerin. The variables, time spent per ruminated bolus and the number of chews per day, were not affected. The number of boluses per day showed a quadratic effect. The number of grazing, idle, ruminating, and eating at the trough periods were not affected by including crude glycerin; means were 15.1, 24.9, and 13.3 and 3.71 periods d-1, respectively. Feed and rumination efficiency (kg h-1 DM and NDF increased when crude glycerin was included in the diet. Including crude glycerin promotes feed and rumination efficiency in grazing heifers.

  1. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  2. Acute Ethanol Intake Induces NAD(P)H Oxidase Activation and Rhoa Translocation in Resistance Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplicio, Janaina A; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Vale, Gabriel Tavares do; Callera, Glaucia Elena; Pereira, Camila André; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita de Cássia; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage) or water (control). Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days) before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2-) generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues) or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(P)H oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism. O mecanismo da disfunção vascular induzido pelo consumo de etanol não é totalmente compreendido. Justifica-se, assim a identificação de mecanismos bioquímicos e moleculares que poderiam explicar tais efeitos. Investigar se a ingestão aguda de etanol ativa a via vascular RhoA/Rho quinase

  3. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  4. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  6. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  7. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  8. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  9. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  10. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: radial-arm maze performance and operant food reinforced responding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Risher

    Full Text Available Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats.Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory.These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed after adolescent CIE and provide direction for future

  12. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Radial-Arm Maze Performance and Operant Food Reinforced Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Levin, Edward D.; Markou, Athina; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM) and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline) and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs) were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration) and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory. Conclusions/Significance These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed

  13. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  14. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  15. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  16. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  19. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  20. Ethanol dehydration on doped cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salaam, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vapour phase catalytic dehydration of ethanol over Fe impregnated cadmium oxide was investigated between 200-450 0 C in atmospheric pressure. Electron transfer mechanisms involved in adsorption and catalytic dehydration reaction were investigated. The change in electrical conductivity of the catalyst resulting from calcination, adsorption and surface reaction processes were studied. Adsorption conductivity at low temperature ( 0 C) indicates that ethanol adsorbs as an electron donor. A mechanism of creation of interstitial Cd atoms responsible for the catalytic dehydration of ethanol on the catalyst surface was suggested. (orig.) [de

  1. Ethanol as radon storage: applications for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, I.; Philipsborn, H. von

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol as Radon Storage: Applications for Measurement Ethanol has a solubility for radon of 6 Bq/l per kBq/m 3 air, 24 times higher than water. On filtration of ethanol, radon decay products are completely adsorbed on glass fiber filters, as previously reported for water. Hence: 1. A new simple method for measuring radon in soil air, without expensive equipment. 2. The production of mailable radon calibration sources ('radonol') with 50-100 kBq/l in PET-bottles with 3.8 days half-life, using uraniferous rocks as primary source. (orig.) [de

  2. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira DANTAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. Objective - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. Methods - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. Results - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. Conclusion - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  4. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S; Little, Dustin J; Baker, Thomas P; Yuan, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion.

  6. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion. PMID:26064493

  7. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue.

  8. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  9. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  10. Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, T.; Boyanower, Y.; Laurian, N.

    1974-01-01

    A newborn infant with large bilateral cervical masses developed respiratory difficulties three days after birth. A congenital goiter was suspected and a biopsy was performed. Later information pointed to the ingestion of large amounts of inorganic iodine, during the pregnancy, by the asthmatic mother. Further investigation proved the goiter to be due to transient depression of peroxidase activity by the exogenous iodine. Within several days after birth, the infant's thyroid regained its full activity, the goiter disappeared, and the few signs of hypothyroidism subsided. (U.S.)

  11. A Case of Argyria Following Colloidal Silver Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-01-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. Th...

  12. Effects of lifetime ingestion of 90Sr in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime 90 Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 μCi 90 Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same 90 Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 μCi/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 μCi/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 μCi/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 μCi/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 μCi 90 Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 μCi/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 μCi/day and one of four 12 μCi/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 μCi/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to 90 Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 μCi/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large 90 Sr toxicity study at Davis in which 90 Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of 90 Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime 90 Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when 90 Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood

  13. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, Rajesh Kumar; Sinnathamby, Vellan

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and muscular pains. However, these massage oils may be toxic when taken orally. Early recognition of the salicylate toxicity is very important in producing a good patient outcome. PMID:22922924

  14. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  15. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  16. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  17. Transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistulas due to ingestion of 28 magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Surd

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet and a metal object, it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. Case report: We report case of a transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistula formation following ingestion of 28 small magnets in a 17 months old boy. No history of foreign body ingestion could be obtained from parents therefore the patient was treated conservatively in a pediatric clinic for vomiting, dehydration, upper respiratory tract infection and suspicion of upper digestive tract bleeding. After 48 h he was sent in our clinic for surgical evaluation. Intraoperatively double transmesocolic gastro-enteric fistula was found. After separation of de gastric and enteral walls, resection of gastric wall and intestinal segment containing the two perforations was performed, followed by gastric suture in two layers and entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 28 magnets were removed from the stomach and small intestine. Conclusion: Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications. Keywords: Ingestion, Magnetic foreign body, Multiple magnets, Intestinal fistula, Children

  18. Long-lasting effect of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on ethanol-cue association and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Olevska, Anastasia; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in alcohol addiction and especially in relapse-like behaviour. However, results of clinical studies on compounds that influence the activity of the glutamatergic system have been disappointing so far. The aim of our study was to establish treatment conditions under which the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine may produce more reliable treatment effect with respect to alcohol relapse-like behaviour. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to associate several discrete stimuli with ethanol delivery. Thereafter, half of the animals received a brief memory reactivation session followed by two administrations of 20 mg/kg of memantine, while the other half received the same treatment without memory reactivation. Afterwards, a cue-induced ethanol-seeking behaviour test was performed followed by repeated extinction sessions and a reacquisition test. Our data show that administration of memantine reduced responding on the ethanol-associated lever in a cue-induced ethanol-seeking test. This reduction did not depend on whether or not a memory reactivation session was introduced prior to memantine administration. Following extinction, however, reacquisition of ethanol self-administration was only impaired in the group where memantine was given after a short memory reactivation session, showing that this schedule of drug administration produced a long-lasting disruption of the association between the conditioned stimuli and the delivery of ethanol. In conclusion, we show that memantine disrupted the drug-cue association, which consequently interfered with relapse-like behaviour supporting the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. Our data supports the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. However, the effectiveness of this drug seems to lie in its ability to disrupt conditioned behaviours and should be given in conjunction

  19. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  20. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Domnik Bayer; Florina Jung; Birgit Kintzel; Martin Joos; Carsten Cremers; Dierk Martin; Jörg Bernard; Jens Tübke

    2011-01-01

    Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution...