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Sample records for ethanol consumption leads

  1. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam B. Virgolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH. To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake.

  2. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

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    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  3. Long term ethanol consumption leads to lung tissue oxidative stress and injury.

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    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a systemic disorder. The deleterious health effects of alcohol consumption may result in irreversible organ damage. By contrast, there currently is little evidence for the toxicity of chronic alcohol use on lung tissue. Hence, in this study we investigated long term effects of ethanol in the lung. Though body weight of rats increased significantly with duration of exposure compared to its initial weight, but there was no significant change in relative weight (g/100 g body weight) of lung due to ethanol exposure. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, protein carbonyl, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), redox ratio (GSSG/GSH) and GST activity elevated; while reduced glutathione (GSH) level and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na(+)K(+) ATPase reduced significantly with duration of ethanol exposure in the lung homogenate compared to the control group. Total matrix metalloproteinase activity elevated in the lung homogenate with time of ethanol consumption. Histopathologic examination also demonstrated that severity of lung injury enhanced with duration of ethanol exposure. 16-18 weeks old male albino Wistar strain rats weighing 200-220 g were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/ kg body weight/ day) up to 36 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected from reteroorbital plexus to determine blood alcohol concentration, and the animals were sacrificed. Various oxidative stress related biochemical parameters, total matrix metalloproteinase activity and histopathologic examinations of the lung tissues were performed. Results of this study indicate that long term ethanol administration aggravates systemic and local oxidative stress, which may be associated with lung tissue injury.

  4. Neural Adaptation Leads to Cognitive Ethanol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Brooks G.; Khurana, Sukant; Kuperman, Anna; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological alcohol dependence is a key adaptation to chronic ethanol consumption that underlies withdrawal symptoms, is thought to directly contribute to alcohol addiction behaviors, and is associated with cognitive problems such as deficits in learning and memory [1–3]. Based on the idea that an ethanol-adapted (dependent) animal will perform better in a learning assay than an animal experiencing ethanol withdrawal will, we have used a learning paradigm to detect physiological ethanol dep...

  5. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

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    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  6. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

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    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  7. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

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    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

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    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  9. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

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    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-08-21

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

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    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  11. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

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    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  12. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

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    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  13. nNOS is involved in cardiac remodeling induced by chronic ethanol consumption.

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    Silva, Susana M; Silva, Sérgio; Meireles, Manuela; Leal, Sandra

    2015-03-02

    Chronic ethanol consumption has deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system by directly damaging the myocardial structure and/or by neurohormonal activation. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) derived from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) seems to be important to balance the harmful effects of ethanol consumption, because it influences several aspects of cardiac physiology and attenuates pathological cardiac remodeling. However, the impact of chronic ethanol consumption on nNOS expression is unknown. We address this subject in the present study by evaluating whether chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling and hypertension, and if these changes are associated with alterations in the expression of nNOS. Male Wistar rats were examined after ingesting a 20% alcohol solution for 6 months. Blood alcohol concentration and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured. The cardiac remodeling was assessed by histomorphometric analysis and the nNOS expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Our results show that chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling, namely thinning of left ventricular wall, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased fibrosis, and elevations of arterial blood pressure. They also show that in rats fed with ethanol for 6 months, the circulating BNP levels had decreased as well as the expression of nNOS in left ventricle cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on BNP levels and/or on nNOS expression in cardiomyocytes may contribute to aggravate the cardiac remodeling and leads to progression of cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with hypomagnesaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic alcohol consumption was strongly linked to several nutritional abnormalities though the specific concentrations that induce these states have not been specifically enumerated. This study evaluates the levels of zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and calcium-to-magnesium ratioin albino rabbits fed with ...

  15. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

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    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase 61 in the dorsomedial striatum is sufficient to increased ethanol consumption.

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    Darcq, Emmanuel; Hamida, Sami Ben; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanky; Kharazia, Viktor; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul; Ron, Dorit

    2014-06-01

    The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) inhibits the activity of the tyrosine kinase Fyn and dephosphorylates the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, whereas the protein kinase A phosphorylation of STEP61 inhibits the activity of the phosphatase (Pharmacol. Rev., 64, , p. 65). Previously, we found that ethanol activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) leading to GluN2B phosphorylation, which, in turn, underlies the development of ethanol intake (J. Neurosci., 30, , p. 10187). Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of STEP61 by ethanol is upstream of Fyn/GluN2B. We show that exposure of mice to ethanol increased STEP61 phosphorylation in the DMS, which was maintained after withdrawal and was not observed in other striatal regions. Specific knockdown of STEP61 in the DMS of mice enhanced ethanol-mediated Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation, and increased ethanol intake without altering the level of water, saccharine, quinine consumption or spontaneous locomotor activity. Together, our data suggest that blockade of STEP61 activity in response to ethanol is sufficient for the activation of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway in the DMS. Being upstream of Fyn and GluN2B, inactive STEP61 in the DMS primes the induction of ethanol intake. We show that ethanol-mediated inhibition of STEP61 in the DMS leads to Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation. (a) Under basal conditions, active STEP61 inhibits Fyn activity and dephosphorylates GluN2B. (b) Ethanol leads to the phosphorylation of STEP61 on a specific inhibitory site. The inhibition of STEP61 activity contributes to the activation of Fyn in response to ethanol, which, in turn, phosphorylates GluN2B. These molecular adaptations in the DMS promote ethanol drinking. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

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    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beer ethanol consumption and plasma homocysteine among patients with type 2 diabetes.

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    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Teizo; Yasuda, Hiroko

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed the association between beer and other type of ethanol consumption and tHcy levels among type 2 diabetic patients. Male type 2 diabetic patients without overt nephropathy were studied (n=242). Ethanol consumptions of the patients were 35.1+/-37.8mL/day for total ethanol, 13.9+/-15.2mL/day for beer ethanol and 21.2+/-32.1mL/day for non-beer ethanol. Both, total and non-beer ethanol consumption correlated with tHcy, whereas beer ethanol consumption showed a trend to inverse association with tHcy (standard regression coefficient, 0.184, 0.283 and -0.110, respectively). Each intake of 30mL/day ethanol consumption was associated with an increase of tHcy of 0.6micromol/L for total ethanol and 1.1micromol/L for non-beer ethanol and a decrease of tHcy of 0.7micromol/L for beer ethanol. Similar trend was observed in the analysis model which included only drinkers, and also in an adjusted analysis model. Plasma tHcy of beer only drinkers was lower than that of non-beer alcohol only drinkers (8.9+/-1.9micromol/L versus 11.5+/-5.5micromol/L, P=0.003). Non-beer ethanol consumption might be less healthy compared with beer ethanol consumption among type 2 diabetic patients in terms of the effects on tHcy.

  19. Arbitrage between ethanol and gasoline: evidence from motor fuel consumption in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Unlike regular cars, ex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) allow motorists to fuel on motor blends that contain between zero and one hundred percent of ethanol. This paper investigates how motorists arbitrage between hydrous ethanol and gasoline using aggregate fuel consumption data in Brazil. The ability of FFV motorists to arbitrage between fuel blends shapes of aggregate demands for hydrous ethanol and gasoline. I estimate using nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions the demands for hydrous ethanol a...

  20. Effects of adolescent onset voluntary drinking followed by ethanol vapor exposure on subsequent ethanol consumption during protracted withdrawal in adult Wistar rats.

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    Criado, Jose R; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a model of early onset adolescent ethanol drinking exposure that is followed by an ethanol vapor regimen during late adolescence and young adulthood leads to an increase in drinking in adulthood. In this model, initiation of voluntary ethanol drinking in adolescence, using a sweetened solution, was followed by an 8-wk intermittent ethanol vapor regimen in Wistar rats. A limited-access two-bottle choice paradigm was then used to measure intake of a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution. No differences in water intake (g/kg), total fluid intake (ml/kg) and body weight (g) were observed between air-exposed and ethanol-vapor exposed groups during the pre-vapor and post-vapor phases. The 8 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure was found to produce only a modest, but statistically significant, elevation of ethanol intake during the protracted withdrawal period, compared to air-exposed rats. A significant increase in ethanol preference ratio was also observed in ethanol-vapor exposed rats during the sucrose-fading phase, but not during the protracted withdrawal period. The findings from the present study suggest that in addition to alcohol exposure, environmental variables that impact appetitive as well as consumptive behaviors may be important in developing robust drinking effects that model, in animals, the increased risk for alcohol dependence seen in some human adolescents who begin drinking at an early age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. δ-opioid receptor function in the dorsal striatum plays a role in high levels of ethanol consumption in rats.

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    Nielsen, Carsten K; Simms, Jeffrey A; Li, Rui; Mill, Douglas; Yi, Henry; Feduccia, Allison A; Santos, Nathan; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-03-28

    Binge-like patterns of excessive drinking during young adulthood increase the propensity for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) later in adult life; however, the mechanisms that drive this are not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the δ-opioid peptide receptor (DOP-R) is dynamically regulated by exposure to ethanol and that the DOP-R plays a role in ethanol-mediated behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the DOP-R in high ethanol consumption from young adulthood through to late adulthood by measuring DOP-R-mediated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in brain membranes and DOP-R-mediated analgesia using a rat model of high ethanol consumption in Long Evans rats. We show that DOP-R activity in the dorsal striatum and DOP-R-mediated analgesia changes during development, being highest during early adulthood and reduced in late adulthood. Intermittent access to ethanol but not continuous ethanol or water from young adulthood leads to an increase in DOP-R activity in the dorsal striatum and DOP-R-mediated analgesia into late adulthood. Multiple microinfusions of naltrindole into the dorsal striatum or multiple systemic administration of naltrindole reduces ethanol consumption, and following termination of treatment, DOP-R activity in the dorsal striatum is attenuated. These findings suggest that DOP-R activity in the dorsal striatum plays a role in high levels of ethanol consumption and suggest that targeting the DOP-R is an alternative strategy for the treatment of AUDs.

  2. National and state estimates of the mean ethanol content of beer sold in the US and their impact on per capita consumption estimates: 1988 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Brown, Stephan; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2004-10-01

    The average ethanol content of the beer sold in the US is a key factor in determining the per capita consumption of ethanol, the standard measure of alcohol use in aggregate-level research. To address the lack of empirically based estimates of beer ethanol content, we have calculated national estimates for the years 1988 to 2001 and state-specific estimates for 1993 to 2001. These estimates are based on the ethanol content by volume of leading brands in each year, the national market share of each leading brand by type, and state-specific market shares of each beer type. The national mean ethanol content of beer was higher than the 4.5% figure typically used, ranging from 4.58% in 1993 to 4.75% in 1996. State-specific mean ethanol content estimates were also found to vary by state and over time. Application of mean ethanol content estimates to the per capita consumption of beer led to higher consumption estimates than those with the 4.5% conversion. For example, in 2000, the national estimate indicates that nearly 10 more drinks (containing 0.6 oz of ethanol) were consumed per person aged 14 years and older during that year. This may indicate that a larger than previously estimated share of the alcohol consumed in the US is in the form of beer. However, the results also indicate that empirically based estimates of wine and spirits mean that ethanol content may modify their consumption estimates as well.

  3. Maternal ethanol consumption reduces Se antioxidant function in placenta and liver of embryos and breastfeeding pups.

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    Nogales, Fátima; Ojeda, M Luisa; Jotty, Karick; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2017-12-01

    The fetal alcohol exposition during pregnancy leads to different disorders in offspring, related to the oxidative stress generated by alcohol. It is well-documented that there is an impairment of the antioxidant selenoprotein Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in ethanol offspring during the embryo period, although no-one has described Selenium (Se) status. The aim is to analyze for the first time Se deposits in vivo and Se's biological implication in embryos and placenta after alcohol exposure and in offspring whose mothers continued to drink ethanol during lactation. Se deposits, GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, lipid and protein oxidation and the expression of GPx1 were measured in placenta and liver of both embryos (E-19) and breastfeeding pups (L-21) in control and ethanol groups (20% v/v). Ethanol consumption decreased Se deposits, GPx activity and GPx1 expression, while increasing biomolecular oxidation in placenta and in the liver of E-19 and L-21. The GR/GPx ratio decreased in placenta and in E-19, together with an increase in lipid oxidation, while increased in the liver of L-21 pups with protein oxidation. Ethanol also decreased the GPx1 expression/GPx activity ratio in the liver of E-19 and L-21, indicating that alcohol decreases GPx activity by both depleting Se deposits and promoting GPx inactivation. In placenta GPx activity is proportional to the GPx1 expression found, so the ethanol affects GPx activity in offspring more than in dams. Therefore, Se supplementation therapy in dams could contribute as an interesting antioxidant that prevents fetal alcohol syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

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    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Semi-quantitative data on ethanol consumption in 354 ET cases and 370 controls.

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    Louis, Elan D; Michalec, Monika

    2014-12-15

    The notion that there is an association between essential tremor (ET) and higher ethanol consumption has crept into the literature; however, the data are limited and conflicted. A total of 354 ET cases and 370 matched controls were enrolled in a clinical-epidemiological study. Average current daily ethanol consumption was estimated using the Willett Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The proportion of cases and controls who drank any ethanol was similar: 66.7% vs. 64.1%, p=0.46, as was the proportion who reported heavy ethanol consumption: 4.0% vs. 3.5%, p=0.74. The average daily ethanol intake was numerically higher in cases than controls (7.99 ± 12.39 [median=3.03] vs. 6.55 ± 10.62 [median=1.80] g), but this difference did not reach significance (p=0.15). Among cases, there was no correlation between average daily ethanol intake and tremor severity (r=0.008, p=0.88). These data, on more than 700 enrollees, do not support any sizable differences between ET cases and controls in terms of average daily ethanol consumption or ethanol overuse. The absence of a correlation in cases between ethanol consumption and tremor severity goes against the hypothesis that ET patients are self-medicating to a significant degree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol consumption produces a small increase in circulating miR-122 in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Jame C; Sharkey, Noel; Webb, David J; Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Dear, James W

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) is a new circulating biomarker for liver injury, which increases earlier than conventional markers in patients with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. However, as co-ingestion of ethanol is common with drug overdose, a confounding effect of acute ethanol consumption on serum miR-122 must be examined. Blood was collected from healthy volunteers before and after recreational consumption of ethanol. Routine biochemistry and haematology measurements were performed, and serum miR-122 was measured by qPCR. The primary outcome was the difference in serum miR-122 with ethanol consumption. We recruited 18 participants (72% male). Their mean serum ethanol concentration was 113 mg/dl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-135 mg/dl) after consuming ethanol. Serum miR-122 increased from a mean of 71.3 million (95% CI 29.3-113.2 million) to 139.1 million (95% CI 62.6-215.7 million) copies/ml (2.2-fold increase). There was no significant difference in serum alanine aminotransferase activity before and after ethanol consumption. miR-122 increased with moderate ethanol consumption, but the fold change was modest. As increases with acetaminophen toxicity are 100- to 10 000-fold, moderate ethanol intoxication is unlikely to confound the use of this biomarker of hepatotoxicity.

  7. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  8. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  9. Alterations in the rate of binge ethanol consumption: implications for preclinical studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbardt, David N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    The rate at which alcohol (ethanol) is consumed has direct impact on its behavioral and subjective effects. For this reason, alterations in the pattern of ethanol consumption as a function of drinking history might be critical to the development and maintenance of alcoholism. Furthermore, because pharmacological interventions aimed at disrupting the motivation to consume ethanol are dependent on the brain/plasma concentrations present when an individual is most likely to engage in consumption of this substance, characterizing temporal drinking patterns might be useful to determine the timing of such treatments. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate alterations in the timecourse of daily binge (drinking-in-the-dark; DID) ethanol consumption. We gave 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions to male C57BL/6J (B6) mice using a state of the art volumetric drinking monitoring device. We then, primarily as a proof-of-principle, used the GABAB allosteric modulator GS39783 (GS) to determine how this compound influenced the timecourse of binge-like ethanol intake. The rate of ethanol consumption increased dramatically over sessions with the majority occurring in the first few minutes of the final session. Additionally, ethanol consumption occurring immediately following access was almost completely abolished in mice pre-treated with GS; an effect which was ethanol-specific only at this early time interval. These data characterize progressive alterations in the rate of ethanol intake using the DID model and suggest that careful consideration of prior ethanol history and timing of drug administration are warranted when interpreting results of pre-clinical drug administration studies.

  10. Consistent, high-level ethanol consumption in pig-tailed macaques via a multiple-session, limited-intake, oral self-dosing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Michael R; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ator, Nancy A; Hienz, Robert D

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major public health burden that can lead to many adverse health effects such as impaired hepatic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and immune system function. Preclinical animal models of alcohol abuse allow for experimental control over variables often difficult to control in human clinical studies (e.g., ethanol exposure before or during the study, history of other drug use, access to medical care, nutritional status, etc). Nonhuman primate models in particular provide increased genetic, anatomic and physiologic similarity to humans, relative to rodent models. A small percentage of macaques will spontaneously consume large quantities of ethanol; however, most nonhuman primate models of "voluntary" ethanol intake produce relatively low daily ethanol intake in the majority of monkeys. To facilitate study of chronic exposure to high levels of ethanol intake, a macaque model has been developed that induces consistent, daily high-level ethanol consumption. This multiple-session procedure employed 4 drinking sessions per day, with sessions occurring once every 6 hours. The group average alcohol consumption was 4.6 g/kg/d (SEM 0.4), roughly twice the group average consumption of previous reports. Ethanol drinking sessions produced group mean blood ethanol levels of 95 mg/dl after 60 minutes, and fine motor control was impaired up to 90 minutes after a drinking session. This model of multiple-session, limited access, oral ethanol self-dosing produced consistent, high-level ethanol consumption with each session qualifying as a "binge" drinking session using the definition of "binge" provided by the NIAAA (>80 mg/dl/session). This model of ethanol drinking in macaques will be of great utility in the study of immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of ethanol in nonhuman primates.

  11. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-02

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  14. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts diurnal rhythms of hepatic glycogen metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Swain, Telisha M.; Ashley N Filiano; Gamble, Karen L.; Young, Martin E.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption has been shown to significantly decrease hepatic glycogen content; however, the mechanisms responsible for this adverse metabolic effect are unknown. In this study, we examined the impact chronic ethanol consumption has on time-of-day-dependent oscillations (rhythms) in glycogen metabolism processes in the liver. For this, male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or ethanol-containing liquid diet for 5 wk, and livers were collected every 4 h for 24 h and analyz...

  16. Dose-dependent effects of ethanol on lead-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Gautam, Pratibha; Dwivedi, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the dose-dependent effects of ethanol ingestion during co-exposure with lead in rats. Lead was administered orally, once daily at a dose of 10 mg/kg whereas ethanol was given in drinking water at 3 different doses: 1%, 2%, and 5% along with lead. The exposure continued for 3 months, after which the animals were decapitated and various biochemical assays were carried out. The results show increased oxidative stress in animals co-exposed to lead and ethanol compared with either lead or ethanol alone. A significant decrease in blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, adenosine triphosphatase, and catalase but a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, oxidized GSH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and intracellular calcium was noted in lead and ethanol co-exposed animals. The changes were found to be dose dependent in lead plus ethanol exposed animals. Decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in blood was noted, with no significant changes in liver and kidney. Aldehyde dehdrogenase activity decreased significantly in animals exposed to either lead or ethanol but a pronounced depletion was seen in rats co-exposed to lead and ethanol (5%). The results suggest that the combined exposure to lead and ethanol leads to increased oxidative stress and possible initiation of apoptosis in rats.

  17. Increased delay discounting tracks with a high ethanol-seeking phenotype and subsequent ethanol seeking but not consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, S Wesley; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2014-10-01

    Increased levels of delay discounting have been associated with alcoholism and problematic levels of drinking. Attempts to assess the directionality of this relationship by studying individuals with a family history of alcoholism as well as rodent lines selectively bred for high home cage alcohol preference have yielded discordant results. One possible reason for this discordance is that increased levels of delay discounting may only track with specific processes that lead to addiction vulnerability. This study investigated this possibility by assessing 3 strains of rats previously identified to exhibit heritable differences in ethanol (EtOH) seeking and consumption. In an adjusting amount delay discounting task, alcohol-preferring (P) rats who display high levels of both EtOH seeking and consumption were compared to high alcohol-drinking (HAD2) rats who only exhibit moderate EtOH seeking despite high levels of consumption, and Long Evans (LE) rats who display moderate seeking and consumption. EtOH-seeking and consumption phenotypes were subsequently confirmed in an operant self-administration task with a procedural separation between EtOH seeking and drinking. P rats discounted delayed rewards to a greater extent than both HAD2s and LE who did not show differences in discounting. Moreover, the EtOH-seeking and drinking phenotypes were replicated with P rats displaying greater EtOH seeking compared to both the HAD2s and LE, and both the HAD2s and P rats consuming more EtOH than LEs. Only the high-seeking strain, the P rats, exhibited increased levels of delay discounting. This suggests that this measure of behavioral under-control is specifically associated with alcohol-related appetitive, but not consummatory, processes as the moderate seeking/high drinking line did not show increased levels of impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that delay discounting is specifically associated with only certain processes which are sufficient but not necessary to

  18. Ethanol concentration in breastmilk after the consumption of non-alcoholic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claudia; Thierauf, Annette; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-06-01

    During lactation, the consumption of ethanol is discussed controversially. After women drink alcoholic beverages, ethanol can be found in breastmilk with a time lag. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular, non-alcoholic beer has become popular in recent years. According to regulations in the United States and most European countries, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still contain ethanol up to 1.2% by volume. To determine how much of this ethanol may reach the breastfed child, a drinking experiment with non-alcoholic beer was performed. Fifteen healthy breastfeeding women participated in the study. After at least 5 days of abstinence from ethanol and the donation of a void breastmilk sample, they were asked to drink 1.5 L of non-alcoholic beer within 1 hour. Breastmilk samples were collected using electronic breast pumps immediately after the end of drinking as well as 1 and 3 hours later. The milk was analyzed for ethanol by headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection using a fully validated method. In two women, trace amounts of ethanol (up to 0.0021 g/L) were found in the samples gained immediately after the drinking period. In the other samples ethanol could not be detected (limit of detection=0.0006 g/L). The mother's consumption of non-alcoholic beer is likely innocuous for the breastfed infant.

  19. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, reduces ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Youssef; Sakai, Makiko; Weedman, Jason M; Rebec, George V; Bell, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic transmission affect many aspects of neuroplasticity associated with ethanol and drug addiction. For instance, ethanol- and drug-seeking behavior is promoted by increased glutamate transmission in key regions of the motive circuit. We hypothesized that because glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the removal of most extracellular glutamate, up-regulation or activation of GLT1 would attenuate ethanol consumption. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given 24 h/day concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol, water and food for 7 weeks. During Week 6, P rats received either 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone (CEF, i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GLT1 expression, or a saline vehicle for five consecutive days. Water intake, ethanol consumption and body weight were measured daily for 15 days starting on Day 1 of injections. We also tested the effects of CEF (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) on daily sucrose (10%) consumption as a control for motivated behavioral drinking. Statistical analyses revealed a significant reduction in daily ethanol, but not sucrose, consumption following CEF treatment. During the post treatment period, there was a recovery of ethanol intake across days. Dose-dependent increases in water intake were manifest concurrent with the CEF-induced decreases in ethanol intake. Nevertheless, CEF did not affect body weight. An examination of a subset of the CEF-treated ethanol-drinking rats, on the third day post CEF treatment, revealed increases in GTL1 expression levels within the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that CEF effectively reduces ethanol intake, possibly through activation of GLT1, and may be a potential therapeutic drug for alcohol addiction treatment.

  1. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  2. The effect of consumption of ethanol on subfoveal choroidal thickness in acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Min; Woo, Young Jae; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the acute effect of ethanol consumption on subfoveal choroidal thickness. This prospective interventional study included the right eyes of 30 healthy subjects (30 eyes). Ethanol (1.0 g/kg) was administered orally on the first visit. A matching volume of water was administered orally on the second visit. Oral administration of ethanol and water was performed at 14:00, and choroidal thickness was measured every 30 min until 16:00. Change of choroidal thickness after oral administration of ethanol and water was the main outcome measure. At baseline, choroidal mean subfoveal thickness was 299.0±73.4 µm (range, 186.5-472.5 µm) before ethanol consumption and 297.1±71.1 µm (range, 187.0-470.5 µm) before water consumption. After consumption of ethanol, mean subfoveal choroidal thickness increased during the first 60 min and then decreased during the next 60 min, which was a significant change over time (pthickness over time (p=0.310). Comparison of changes in the mean subfoveal choroidal thickness during 120 min showed significant difference between ethanol and water consumption (pthickness. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness increased during the first 60 min and then decreased during the next 120 min after ethanol consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Avoiding the ingestion of cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol may reduce the risk of cancer associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, we recently proposed that the possible cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the tissues in direct contact with alcoholic beverages could explain the local carcinogenic effect of alcohol. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 s) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, may be a simple and effective way to reduce the risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also reduce the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  5. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R; Harris, Greg L; Brasser, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  6. Lesions of the Lateral Habenula Increase Voluntary Ethanol Consumption and Operant Self-Administration, Block Yohimbine-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol Seeking, and Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Andrew K.; Chandni Sheth; Andrea L Schwager; Sinclair, Michael S.; Shashank Tandon; Taha, Sharif A.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions...

  7. Ethanol Consumption by Wistar Rat Dams Affects Selenium Bioavailability and Antioxidant Balance in Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Carreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption affects maternal nutrition, the mothers’ antioxidant balance and the future health of their progeny. Selenium (Se is a trace element cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx. We will study the effect of ethanol on Se bioavailability in dams and in their progeny. We have used three experimental groups of dams: control, chronic ethanol and pair-fed; and three groups of pups. Se levels were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum and hepatic GPx activity was determined by spectrometry. We have concluded that ethanol decreased Se retention in dams, affecting their tissue Se deposits and those of their offspring, while also compromising their progeny’s weight and oxidation balance. These effects of ethanol are caused by a reduction in Se intake and a direct alcohol-generated oxidation action.

  8. Neurotensin receptor type 1 regulates ethanol intoxication and consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonnoh R; Hinton, David J; Song, Jane Y; Lee, Kyung Won; Choo, Christopher; Johng, Heidi; Unal, Sencan S; Richelson, Elliott; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2010-04-01

    Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTS1) is known to mediate a variety of biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. In this study, we found that NTS1 null mice displayed decreased sensitivity to the ataxic effect of ethanol on the rotarod and increased ethanol consumption when given a free choice between ethanol and tap water containing bottles. Interestingly, the administration of NT69L, a brain-permeable NT analog, increased ethanol sensitivity in wild-type littermates but had no such effect in NTS1 null mice, suggesting that NTS1 contributes to NT-mediated ethanol intoxication. Furthermore, the daily treatment of NT69L, for 4 consecutive days, significantly reduced alcohol preference and consumption in wild-type littermates but had no such effects in NTS1 null mice in a two-bottle drinking experiment. Our study provides evidence for possible pharmacological roles of NT69L in which it increases sensitivity to the ataxic effect, and decreases voluntary consumption, of ethanol. Our study also demonstrates NTS1-mediated behavioral effects of NT69L. Therefore, our findings will be useful for understanding some aspects of alcoholism as well as to develop novel pharmacological therapeutic options for humans. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-01-01

    .... However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF...

  11. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on rat upper gastrointestinal system: functional and histologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Tugay, Melih; Utkan, Zafer; Utkan, Tijen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reactivity of esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (TMM) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) smooth muscle. Six male rats in alcohol-fed group received ethanol (7.2% v/v) in a modified liquid diet for 4 weeks. Two control groups were used; six rats in the standard diet-fed group received rat chow and water for 4 weeks. Six rats in sucrose-fed group were given sucrose and received a liquid diet. The smooth muscle reactivity of TMM and LES strips from ethanol-fed and control animals was evaluated in organ chambers. Also histologic study was undertaken to show effects of chronic alcohol consumption. Maximum contractile responses of TMM to KCl and carbachol were decreased in the ethanol-fed group compared to the control groups. Relaxant responses to serotonin were decreased in the ethanol-fed group compared to the control groups. In TMM, isoproterenol- and papaverine-induced relaxant responses were similar in the ethanol-fed and control groups. In LES smooth muscle, relaxant responses to papaverine or isoproterenol were similar in the control groups and the ethanol-fed group. There was no change in agonist potency among the groups. The relaxation response elicited by nicotine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or contractile response elicited by carbachol and 80 mM KCl was decreased with maximum responses and pD(2) values, in the ethanol-fed group compared to that of the control groups in LES. Decreased nNOS immunoreactivity in myenteric plexus was found in alcohol-exposed group compared to control groups. Our findings suggest that chronic alcohol consumption impairs relaxant and contractile responses of both TMM and LES smooth muscle and it may contribute to gastroesophageal reflux commonly seen after alcohol binges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula Reduces Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Xie, Guiqin; Kaur, Amandeep; Bekker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of new strategies that can effectively prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is of paramount importance, because the currently available treatments are inadequate. Increasing evidence indicates that the lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in aversion, drug abuse, and depression. In light of the success of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the LHb in improving helplessness behavior in rodents, we assessed the effects of LHb HFS on ethanol-drinking behavior in rats. Methods: We trained rats to drink ethanol under an intermittent access two-bottle choice procedure. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological approaches to examine LHb activity. We applied a HFS protocol that has proven effective for reducing helplessness behavior in rats via a bipolar electrode implanted into the LHb. Results: c-Fos protein expression and the frequency of both spontaneous action potential firings and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents were higher in LHb neurons of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared to their ethanol-naïve counterparts. HFS to the LHb produced long-term reduction of intake and preference for ethanol, without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, low-frequency electrical stimulation to the LHb or HFS applied to the nearby nucleus did not affect drinking behavior. Conclusions: Our results suggest that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases glutamate release and the activity of LHb neurons, and that functional inhibition of the LHb via HFS reduces ethanol consumption. Thus, LHb HFS could be a potential new therapeutic option for alcoholics. PMID:27234303

  13. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar-Nemer, A.S. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, F.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, E.M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Fonseca, V.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  14. Monitoring Conditions Leading to SCC/Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Fuel Grade Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    This is the draft final report of the project on field monitoring of conditions that lead to SCC in ethanol tanks and piping. The other two aspects of the consolidated program, ethanol batching and blending effects (WP#325) and source effects (WP#323...

  15. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  16. Interactions between chronic ethanol consumption and thiamine deficiency on neural plasticity, spatial memory, and cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Hall, Joseph M; Jabrouin, Kimberly R; Savage, Lisa M

    2015-11-01

    Many alcoholics display moderate to severe cognitive dysfunction accompanied by brain pathology. A factor confounded with prolonged heavy alcohol consumption is poor nutrition, and many alcoholics are thiamine deficient. Thus, thiamine deficiency (TD) has emerged as a key factor underlying alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). TD in humans can lead to Wernicke Encephalitis that can progress into Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and these disorders have a high prevalence among alcoholics. Animal models are critical for determining the exact contributions of ethanol (EtOH)- and TD-induced neurotoxicity, as well as the interactions of those factors to brain and cognitive dysfunction. Adult rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment conditions: chronic EtOH treatment (CET) where rats consumed a 20% v/v solution of EtOH over 6 months; severe pyrithiamine-induced TD (PTD-moderate acute stage); moderate PTD (PTD-early acute stage); moderate PTD followed by CET (PTD-CET); moderate PTD during CET (CET-PTD); and pair-fed (PF) control. After recovery from treatment, all rats were tested on spontaneous alternation and attentional set-shifting. After behavioral testing, brains were harvested for determination of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thalamic pathology. Moderate TD combined with CET, regardless of treatment order, produced significant impairments in spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and reductions in brain plasticity as measured by BDNF levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These alterations are greater than those seen in moderate TD alone, and the synergistic effects of moderate TD with CET lead to a unique cognitive profile. However, CET did not exacerbate thalamic pathology seen after moderate TD. These data support the emerging theory that subclinical TD during chronic heavy alcohol consumption is critical for the development of significant cognitive impairment associated with ARBD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on

  17. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  18. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, M.E.; Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, S.Y.; Leibowitz, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24 h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2 h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol. PMID:26778786

  19. The combined effects of developmental lead and ethanol exposure on hippocampus dependent spatial learning and memory in rats: Role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2016-10-01

    Either developmental lead or ethanol exposure can impair learning and memory via induction of oxidative stress, which results in neuronal damage. we examined the effect of combined exposure with lead and ethanol on spatial learning and memory in offspring and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Rats were exposed to lead (0.2% in drinking water) or ethanol (4 g/kg) either individually or in combination in 5th day gestation through weaning. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done. Also, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that lead + ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. There was significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hippocampus of animals co-exposed to lead and ethanol compared with their individual exposures. We suggest that maternal consumption of ethanol during lead exposure has pronounced detrimental effects on memory, which may be mediated by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [The effect of chronic ethanol consumption on duodenal absorption of iron in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Machado, Adriana Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholists present an increase of iron hepatic concentration, although the responsible mechanisms for this deposition are still unknown. Despite the extensive literature related on the iron absorption in different pathological conditions, the effect of chronic ethanol consumption are still not conclusive and not completely understood. To verify the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on duodenal absorption of iron. Ten male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 5) - control, and group 2 (n = 5) - water consumption with ethanol, as only water source. The animals were followed during 120 days. After this period, the duodenum was isolated and saline solution containing ascorbate of iron II in the 0,016 concentration of mg of iron element was infused. The effluent was collected in times 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 minutes. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was set for Pabsorption as well as iron absorption curves in groups 1 and 2. The chronic consumption of ethanol did not alter iron absorption.

  1. Long-Term Ethanol Consumption Leadsto Lung Tissue Oxidative Stress and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse is a systemic disorder. The deleterious health effects of alcohol consumption may result in irreversible organ damage. By contrast, there currently is little evidence for the toxicity of chronic alcohol use on lung tissue. Hence, in this study we investigated long-term effects of ethanol in the lung. Results: Though body weight of rats increased significantly with duration of exposure compared to its initial weight, there was no significant change in relative weight (g/100 g body weight) of lung due to ethanol exposure. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, protein carbonyl, oxidized glutathione (GSS G), redox ratio (GSS G/ GSH ) and GST activity elevated; while reduced glutathione (GSH ) level and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+K+ATPase reduced significantly with duration of ethanol exposure in the lung homogenate compared to the control group. Total matrix metalloproteinase activity elevated in the lung homogenate with time of ethanol consumption. Histopathologic examination also demonstrated that severity of lung injury enhanced with duration of ethanol exposure. Methods: 16–18 week-old male albino Wistar strain rats weighing 200–220 g were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight/day) up to 36 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected from reteroorbital plexus to determine blood alcohol concentration and the animals were sacrificed. Various oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, total matrix metalloproteinase activity and histopathologic examinations of the lung tissues were performed. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that long-term ethanol administration aggravates systemic and local oxidative stress, which may be associated with lung tissue injury. PMID:21307643

  2. Chronic ethanol consumption increases dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens of high alcohol drinking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michelle R; Rodd, Zachary A; Murphy, James M; Simon, Jay R

    2006-10-01

    Past research has indicated that chronic ethanol exposure enhances dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several brain regions. The present study examined the effects of chronic ethanol drinking on dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of High-Alcohol-Drinking replicate line 1 (HAD-1) rats. HAD rats were given concurrent 24-h access to 15% ethanol and water or water alone for 8 weeks. Subsequently, DA uptake and the V(max) of the DAT were compared between the two groups using homogenates of the nucleus accumbens. DA uptake was measured following a 2 min incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 8 nM [(3)H]DA. For kinetic analyses, DA uptake was assessed in the presence of 5 concentrations of [(3)H]DA ranging from 8 nM to 500 nM. Analyses of the data revealed a significant increase in DA uptake in the ethanol group compared to water controls. Kinetic analyses revealed the change in DA uptake to be a consequence of an increase in the V(max) of transport. These findings demonstrate that chronic free-choice oral ethanol consumption in HAD-1 female rats increases DA uptake in the Acb by increasing the V(max) of the transporter. However, it is not known whether the ethanol-induced change in V(max) is caused by differences in the actual number of available transporter sites or from a difference in the velocity of operation of a similar number of transporters. Overall, the data indicate that chronic ethanol consumption by HAD-1 rats produces prolonged neuroadaptations within the mesolimbic DA system, which may be important for the understanding of the neurobiological basis of alcoholism.

  3. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Strother, Wendy N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Mayfield, R Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J; McBride, William J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-h dark cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24h/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hours after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (palcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal.

  4. Genetic and Pharmacologic Manipulation of TLR4 Has Minimal Impact on Ethanol Consumption in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R Adron; Bajo, Michal; Bell, Richard L; Blednov, Yuri A; Varodayan, Florence P; Truitt, Jay M; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Lasek, Amy W; Logrip, Marian L; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J; Roberts, Edward; George, Olivier; Mayfield, Jody; Billiar, Timothy R; Hackam, David J; Mayfield, R Dayne; Koob, George F; Roberto, Marisa; Homanics, Gregg E

    2017-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical component of innate immune signaling and has been implicated in alcohol responses in preclinical and clinical models. Members of the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism (INIA-Neuroimmune) consortium tested the hypothesis that TLR4 mediates excessive ethanol drinking using the following models: (1) Tlr4 knock-out (KO) rats, (2) selective knockdown of Tlr4 mRNA in mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc), and (3) injection of the TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone in mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased food/water intake and body weight in ethanol-naive and ethanol-trained wild-type (WT), but not Tlr4 KO rats. There were no consistent genotypic differences in two-bottle choice chronic ethanol intake or operant self-administration in rats before or after dependence. In mice, (+)-naloxone did not decrease drinking-in-the-dark and only modestly inhibited dependence-driven consumption at the highest dose. Tlr4 knockdown in mouse NAc did not decrease drinking in the two-bottle choice continuous or intermittent access tests. However, the latency to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex increased and the duration decreased in KO versus WT rats. In rat central amygdala neurons, deletion of Tlr4 altered GABA A receptor function, but not GABA release. Although there were no genotype differences in acute ethanol effects before or after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, genotype differences were observed after LPS exposure. Using different species and sexes, different methods to inhibit TLR4 signaling, and different ethanol consumption tests, our comprehensive studies indicate that TLR4 may play a role in ethanol-induced sedation and GABA A receptor function, but does not regulate excessive drinking directly and would not be an effective therapeutic target. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key mediator of innate immune signaling and has been implicated in alcohol responses in animal models and human alcoholics. Members of the

  5. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters met-enkephalin expression in brain regions related with reinforcement: possible mechanism for ethanol consumption in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, P; Hernández-Fonseca, K; Reyes-Guzmán, A C; Barbosa-Luna, I G; Méndez, M

    2014-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system is involved in ethanol reinforcement. Ethanol-induced changes in opioidergic transmission have been extensively studied in adult organisms. However, the impact of ethanol exposure at low or moderate doses during early ontogeny has been barely explored. We investigated the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on alcohol intake and Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enk) content in rat offspring. Met-enk content was assessed in the ventral tegmental area [VTA], nucleus accumbens [NAcc], prefrontal cortex [PFC], substantia nigra [SN], caudate-putamen [CP], amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Pregnant rats were treated with ethanol (2g/kg) or water during GDs 17-20. At PDs 14 and 15, preweanlings were evaluated in an intake test (5% and 10% ethanol, or water). Met-enk content in brain regions of infants prenatally exposed to ethanol was quantitated by radioimmunoassay. Ethanol consumption was facilitated by prenatal experience with the drug, particularly in females. Met-enk content in mesocorticolimbic regions - PFC and NAcc - was increased as a consequence of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Conversely, Met-enk levels in the VTA were reduced by prenatal ethanol manipulation. Prenatal ethanol also increased peptide levels in the medial-posterior zone of the CP, and strongly augmented Met-enk content in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. These findings show that prenatal ethanol exposure stimulates consumption of the drug in infant rats, and induces selective changes in Met-enk levels in regions of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Our results support the role of mesocorticolimbic enkephalins in ethanol reinforcement in offspring, as has been reported in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Myeloperoxidase formation of PAF receptor ligands induces PAF receptor-dependent kidney injury during ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Nagy, Laura E; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction and oxidative metabolism of ethanol in hepatocytes inflame and damage liver. Chronic ethanol ingestion also induces kidney dysfunction, which is associated with mortality from alcoholic hepatitis. Whether the kidney is directly affected by ethanol or is secondary to liver damage is not established. We found that CYP2E1 was induced in kidney tubules of mice chronically ingesting a modified Lieber-deCarli liquid ethanol diet. Phospholipids of kidney tubules were oxidized and fragmented in ethanol-fed mice with accumulation of azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine (Az-PC), a nonbiosynthetic product formed only by oxidative truncation of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine. Az-PC stimulates the inflammatory PAF receptor (PTAFR) abundantly expressed by neutrophils and kidney tubules, and inflammatory cells and myeloperoxidase-containing neutrophils accumulated in the kidneys of ethanol-fed mice after significant hysteresis. Decreased kidney filtration and induction of the acute kidney injury biomarker KIM-1 in tubules temporally correlated with leukocyte infiltration. Genetic ablation of PTAFR reduced accumulation of PTAFR ligands and reduced leukocyte infiltration into kidneys. Loss of this receptor in PTAFR(-/-) mice also suppressed oxidative damage and kidney dysfunction without affecting CYP2E1 induction. Neutrophilic inflammation was responsible for ethanol-induced kidney damage, because loss of neutrophil myeloperoxidase in MPO(-/-) mice was similarly protective. We conclude that ethanol catabolism in renal tubules results in a self-perpetuating cycle of CYP2E1 induction, local PTAFR ligand formation, and neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation and damage to kidney function. Hepatocytes do not express PTAFR, so this oxidative cycle is a local response to ethanol catabolism in the kidney. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Life cycle water consumption and withdrawal requirements of ethanol from corn grain and residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Yeh, Sonia

    2011-05-15

    We assessed the water requirements of ethanol from corn grain and crop residue. Estimates are explicit in terms of sources-green (GW) and blue (BW) water, consumptive and nonconsumptive requirements across the lifecycle, including evapotranspiration, application and conveyance losses, biorefinery uses, and water use of energy inputs, and displaced requirements or credits due to coproducts. Ethanol consumes 50-146 L/vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) of BW and 1-60 L/VKT of GW for irrigated corn and 0.6 L/VKT of BW and 70-137 L/VKT of GW for rain-fed corn after coproduct credits. Extending the system boundary to consider application and conveyance losses and the water requirements of embodied energy increases the total BW withdrawal from 23% to 38% and BW + GW consumption from 5% to 16%. We estimate that, in 2009, 15-19% of irrigation water is used to produce the corn required for ethanol in Kansas and Nebraska without coproduct credits and 8-10% after credits. Harvesting and converting the cob to ethanol reduces both the BW and GW intensities by 13%. It is worth noting that the use of GW is not without impacts, and the water quantity and water quality impacts at the local/seasonal scale can be significant for both fossil fuel and biofuel.

  8. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  10. The effects of repeated forced ethanol consumption during adolescence on reproductive behaviors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Shannon M; Mollé, Nicole; Reyes-Fondeur, Lisbeth; Karanian, Jessica M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of brain development when changes in hormone levels may have long-lasting effects on synaptic connections and behavior. In humans, alcohol consumption frequently begins during this critical period, although the impact of early exposure has not been fully examined. The current study was designed to investigate short- and long-term effects of repeated forced ethanol consumption during adolescence on emerging reproductive behaviors. Twenty-six young male Long-Evans rats were assigned to ethanol (Young EtOH, n = 12) or water (Young Control, n = 14) groups at postnatal day (P) 32, receiving a modified binge protocol of 3 g/kg of solution via gavage twice per week from P32 to P80. For comparison, another cohort of rats received a similar treatment paradigm in adulthood from P75-P133 (Adult EtOH, n = 8; Adult Control, n = 10). Reproductive behavior was assessed with tests for copulation, partner preference, and 50-kHz vocalizations during forced consumption (intoxication) and again after a 4-5 week period of abstinence. During forced consumption, the Young EtOH group showed significantly longer latencies on copulation tests than Young Controls, but these differences did not persist after abstinence. Different patterns were observed in Adult animals, who only showed significant, delayed impairments in the post-ejaculatory interval. Preference for sexually receptive females increased with sexual experience in both adolescent and adult rats, regardless of treatment during the forced consumption phase. However, after abstinence, the Young EtOH group showed a significantly reduced partner preference compared to the Young Control group, which may indicate long-term effects on sexual motivation. Additionally, during forced consumption the Young EtOH group tended to emit fewer ultrasonic vocalizations, perhaps reflecting impairments in sexual communication. Adult groups showed no differences in partner preference or vocalization tests at

  11. Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter S; Roy, Samantha R; Coughlan, Christina; Orlicky, David J; Liang, Yongliang; Shearn, Colin T; Roede, James R; Fritz, Kristofer S

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Godinho, Cláudia P; Cabrito, Tânia R; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-07-27

    The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased ³H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio-ethanol

  13. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  14. Chronic pain causes a persistent anxiety state leading to increased ethanol intake in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sepúlveda, Marta; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Valverde, Olga

    2016-02-01

    Mood disorders and chronic pain are closely linked, but limited progress has been made in understanding the role of chronic and neuropathic pain in the aetiopathogenesis of depression. To explore the pathological mechanisms that mediate the association between pain and depressive-like behaviours, we studied the time-dependent effect of neuropathic pain on the development of anxiety-like and despair behaviours in CD1 mice. We analysed behavioural data, neuroinflammation reactions and changes in neurotransmitter (glutamate and serotonin) levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Sciatic-operated mice displayed long-lasting anxiety-like and despair behaviours, starting 5 and 20 days after partial sciatic nerve ligation, respectively. Glutamatergic neurotransmission and IL-1β cytokine expression were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex of mice with neuropathic pain. We found no change in serotonin metabolism, cytokine IL-6 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. While sciatic-operated mice exposed to intermittent ethanol intake (20% v/v) using the drinking in the dark procedure consumed higher amounts of ethanol than sham-operated mice, thermal allodynia and despair behaviour were not attenuated by ethanol consumption. Our findings reveal an association between glutamatergic neurotransmission and pain-induced mood disorders, and indicate that moderate ethanol consumption does not relieve nociceptive and depressive behaviours associated with chronic pain in mice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Chronic ethanol consumption increases the levels of chemerin in the serum and adipose tissue of humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui-zhen; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Hai-qing; Yu, Chun-xiao; Cao, Ming-feng; Gao, Ling; Guan, Qing-bo; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2012-05-01

    Chemerin is a new adipokine involved in adipogenesis and insulin resistance. Since ethanol affects the insulin sensitivity that is closely associated with adipokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol on chemerin in humans and rats. In the human study, 148 men who consumed alcohol for more than 3 years and 55 men who abstained from alcohol were included. Based on ethanol consumption per day, the drinkers were classified into 3 groups: low-dose (humans and middle- and high-dose groups of rats, chronic ethanol consumption significantly increased the serum chemerin level. Both the middle- and high-dose ethanol significantly increased the chemerin level in the VAT of rats. In humans, triglyceride, fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were independently associated with chemerin. In rats, the serum chemerin level was positively correlated with chemerin in the VAT after adjustments for the liver chemerin (r=+0.768). High-dose ethanol significantly increased the body fat in humans and the VAT in rats. Chronic ethanol consumption dose-dependently increases the chemerin levels in the serum and VAT. The serum chemerin level is associated with metabolic parameters in humans. The increased serum chemerin level is mainly attributed to an elevation of chemerin in the VAT after the ethanol treatment.

  16. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...... ethanol per day decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 22 (65%) before entry to one (3%) during follow-up. In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment of men with alcoholic cirrhosis does not explain the significant improvement of liver haemodynamics and function observed in this study. However...

  17. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed.

  18. Region-specific depression of striatal activity in Wistar rat by modest ethanol consumption over a ten-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adermark, L; Jonsson, S; Söderpalm, B; Ericson, M

    2013-06-01

    The nucleus accumbens (nAc) is the primary target for the mesolimbic dopamine system and a key brain region for the reinforcing effects displayed by drugs of abuse, including ethanol. During the transition from recreational to compulsive consumption of reinforcing drugs, however, the dorsal striatum seems to be recruited. Understanding how synaptic activity is altered in a sub-region specific manner in the striatum during the course of long-term drug consumption thus could be essential for understanding the long-lasting changes produced by addictive substances, including ethanol. Here we evaluated synaptic activity in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc) of single-housed Wistar rats consuming water, or water and ethanol, for up to 10 months. Even though ethanol intake was moderate, it was sufficient to decrease input/output function in response to stimulation intensity in the DLS, while recorded population spike (PS) amplitudes in the nAc were unaffected. Striatal disinhibition induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline had a slower onset in rats that had consumed ethanol for 2 months, and was significantly depressed in slices from rats that had consumed ethanol for 4 months. Bicuculline-induced disinhibition in the nAc, on the other hand, was not significantly altered by long-term ethanol intake. Changes in PS amplitude induced by taurine or the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine were not significantly altered by ethanol in any brain region. Even though input/output function was not significantly affected by age, there was a significant decline in antagonist-induced disinhibition in brain slices from aged rats. The data presented here suggest that even modest consumption of ethanol is sufficient to alter neurotransmission in the striatum, while synaptic activity appears to be relatively well-preserved in the nAc during the course of long-term ethanol consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  20. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Differentially Alters Gray and White Matter Ethanol 1H Methyl Magnetic Resonance Intensity in the Primate Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Christopher D.; Flory, Graham S.; Park, Byung; Shaw, Jessica; Rau, Andrew R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has previously been used to directly monitor brain ethanol. It has been proposed that the ethanol methyl 1H resonance intensity is larger in ethanol-tolerant individuals than in sensitive individuals. To characterize the relationship between long-term ethanol exposure and the brain ethanol MRS intensity, we present data from a longitudinal experiment conducted using nonhuman primate subjects. Methods In vivo MRS was used to measure the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) ethanol methyl 1H MRS intensity in 18 adult male rhesus macaques at four time points throughout the course of a chronic drinking experiment. Time points were prior to ethanol drinking, following a 3-month ethanol induction procedure, and following six, and twelve subsequent months of 22-hours/day of “open access” to ethanol (4% w/v) and water. Results The ethanol methyl 1H MRS intensity, which we observed to be independent of age over the range examined, increased with chronic ethanol exposure in GM and WM. In GM, MRS intensity increased from naive-level following the ethanol induction period (90 g/kg cumulative ethanol intake). In WM, MRS intensity was not significantly different from the ethanol-naïve state until after 6 months of 22-hours free access (110–850 g/kg cumulative intake range). The WM MRS intensity in the ethanol-naive state was positively correlated with future drinking, and the increase in WM MRS intensity was negatively correlated with the amount of ethanol consumed throughout the experiment. Conclusions Chronic exposure to ethanol is associated with brain changes that result in differential increases in ethanol MRS intensity in GM and WM. The ethanol-naïve WM MRS intensity pattern is consistent with its previously proposed relationship to innate tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Ethanol-dependent MRS intensity changes in GM required less ethanol exposure than was necessary to produce changes in WM

  1. A rodent model of low- to moderate-dose ethanol consumption during pregnancy: patterns of ethanol consumption and effects on fetal and offspring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Megan E; Zanini, Simone; Ward, Leigh C; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined. Fetal bodyweights and hepatic alcohol-metabolising gene expression were measured on embryonic Day (E) 20 and offspring growth studied until 1 year. At E8 the plasma EtOH concentration was 0.03%. There was little difference in dietary consumption between the two treatment groups. At E20, EtOH-exposed fetuses were significantly lighter than controls and had significantly decreased ADH4 and increased CYP2E1 gene expression. Offspring killed on postnatal Day (PN) 30 did not exhibit any growth deficits. Longitudinal repeated measures of offspring growth demonstrated slower growth in males from EtOH-fed dams between 7 and 12 months of age; a cohort of male pups killed at 8 months of age had a reduced crown-rump length and kidney weight. In conclusion, a liquid diet of 6% v/v EtOH fed to pregnant dams throughout gestation caused a 3-8% reduction in fetal growth and brain sparing, with growth differences observed in male offspring later in life. This model will be useful for future studies on the effects of low-moderate EtOH on the developmental origins of health and disease.

  2. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  3. Maternal ethanol consumption in late gestation : effects on vascular physiology in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Kenna, Kelly Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Sixty percent of Australian women consume ethanol (EtOH) during pregnancy and/or lactation, with 10-15% drinking >2 standard drinks (e.g. >20g EtOH) in one sitting (Colvin et al., 2007). These statistics are concerning as maternal EtOH consumption is associated with detrimental effects in the offspring, the best known being cognitive dysfunction. The developing vascular system is vulnerable to developmental programming, but to date, the effects of fetal EtOH exposure on vascular physiology ar...

  4. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens that are not fully reversed by withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Neves, João; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Cruz, Catarina; Madeira, M Dulce

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and acetylcholine-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seem to play a major role in the rewarding effects of alcohol. This study investigated the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and subsequent withdrawal and the expression of NPY and acetylcholine in the NAc, and the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Rats ingesting an aqueous ethanol solution over 6months and rats subsequently deprived from ethanol during 2months were used to estimate the total number and the somatic volume of NPY and cholinergic interneurons, and the numerical density of cholinergic varicosities in the NAc. The tissue content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and catecholamines were also determined. The number of NPY interneurons increased during alcohol ingestion and returned to control values after withdrawal. Conversely, the number and the size of cholinergic interneurons, and the amount of ChAT were unchanged in ethanol-treated and withdrawn rats, but the density of cholinergic varicosities was reduced by 50% during alcohol consumption and by 64% after withdrawal. The concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine were unchanged both during alcohol consumption and after withdrawal. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats significantly increased the number of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, the size of cholinergic neurons and the density of cholinergic varicosities. Present data show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to long-lasting neuroadaptive changes of the cholinergic innervation of the NAc and suggest that the cholinergic system is a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies in alcoholism and abstinence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol consumption impairs vestibulo-ocular reflex function measured by the video head impulse test and dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas N; Weber, Konrad P; Wettstein, Vincent G; Marks, Guy B; Rosengren, Sally M; Hegemann, Stefan C A

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol affects many parts of the nervous system, from the periphery to higher cognitive functions. Due to the established effects of ethanol on vestibular and oculomotor function, we wished to examine its effect on two new tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): the video head impulse test (vHIT) and dynamic visual acuity (DVA). We tested eight healthy subjects with no history of vestibular disease after consumption of standardized drinks of 40% ethanol. We used a repeated measures design to track vestibular function over multiple rounds of ethanol consumption up to a maximum breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 1.38 per mil. All tests were normal at baseline. VOR gain measured by vHIT decreased by 25% at the highest BrAC level tested in each subject. Catch-up saccades were negligible at baseline and increased in number and size with increasing ethanol consumption (from 0.13° to 1.43° cumulative amplitude per trial). DVA scores increased by 86% indicating a deterioration of acuity, while static visual acuity (SVA) remained unchanged. Ethanol consumption systematically impaired the VOR evoked by high-acceleration head impulses and led to a functional loss of visual acuity during head movement.

  6. Ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the nutritional status of predominantly breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, S; Flores-Huerta, S; Fajardo, A; Hernandez-Beltran, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of ethanol, consumed as a mild fermented beverage called "pulque", during pregnancy and lactation on the food intake and some anthropometric indices of body composition of a group of lactating mothers in a town in central Mexico. Thirty two mothers who drank pulque during pregnancy and lactation and 61 non-drinking women with comparable characteristics were evaluated anthropometrically, their dietary and ethanol intake recorded during a 6-month postpartum period. Energy [(8360 +/- 2997 vs. 7156 +/- 2177 J) and protein (52.7 +/- 20.9 vs. 44.6 +/- 16.1 g)] 24-h intake, height, weight, body mass index, arm muscle and fat areas were greater in drinking mothers than in controls. Average total ethanol consumption varied from 0.48 - 0.55 g-1 kg-1.d-1. Drinking mothers lost weight less frequently. Additional energy provided by pulque might explain such a difference. More precise information about the changes in their body composition and energy balance are in order for confirmation.

  7. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health.

  8. Operant self-administration models for testing the neuropharmacological basis of ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Harry L; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2010-04-01

    Operant self-administration procedures are used to assess the neural basis of ethanol-seeking behavior under a wide range of experimental conditions. In general, rats do not spontaneously self-administer ethanol in pharmacologically meaningful amounts. This unit provides a step-by-step guide for training rats to self-administer quantities of ethanol that produce moderate to high blood-alcohol content. Different protocols are used for rats that are genetically heterogeneous versus rats that are selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Also, these protocols have different sets of advantages and disadvantages in terms of the ability to control for caloric intake and taste of solutions in operant testing. Basic self-administration protocols can also be altered to focus on different aspects of the motivational properties of ethanol (for example, those related to dependence). This unit provides multiple protocols that lead to alcohol intake in rats, which can be pharmacologically probed relative to a variety of control conditions. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Alcohol consumption during adolescence: A link between mitochondrial damage and ethanol brain intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Mira, Rodrigo G; Torres, Angie K; Jara, Claudia; Pérez, María José; Vergara, Erick H; Cerpa, Waldo; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of multiple changes where social behaviors influence interpersonal-relations. Adolescents live new experiences, including alcohol consumption which has become an increasing health problem. The age of onset for consumption has declined in the last decades, and additionally, the adolescents now uptake greater amounts of alcohol per occasion. Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for accidents, mental illnesses or other pathologies, as well as for the appearance of addictions, including alcoholism. An interesting topic to study is the damage that alcohol induces on the central nervous system (CNS) in the young population. The brain undergoes substantial modifications during adolescence, making brain cells more vulnerable to the ethanol toxicity. Over the last years, the brain mitochondria have emerged as a cell organelle which is particularly susceptible to alcohol. Mitochondria suffer severe alterations which can be exacerbated if the amount of alcohol or the exposure time is increased. In this review, we focus on the changes that the adolescent brain undergoes after drinking, placing particular emphasis on mitochondrial damage and their consequences against brain function. Finally, we propose the mitochondria as an important mediator in alcohol toxicity and a potential therapeutic target to reduce or treat brain conditions associated with excessive alcohol consumption. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  11. Voluntary Binge Consumption of Ethanol in a Sweetened, Chocolate-Flavored Solution by Male and Female Adolescent Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia

    2017-03-01

    The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful

  12. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Long-Term Deficits in Attention and Its Underlying Prefrontal Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Emma L; Bignell, Warren; Taylor, Christine L; Bailey, Craig D C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood. We show here that after developmental binge-pattern ethanol exposure, adult mice exhibit impaired performance on the five-choice serial reaction time test for visual attention, with lower accuracy during initial training and a higher rate of omissions under challenging conditions of high attention demand. Whole-cell electrophysiology experiments in these same mice find dysregulated pyramidal neurons in layer VI of the medial prefrontal cortex, which are critical for normal attention performance. Layer VI neurons show decreased intrinsic excitability and increased responses to stimulation of both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors. Moreover, although nicotinic acetylcholine responses correlate with performance on the five-choice task in control mice, these relationships are completely disrupted in mice exposed to ethanol during development. These findings demonstrate a novel outcome of developmental binge-pattern ethanol exposure and suggest that persistent alterations to the function of prefrontal layer VI neurons play an important mechanistic role in attention deficits associated with FASD.

  13. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient...... group, a significant change in median values of portal pressure (-23%, n = 34, P less than 0.005), hepatic blood flow (-22%, n = 28, P less than 0.001), indocyanine green clearance (+16%, n = 29, P less than 0.01), and galactose elimination capacity (+8%, n = 31, P less than 0.05) was observed. However......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...

  14. The efficacy of a low dose combination of topiramate and naltrexone on ethanol reinforcement and consumption in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine F; Protzuk, Omar A; Johnson, Bankole A; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-01-01

    Combined medication approaches, by targeting multiple neurotransmitter systems involved in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), may be more efficacious than single-medication approaches. We examined, in animal models of consumption and reinforcement, the combined effects of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) and topiramate (a GABA/glutamate modulator), two medications that have shown promise for treating AUDs, hypothesizing that their combination would be more efficacious than either alone. The effects of naltrexone and topiramate on ethanol consumption were examined in alcohol preferring (P) rats (N=10) and in rats from their background strain (Wistar, N=9) using conditions that induce high levels of consumption (24-h, 3-bottle, free-choice procedure). Low doses of each medication (1mg/kg, naltrexone; 10mg/kg, topiramate) were selected in an attempt to maximize their combined efficacy while minimizing potential side-effects. Their effects on ethanol reinforcement were assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule in additional groups of (N=22) P rats. A moderate dose of topiramate (20mg/kg) was also included to verify topiramate's efficacy on its own. In P rats, but not in Wistar rats, the combination effectively and persistently reduced consumption; whereas, neither dose alone was effective. The combination and naltrexone alone were equally effective at reducing ethanol reinforcement; however, with the combination, but not naltrexone alone, this effect was selective for ethanol. All treatments produced a similar decrease in home-cage food consumption. The 20mg/kg dose of topiramate also effectively reduced ethanol consumption and reinforcement. With greater efficacy and fewer side-effects, the combination shows promise as a treatment for AUDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  16. Influence of melatonin or its antagonism on alcohol consumption in ethanol drinking rats: a behavioral and in vivo voltammetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco

    2012-05-03

    Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone synthesized in the pinealocytes, has been implicated as influencing the intake of alcohol in rats. It has been shown that this hormone is voltammetrically electroactive at the surface of pretreated carbon fiber microelectrodes in vitro and in vivo, in rat cerebral melatonergic regions such the pineal gland. The aim of this work consisted in the study of the influence of melatonin on spontaneously ethanol drinking or ethanol avoiding rats selected throughout a free choice two bottle test. It appeared that only the water preferring rats were affected by treatment with the hormone and that in vivo voltammetric related levels of melatonin were higher in the pineal gland of ethanol drinking rats versus water preferring rats. In addition, when treated with the melatonin antagonist GR128107 ethanol drinking rats significantly reduced the spontaneous consumption of alcohol. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs, the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC. Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish.

  19. The average ethanol content of beer in the U.S. and individual states: estimates for use in aggregate consumption statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the variation in the ethanol content of beer and specific categories of beer, and to illustrate the importance of accurate assessment of ethanol conversion factors for the calculation of apparent ethanol consumption from beer at the state and national levels in the U.S. Published sources of brand-level ethanol content, national brand share of beer categories and state beer category market shares are utilized to (1) estimate the mean ethanol content of each beer category in the U.S. for 1995 and 2000, (2) calculate per capita apparent consumption of ethanol from beer for 1995 and 2000 and for each state in 2000 and (3) describe trends in ethanol content for specific beer brands during the 1990s. The mean ethanol content of beer in the U.S. is found to increase from 4.33% (by volume) in 1995 to 4.66% in 2000. Using these estimates, per capita ethanol from beer is found to increase from 1.386 gallons in 1995 to 1.468 gallons in 2000. Use of a constant ethanol conversion, however, indicates a decrease. Application of ethanol content estimates to state-level per capita consumption for 2000 changes the relative rankings of 28 states, compared to the use of a constant 4.5% ethanol conversion. Improved ethanol conversion factor estimates are found to influence both time trends and the cross-sectional ranking of states, suggesting that analyses of both cross-sectional and time series aggregate ethanol consumption data that fail to consider variation in the ethanol content of beer may be biased.

  20. Combined Effects of Acamprosate and Escitalopram on Ethanol Consumption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ada Man-Choi; Qiu, Yanyan; Jia, Yun-Fang; Aguiar, Felipe S; Hinton, David J; Karpyak, Victor M; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-07-01

    Major depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatry comorbidities of alcohol use disorders (AUD). As negative emotions can trigger craving and increase the risk of relapse, treatments that target both conditions simultaneously may augment treatment success. Previous studies showed a potential synergistic effect of Food and Drug Administration approved medication for AUD acamprosate and the antidepressant escitalopram. In this study, we investigated the effects of combining acamprosate and escitalopram on ethanol (EtOH) consumption in stress-induced depressed mice. Forty singly housed C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress. In parallel, 40 group-housed male mice were subjected to normal husbandry. After 3 weeks, depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and EtOH consumption were assessed. For the next 7 days, mice were injected with saline, acamprosate (200 mg/kg; twice/d), escitalopram (5 mg/kg; twice/d), or their combination (n = 9 to 11/drug group/stress group). Two-bottle choice limited-access drinking of 15% EtOH and tap water was performed 3 hours into dark phase immediately after the daily dark phase injection. EtOH drinking was monitored for another 7 days without drug administration. Mice subjected to the chronic unpredictable stress paradigm for 3 weeks showed apparent depression- and anxiety-like behaviors compared to their nonstressed counterparts including longer immobility time in the forced swim test and lower sucrose preference. Stressed mice also displayed higher EtOH consumption and preference in a 2-bottle choice drinking test. During the drug administration period, the escitalopram-only and combined drug groups showed significant reduction in EtOH consumption in nonstressed mice, while only the combined drug group showed significantly reduced consumption in stressed mice. However, such reduction did not persist into the postdrug administration period. The combination of acamprosate and escitalopram suppressed

  1. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  2. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  4. Anti-anxiety self-medication in rats: oral consumption of chlordiazepoxide and ethanol after reward devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Lidia; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    Rats increased preference for ethanol after sessions of appetitive extinction, but not after acquisition (reinforced) sessions (Manzo et al., 2014). Drinking was not influenced by appetitive extinction in control groups with postsession access to water, rather than ethanol. Because ethanol has anxiolytic properties in tasks involving reward loss, these results were interpreted as anti-anxiety self-medication. The present experiment tested the potential for self-medication with the prescription anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine with an addictive profile used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats exposed to a 32-to-4% sucrose devaluation received a two-bottle, 2-h preference test immediately after consummatory training. One bottle contained 1 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide, 2% ethanol, or water for different groups (the second bottle contained water for all groups). Three additional groups received the same postsession preference tests, but were exposed to 4% sucrose during consummatory training. Rats showed suppression of consummatory behavior after reward devaluation relative to unshifted controls. This effect was accompanied by a selective increase in preference for chlordiazepoxide and ethanol. Downshifted animals with access to water or unshifted controls with access to the anxiolytics failed to exhibit postsession changes in preference. Similar results were observed in terms of absolute consumption and consumption relative to body weight. This study shows for the first time that a prescription anxiolytic supports enhanced voluntary consumption during periods of emotional distress triggered by reward loss. Such anti-anxiety self-medication provides insights into the early stages of addictive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of an acute consumption of a moderate amount of ethanol on plasma endocannabinoid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerecker, Matthias; Hauer, Daniela; Gresset, Theresa; Lassas, Simone; Kaufmann, Ines; Vogeser, Michael; Briegel, Josef; Hornuss, Cyrill; Choukèr, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Animal experiments have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in the regulation of ethanol intake. We investigated these effects in healthy volunteers who consumed a moderate amount of ethanol (red wine) and measured plasma levels of the endocannabinoids (ECs) anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to test whether alcohol consumption influences the ECS in humans. Grape juice or plain non-sparkling water served as non-alcoholic control liquids. In total, 55 adults were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of three groups drinking either 250 ml of red wine (28.0 g of ethanol, consumption. AEA had its maximal decline at 20 min (from 0.23 ± 0.12 to 0.18 ± 0.07 ng/ml, P consumption of a moderate amount of red wine reduces plasma AEA and 2-AG concentrations, whereas the volume and caloric equivalent of the sugar containing, non-alcoholic liquid grape juice does not affect plasma ECs. Plain water has a differential effect on the ECS by reducing 2-AG concentrations without affecting AEA.

  6. Operant Self-Administration Models for Testing the Neuropharmacological Basis of Ethanol Consumption in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    June, Harry L.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Operant self-administration procedures are used to assess the neural basis of ethanol-seeking behavior under a wide range of experimental conditions. Rats do not spontaneously self-administer ethanol in pharmacologically meaningful amounts. This unit provides a step-by-step guide for training rats to self-administer quantities of ethanol that produce moderate to high blood-alcohol content. Different protocols are used for rats that are genetically heterogeneous versus rats that are selectivel...

  7. Chronic ethanol consumption increases dopamine uptake in the nucleus accumbens of high alcohol drinking rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Michelle R.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Murphy, James M.; Simon, Jay R.

    2006-01-01

    Past research has indicated that chronic ethanol exposure enhances dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several brain regions. The present study examined the effects of chronic ethanol drinking on dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of High-Alcohol-Drinking replicate line 1 (HAD-1) rats. HAD rats were given concurrent 24-hr access to 15% ethanol and water or water alone for 8 weeks. Subsequently, DA uptake and the Vmax of the DAT were compared between the two grou...

  8. Effect Of Caffeine And Ethanol Consumption On the Metabolism Of 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caffeine and ethanol on the metabolism of 5-hydroxy tryptamine in the rat was investigated. Rats were divided into four groups and the first group was fed rat chow with water and an oral administration of 2ml of 1% caffeine. The second group of rats was fed rat chow with 7% ethanol and the third group was fed ...

  9. The novel mu-opioid antagonist, GSK1521498, reduces ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Tamzin L; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Bullmore, Edward T; Mugnaini, Manolo; Maltby, Kay; Miller, Sam R; Wille, David R; Nathan, Pradeep; Stephens, David N

    2015-09-01

    Using the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) model, we compared the effects of a novel mu-opioid receptor antagonist, GSK1521498, with naltrexone, a licensed treatment of alcohol dependence, on ethanol consumption in mice. We test the ability of GSK1521498 to reduce alcohol consumption and compare its intrinsic efficacy to that of naltrexone by comparing the two drugs at doses matched for equivalent receptor occupancy. Thirty-six C57BL/6J mice were tested in a DID procedure. In 2-day cycles, animals experienced one baseline, injection-free session, and one test session when they received two injections, one of test drug and one placebo. All animals received GSK1521498 (0, 0.1, 1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min pre-treatment) and naltrexone (0, 0.1, 1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c. 10 min pre-treatment) in a cross-over design. Receptor occupancies following the same doses were determined ex vivo in separate groups by autoradiography, using [3H]DAMGO. Binding in the region of interest was measured integrally by computer-assisted microdensitometry and corrected for non-specific binding. Both GSK1521498 and naltrexone dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption. When drug doses were matched for 70-75% receptor occupancy, GSK1521498 3 mg/kg, i.p., caused a 2.5-fold greater reduction in alcohol consumption than naltrexone 0.1 mg/kg, s.c. Both GSK1521498 and naltrexone significantly reduced sucrose consumption at a dose of 1 mg/kg but not 0.1 mg/kg. In a test of conditioned taste aversion, GSK1521498 (3 mg/kg) reduced sucrose consumption 24 h following exposure to a conditioning injection. Both opioid receptor antagonists reduced alcohol consumption but GK1521498 has higher intrinsic efficacy than naltrexone.

  10. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster's Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P < 0.05) and combination (P < 0.05) groups, while it had a non-significant decrease in opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P < 0.05) and combination (P < 0.001) groups, as well as this parameter increased in opium group but it was not significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in serum LDL-C among other treatment groups. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol had a significant rise only in ethanol group. Change in aorta histology was not significant. The results showed that consumption of opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment.

  11. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  12. Effects of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation on the outcome and postnatal growth of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Argote, R M; Villalpando, S

    1992-01-01

    Although information about the pregnancy outcome of alcoholic mothers is relatively abundant, no information is available about the effects of ethanol consumption on the infant's postnatal growth. This investigation aims to describe the physical growth of 32 infants born to mothers accustomed to drinking pulque, a mild alcoholic beverage, on a daily basis during pregnancy and lactation and to quantitate the ethanol disposed through the milk, as well as to identify cases of newborns with fetal alcohol syndrome. No full-blown cases of the syndrome were found: birth weight was similar to their non-drinking counterpart, but the relative risk of newborns to drinking mothers to have a low birth weight was 3.39. Ethanol found in milk accounted for 40 mg/day available to the infant. The postnatal growth of infants of ethanol drinkers was similar to that of controls. Further studies on their mental development are required in order to understand the extent of the effects of such a habit.

  13. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  14. Neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 reduces ethanol consumption in part through activation of GLT1 in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y; Sreemantula, S N

    2012-12-27

    We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. GLT1 is a glial glutamate transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We tested in this study the effects of neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propyl (2S)-1-(3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dioxopentyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate), known also to upregulate GLT1 expression, in ethanol intake in P rats. Male P rats had concurrent access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, water, and food for five weeks. On Week 6, P rats continued in this drinking and food regimen and they were administered either 10 or 20mg/kg GPI-1046 (i.p.), or a vehicle for five consecutive days. Body weight, ethanol intake, and water consumption were measured daily for 8 days starting on Day 1 of GPI-1046 or vehicle i.p. injections. We have also tested the effect of GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) on daily sucrose (10%) intake. The data revealed significant dose-dependent effects in the reduction of ethanol intake starting 48 h after the first treatment with GPI-1046 throughout treatment and post-treatment periods. There were also dose-dependent increases in water intake. However, GPI-1046 treatment did not affect the body weight of all animals nor sucrose intake. Importantly, GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level compared to all groups in nucleus accumbens core (NAc-core). Alternatively, GPI-1046 (10mg/kg) upregulated GLT1 level in NAc-core compared to vehicle (ethanol naïve) group. Moreover, both doses of GPI-1046 increased significantly GLT1 level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to ethanol naïve vehicle group. GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level in PFC compared to naïve control group that was exposed to water and food only. These findings demonstrated that neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 attenuates ethanol intake in part through the upregulation of GLT1 in PFC and NAc-core. Copyright © 2012 IBRO

  15. Voluntary ethanol consumption reduces GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) in the amygdala of the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Matthew C; Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A; Morrow, A Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) enhance the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic effects of ethanol and modulate excessive drinking in rodents. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, rat hippocampus and mouse limbic regions. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in limbic brain areas and voluntary ethanol consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of ethanol for 12 months and further examined the relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to ethanol exposure. Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of ethanol consumption followed by free access to ethanol or water for 22 h/day over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in ethanol consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/day over 12 months. Prolonged ethanol consumption reduced cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 13 ± 2 percent (P amygdala and 17 ± 2 percent (P amygdala. The effect of ethanol was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg ≥ 20 percent of days. Consequently, 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity in both the lateral and basolateral amygdala was inversely correlated with average daily ethanol intake (Spearman r = -0.87 and -0.72, respectively, P amygdala. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity following ethanol exposure was also correlated with HPA axis function prior to ethanol exposure. These data indicate that voluntary ethanol drinking reduces amygdala levels of 3α,5α-THP in non-human primates and that amygdala 3α,5α-THP levels may be linked to HPA axis function. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse.

  17. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smolin, Nikolai [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Bhandiwad, Ashwini [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  18. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn M; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-08-16

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  19. Striatal modulation of BDNF expression using microRNA124a-expressing lentiviral vectors impairs ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference and voluntary alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major health, economic and social concern in modern societies, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol addiction remain elusive. Recent findings show that small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) signaling contributes to complex behavioral disorders including drug addiction. However, the role of miRNAs in ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (CPP) and voluntary alcohol consumption has not yet been directly addressed. Here, we assessed the expression profile of miR124a in the dorsal striatum of rats upon ethanol intake. The results show that miR124a was downregulated in the dorso-lateral striatum (DLS) following alcohol drinking. Then, we identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a direct target of miR124a. In fact, BDNF mRNA was upregulated following ethanol drinking. We used lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer technology to further address the role of miR124a and its direct target BDNF in ethanol-induced CPP and alcohol consumption. Results reveal that stereotaxic injection of LV-miR124a in the DLS enhances ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm. Moreover, miR124a-silencer (LV-siR124a) as well as LV-BDNF infusion in the DLS attenuates ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption. Importantly, LV-miR124a, LV-siR124a and LV-BDNF have no effect on saccharin and quinine intake. Our findings indicate that striatal miR124a and BDNF signaling have crucial roles in alcohol consumption and ethanol conditioned reward. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Maternal ethanol consumption alters the epigenotype and the phenotype of offspring in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaminen-Ahola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that exposure to some nutritional supplements and chemicals in utero can affect the epigenome of the developing mouse embryo, resulting in adult disease. Our hypothesis is that epigenetics is also involved in the gestational programming of adult phenotype by alcohol. We have developed a model of gestational ethanol exposure in the mouse based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v ethanol between gestational days 0.5-8.5 and observed changes in the expression of an epigenetically-sensitive allele, Agouti viable yellow (A(vy, in the offspring. We found that exposure to ethanol increases the probability of transcriptional silencing at this locus, resulting in more mice with an agouti-colored coat. As expected, transcriptional silencing correlated with hypermethylation at A(vy. This demonstrates, for the first time, that ethanol can affect adult phenotype by altering the epigenotype of the early embryo. Interestingly, we also detected postnatal growth restriction and craniofacial dysmorphology reminiscent of fetal alcohol syndrome, in congenic a/a siblings of the A(vy mice. These findings suggest that moderate ethanol exposure in utero is capable of inducing changes in the expression of genes other than A(vy, a conclusion supported by our genome-wide analysis of gene expression in these mice. In addition, offspring of female mice given free access to 10% (v/v ethanol for four days per week for ten weeks prior to conception also showed increased transcriptional silencing of the A(vy allele. Our work raises the possibility of a role for epigenetics in the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and it provides a mouse model that will be a useful resource in the continued efforts to understand the consequences of gestational alcohol exposure at the molecular level.

  1. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  2. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption and withdrawal on the neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, G C; Devaud, L L; Mitsuyama, H; Morrow, A L

    1998-12-01

    Prolonged alcohol (ethanol) consumption leads to the development of alcohol tolerance and cross-tolerance to some benzodiazepines and barbiturates. In contrast, rats undergoing alcohol withdrawal are sensitized to the anticonvulsant effects of the endogenous GABA(A) receptor modulator, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP). Alterations in endogenous, cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP during alcohol withdrawal could contribute to the observed sensitization to 3alpha,5alpha-THP. Therefore, this study investigated plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, progesterone, and corticosterone during alcohol dependence and withdrawal in the rat. Plasma corticosterone, progesterone (a precursor of 3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels were unchanged in alcohol-dependent animals. Cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP decreased in dependent male animals, but not in dependent female rats. During alcohol withdrawal, plasma corticosterone and progesterone levels increased in male, but not female rats. However, neither plasma nor cerebral cortical 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels were altered from control levels in male or female rats during alcohol withdrawal. Plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP were markedly higher in female compared with male rats. Cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP during the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle were approximately 4 to 6 ng/g, a concentration that may approach physiological relevance. These findings suggest that sensitization to 3alpha,5alpha-THP during alcohol withdrawal is not mediated by elevations in brain levels of endogenous 3alpha,5alpha-THP in male or female rats. However, elevations in circulating corticosterone and progesterone levels during ethanol withdrawal in male rats may underlie gender differences in allopregnanolone sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal.

  3. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Disrupts the Core Molecular Clock and Diurnal Rhythms of Metabolic Genes in the Liver without Affecting the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiano, Ashley N.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Johnson, Russell; Young, Martin E.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and lipid biosynthesis, facilitating the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many of these same metabolic pathways are directly regulated by cell autonomous circadian clocks, and recent studies suggest that disruption of daily rhythms in metabolism contributes to multiple common cardiometabolic diseases (including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). However, it is not known whether ethanol disrupts the core molecular clock in the liver, nor whether this, in turn, alters rhythms in lipid metabolism. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption disrupts the molecular circadian clock in the liver and potentially changes the diurnal expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes. Consistent with previous studies, male C57BL/6J mice fed an ethanol-containing diet exhibited higher levels of liver triglycerides compared to control mice, indicating hepatic steatosis. Further, the diurnal oscillations of core clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, and Per2) and clock-controlled genes (Dbp, Hlf, Nocturnin, Npas2, Rev-erbα, and Tef) were altered in livers from ethanol-fed mice. In contrast, ethanol had only minor effects on the expression of core clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These results were confirmed in Per2Luciferase knock-in mice, in which ethanol induced a phase advance in PER2::LUC bioluminescence oscillations in liver, but not SCN. Further, there was greater variability in the phase of PER2::LUC oscillations in livers from ethanol-fed mice. Ethanol consumption also affected the diurnal oscillations of metabolic genes, including Adh1, Cpt1a, Cyp2e1, Pck1, Pdk4, Ppargc1a, Ppargc1b and Srebp1c, in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. In summary, chronic ethanol consumption alters the function of the circadian clock in liver. Importantly, these results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption, at levels sufficient to cause steatosis

  4. A mouse model for chronic pain-induced increase in ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ryan K; Knapp, Darin J; Ulici, Veronica; Longobardi, Lara; Loeser, Richard F; Breese, George R

    2017-03-01

    Chronic pain conditions are often comorbid with alcohol abuse. "Self-medication" with alcohol introduces a host of problems associated with the abuse of alcohol which over time has the potential of exacerbating the painful condition. Despite the prevalence of chronic pain being associated with alcohol abuse, rodent models which mimic the comorbid conditions are lacking. In this study, we model osteoarthritis (OA) in C57BL/6J mice by surgically destabilizing the medial meniscus (DMM). Sham-operated mice served as controls. Thirteen weeks after surgery, DMM but not sham-operated mice exhibited pronounced incapacitance of the surgically manipulated hind limb compared with the nonsurgically manipulated hind limb. At this time, the mice were exposed to the 2-bottle ethanol choice, beginning with 2.5% with a gradual increasing to 20%. Compared with sham controls, DMM mice consumed more EtOH and preferred EtOH over water at the 20% EtOH concentration. Histological analysis verified that the DMM mice exhibited significant damage to the articular cartilage and osteophyte growth compared with sham controls and these measures of the severity of OA correlated with the amount of ethanol intake. Thus, the combination of the DMM model of OA with the enhanced two-bottle ethanol choice is a potential preclinical approach in mice by which the basis of the comorbid association of alcohol abuse and chronic pain conditions can be explored.

  5. Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor α1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Trudell, James R; Benavidez, Jillian M; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron

    2013-02-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs.

  6. Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

  7. Assessment of the effects of six standard rodent diets on binge-like and voluntary ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S. Alex; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Harrison, Langston K.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Herfel, Tina M.; Thiele, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years much attention has been given to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research, particularly in pre-clinical animal studies. This is a problem that also plagues the alcohol research field, particularly in consistent consumption in animal models of alcohol use disorders. One often overlooked factor that could affect reproducibility is the maintenance diet used in pre-clinical studies. Methods Herein, two well-established models of alcohol consumption, the “drinking in the dark” (DID) procedure and the continuous two-bottle choice paradigm (C2BC), were employed to determine the effects of diet on ethanol consumption. Male C57BL/6J were given one of six standard rodent-chow diets obtained from Purina LabDiet®, Inc. [St. Louis, MO; Prolab® RMH 3000] or Harlan Laboratories Inc. [Indianapolis, IN; Teklad Diets T.2916, T.2918, T.2920X, T.7912, or T.8940]. A separate group of animals were used to test dietary effects on ethanol pharmacokinetics and behavioral measures following intraperitoneal (IP) injections of various doses of ethanol. Results Mice eating Harlan diets T.2916 (H2916) and T.2920X (H2920) consumed significantly less ethanol and exhibited lower blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during DID; however, during C2BC animals maintained on Harlan T.7912 (H7912) consumed more ethanol and had a higher ethanol preference than the other diet groups. Ethanol consumption levels did not stem from changes in alcohol pharmacokinetics, as a separate group of animals administered ethanol IP showed no difference in BECs. However, animals on Harlan diet T.2920X (H2920) were more sensitive to alcohol-induced locomotor activity in an open-field task. No diet dependent differences were seen in alcohol-induced sedation as measured with loss of righting reflex. Conclusions Although these data do not identify a specific mechanism, together they clearly show that the maintenance diet impacts ethanol consumption. It is incumbent upon the research

  8. Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment parameters on the sugar release, ozone consumption and ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    A L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) experimental design was applied to study the four parameters considered most important in the ozonolysis pretreatment (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Statistical analysis highlighted ozone concentration as the highest influence parameter on reaction time and sugars release after enzymatic hydrolysis. The increase on reaction time when decreasing the ozone/oxygen flow resulted in small differences of ozone consumptions. Design optimization for sugars release provided a parameters combination close to the best experimental run, where 77.55% and 56.95% of glucose and xylose yields were obtained, respectively. When optimizing the grams of sugar released by gram of ozone, the highest influence parameter was moisture content, with a maximum yield of 2.98gSUGARS/gO3. In experiments on hydrolysates fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided ethanol yields around 80%, while Pichia stipitis was completely inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  10. Ethanol increases p190RhoGAP activity, leading to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Javier; Egea, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    We previously reported that cells chronically exposed to ethanol show alterations in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in primary cultures of newborn rat astrocytes, a well-established in vitro model for foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These alterations were attributed to a decrease in the cellular levels of active RhoA (RhoA-GTP), which in turn was produced by an increase in the total RhoGAP activity. We here provide evidence that p190RhoGAPs are the main factors responsible for such increase. Thus, in astrocytes chronically exposed to ethanol we observe: (i) an increase in p190A- and p190B-associated RhoGAP activity; (ii) a higher binding of p190A and p190B to RhoA-GTP; (iii) a higher p120RasGAP-p190A RhoGAP complex formation; and (iv) the recruitment of both p190RhoGAPs to the plasma membrane. The simultaneous silencing of both p190 isoforms prevents the actin rearrangements and the total RhoGAP activity increase triggered both by ethanol. Therefore, our data directly points p190RhoGAPs as ethanol-exposure molecular targets on glial cells of the CNS. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator “uPA” activity alters ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Maamari E

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elyazia Al Maamari,* Mouza Al Ameri, Shamma Al Mansouri, Amine Bahi*Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA, is a serine protease implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Using its specific inhibitor, B428, we and others have characterized the role of uPA in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, but none have examined the role of uPA in ethanol use disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we extended our observations to the role of uPA in ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. The general aim of the present series of experiments was to investigate the effects of the administration of the B428 on voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol conditioned reward. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol intake between vehicle- and 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg B428-administered mice. For this purpose, the mice were presented with an ethanol solution (2.5%–20% and water, at each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was also measured. Systemic administration of B428 dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake and preference. Additionally, B428 mice did not differ from vehicle mice in their intake of graded solutions of tastants, suggesting that the uPA inhibition did not alter taste function. Also, ethanol metabolism was not affected following B428 injection. More importantly, 1.5 g/kg ethanol-induced conditioned place preference acquisition was blocked following B428 administration. Taken together, our results are the first to implicate uPA inhibition in the regulation of ethanol consumption and preference, and suggest that uPA may be considered as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and

  12. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  13. Is the rodent maternal separation model a valid and effective model for studies on the early-life impact on ethanol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2013-10-01

    Early-life events can cause long-term neurobiological and behavioural changes with a resultant effect upon reward and addiction processes that enhance risk to develop alcohol use disorders. Maternal separation (MS) is used to study the mediating mechanisms of early-life influences in rodents. In MS studies, the pups are exposed to maternal absence during the first postnatal weeks. The outcome of MS experiments exhibits considerable variation and questions have been raised about the validity of MS models. This short review aims to provide information about experimental conditions that are important to consider when assessing the impact of early-life environment on voluntary ethanol consumption. The results from currently used MS protocols are not uniform. However, studies consistently show that longer separations of intact litters predispose for higher ethanol consumption and/or preference in adult male rats as compared to shorter periods of MS. Studies using individual pup MS paradigms, other controls, low ethanol concentrations, adult females or examining adolescent consumption reported no differences or inconsistent results. There is no "a rodent MS model", there are several models and they generate different results. The compiled literature shows that MS is a model of choice for analysis of early-life effects on voluntary ethanol consumption but there are examples of MS paradigms that are not suitable. These studies emphasize the importance to carefully designed MS experiments to supply the optimal conditions to definitely test the research hypothesis and to be particulate in the interpretation of the outcome.

  14. The effect of low-to-moderate-dose ethanol consumption on rat mammary gland structure and function and early postnatal growth of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Megan E; Lock, Emma-Kate; Anderson, Stephen T; Walton, Sarah; Bertram, John F; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M

    2013-05-15

    High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to growth deficits in early postnatal life. However, the effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy are less clearly defined. The aim of this study was to determine whether low-to-moderate ethanol (EtOH) consumption throughout pregnancy in the rat alters maternal mammary gland morphology and milk protein levels, thereby affecting lactation and the growth of pups after birth. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an ad libitum liquid diet ± 6% vol/vol EtOH throughout pregnancy. Mammary glands from dams were collected at embryonic day (E) 20 or postnatal day (PN) 1, and expression of milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-casein, and whey acidic protein) was examined. In addition, relative amounts of alveoli, lactiferous ducts, adipose tissue, and blood vessels were determined at PN1. A subset of rats gave birth, and offspring growth and milk intake were recorded. Mammary gland weight was unaltered by EtOH, and stereological analysis showed no differences in gland structure compared with control. Although there were no significant changes in mammary gland gene expression at the RNA level, protein levels of α-lactalbumin were increased and whey acidic protein were decreased by EtOH. Offspring of EtOH-fed dams consumed less milk than controls in the lactational period; however, this did not alter their early postnatal growth. Overall, it appears that low-to-moderate-dose prenatal EtOH exposure does not significantly alter mammary gland development but may alter the composition of the various proteins found within the milk in a manner that maintains overall pup growth.

  15. ANN modeling of water consumption in the lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali [Department of Chemistry, Payame-Noor University of Sirjan, Sirjan (Iran); Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran); Karami, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Payame-Noor University of Abhar, Abhar (Iran); Mahdipour, Maryam [Department of Chemistry, Payame-Noor University of Sirjan, Sirjan (Iran); R and D Center, Sepahan Battery Industrial Complex, Oshtorjan Industrial Zone, Isfahan (Iran)

    2007-10-25

    Due to importance of the quantity of water loss in the life cycle of lead-acid batteries, water consumption tests were performed on 72 lead-acid batteries with low antimony grid alloy at different charge voltages and temperatures. Weight loss of batteries was measured during a period of 10 days. The behavior of batteries in different charge voltages and temperatures were modeled by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using MATLAB 7 media. Four temperatures were used in the training set, out of which three were used in prediction set and one in validation set. The network was trained by training and prediction data sets, and then was used for predicting water consumption in all three temperatures of prediction set. Finally, the network obtained was verified while being used in predicting water loss in defined temperatures of validation set. To achieve a better evaluation of the model ability, three models with different validation temperatures were used (model 1 = 50 C, model 2 = 60 C and model 3 = 70 C). There was a good agreement between predicted and experimental results at prediction and validation sets for all the models. Mean prediction errors in modeling charge voltage-temperature-time behavior in the water consumption quantity for models 1-3 were below 0.99%, 0.03%, and 0.76%, respectively. The model can be simply used by inexpert operators working in lead-acid battery industry. (author)

  16. ANN modeling of water consumption in the lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Karami, Hassan; Mahdipour, Maryam

    Due to importance of the quantity of water loss in the life cycle of lead-acid batteries, water consumption tests were performed on 72 lead-acid batteries with low antimony grid alloy at different charge voltages and temperatures. Weight loss of batteries was measured during a period of 10 days. The behavior of batteries in different charge voltages and temperatures were modeled by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using MATLAB 7 media. Four temperatures were used in the training set, out of which three were used in prediction set and one in validation set. The network was trained by training and prediction data sets, and then was used for predicting water consumption in all three temperatures of prediction set. Finally, the network obtained was verified while being used in predicting water loss in defined temperatures of validation set. To achieve a better evaluation of the model ability, three models with different validation temperatures were used (model 1 = 50 °C, model 2 = 60 °C and model 3 = 70 °C). There was a good agreement between predicted and experimental results at prediction and validation sets for all the models. Mean prediction errors in modeling charge voltage-temperature-time behavior in the water consumption quantity for models 1-3 were below 0.99%, 0.03%, and 0.76%, respectively. The model can be simply used by inexpert operators working in lead-acid battery industry.

  17. Hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor leads to intragastric microbial production of acetaldehyde from ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väkeväinen, S; Tillonen, J; Salaspuro, M; Jousimies-Somer, H; Nuutinen, H; Färkkilä, M

    2000-11-01

    Acetaldehyde, produced locally in the digestive tract, has recently been shown to be carcinogenic in humans. To examine the effect of iatrogenic hypochlorhydria on intragastric acetaldehyde production from ethanol after a moderate dose of alcohol, and to relate the findings to the changes in gastric flora. Eight male volunteers ingested ethanol 0.6 g/kg b.w. The pH, acetaldehyde level and microbial counts of the gastric juice were then determined. The experiment was repeated after 7 days of lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) pH of the gastric juice was 1.3 +/- 0.06 and 6.1 +/- 0.5 (P hypochlorhydria, which associates with intragastric overgrowth of aerobic bacteria and microbially-mediated acetaldehyde production from ethanol. Since acetaldehyde is a local carcinogen in the concentrations found in this study, long-term use of gastric acid secretory inhibitors is a potential risk-factor for gastric and cardiac cancers.

  18. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  19. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from cadmium, and from <0.01 to 1.44 with an average value of 0.72 for lead. The results indicate that canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  1. Voluntary exercise decreases ethanol preference and consumption in C57BL/6 adolescent mice: sex differences and hippocampal BDNF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, X; Cox, R J; Funk, E; Foster, R A; Ehringer, M A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance traveled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance traveled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  3. Interactions of a Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist with Glutamate NMDA Receptor Antagonists on the Volitional Consumption of Ethanol by the mHEP Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Williams

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of the dopamine D1 receptor is reported to cause the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at the thre34 position and activates the protein. If intracellular Ca2+ is increased, such as after activation of the glutamate NMDA receptor, calcineurin activity increases and the phosphates will be removed. This balance of phosphorylation control suggests that a D1 receptor agonist and a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist should have additive or synergistic actions to increase activated DARPP-32 and consequent behavioral effects. This hypothesis was tested in a volitional consumption of ethanol model: the selectively bred Myers’ high ethanol preferring (mHEP rat. A 3-day baseline period was followed by 3-days of twice daily injections of drug(s or vehicle(s and then a 3-day post-treatment period. Vehicle, the D1 agonist SKF 38393, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, or their combination were injected 2 h before and after lights out. The combination of 5.0 mg/kg SKF 38393 with either 3.0 or 10 mg/kg memantine did not produce an additive or synergistic effect. For example, 5.0 mg/kg SKF reduced consumption of ethanol by 27.3% and 10 mg/kg memantine by 39.8%. When combined, consumption declined by 48.2% and the proportion of ethanol solution to total fluids consumed declined by 17%. However, the consumption of food also declined by 36.6%. The latter result indicates that this dose combination had a non-specific effect. The combination of SKF 38393 with (+-MK-801, another NMDA receptor antagonist, also failed to show an additive effect. The lack of additivity and specificity suggests that the hypothesis may not be correct for this in vivo model.  The interaction of these different receptor systems with intraneuronal signaling and behaviors needs to be studied further.

  4. Beneficial effects of ethanol consumption on insulin resistance are only applicable to subjects without obesity or insulin resistance; drinking is not necessarily a remedy for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hirokazu

    2011-07-01

    Although moderate drinking has been shown to lower insulin resistance levels, it is still unclear whether alcoholic beverages could be remedies for insulin resistance. To elucidate this, the correlation between levels of ethanol consumption and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally examined in 371 non-diabetic male Japanese workers. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the ethanol consumption level was inversely correlated with the insulin resistance level assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0014), the serum insulin level (p = 0.0007), and pancreatic β-cell function, also assessed by HOMA (HOMA-β, p = 0.0002), independently from age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure, liver function tests, and lipid profiles status, as well as serum adiponectin. The correlations were true in subjects with normal BMIs (up to 25.0 kg/m(2), n = 301) or normal HOMA-IR (up to 2.0 μIU·mg/μL·dL n = 337), whereas all of them were non-significant in those with excessive BMIs (n = 70) or in those with HOMA-IR of more than 2.0 (n = 34). Although it is still unclear whether the reductions of these parameters by ethanol consumption are truly due to the improvement of insulin resistance, at least, these effects are not applicable to subjects with obesity and/or insulin resistance. Thus, alcoholic beverages could not be remedies for insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome.

  5. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  6. Stress abolishes the effect of previous chronic ethanol consumption on drug place preference and on the mesocorticolimbic brain pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Silva, Daniel; Morais-Silva, Gessynger; Fernandes-Santos, Juliana; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Marin, Marcelo T

    2014-05-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) to ethanol (EtOH) is an important addiction-related alteration thought to be mediated by changed neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic brain pathway. Stress is a factor of major importance for the initiation, maintenance, and reinstatement of drug abuse and modulates the neurochemical outcomes of drugs. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concomitant exposure to chronic EtOH and stress on CPP to this drug and alterations of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in mice. Male Swiss mice were chronically treated with EtOH via a liquid diet and were exposed to forced swimming stress. After treatment, animals were evaluated for conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement of CPP to EtOH. Also, mice exposed to the same treatment protocol had their prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and amygdala dissected for the quantitation of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites content. Data showed that previous chronic exposure to EtOH potentiated EtOH conditioning and increased dopaminergic turnover in PFC. Exposure to stress potentiated EtOH conditioning and decreased dopaminergic turnover in the NAc. However, animals exposed to both chronic EtOH and stress did not display alterations of CPP and showed an elevated content of dopamine in amygdala. No treatment yielded serotonergic changes. The present study indicates that previous EtOH consumption as well as stress exposure induces increased EtOH conditioning, which can be related to dopaminergic alterations in the PFC or NAc. Interestingly, concomitant exposure to both stimuli abolished each other's effect on conditioning and PFC or NAc alterations. This protective outcome can be related to the dopaminergic increase in the amygdala. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Non-Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonist Hemantane Reduces Ethanol Consumption in Long-Term Alcohol Experienced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolik, L G; Nadorova, A V; Seredenin, S B

    2017-12-01

    Activity of hemantane, an amino adamantane derivative, exhibiting the properties of lowaffinity non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, was evaluated in experimental in vivo models of alcoholism. Hemantane had no effects on the formation and manifestation of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in DBA/2 mice. Under conditions of free choice between 10% ethanol and water, hemantane (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days, intraperitoneally) significantly reduced the daily ethanol intake in random-bred male rats with formed alcohol motivation (>4 g/kg of ethanol). During modelling of withdrawal syndrome, hemantane administered intraperitoneally in doses of 5-20 mg/kg dose-dependently attenuated alcohol-deprivation effect after acute withdrawal with no effects on protracted abstinence. It was found that hemantane suppressed alcohol drinking behavior in long-term ethanol experienced rats and attenuated alcohol-seeking behavior after acute withdrawal.

  8. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  9. Enhanced deficits in long-term potentiation in the adult dentate gyrus with 2nd trimester ethanol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Helfer

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1(st or 3(rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2(nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  10. Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Leads to Stimulus-Specific Changes in Cytokine Reactivity and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Sensitivity in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Vore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent alcohol use comprises a significant public health concern and is often characterized by binge-like consumption patterns. While ethanol exposure in adulthood has been shown to alter the stress response, including the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal (HPA axis, few studies have examined whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence results in enduring changes in HPA axis sensitivity in adulthood. In the present studies, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were given intragastric (i.g. intubations of ethanol (4 g/kg or vehicle once per day for three consecutive days, beginning on postnatal day (P 30 (±1. This exposure was followed by a 2-day period of rest/withdrawal. Rats received a total of either two (Experiments 1, 2 and 3 or four (Experiment 4 cycles of ethanol exposure and were subsequently allowed to age normally until adulthood. In Experiment 1, adult, (P71–75, ethanol- or vehicle-exposed rats received a 60 min restraint stress challenge. In Experiment 2, rats received a 50 μg/kg injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In Experiment 3, rats received a challenge of 2.5 g/kg ethanol (intraperitoneally; i.p.. In Experiment 4, male and female ethanol- or vehicle- exposed rats received a 50 μg/kg injection of LPS. In all experiments, blood samples were collected for later assessment of corticosterone (CORT, blood ethanol concentrations (BECs, and the cellular fraction of blood was analyzed for cytokine gene expression. As expected, all three challenges led to a time-dependent surge in CORT. Gene expression analyses of cytokines (Interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα] from the cellular fraction of blood revealed unique, time-dependent patterns of cytokine expression depending upon the nature of the adult challenge incurred (restraint, LPS, or EtOH. Importantly, adolescent ethanol exposure led to attenuated restraint and LPS-induced cytokine expression in males, whereas female rats displayed an

  11. Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Leads to Stimulus-Specific Changes in Cytokine Reactivity and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Sensitivity in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vore, Andrew S; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara; Gano, Anny; Deak, Terrence

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use comprises a significant public health concern and is often characterized by binge-like consumption patterns. While ethanol exposure in adulthood has been shown to alter the stress response, including the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, few studies have examined whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence results in enduring changes in HPA axis sensitivity in adulthood. In the present studies, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were given intragastric (i.g.) intubations of ethanol (4 g/kg) or vehicle once per day for three consecutive days, beginning on postnatal day (P) 30 (±1). This exposure was followed by a 2-day period of rest/withdrawal. Rats received a total of either two (Experiments 1, 2 and 3) or four (Experiment 4) cycles of ethanol exposure and were subsequently allowed to age normally until adulthood. In Experiment 1, adult, (P71-75), ethanol- or vehicle-exposed rats received a 60 min restraint stress challenge. In Experiment 2, rats received a 50 μg/kg injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Experiment 3, rats received a challenge of 2.5 g/kg ethanol (intraperitoneally; i.p.). In Experiment 4, male and female ethanol- or vehicle- exposed rats received a 50 μg/kg injection of LPS. In all experiments, blood samples were collected for later assessment of corticosterone (CORT), blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), and the cellular fraction of blood was analyzed for cytokine gene expression. As expected, all three challenges led to a time-dependent surge in CORT. Gene expression analyses of cytokines (Interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) from the cellular fraction of blood revealed unique, time-dependent patterns of cytokine expression depending upon the nature of the adult challenge incurred (restraint, LPS, or EtOH). Importantly, adolescent ethanol exposure led to attenuated restraint and LPS-induced cytokine expression in males, whereas female rats displayed an absence of

  12. Concomitant Caffeine Increases Binge Consumption of Ethanol in Adolescent and Adult Mice, But Produces Additive Motor Stimulation Only in Adolescent Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Quoilin, Caroline; Kasten, Chelsea R; Smoker, Michael; Boehm, Stephen L

    2016-06-01

    Binge co-consumption of highly caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) has become a common practice among adolescents/young adults and has been associated with an increased incidence of hazardous behaviors. Animal models are critical in advancing our understanding the neurobehavioral consequences of this form of binge drinking. Surprisingly, virtually no work has explored caffeine and EtOH co-consumption or its long-term consequences in adolescent animals. The primary objective of the current study was to extend a previously established mouse model of voluntary binge caffeine and EtOH co-consumption to explore adolescent consumption and responses compared to adults. Adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice had daily limited access to caffeine (0.03% w/v), EtOH (20% v/v), a combined EtOH/caffeine solution, or water for 14 days via the binge-like drinking paradigm, drinking-in-the-dark (DID). Home cage locomotor activity was measured during DID in a subset of mice. Following DID, all mice rested for 18 days so that adolescents reached adulthood, whereupon all mice underwent 7 days of continuous access 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% (v/v) EtOH or water. Co-consumption with caffeine significantly increased EtOH intake and resultant blood ethanol concentrations in both adolescent and adult mice. In addition, adolescent mice exhibited a uniquely robust locomotor stimulant response to caffeine and EtOH co-consumption. Later EtOH intake and preference was not influenced, however, by prior fluid consumption history via DID. Together with findings from the human literature, our results suggest that caffeine co-consumption may positively influence binge alcohol consumption in adolescents/young adults. Importantly, this age group may be particularly sensitive to the additive stimulant effects of caffeinated alcohol consumption, an effect which may be related to the high incidence of associated negative outcomes in this population. These observations are

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Effects of MS-153 on chronic ethanol consumption and GLT1 modulation of glutamate levels in male alcohol-preferring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan eAlhaddad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1 in the brain is associated in part with reduction in ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P male rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of a synthetic compound, (R-(−-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153, known to activate GLT1 on ethanol consumption as well as GLT1 expression and certain signaling pathways in P rats. P rats were given 24-hour concurrent access to 15% and 30% ethanol, water and food for five weeks. On week 6, P rats received MS-153 at a dose of 50 mg/kg (i.p. or a vehicle (i.p. for five consecutive days. We also tested the effect of MS-153 on daily sucrose (10% intake. Our studies revealed a significant decrease in ethanol intake at the dose of 50 mg/kg MS-153 from Day 1 through Day 14. In addition, MS-153 at dose of 50 mg/kg did not induce any significant effect on sucrose intake. Importantly, we found that MS-153 upregulated the GLT1 level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc but not in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. In accordance, we found upregulation of nuclear NFkB-65 level in NAc in MS-153-treated group, however, IkB was downregulated in MS-153-treated group in NAc. We did not find any changes in NFkB-65 and IkB levels in PFC. Interestingly, we revealed that p-Akt was downregulated in ethanol vehicle treated groups in the NAc; this downregulation was reversed by MS-153 treatment. We did not observe any significant differences in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST expression among all groups. These findings reveal MS-153 as a GLT1 modulator that may have potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  15. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  16. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein on chronic ethanol consumption-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Wook; Kim, In-Hye; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) against chronic ethanol consumption‑mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20; 6 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in each group were treated for 30 days with the following: i) CON group, distilled water only; ii) EtOH group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW; iii) EtOH+150 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 150 mg/kg/BW; iv) EtOH+300 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 300 mg/kg/BW. EtOH, PYGP and water were orally administered. The rats were sacrificed after 30 days, and blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Treatment with ethanol caused significant elevation of serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Furthermore, inhibition of the antioxidant defense system in the liver, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑px) and catalase (CAT) was observed. However, co‑administration with PYGP recovered the antioxidant defense system, and the serum levels of GOT and GPT. PYGP was shown to attenuate ethanol toxicity via the inactivation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAKPs). PYGP suppressed the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‑2. These results suggested that the protective effect of PYGP was associated with antioxidant activities, MAPKs and the CYP2E1 signaling pathway.

  18. Retrospective Investigation of a Lead Poisoning Outbreak from the Consumption of an Ayurvedic Medicine: Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mathee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic medicines have been gaining in popularity around the world in recent decades, but have also been associated with lead contamination and poisoning. In 2012 in Durban, South Africa, a lead poisoning outbreak among adolescents was associated with the consumption of an Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of skin conditions. In 2014 eight individuals (out of 12 affected were traced and interviewed. Questionnaires were administered; blood samples were taken for lead content analysis; and medical records were reviewed. Samples of the implicated medicines were analyzed to determine lead levels. Blood lead levels during the acute phase ranged from 34 to 116 µg/dL; and during the current study (two years later from 13 to 34 µg/dL. The implicated lead capsules had a lead content of 125,235 µg/g. Participants suffered a wide range of non-specific ill health symptoms; and there was a significant delay in the diagnosis of lead poisoning. This study highlights the potential for lead poisoning outbreaks from the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines in African settings. There were weaknesses with regard to the diagnosis of and response to the outbreak, for which measures need to be put in place to ensure greater awareness of the role of Ayurvedic medicine in lead poisoning, and prompt diagnosis and treatment of future cases.

  19. Retrospective Investigation of a Lead Poisoning Outbreak from the Consumption of an Ayurvedic Medicine: Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Angela; Naicker, Nisha; Teare, June

    2015-07-10

    Ayurvedic medicines have been gaining in popularity around the world in recent decades, but have also been associated with lead contamination and poisoning. In 2012 in Durban, South Africa, a lead poisoning outbreak among adolescents was associated with the consumption of an Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of skin conditions. In 2014 eight individuals (out of 12 affected) were traced and interviewed. Questionnaires were administered; blood samples were taken for lead content analysis; and medical records were reviewed. Samples of the implicated medicines were analyzed to determine lead levels. Blood lead levels during the acute phase ranged from 34 to 116 µg/dL; and during the current study (two years later) from 13 to 34 µg/dL. The implicated lead capsules had a lead content of 125,235 µg/g. Participants suffered a wide range of non-specific ill health symptoms; and there was a significant delay in the diagnosis of lead poisoning. This study highlights the potential for lead poisoning outbreaks from the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines in African settings. There were weaknesses with regard to the diagnosis of and response to the outbreak, for which measures need to be put in place to ensure greater awareness of the role of Ayurvedic medicine in lead poisoning, and prompt diagnosis and treatment of future cases.

  20. Influence of the novel histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ST1283 on voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Schwed, Stephan J; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for the central histaminergic system to have a modulatory influence on drug addiction in general and alcohol-use disorders in particular through histamine H3 receptors (H3R). In the present study, the effects of systemic injection of the newly synthesized H3R antagonist ST1283 on ethanol (EtOH) voluntary intake and EtOH-conditioned reward in mice have been investigated. Oral EtOH, saccharin, and quinine intake was assessed in a two-bottle choice paradigm using escalating concentrations of alcohol or tastant solutions. EtOH-induced place preference (CPP), EtOH-induced locomotor activity, and blood ethanol concentration (BEC) were also measured. Following administration of the H3R antagonist (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in alcohol consumption and preference. Importantly, vehicle- and ST1283 (5 mg/kg)-treated mice showed similar consumption and preference to increasing concentration of both sweet and bitter tastes. More interestingly, systemic administration of ST1283 inhibited EtOH-CPP and EtOH-enhanced locomotion. This inhibition was blocked when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(alpha)-methyl-histamine (10 mg/kg). Finally, vehicle- and ST1283-treated mice had similar BECs. Our results show that ST1283 may decrease voluntary EtOH consumption and EtOH-CPP by altering its reinforcing effects, suggesting a novel role for histamine signaling in regulation of alcoholism. Lastly, the results add to the growing literature on H3R modulation in the pharmacotherapy of EtOH addiction.

  1. An immune response in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris leads to increased food consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallon Eamonn B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of a costly immune system that must be traded off against other important physiological systems is fundamental to the burgeoning field of ecological immunity. Bumblebees have become one of the central models in this field. Although previous work has demonstrated costs of immunity in numerous life history traits, estimates of the more direct costs of bumblebee immunity have yet to be made. Results Here we show a 7.5% increase in energy consumption in response to non-pathogenic immune stimulation. Conclusion This increase in energy consumption along with other results suggests that immunity is one of the most important physiological systems, with other systems being sacrificed for its continuing efficiency. This increased consumption and maintained activity contrasts with the sickness-induced anorexia and reduced activity found in vertebrates.

  2. The genetic relationships between ethanol preference, acute ethanol sensitivity, and ethanol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devineni, Anita V; McClure, Kimberly; Guarnieri, Douglas; Corl, Ammon; Wolf, Frederick; Eddison, Mark; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    .... However, many conflicting results have been observed. To complement these studies, we utilized a different organism and approach to analyze the relationship between ethanol consumption and other ethanol responses...

  3. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  4. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  5. Ethyl glucuronide in human hair after daily consumption of 16 or 32 g of ethanol for 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstrand, Robert; Brinkhagen, Linda; Nyström, Fredrik H

    2012-02-10

    The overall objectives of the study were to develop a sensitive method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination in hair and then investigate if a low or moderate intake of ethanol could be differentiated from total abstinence. Forty-four subjects were included in the study, 12 males (7 drinkers and 5 abstinent) and 32 females (14 drinkers and 18 abstinent). The study lasted 3 months and the female drinkers consumed one glass (16 g of ethanol) and the males consumed two glasses (32 g of ethanol) of wine (13.5-14%) daily. Hair samples were collected as close as possible above the skin and the proximal 2 cm were analyzed for EtG. Hair was cut into pieces of about 0.5 cm length and washed before incubation overnight in water and then extracted on Clean Screen EtG Carbon columns. The LC/MS/MS system consisted of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC connected to an API 4000 triple quadrupole instrument. Two transitions for EtG and one for the internal standard EtG-D(5) were measured. The method was linear from 60 to 10,000 pg/sample. Imprecision studies were performed at three levels as well as with an authentic sample. Total imprecision was 16% at 200 pg/sample, 8% at 1000 pg/sample, 6% at 8000 pg/sample and 13% at 29 pg/mg in the authentic sample. Of those who drank two glasses of wine every day, four had measurable amounts of EtG in their hair (5-11 pg/mg), and in only one of the females drinking one glass of wine EtG was quantified (3 pg/mg). Among the 23 abstinent subjects two had traces of EtG in the hair. We conclude that persons who ingested 16 or 32 g of ethanol daily for 3 months presented with low concentrations of EtG in hair, well below the proposed threshold for overconsumption set at 30 pg/mg. In addition, none of those who ingested 16 g/day had concentrations over the proposed abstinence threshold of 7 pg/mg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vegetable Oils Consumption as One of the Leading Cause of Cancer and Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This review takes a deep look at increases in the incidence of cancer and heart disease after the introduction of industrial vegetable oils in the world. Most vegetable oils are highly processed and refined products, which completely lack the essential nutrients. Omega-6 Linoleic acid from vegetable oils increases oxidative stress in the body of humans, contributing to endothelial dysfunction and heart disease. The consumption of these harmful oils which are high in mega-6 polyunsaturated fat...

  7. Elevated blood lead levels associated with the consumption of moonshine among emergency department patients in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent W; Barnes, Lauren; Parramore, Constance S; Kaufmann, Rachel B

    2003-09-01

    In February and March 2000, 4 adult emergency care patients were identified with potentially lethal lead toxicity at Grady Memorial Hospital, an urban Atlanta, GA, hospital. All were moonshine drinkers, prompting concern that lead exposure from moonshine was underrecognized in this setting. We conducted a 2-phased, nested, cross-sectional study throughout a 14-day period in the emergency care center of Grady Memorial Hospital. The prevalence phase consisted of demographic data collection, eligibility screening, and a brief interview pertaining to alcohol and moonshine consumption. During the nested phase, a full interview and blood lead analyses were conducted on all consenting moonshine drinkers and a time-matched comparison group of non-moonshine drinkers. In the prevalence phase, of 581 patients interviewed, 8.6% reported consuming moonshine in the past 5 years. Moonshine drinkers were predominantly men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. In the nested phase, the median blood lead levels among moonshine drinkers and nondrinkers were 11.0 microg/dL (0.531 micromol/L) and 2.5 microg/dL (0.121 micromol/L), respectively. Moonshine drinkers were significantly more likely to have blood lead levels of 10 microg/dL (0.483 micromol/L) or greater (odds ratio [OR] 10.94; 95% confidence interval 3.76 to 31.85). Patients who consumed moonshine in the previous week were significantly more likely to have a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL (0.483 micromol/L) or greater than were individuals who reported less recent consumption. Patients who consumed moonshine more than once a month were significantly more likely to have a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL (0.483 micromol/L) or greater than were those reporting less frequent use. Moonshine users were more likely to report heavy alcohol use. Moonshine consumption was more prevalent than expected in our patient population and was strongly associated with elevated blood lead levels, particularly among recent moonshine drinkers.

  8. Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This

  9. Matching law choice analyses of ethanol and sucrose consumption in alcohol-preferring (P), nonpreferring (NP), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, Margaret P; Khan, Zeeshan; Lewis, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative models of choice, such as the matching law and behavioral economics, allow for the analysis of alcohol consumption within a choice context. Such models can provide further knowledge of phenotypic differences between selected lines of rats. The current study applied the generalized matching law to the ethanol (EtOH) and sucrose consumption of alcohol-preferring (P), nonpreferring (NP), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male P, NP, and SD rats were trained to consume increasing concentrations of EtOH and water in a limited access, 2-bottle choice procedure. The animals were then given concurrent access to pairs of differing EtOH solutions (2, 4, 6, and 10%, v/v) for 1 h/d. A subset of animals from each rat type was subsequently given access to 8% sucrose for 1 h/d for 5 days, and then concurrent access to pairs of differing sucrose solutions (3, 8, and 15%, w/v) for 1 h/d. The generalized matching law was used to assess the relationship between the relative EtOH and sucrose concentrations and the relative volumes of solutions consumed. The P rats consumed more EtOH and sucrose than the NP and SD rats overall. However, only the P rats consistently consumed disproportionately greater quantities of the higher EtOH concentration than the lower one, indicating overmatching. Additionally, all 3 types of rats displayed overmatching in the sucrose choice experiment. These data provide further evidence of phenotypic differences between the P rats and other types of rats, and suggest that the generalized matching law can be a useful tool for describing rats' EtOH or sucrose consumption in a 2-bottle choice, limited access paradigm.

  10. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is serious about making sure companies that break the law are held accountable In the past year, EPA ... the health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ...

  11. Assessment of the Effects of 6 Standard Rodent Diets on Binge-Like and Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Rinker, Jennifer A; Harrison, Langston K; Fletcher, Craig A; Herfel, Tina M; Thiele, Todd E

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research, particularly in preclinical animal studies. This is a problem that also plagues the alcohol research field, particularly in consistent consumption in animal models of alcohol use disorders. One often overlooked factor that could affect reproducibility is the maintenance diet used in preclinical studies. Herein, 2 well-established models of alcohol consumption, the "drinking in the dark" (DID) procedure and the continuous 2-bottle choice (C2BC) paradigm, were employed to determine the effects of diet on ethanol (EtOH) consumption. Male C57BL/6J mice were given 1 of 6 standard rodent chow diets obtained from Purina LabDiet(®) , Inc. (Prolab(®) RMH 3000) or Harlan(®) Laboratories, Inc. (Teklad Diets T.2916, T.2918, T.2920X, T.7912, or T.8940). A separate group of animals were used to test dietary effects on EtOH pharmacokinetics and behavioral measures following intraperitoneal (IP) injections of various doses of EtOH. Mice eating Harlan diets T.2916 (H2916) and T.2920X (H2920) consumed significantly less EtOH and exhibited lower blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) during DID; however, during C2BC, animals maintained on Harlan T.7912 (H7912) consumed more EtOH and had a higher EtOH preference than the other diet groups. EtOH consumption levels did not stem from changes in alcohol pharmacokinetics, as a separate group of animals administered EtOH IP showed no difference in BECs. However, animals on Harlan diet T.2920X (H2920) were more sensitive to alcohol-induced locomotor activity in an open-field task. No diet-dependent differences were seen in alcohol-induced sedation as measured with loss of righting reflex. Although these data do not identify a specific mechanism, together, they clearly show that the maintenance diet impacts EtOH consumption. It is incumbent upon the research community to consider the importance of describing nutritional information in methods

  12. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  13. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R.B.; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  14. An Ethanol Extract of Artemisia iwayomogi Activates PPARδ Leading to Activation of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Si Young; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Sohn, Jong Hee; Seo, Dae-Bang; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI) was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4), and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity. PMID:22479450

  15. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  16. Blood pressure in relation to dietary calcium intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead, and blood cadmium in female nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, A; Jurasovie, J; Telisman, S

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationship of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), age, and body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure was examined in 267 peasant women 40-85 years of age. They were residents of two rural areas in Croatia and differed with regard to dietary Ca intake: 100 women with low Ca intake (approximately 450 mg/day) and 167 women with relatively high Ca intake (approximately 940 mg/day). All of the women were nonsmokers and consumed very little or no alcohol. Median and range BPb values were 74 (29-251) microg/L in women with low Ca intake and 59 (21-263) microg/L in women with high Ca intake (p 0.10). Results of multiple regression showed a significant (p women with low Ca intake), and marginally with BCd, and alcohol consumption (multiple r = 0.38, p women with different Ca intake were subdivided into consumers and nonconsumers of alcohol, BPb was related positively to alcohol consumption and inversely to Ca intake. The highest BPb was found in the subgroup of alcohol consumers with low Ca intake, and the lowest BPb in the subgroup of nonconsumers with high Ca intake: 78 (42-251) microg/L and 51 (22-192) microg/L, respectively (p < 10(-8)). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the former subgroup as compared to the latter: 95 (72-130) mm Hg and 90 (60-120) mm Hg, respectively (p < 0.05). This cannot be explained by age, BMI, or BCd, which were comparable in the two subgroups. The results indicate that alcohol consumption and low Ca intake can increase BPb, which may significantly contribute to an increase in diastolic blood pressure in female nonsmokers even at relatively low-level Pb exposure.

  17. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS3) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  18. Manioc flour consumption as a risk factor for lead poisoning in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Evangelista, Fabio Sidonio de B; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies reported elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in riparian populations of the Amazon. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to assess the risk to riparians in the Brazilian Amazon to Pb exposure due to the intake of contaminated manioc flour. Lead levels were determined in whole blood (n = 74) and in manioc flour samples (n = 30) in three different communities. Mean blood Pb levels were 16.8 μg/dl, with individuals living in Açaituba presenting the highest mean blood Pb level (22.4 μg/dl), followed by Nova Canaã (17.3 μg/dl) and Santa Cruz (9.8 μg/dl). The minimum blood Pb level found was 0.83 μg/dl and the maximum was 44.3 μg/dl. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated and compared to the benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) for neurotoxicity. Mean Pb in manioc flour was 0.34 μg/g while EDI was 79 μg/d, corresponding to 260% of the BMDL (varying from 168 to 308%). This finding is of great importance since this high EDI may exert adverse effects on the nervous system of this population. Manioc flour intake may thus present considerable risk of Pb exposure in this region. Risk management strategies and further studies on adverse effects in this population are needed.

  19. Underestimating a serving size may lead to increased food consumption when using Canada's Food Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Sharona L; Reddigan, Jacinta I; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Jamnik, Veronica K; Rowan, Chip P; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. White, Black, South Asian, and East Asian adults (n = 145) estimated the quantity of food that constituted 1 CFG serving, and used CFG to estimate the number of servings that they consumed from their 24-h dietary recall. Participants estimated 1 serving size of vegetables and fruit (+43%) and grains (+55%) to be larger than CFG serving sizes (p ≤ 0.05); meat alternatives (-33%) and cheese (-31%) to be smaller than a CFG serving size (p ≤ 0.05); and chicken, carrots, and milk servings accurately (p > 0.05). Serving size estimates were positively correlated with the amount of food participants regularly consumed at 1 meal (p CFG recommendations. In conclusion, estimating serving sizes to be larger than what is defined by CFG may inadvertently lead to estimating that fewer servings were consumed and overeating if Canadians follow CFG recommendations without guidance. Thus, revision to CFG or greater public education regarding the dietary guidelines is warranted.

  20. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Safety Alert: Learn about CDC Recommendations Second Informational Call (CDC-RFA-17-1701PPHF17), April 5, 2017, ... CLPPP CAP Healthy Homes Assessment Tools Lead Health Literacy Initiative Refugee Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and ...

  1. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  2. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I.; da Silva, Lucas F.; Souza, Diego T.; Fernandes, A. Alberto R.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Broach, James R.

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

  3. Effects of Chronic Ethanol Consumption on Rat GABAA and Strychnine-sensitive Glycine Receptors Expressed by Lateral/Basolateral Amygdala Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A.; Frye, Gerald D.; Pulido, Marisa D.; Botting, Shaleen K.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the anxiolytic potential of ethanol is maintained during chronic exposure. We have confirmed this using a light-dark box paradigm following chronic ethanol ingestion via a liquid diet. However, cessation from chronic ethanol exposure is known to cause severe withdrawal anxiety. These opposing effects on anxiety likely result from neuro-adaptations of neurotransmitter systems within the brain regions regulating anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of amygdala ligand-gated chloride channels in the expression of anxiety. We have therefore examined the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on GABAA and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors expressed by acutely isolated adult rat lateral/basolateral amygdala neurons. Chronic ethanol exposure increased the functional expression of GABAA receptors in acutely isolated basolateral amygdala neurons without altering strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. Neither the acute ethanol nor benzodiazepine sensitivity of either receptor system was affected. We explored the likelihood that subunit composition might influence each receptor’s response to chronic ethanol. Importantly, when expressed in a mammalian heterologous system, GABAA receptors composed of unique α subunits were differentially sensitive to acute ethanol. Likewise, the presence of the β subunit appeared to influence the acute ethanol sensitivity of glycine receptors containing the α2 subunit. Our results suggest that the facilitation of GABAA receptors during chronic ethanol exposure may help explain the maintenance of ethanol’s anti-anxiety effects during chronic ethanol exposure. Furthermore, the subunit composition of GABAA and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may ultimately influence the response of each system to chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:12560122

  4. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/− mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/− livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/− mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2

  7. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas D E; Rozen, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr(+/-) livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2-hit mechanism whereby mutant hepatocytes cannot

  8. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Wolstenholme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  9. Low-fat, light, and reduced in calories : Do these claims really lead to an increase in consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent experimental research has shown that light, low-fat and other claims that signal low calorie content can increase consumption and hence can be counter-effective. In this article we use detailed data from the Dutch National Food Consumption survey to determine the extent to which

  10. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  11. The responses of mitochondrial proteome in rat liver to the consumption of moderate ethanol: the possible roles of aldo-keto reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Tu, Shuyang; Li, Xiaolei; Sun, Maomao; Srivastava, Sanjay; Xu, Ningzhi; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Liu, Siqi

    2008-08-01

    A large body of evidence supports the view that mitochondria are a primary target of alcohol stress. Changes in mitochondrial proteins due to moderate ethanol intake, however, have not been broadly and accurately estimated. For this study, rats were fed low doses of ethanol and the mitochondria were isolated from heart, kidney, and liver, using ultracentrifugation with Nycodenz density gradient. The mitochondrial proteins were well resolved upon two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), and the alcohol-responsive 2DE spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Compared with the control group, the proteins extracted from liver mitochondria of ethanol-fed rats exhibited the significant changes on 2DE images, whereas the 2DE images obtained from the kidney and the heart mitochondria remained almost unchanged by ethanol feeding. Significantly, over 50% of the alcohol-responsive proteins in liver mitochondria were members of aldo-keto reductase family (AKR), which were usually present in cytoplasm. The organelle distributions of AKR proteins in liver mitochondria were further confirmed by Western blot analysis as well as by confocal microscopy. In addition, translocations of AKR were examined in the CHANG cell line, which was cultured with and without ethanol. The results of Western blot strongly suggested that the abundances of AKR proteins in the mitochondria were greatly reduced by the presence of ethanol in culture medium. The results of this study show that, even with moderate ethanol feeding, the mitochondrial proteome in rat liver was more sensitive to alcohol stress than that of either the kidney or the heart. The translocation of AKR proteins may be involved in the detoxification of liver cells.

  12. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  13. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  14. Expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol is increased by energy drink administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sionaldo Eduardo; Abrahao, Karina Possa; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are important medical, social and economical problems, affecting millions of people. A relatively recent habit among young people is mixing alcohol with energy drinks (ED), in spite of the risks involved may be higher than those associated with alcohol consumption alone. The mixture of alcohol and energy drinks, both with stimulant properties, may alter the perception of intoxication and could lead individuals to believe they are less drunk and can drink more or for longer periods of time. In animals, the repeated administration of ethanol can lead to a progressive increase of the locomotor stimulant effect, known as behavioral sensitization, a drug-dependent behavioral plasticity associated with vulnerability to addiction. As well as for addiction, there are clear individual differences in the level of sensitization to ethanol among species and even among individuals from the same strain. The present study assessed how ED affects the expression of ethanol sensitization. Female mice chronically treated with ethanol (2.4 g/kg) were classified as low-sensitized or high-sensitized. Two days later, different groups of mice were submitted to saline+water, ethanol+water or ethanol+ED systemic challenges. As expected, only the high-sensitized group expressed clear sensitization after ethanol administration. However, the administration of ethanol+ED triggered the sensitization expression in the low-sensitized group. These data indicate that the combined use of ED and ethanol can potentiate the stimulant and, consequently, the reward effects of ethanol in previously treated mice. If a similar process occurs in human beings, the use of ED can increase the risk of developing alcohol abuse or dependence. © 2013.

  15. Suppression of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the molecular mechanisms through which chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces osteopenia and osteoporosis are largely unknown, potential treatments for prevention of alcohol-induced bone loss remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, chronic ethanol (EtOH) treatment leads to...

  16. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashko, S.

    1986-03-01

    N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

  18. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Improper sealing caused by the Styrofoam integrity seals in leakproof plastic bottles lead to significant loss of ethanol in frozen evidentiary urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Lakshmaiah; Hardin, Glenn G

    2003-05-01

    Evidentiary urine samples (n = 345) stored frozen at -20 degrees C in their original containers (leakproof 100 mL plastic bottles) upon retesting for ethanol resulted in concentrations that were significantly lower (average loss = approximately 30%) than those prior to their storage at -20 degrees C (p Styrofoam integrity seal attached to the mouth of the container. Accordingly, adopting leakproof plastic containers that do not contain Styrofoam integrity seals, but rather an outside and across the cap tape integrity seal for evidence collection and long-term storage, will prevent loss of ethanol due to evaporation.

  20. Effects of the acute and chronic ethanol intoxication on acetate metabolism and kinetics in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Wu, Liang-Chih; Ke, Chien-Chih; Chang, Chi-Wei; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Du; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2017-12-05

    Ethanol intoxication inhibits glucose transport and decreases overall brain glucose metabolism; however, humans with long-term ethanol consumption were found to have a significant increase in [1-11 C]-acetate uptake in the brain. The relationship between the cause and effect of [1-11 C]-acetate kinetics and acute/chronic ethanol intoxication, however, are still unclear. [1-11 C]-acetate positron emission tomography (PET) with dynamic measurement of K1 and k2 rate constants was used to investigate the changes in acetate metabolism in different brain regions of rats with acute or chronic ethanol intoxication. PET imaging demonstrated decreased [1-11 C]-acetate uptake in rat brain with acute ethanol intoxication, but this increased with chronic ethanol intoxication. Tracer uptake rate constant K1 and clearance rate constant k2 were decreased in acutely intoxicated rats. No significant change was noted in K1 and k2 in chronic ethanol intoxication, although six of seven brain regions showed slightly higher k2 than baseline. These results indicate that acute ethanol intoxication accelerated acetate transport and metabolism in the rat brain, whereas chronic ethanol intoxication status showed no significant effect. In vivo PET study confirmed the modulatory role of ethanol, administered acutely or chronically, in [1-11 C]-acetate kinetics and metabolism in the rat brain. Acute ethanol intoxication may inhibit the transport and metabolism of acetate in the brain, whereas chronic ethanol exposure may lead to the adaptation of the rat brain to ethanol in acetate utilisation. [1-11 C]-Acetate PET imaging is a feasible approach to study the effect of ethanol on acetate metabolism in rat brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Ethanol-Induced Cerebellar Ataxia: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M Saeed

    2015-08-01

    The cerebellum is an important target of ethanol toxicity given that cerebellar ataxia is the most consistent physical manifestation of acute ethanol consumption. Despite the significance of the cerebellum in ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia (EICA), the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying EICA are incompletely understood. However, two important findings have shed greater light on this phenomenon. First, ethanol-induced blockade of cerebellar adenosine uptake in rodent models points to a role for adenosinergic A1 modulation of EICA. Second, the consistent observation that intracerebellar administration of nicotine in mice leads to antagonism of EICA provides evidence for a critical role of cerebellar nitric oxide (NO) in EICA reversal. Based on these two important findings, this review discusses the potential molecular events at two key synaptic sites (mossy fiber-granule cell-Golgi cell (MGG synaptic site) and granule cell parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (GPP synaptic site) that lead to EICA. Specifically, ethanol-induced neuronal NOS inhibition at the MGG synaptic site acts as a critical trigger for Golgi cell activation which leads to granule cell deafferentation. Concurrently, ethanol-induced inhibition of adenosine uptake at the GPP synaptic site produces adenosine accumulation which decreases glutamate release and leads to the profound activation of Purkinje cells (PCs). These molecular events at the MGG and GPP synaptic sites are mutually reinforcing and lead to cerebellar dysfunction, decreased excitatory output of deep cerebellar nuclei, and EICA. The critical importance of PCs as the sole output of the cerebellar cortex suggests normalization of PC function could have important therapeutic implications.

  3. Ethanol self-administration in serotonin transporter knockout mice: unconstrained demand and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Daws, L C

    2013-10-01

    Low serotonin function is associated with alcoholism, leading to speculation that increasing serotonin function could decrease ethanol consumption. Mice with one or two deletions of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene have increased extracellular serotonin. To examine the relationship between SERT genotype and motivation for alcohol, we compared ethanol self-administration in mice with zero (knockout, KO), one (HET) or two copies (WT) of the SERT gene. All three genotypes learned to self-administer ethanol. The SSRI, fluvoxamine, decreased responding for ethanol in the HET and WT, but not the KO mice. When tested under a progressive ratio schedule, KO mice had lower breakpoints than HET or WT. As work requirements were increased across sessions, behavioral economic analysis of ethanol self-administration indicated that the decreased breakpoint in KO as compared to HET or WT mice was a result of lower levels of unconstrained demand, rather than differences in elasticity, i.e. the proportional decreases in ethanol earned with increasing work requirements were similar across genotypes. The difference in unconstrained demand was unlikely to result from motor or general motivational factors, as both WT and KO mice responded at high levels for a 50% condensed milk solution. As elasticity is hypothesized to measure essential value, these results indicate that KO value ethanol similarly to WT or HET mice despite having lower break points for ethanol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  5. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-support...

  6. Ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  7. Effect of ethanol consumption on colon cancer in an experimental model Efecto de la ingesta de etanol en un modelo experimental de cáncer de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pérez-Holanda

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: the present study was designed to examine the effect of an ethanol supplement on experimental colon carcinogenesis. Material and methods: one hundred and ten 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: group A (20 rats received no treatment. Group B (20 rats received a supplement of ethanol at 1.23 g/kg of body weight per day added to their drinking water for 24 weeks. Group C (30 rats received 18 weekly doses of dimethylhydrazine (DMH at 21 mg/kg of body weight from the beginning of the study. Group D (20 rats received ethylen-diamin-tetracetic acid (EDTA solution only for 18 weeks. Group E (20 rats received ethanol at the same dose as group B plus DMH injections at the same dose as the rats in group C from the beginning of the study. All experimental animals were sacrified after 25-27 weeks. Results: no significant differences in the number of rats that developed tumors, number of tumor-free animals, and number of tumors per rat, as well as in macro-microscopic tumoral findings were observed for animals in group C compared to animals in group E. Conclusions: we concluded that the addition of an ethanol supplement does not modify colorectal carcinogenesis using a dynamic model of tumor induction with DMH.Objetivos: el presente trabajo experimental fue diseñado para examinar el efecto de la adición de un suplemento de etanol oral en ratas, en la aparición y desarrollo de la carcinogénesis colónica. Material y métodos: se utilizaron un total de ciento diez ratas de la raza "Sprague-Dawley" de 10 semanas de vida, que se dividieron en 5 grupos: grupo A (20 ratas, sin tratamiento. Grupo B (20 ratas, con adición de etanol a la dosis de 1,23 g/kg peso al día, añadido al agua de bebida, durante 24 semanas. Grupo C (30 ratas, tratadas con 18 dosis semanales de dimetilhidracina (DMH a la dosis de 21 mg/kg peso, cada una, desde la semana 10 de vida. Grupo D (20 ratas, tratadas únicamente con solución de ácido etilen

  8. Chronic alcohol consumption, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and growth hormone (GH) in ethanol-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Ju, Anes; Lim, Seul-Gi; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2013-11-13

    Alcohol has deleterious influences on glucose metabolism which may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH), which interact with insulin to modulate metabolic control, have been shown to be related to impaired glucose tolerance. This study was conducted to assess the possibility that altered circulating IGF-I and GH levels contribute to the exacerbation of T2DM by alcohol use in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. OLETF rats were pair-fed a Lieber-DeCarli Regular Ethanol diet and LETO rats were pair-fed a control diet for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, an Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test (IP-GTT) was performed and IGF-I and GH levels were evaluated. Prior to an IP-GTT, OLETF-Ethanol (O-E) group had significantly a decrease in the mean glucose levels compared to OLETF-Control (O-C) group. At 120 min post IP-GTT, the O-E group had significantly an increase in the mean glucose levels compared to O-C group. The serum IGF-I levels were significantly lower and the serum GH levels were significantly higher in the O-E group than in L-C group. These results suggest that IGF-I and GH are prominent in defining the risk and development of T2DM, and may be adversely affected by heavy alcohol use, possibly mediating its diabetogenic effects. Thus, the overall glucose intolerance in the setting of alcoholism may be attributable to inappropriate alteration of IGF-I and GH levels. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: Effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, M.E.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, G.-Q.; Algava, D.B.; Leibowitz, S.F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period of time to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically-relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. PMID:25257106

  10. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, M E; Karatayev, O; Chang, G-Q; Algava, D B; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.

  12. Reduced ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring (P) rats following pharmacological silencing and deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, Jessica A; Qing, Kurt Y; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of addiction. Initial testing must be conducted in animals, and the alcohol-preferring (P) rat meets the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. This study is composed of 2 experiments designed to examine the effects of 1) pharmacological inactivation and 2) DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the consumption of alcohol by P rats. In the first experiment, the effects of reversible inactivation of the AcbSh were investigated by administering intracranial injections of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists. Bilateral microinjections of drug were administered to the AcbSh in P rats (8-10 rats/group), after which the animals were placed in operant chambers containing 2 levers--one used to administer water and the other to administer 15% EtOH--to examine the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. In the second experiment, a DBS electrode was placed in each P rat's left AcbSh. The animals then received 100 or 200 μA (3-4 rats/group) of DBS to examine the effect on daily consumption of oral EtOH in a free-access paradigm. In the first experiment, pharmacological silencing of the AcbSh with GABA agonists did not decrease the acquisition of EtOH drinking behavior but did reduce EtOH consumption by 55% in chronically drinking rats. Similarly, in the second experiment, 200 μA of DBS consistently reduced EtOH intake by 47% in chronically drinking rats. The amount of EtOH consumption returned to baseline levels following termination of therapy in both experiments. Pharmacological silencing and DBS of the AcbSh reduced EtOH intake after chronic EtOH use had been established in rodents. The AcbSh is a neuroanatomical substrate for the reinforcing effects of alcohol and may be a target for surgical intervention in cases of alcoholism.

  13. Individual and Joint Impacts of Ethanol Use, BMI, Age and Gender on Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption, obesity and increasing age may all lead to increased serum levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT enzyme, which plays a key role in the metabolism of extracellular reduced glutathione. However, as yet, the interactions between the various modulators of GGT activities have remained poorly defined. We analyzed data from 15,617 apparently healthy individuals (7254 men and 8363 women, mean age 46 ± 13 years, range 25–74 years who participated in a national cross-sectional health survey in Finland between 1997 and 2007. All subjects underwent detailed clinical examinations and interviews, including the amount of ethanol use and smoking habits. GGT levels were measured from all participants, and the individual and joint impacts of the different study variables on GGT levels were assessed. Significant individual effects were noted for ethanol use (p < 0.001, body mass index (BMI (p < 0.001, age (p < 0.001 and smoking (p < 0.001. In men, significant two-factor interactions occurred between ethanol use and age (p < 0.020. Among those over 40 years of age, ethanol consumption was found to be a stronger determinant of increased GGT levels than in men below 40 years, whereas in the latter age group, BMI was found to predominate. In women, a significant two-factor interaction occurred between ethanol and BMI (p = 0.010, whereas it did not with ethanol use and age. The data underscores the role of ethanol consumption and age as major determinants of increased GGT levels in men, whereas in women, a relatively stronger impact was noted for ethanol intake and BMI. In light of the ability of GGT enzyme to modulate crucial redox-sensitive functions, the present findings also support the use of GGT as a biomarker of oxidative stress.

  14. Piper nigrum ethanolic extract rich in piperamides causes ROS overproduction, oxidative damage in DNA leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrini Ramos; Ourique, Fabiana; Porfirio Will Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni; Andreguetti, Rafaela Rafognato; Gomes Correia, João Francisco; Filho, Danilo Wilhem; Pich, Claus Tröger; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2016-08-02

    Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine and tribal people use herbal preparations containing Piper nigrum fruits for the treatment of many health disorders like inflammation, fever, asthma and cancer. In Brazil, traditional maroon culture associates the spice Piper nigrum to health recovery and inflammation attenuation. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Piper nigrum ethanolic extract and its antitumor activity. The plant was macerated in ethanol. Extract constitution was assessed by TLC, UV-vis and ESI-IT-MS/MS spectrometry. The cytotoxicity, proliferation and intracellular ROS generation was evaluated in MCF-7 cells. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA, plasmid DNA cleavage and oxidative damage in CT-DNA. Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress were assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Extraction yielded 64mg/g (36% piperine and 4.2% piperyline). Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced cell viability (EC50=27.1±2.0 and 80.5±6.6µg/ml in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells, respectively), inhibiting cell proliferation by 57% and increased ROS generation in MCF-7 cells (65%). Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by the extract, which caused reduction of tumor growth (60%), elevated survival time (76%), cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. The treatment with extract increased Bax and p53 and inhibited Bcl-xL and cyclin A expression. It also induced an oxidative stress in vivo verified as enhanced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl proteins content and increased activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. GSH concentration was decreased in tumor tissue from mice. The ethanolic extract has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and antitumor effect in vivo probably due to ROS overproduction

  15. HSP-4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is not activated in a C. elegans model of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ient, Ben; Edwards, Richard; Mould, Richard; Hannah, Matthew; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    Acute and chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to concentrations of ethanol in the range 250-350 mM elicits distinct behaviours. Previous genetic analysis highlights specific neurobiological substrates for these effects. However, ethanol may also elicit cellular stress responses which may contribute to the repertoire of ethanol-induced behaviours. Here, we have studied the effect of ethanol on an important arm of the cellular stress pathways, which emanates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to several conditions including heat shock and chemical or genetic perturbations that lead to protein misfolding. HSP-4 is a heat shock protein and homologue of mammalian BiP. It is a pivotal upstream component of the ER stress response. Therefore, we used a C. elegans heat shock protein mutant, hsp-4, and a strain carrying a transcriptional reporter, Phsp-4::gfp, to test the role of the ER following chronic ethanol conditioning. We found no evidence for an overt ER response during acute or prolonged exposure to concentrations of ethanol that lead to defined ethanol-induced behaviours. Furthermore, whilst hsp-4 was strongly induced by tunicamycin, pre-exposure of C. elegans to low doses of tunicamycin followed by ethanol was not sufficient to induce an additive ER stress response. Behavioural analysis of an hsp-4 mutant indicated no difference compared to wild type in susceptibility to ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. There is a clear precedent for a significance of ER stress pathways particularly in clinical conditions associated with toxic or pathological effects of high doses of alcohol consumption. The concentrations of ethanol used in this C. elegans study equate to the highest blood alcohol levels measured in patients with chronic alcohol dependency. Taken together, these observations imply that the classic ER stress pathway in C. elegans is relatively refractory to induction by ethanol.

  16. The equipment supply industry to sugar mills, ethanol and energy in Brazil: an analysis based in leading companies and key-organizations of sector and of LPA of Sertãozinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Castro Carrijo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the profile, organization, efficiency and innovation in the supply industry equipment for sugar mills, ethanol and energy in Brazil, contributing to an important discussion on the competitiveness of this industry. Therefore, the study was based on analysis of information obtained from two surveys: the first held with representative organizations and two industry-leading companies located in the cities of Sertãozinho and Piracicaba; and the second, through interviews with companies in the Local Productive Arrangement (LPA of Sertãozinho, known as the Silicon Valley Ethanol. The results suggest that the increasing modernization of the sector will require greater efforts from equipment industry to provide plants with the necessary technological innovations and potential efficiency gains and that the constituent companies of this industry, few invest in technology and professional training, in other words, are lacking in management training, which leads to loss of valuable opportunities, international market share is tiny, most companies turn to private sources of financing, and companies seem unaware of the real benefits of cooperation, although they appear in most companies in this industry.

  17. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ran; Rittenhouse, Danielle; Sweeney, Katelyn; Potluri, Prasanth; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs. PMID:26241038

  18. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO, also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs.

  19. Ethanol-dependent expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B in human cell lines and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsova, Maria A; Klinkova, Anna V; Kuchukova, Anastasia A; Kadin, Andrey Y; Kanevskiy, Leonid M; Kovalenko, Elena I

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol consumption affects the human immune system, causing a variety of disorders. However, the mechanisms of development of these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that ethanol may influence the expression of MICA and MICB, stress-induced molecules capable of regulating the activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes through the interaction with receptor NKG2D, which substantially affects the functionality of cellular immunity. We analyzed the effects of ethanol on MICA/B expression in tumor cell lines and human leukocytes. In the cell line models, ethanol caused different changes in the surface expression of MICA/B; in particular, it induced the translocation of intracellular proteins MICA/B to the cell surface and shedding of MICA (in soluble and microparticle-associated forms) from the plasma membrane. The observed results are not linked with cell death in cultures, taking place only under higher doses of ethanol. Ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations (and higher) stimulated expression of MICA/B genes in different cell types. The effect of ethanol was more pronounced in hepatocyte line HepG2 compared with hematopoietic cell lines K562, Jurkat, and THP-1. Among the tested leukocytes, the most sensitive to ethanol action were T cells activated ex vivo with IL-2, in which the increase of MICA/B mRNA expression was registered with the smallest dose of ethanol (0.125%). In human monocytes, ethanol may lead to elevations in surface MICA/B levels. Presumably, changes in MICA/B expression caused by ethanol can affect the functions of NKG2D-positive cytotoxic lymphocytes, modulating immune reactions at excessive alcohol consumption.

  20. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  1. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr-1 to 240 000 t yr-1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached.

  2. Effects of ethanol exposure in a familiar or isolated context during infancy on ethanol intake during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Haymal, Beatriz; Pautassi, Ricardo M

    2016-12-01

    Early exposure to ethanol affects ethanol intake later in life. This early experience encompasses exposure to social stimuli and the pharmacological and orosensory properties of ethanol. The specific contribution of each type of stimulus to subsequent ethanol intake remains unknown. We assessed the intake of various concentrations of ethanol in a familiar or isolated context during infancy and the lingering effects of this experience on ethanol intake during adolescence. On postnatal day 3 (PD3), PD7, and PD11, rats were given 5% ethanol or water in a nursing or isolated context (Experiments 1 and 2). Intake tests (ethanol vs. water) were conducted during adolescence. Experiment 2 matched the amount of fluid ingested during infancy in both contexts and subsequently tested ethanol consumption during adolescence. The results revealed a facilitative effect of the nursing context on fluid intake during the tests in infancy. Pups stimulated with ethanol but not water in the isolated context exhibited an increase in ethanol consumption during adolescence. This effect disappeared when the isolated infants were matched to receive the same amount of ethanol ingested by their nursed counterparts. In Experiment 3, isolated infant rats were exposed to different ethanol concentrations (.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%), and drug consumption was tested during adolescence. This exposure increased adolescent ethanol intake, regardless of the alcohol concentration (Experiment 3). The common denominators that resulted in enhanced ethanol intake during adolescence were preexposure to ethanol via active consumption of the drug that induced a low-to-moderate level of intoxication in an isolated context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2...

  4. Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long-evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Carter, Eugenia; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Clinically, early life stress and anxiety disorders are associated with increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. In male rats, early life stress, imparted by adolescent social isolation, results in long-lasting increases in a number of behavioral risk factors for alcoholism, including greater anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) intake. Several recent studies have begun to use this model to gain insight into the relationships among anxiety measures, stress, EtOH intake, and neurobiological correlates driving these behaviors. As prior research has noted significant sex differences in the impact of adolescent stress on anxiety measures and EtOH drinking, the current study was conducted to determine if this same model produces an "addiction vulnerable" phenotype in female rodents. Female Long Evans rats were socially isolated (SI; 1/cage) or group housed (GH; 4/cage) for 6 weeks during adolescence. After this housing manipulation, behavioral assessment was conducted using the elevated plus maze, response to novelty in an open field environment, and the light/dark box. After behavioral testing, home cage EtOH drinking was assessed across an 8-week period. No group differences were detected in any of the behavioral measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Greater EtOH intake and preference were observed in SI females but these differences did not persist. The SI/GH model, which results in robust and enduring increases in anxiety measures and EtOH self-administration in male Long Evans rats, did not result in similar behavioral changes in female rats. These data, and that of others, suggest that adolescent social isolation is not a useful model with which to study neurobiological substrates linking antecedent anxiety and addiction vulnerability in female rats. Given the compelling epidemiological evidence that the relationship between chronic adolescent stress and alcohol addiction is particularly strong in women, there is clearly an urgent need

  5. [Ethanol content of Kefir water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, W; Liniger, B; Sutter, K; Sigrist, T

    1994-03-01

    The question of the influence of kefir on blood-alcohol-level has been asked in a legal proceeding. The questioned recipe consisted of 21 water, 6 soup-spoons of kefir granules (about 120 g), 150 g sugar, 2 figs and one lemon. The consumption took place after two days of fermentation. Experimentally we found, that one liter of this kefir product may contain up to 38 g/l ethanol after 7 to 10 days. On the second day we measured up to 16 g/l ethanol. Our results may be import for expert appraisements concerning unability of driving.

  6. Toxicology and the biological role of methanol and ethanol: Current view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol variants such as ethanol and methanol are simple organic compounds widely used in foods, pharmaceuticals, chemical synthesis, etc. Both are becoming an emerging health problem; abuse of ethanol containing beverages can lead to disparate health problems and methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. This review summarizes the basic knowledge about ethanol and methanol toxicity, the effect mechanism on the body, the current care of poisoned individuals and the implication of alcohols in the development of diseases. Alcohol related dementia, stroke, metabolic syndrome and hepatitis are discussed as well. Besides ethanol, methanol toxicity and its biodegradation pathways are addressed. The impact of ethanol and methanol on the body is shown as case reports, along with a discussion on the possible implication of alcohol in Alzheimer's disease and antidotal therapy for methanol poisoning. The role of ethanol in cancer and degenerative disorders seems to be underestimated given the current knowledge. Treatment in case of poisoning is another issue that remains unresolved even though effective protocols and drugs exist.

  7. The neurobiology of binge-like ethanol drinking: evidence from rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow, Gretchen M; Thiele, Todd E

    2012-06-06

    Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is a destructive pattern of ethanol consumption that may precipitate ethanol dependence-a chronic, debilitating, and prevalent health problem. While an abundance of research has focused on the neurochemical underpinnings of ethanol dependence, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the heavy consumption characteristic of binge ethanol drinking. Recently, a simple preclinical model termed "drinking in the dark" (DID) was developed to examine binge-like ethanol consumption in a rodent population. This assay capitalizes on the predisposition of C57BL/6J mice to voluntarily consume substantial quantities of a high concentration (20% v/v) ethanol solution, resulting in pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent literature utilizing this model to investigate the neuromodulatory systems that may influence binge ethanol drinking. Studies examining the glutamatergic and opioidergic systems not only provide evidence for these systems in the modulation of binge-like ethanol consumption, but also suggest this preclinical model has predictive validity and may be an appropriate tool for screening novel pharmacological compounds aimed at treating binge ethanol drinking in the human population. Additionally, this review presents evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic, dopaminergic, nicotinic, and endocannabinoid systems in modulating binge-like ethanol consumption. Finally, recent evidence shows that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin are also implicated as impacting this pattern of ethanol consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  9. Time dependent effect of chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol on zebrafish: Morphology, biochemical and anxiety alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlan, Nurul Farhana; Sata, Nurul Syafida Asma Mohd; Hassan, Siti Norhidayah; Bakar, Noraini Abu; Ahmad, Syahida; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah Wan

    2017-08-14

    Exposure to ethanol during critical period of development can cause severe impairments in the central nervous system (CNS). This study was conducted to assess the neurotoxic effects of chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol in the zebrafish, taking into consideration the time dependent effect. Two types of exposure regimen were applied in this study. Withdrawal exposure group received daily exposure starting from gastrulation until hatching, while continuous exposure group received daily exposure from gastrulation until behavioural assessment at 6dpf (days post fertilization). Chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol decreased spontaneous tail coiling at 24hpf (hour post fertilization), heart rate at 48hpf and increased mortality rate at 72hpf. The number of apoptotic cells in the embryos treated with ethanol was significantly increased as compared to the control. We also measured the morphological abnormalities and the most prominent effects can be observed in the treated embryos exposed to 1.50% and 2.00%. The treated embryos showed shorter body length, larger egg yolk, smaller eye diameter and heart edema as compared to the control. Larvae received 0.75% continuous ethanol exposure exhibited decreased swimming activity and increased anxiety related behavior, while withdrawal ethanol exposure showed increased swimming activity and decreased anxiety related behavior as compared to the respective control. Biochemical analysis exhibited that ethanol exposure for both exposure regimens altered proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids of the zebrafish larvae. Our results indicated that time dependent effect of ethanol exposure during development could target the biochemical processes thus leading to induction of apoptosis and neurobehavioral deficits in the zebrafish larvae. Thus it raised our concern about the safe limit of alcohol consumption for pregnant mother especially during critical periods of vulnerability for developing nervous system. Copyright © 2017

  10. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  11. Voluntary ethanol consumption induced by social isolation reverses the increase of α4/δ GABAA receptors gene expression and function in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eSanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-weaning social isolation (SI is a model of prolonged mild stress characterized by behavioral and neurochemical alterations. We used SI in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the effects of ethanol (EtOH in the free-choice drinking paradigm on gene expression and function of -aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs and on the role of neuroactive steroids in the actions of EtOH in the hippocampus. SI stress induced a marked reduction in hippocampal 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-TH PROG and was associated with molecular and functional changes of the GABAAR. The gene expression of the α4 and δ subunits was increased in the hippocampus of SI C57BL/6J mice; the expression of the γ2 subunit was decreased whereas that of the α1 did not change. Patch clamp recordings in dentate gyrus (DG granule cells obtained from SI C57BL/6J mice revealed a greater enhancement of tonic currents induced by α-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c] pyridin-3-ol (THIP compared to that in control C57BL/6J mice. These neurochemical, molecular and functional changes observed in SI C57BL/6J mice were associated with an increased EtOH intake and EtOH preference. Nevertheless, the increase in EtOH consumption did not restore the reduction in hippocampal 3α,5α-TH PROG induced by SI. EtOH self-administration blocked the changes in gene expression of the α4 subunit but not those of the δ and γ2 subunits induced by SI. In addition, EtOH self-administration did not block the SI-induced changes in GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in hippocampal granule cells but increased the frequency of basal GABAergic sIPSCs in DG granule cells. We conclude that self-administration of EtOH selectively abolishes the increase α4 receptor subunits but not other neurochemical, molecular and functional modifications induced by SI prolonged mild stress.

  12. Gene-specific of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental ethanol exposure is able to induce Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). This study investigated possible differential expression of cannabinoid receptor (cnr) mRNAs during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and variability to ethanol-...

  13. Signs and Related Mechanisms of Ethanol Hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Mãgalhaes, Teresa; Queirós, Odília; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Moreira, Roxana; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is the most abused psychoactive substance. Accordingly to World Health Organization ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death (3.3 million/year) throughout the world. This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to hepatoxicity of ethanol that may lead to suspected of abuse. Namely, steatosis, jaundice, cirrhosis, hemorrhoids, esophageal varices caput medusae, ascites, petechiae, ecchymoses, splenomegaly, hemochromatosis, xanthelasma, nutritional deficiency, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and dilated congestive cardiomyopathy are discussed and related to the toxic mechanism of ethanol.

  14. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 2, appendices A and B: Ethanol from grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinblatt, H.; Reddy, T. S.; Turhollow, A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Energy currently used in grain production, the effect of ethanol production on agricultural energy consumption, energy credits for ethanol by-products, and land availability and the potential for obtaining ethanol from grain are discussed. Dry milling, wet milling, sensitivity analysis, potential for reduced energy consumption are also discussed.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Histopathological and imaging modifications in chronic ethanolic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folescu, Roxana; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Sişu, Alina Maria; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Ilie, Adrian Cosmin; Moise, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Chronic abuse of alcohol triggers different types of brain damage. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome gets together Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. Another type of encephalopathy associated with chronic ethanol consumption is represented by the Marchiafava-Bignami malady or syndrome, an extremely rare neurological disorder, which is characterized by a demielinization of corpus callosum, extending as far as a necrosis. Because the frequency of ethanolic encephalopathy is increased and plays a major role in the sudden death of ethanolic patients, we have studied the chronic ethanolic encephalopathy both in deceased and in living patients, presenting different pathologies related to the chronic ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effects of chronic ethanolic encephalopathy on the central nervous system based both on the histopathological exam of the tissular samples and the imaging investigation, such as MRI and CT.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is robustly induced by ethanol and has a protective role in ethanol associated liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna N. Desai

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Acute or binge ethanol consumption significantly increases circulating FGF21 levels in both humans and mice. However, FGF21 does not play a role in acute ethanol clearance. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in the absence of FGF21 is associated with significant liver pathology alone or in combination with excess mortality, depending on the type of diet consumed with ethanol. This suggests that FGF21 protects against long term ethanol induced hepatic damage and may attenuate progression of alcoholic liver disease. Further study is required to assess the therapeutic potential of FGF21 in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease.

  18. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  19. Enhanced camptothecin production by ethanol addition in the suspension culture of the endophyte, Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of a non-camptothecin producing plant, Catharanthus roseus when added in the suspension culture of the endophyte Fusarium solani known to produce camptothecin, resulted in enhanced production of camptothecin by 10.6-fold in comparison to that in control (2.8 μg/L). Interestingly, addition of pure ethanol (up to 5% v/v) in the suspension culture of F. solani resulted in maximum enhancement in camptothecin production (up to 15.5-fold) from that obtained in control. In the presence of ethanol, a reduced glucose uptake (by ∼ 40%) and simultaneous ethanol consumption (up to 9.43 g/L) was observed during the cultivation period (14 days). Also, the total NAD level and the protein content in the biomass increased by 3.7- and 1.9-fold, respectively, in comparison to that in control. The study indicates a dual role of ethanol, presumably as an elicitor and also as a carbon/energy source, leading to enhanced biomass and camptothecin production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal consumption of a cafeteria diet during lactation in rats leads the offspring to a thin-outside-fat-inside phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomar, C.A.; Nes, van R.; Sánchez, J.; Picó, C.; Keijer, J.; Palou, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective:The suckling period is a critical phase of development, in which maternal overnutrition may program the susceptibility of developing chronic diseases and disorders, such as obesity and metabolic alterations, in adult life. Here, we questioned whether the consumption of a

  1. Mechanisms of Ethanol-induced Death of Cerebellar Granule Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. The most deleterious effect of fetal alcohol exposure is inducing neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that is most susceptible to ethanol during development. Ethanol exposure causes...

  2. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomoki, E-mail: s13220@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Morita, Akihito, E-mail: moritaa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Mori, Nobuko, E-mail: morin@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Miura, Shinji, E-mail: miura@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  3. The turmeric protective properties at ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina I.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanically modified turmeric extract on the parameters of orienting-exploratory behavior in mice with chronic ethanol consumption. Material and methods. Mice behavior was assessed in the "open field" test. In the both control groups the animals received water or 10% ethanol solution; in the test group — turmeric extract in 10% ethanol solution. Amount of blood mononuclear cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes were estimated. Results. Analysis of the behavioral parameters in animals after chronic exposure to ethanol showed suppression of motor and exploratory components of the behavior. In mice that received both ethanol and turmeric extract recorded behavior parameters were significantly higher than in the group of animals who received ethanol only. It was shown that the turmeric extract enhances the amount of blood immune cells. Conclusion. Mechanically modified turmeric extract possesses protective properties against ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

  4. Effect of chronic ethanol on enkephalin in the hypothalamus and extra-hypothalamic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guo-Qing; Barson, Jessica R; Karatayev, Olga; Chang, Si-Yi; Chen, Yu-Wei; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2010-05-01

    increase in density of ENK-expressing cells in all areas studied. It additionally revealed a similar change in DYN mRNA in the PVN, mPFC, and CeA, although not in the NAcSh or NAcC. While distinguishing the NAc as a site where ENK and DYN respond differentially, these findings lead us to propose that these opioids, in response to voluntary ethanol consumption, are generally elevated in extra-hypothalamic as well as hypothalamic areas, possibly to carry out specific area-related functions that, in turn, drive animals to further consume ethanol. These functions include calorie ingestion in the PVN, reward and motivation in the VTA and NAcSh, response-reinforcement learning in the NAcC, stress reduction in the CeA, and behavioral control in the mPFC.

  5. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Inhalation Increases Ethanol Self-administration in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A.; Chappell, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains provide significant opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms controlling ethanol-directed behaviors and neurobiology. They have been specifically employed to understand cellular mechanisms contributing to ethanol consumption, acute intoxication, and sensitivities to chronic effects. However, limited ethanol consumption by some strains has restricted our understanding of clinically relevant endpoints such as dependence-related ethanol intake. Previous work with a novel tastant-substitution procedure using monosodium glutamate (MSG or umami flavor) has shown that the procedure greatly enhances ethanol consumption by mouse strains that express limited drinking phenotypes using other methods. In the current study, we employ this MSG-substitution procedure to examine how ethanol dependence, induced with passive vapor inhalation, modifies ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. These strains represent ‘high’ and ‘low’ drinking phenotypes, respectively. We found that the MSG substitution greatly facilitates ethanol drinking in both strains, and likewise, ethanol dependence increased ethanol consumption regardless of strain. However, DBA/2J mice exhibited greater sensitivity dependence-enhanced drinking, as represented by consumption behaviors directed at lower ethanol concentrations and relative to baseline intake levels. DBA/2J mice also exhibited significant withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior while C57BL/6J mice did not. These findings suggest that the MSG-substitution procedure can be employed to examine dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption across a range of drinking phenotypes, and that C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice may represent unique neurobehavioral pathways for developing dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption. PMID:25659650

  6. Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Associated With Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Nonalcoholic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, GianLuca; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Novello, Marileda; Fagotto, Valentina; Soardo, Giorgio; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol consumption is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in heavy ethanol drinkers. The effect of moderate ethanol intake on left ventricular function in hypertension, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between ethanol consumption and cardiac changes in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients. In 335 patients with primary hypertension, we assessed daily ethanol consumption by questionnaires that combined evaluation of recent and lifetime ethanol exposure and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Patients with abnormal liver tests, previous cardiovascular events, left ventricular ejection fraction consumption was comparable in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction had significantly greater consumption than patients with normal ventricular filling. Left atrial diameter, e' wave velocity, e'/a' ratio, and E/e' ratio changed progressively with increasing levels of ethanol consumption, and prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction increased with a change that became statistically significant in patients consuming 20 g/d of ethanol or more. The e' wave velocity was inversely correlated with ethanol consumption, and multivariate logistic regression indicated that ethanol consumption predicted diastolic dysfunction independently of age, body mass index, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, ethanol consumption is independently associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients and might contribute to development of diastolic heart failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. [Acute ethanol intoxication among children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to a university children hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, S; Nickel, P; Schmutzer, G; Siekmeyer, W; Kiess, W

    2008-01-01

    In the last time the alcohol consumption among children and adolescents is a big theme in all kind of media. The ethanol consumption among children and adolescents has risen during the last years, but also new hazardous drinking patterns like "binge-drinking" are increasing. These drinking episodes are responsible for many hospital presentations of children and adolescents with acute ethanol intoxication. This study is a retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to the university children hospital of Leipzig due to acute ethanol intoxication during the period 1998-2004. Investigated parameters were: socio-demographic factors, clinical presentation and management as well as quantity and type of alcohol. During the years 1998-2004 the rate of alcohol intoxicated patients in this study increased, from 1998-2003 at about 171.4%. Totally 173 patients with an average age of 14.5 years were admitted to the university children hospital. There were significantly more boys than girls. The mean blood alcohol concentration of these patients was 1.77%. Some of the patients had severe symptoms. 62 were unconscious, 2 were in coma and at least 3 patients had to be ventilated. A difference between socioeconomic groups could be observed by comparing the different school types. 44.8% of the patients went to the middle school. Furthermore 17 patients of this study had mental disorders or psychosocial problems and were therefore in psychological or psychiatric treatment. In this study a significant influence of social classes or psychosocial problems on alcohol consumption such as binge-drinking leading to acute ethanol intoxication could not be found. Alarming is the increasing number of ethanol intoxicated patients, the young age, the high measured blood ethanol concentrations and the severe symptoms of these patients. This is the reason why early and intensive prevention strategies are required.

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and triglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovář, J; Zemánková, K

    2015-01-01

    The review aims to summarize current knowledge on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption (1 standard drink a day for women; 2 drinks a day for men) on triglyceride concentration in circulation. Current evidence suggests that the relationship between alcohol consumption and triglyceridemia is J-shaped. Triglyceridemia is lowest in subjects who drink 10-20 g/alcohol a day. Such a J-shaped association is comparable with that described for the relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular risk. On the contrary, alcohol taken with a meal increases and prolongs postprandial triglyceridemia. Such effects of alcohol consumption may be at least partially explained by the effects of ethanol on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption increases LPL activity, which may explain its TG-lowering effect. On the other hand, LPL activity is acutely downregulated by ethanol, which explains increased postprandial triglyceridemia.

  9. Removal of atmospheric ethanol by wet deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, J. David; Willey, Joan D.; Thomas, Rachel K.; Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Avery, G. Brooks; Kieber, Robert J.; Mead, Ralph N.; Helms, John; Giubbina, Fernanda F.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.; Cala, John

    2017-02-01

    The global wet deposition flux of ethanol is estimated to be 2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr with a conservative range of 0.2-4.6 Tg/yr based upon analyses of 219 wet deposition samples collected at 12 locations globally. This estimate calculated by using observed wet deposition ethanol concentrations is in agreement with previous models (1.4-5 Tg/yr) predicting the wet deposition sink using Henry's law coefficients and atmospheric ethanol concentrations. Wet deposition is estimated to remove between 6 and 17% of the total ethanol emitted to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The concentration of ethanol in marine rain (25 ± 6 nM) is an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial rains (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial rain samples collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to rain collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources. Results of this study are important because they suggest that as biofuel production and usage increase, the concentration of ethanol in the atmosphere will increase as well the wet deposition flux. Additional research constraining the sources, sinks, and atmospheric impacts of ethanol is necessary to better assist in the debate as whether or not to increase consumption of the alcohol as a biofuel.

  10. Escalation of Intake Under Intermittent Ethanol Access in Diverse Mouse Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M.; Fixaris, Michael C.; Crabbe, John C.; Brooks, Peter C.; Ascheid, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Experimental animals offered continuous 24-hour free choice access to ethanol rarely display voluntary ethanol consumption at levels sufficient to induce intoxication or to engender dependence. One of the simplest ways to increase voluntary ethanol intake is to impose temporal limitations on ethanol availability. Escalation of ethanol intake has been observed in both rats and mice under a variety of different schedules of alternating ethanol access and deprivation. While such effects have been observed in a variety of rat and mouse genotypes, little is known concerning possible genetic correlations between responses to intermittent ethanol access and other ethanol-related phenotypes. In the present study, we examined the effects of intermittent ethanol access in mouse genotypes characterized by divergent responses to ethanol in other domains, including ethanol preference (C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice), binge-like ethanol drinking (HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice), and ethanol withdrawal severity (WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice). While intermittent ethanol access resulted in escalated ethanol intake in all tested genotypes, the robustness of the effect varied across genotypes. On the other hand, we saw no evidence that the effects of intermittent access are correlated with either binge-like drinking or withdrawal severity, and only weak evidence for a genetic correlation with baseline ethanol preference. Thus, these different ethanol-related traits appear to depend on largely unique sets of genetic mediators. PMID:22862671

  11. Markets, not mandates, shape ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Kauffman

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 drought has reignited the food versus fuel debate. After cutting U.S. corn production below recent years’ consumption, the drought sparked a U.S. grain shortage and sent global food prices soaring. As the grain shortage intensified, pressure to relieve the shortage by easing ethanol mandates mounted.

  12. Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The review focuses on operant self-administration of ethanol in immature, infant rats. Several methods for the analysis of ethanol intake in infants are available, yet only oral self-administration models the typical pattern of ethanol consumption found in humans. The study of ethanol intake in infants is important for our understanding of how early alcohol experiences facilitate subsequent engagement with alcohol. It seems that sensitivity to ethanol-induced operant reinforcement is found very early in life, a few hours after birth, and throughout the first three weeks of life. Most of the studies reviewed complied with most, albeit not all, of the criteria for operant behavior (e.g., greater responding than yoked controls and persistence of this difference after withholding the reinforcer). Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats seems to be, at least partially, mediated by endogenous opioid transmission and can be enhanced by prior exposure to ethanol. Furthermore, acquisition of ethanol-mediated operant learning seems to facilitate drug self-administration during adolescence. Relative to older subjects, infants exhibit lower sensitivity to ethanol's sedative, hypnotic and motor impairing effects. On the other hand, they exhibit increased sensitivity to the motor stimulant and rewarding effects of ethanol. We suggest that this pattern of response to ethanol may favor the rapid acquisition of operant self-administration in infant rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sweetened ethanol drinking during social isolation: enhanced intake, resistance to genetic heterogeneity and the emergence of a distinctive drinking pattern in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, J B; Rodriguez, E D; Ryabinin, A E

    2017-03-01

    With its ease of availability during adolescence, sweetened ethanol ('alcopops') is consumed within many contexts. We asked here whether genetically based differences in social motivation are associated with how the adolescent social environment impacts voluntary ethanol intake. Mice with previously described differences in sociability (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and MSM/MsJ strains) were weaned into isolation or same-sex pairs (postnatal day, PD, 21), and then given continuous access to two fluids on PDs 34-45: one containing water and the other containing an ascending series of saccharin-sweetened ethanol (3-6-10%). Prior to the introduction of ethanol (PDs 30-33), increased water and food intake was detected in some of the isolation-reared groups, and controls indicated that isolated mice also consumed more 'saccharin-only' solution. Voluntary drinking of 'ethanol-only' was also higher in a subset of the isolated groups on PDs 46-49. However, sweetened ethanol intake was increased in all isolated strain × sex combinations irrespective of genotype. Surprisingly, blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was not different between these isolate and socially housed groups 4 h into the dark phase. Using lickometer-based measures of intake in FVB mice, we identified that a predominance of increased drinking during isolation transpired outside of the typical circadian consumption peak, occurring ≈8.5 h into the dark phase, with an associated difference in BEC. These findings collectively indicate that isolate housing leads to increased consumption of rewarding substances in adolescent mice independent of their genotype, and that for ethanol this may be because of when individuals drink during the circadian cycle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Correlation between ethanol behavioral sensitization and midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didone, Vincent; Masson, Sébastien; Quoilin, Caroline; Seutin, Vincent; Quertemont, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to test whether in vivo ethanol locomotor sensitization correlates with changes in either basal- or ethanol-evoked firing rates of dopamine neurons in vitro. Female Swiss mice were daily injected with 2.5 g/kg ethanol (or saline in the control group) for 7 days and their locomotor activity was recorded. At the end of the sensitization procedure, extracellular recordings were made from dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slices from these mice. Significantly higher spontaneous basal firing rates of dopamine neurons were recorded in ethanol-sensitized mice relative to control mice, but without correlations with the behavioral effects. The superfusion of sulpiride, a dopamine D2 antagonist, induced a stronger increase of dopamine neuron firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. This shows that the D2 feedback in dopamine neurons is preserved after chronic ethanol administration and argues against a reduced D2 feedback as an explanation for the increased dopamine neuron basal firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. Finally, ethanol superfusion (10-100 mM) significantly increased the firing rates of dopamine neurons and this effect was of higher magnitude in ethanol-sensitized mice. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between such a sensitization of dopamine neuron activity and ethanol behavioral sensitization. These results support the hypothesis that changes in brain dopamine neuron activity contribute to the behavioral sensitization of the stimulant effects of ethanol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The effects of dietary thiamin on voluntary ethanol drinking and ethanol metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, K; Pekkanen, L; Rusi, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The influence of a deficiency or surplus of thiamin in the diet on voluntary ethanol consumption, ethanol elimination rate and blood acetaldehyde concentration was studied in rats. 2. Both the high-thiamin diet containing 20 mg thiamin hydrochloride/kg and the thiamin deficient diet containing no measurable thiamin produced obvious functional effects on thiamin metabolism in rat tissues after 4 weeks as demonstrated by measurements of the blood transketolase (sedoheptulose-7-phosphate: D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate glycolaldehyde-transferase; EC 2.2.1.1) activity and the extent of thiamin pyrophosphate-stimulation of the enzyme. 3. During the first week on the test diets the prospective ethanol free-choice groups had 1.72 M-ethanol as their only drinking-fluid. Subsequently they had a choice between ethanol and tap water for three weeks. During the free-choice period the rats on the high-thiamin diet drank only one-fifth as much ethanol as the rats given the optimum diet with 4 mg thiamin hydrochloride/kg. 4. The thiamin-deficient rats showed a significant tendency to increase ethanol drinking, when intake was expressed relative to total energy intake, but their intake of ethanol on a g/kg body-weight basis was approximately the same as that of the group given the optimum-diet. 5. The observed differences in voluntary ethanol drinking associated with different levels of dietary thiamin cannot be explained by changes in the ethanol elimination rate or the acetaldehyde accumulation in blood during the oxidation of ethanol.

  16. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels on long term consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS, c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNFα, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener.

  17. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  18. The effect of sulfide and ammonia on cassava fermentation for ethanol production in an ethanol-methane coupled system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Jiang, Li; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian

    2011-01-01

    An ethanol-methane coupled system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. The wastewater originated from ethanol distillation is treated with two-stage anaerobic digestion and then recycled for medium preparation for the next batch ethanol fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and saving fresh water. The constituents of the two-stage anaerobic digestion effluent were complex which influenced the ethanol fermentation performance. This paper aimed to study the effect of two constituents in the effluent, i.e. sulfide and ammonia, on cassava-based ethanol fermentation performance. It was found that sulfide reduced the consumption rate of total sugar by significantly inhibiting the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the total consumption amount of total sugar at the end of fermentation was not influenced. S. cerevisiae produced more glycerol and less ethanol at the end of fermentation containing higher concentration of sodium sulfide. Ethanol fermentation performance could be hardly influenced by the sulfide in the two-stage effluent because of the very low concentration. More glycerol was produced while final ethanol concentration was reduced when the level of ammonia in the two-stage effluent was higher.

  19. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  20. Early maternal alcohol consumption alters hippocampal DNA methylation, gene expression and volume in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Marjonen

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5. Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60: we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in

  1. Moderate Ethanol Ingestion and Cardiovascular Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    While ethanol intake at high levels (3-4 or more drinks), either in acute (occasional binge drinking) or chronic (daily) settings, increases the risk for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, an inverse relationship between regular consumption of alcoholic beverages at light to moderate levels (1-2 drinks per day) and cardiovascular risk has been consistently noted in a large number of epidemiologic studies. Although initially attributed to polyphenolic antioxidants in red wine, subsequent work has established that the ethanol component contributes to the beneficial effects associated with moderate intake of alcoholic beverages regardless of type (red versus white wine, beer, spirits). Concerns have been raised with regard to interpretation of epidemiologic evidence for this association including heterogeneity of the reference groups examined in many studies, different lifestyles of moderate drinkers versus abstainers, and favorable risk profiles in moderate drinkers. However, better controlled epidemiologic studies and especially work conducted in animal models and cell culture systems have substantiated this association and clearly established a cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and reductions in tissue injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), respectively. The aims of this review are to summarize the epidemiologic evidence supporting the effectiveness of ethanol ingestion in reducing the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, even in patients with co-existing risk factors, to discuss the ideal quantities, drinking patterns, and types of alcoholic beverages that confer protective effects in the cardiovascular system, and to review the findings of recent experimental studies directed at uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular protective effects of antecedent ethanol ingestion. Mechanistic interrogation of the signaling pathways invoked by antecedent ethanol

  2. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus attenuates voluntary ethanol intake and activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Bian, Weiliang; Dave, Vaidehi; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2011-10-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus is the main integration site that controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine stress system. Disruption of this system has been linked with alcoholism, but the specific role of the PVN has not been fully explored. Of particular interest is the ability of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in the PVN, to regulate ethanol self-administration behavior, as these receptors appear to play an essential role in mediating the effects of ethanol in the central nervous system and in the regulation of PVN activity. We observed that Long-Evans rats, in the intermittent access to 20% ethanol paradigm, consumed high amounts of ethanol and subsequently developed ethanol dependence. Microinjection of the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin into the PVN, but not to the lateral ventricle of the brain, significantly reduced the intake of ethanol, but not the intake of sucrose. Picrotoxin-induced reduction was mimicked by another GABA(A)R antagonist bicuculline but was attenuated by the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol. Moreover, increased ethanol consumption was associated with lowered blood corticosterone levels, indicating a blunted HPA signaling, which was reversed by intra-PVN injection of picrotoxin, as indicated by the increased Fos immunostaining-positive cells in the PVN and the increased blood corticosterone levels. Taken together, our data provide evidence that in ethanol-dependent rats, the function of GABA(A)Rs in the PVN is upregulated, leading to a dampened HPA system. Moreover, it demonstrates that the GABA(A)R antagonists normalize HPA axis signaling and reduce excessive ethanol drinking. Therefore, drugs targeting GABA(A)Rs may be beneficial for alcoholics. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Assessment of the risk of exposure to cadmium and lead as a result of the consumption of low-fat dairy products by expectant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the risk related to consumption of low-fat dairy products by expectant and lactating women. A survey was used to verify the popularity of such products among expectant and lactating women and then the content of Cd and Pb in low-fat dairy products was determined. In the group of expectant women consuming dairy products, nearly 93% of the respondents consumed low-fat dairy products, while among lactating women the result was 90%. Both the expectant and lactating women mostly preferred milk and fruit yoghurt. It was found that the studied low-fat products did not contain more Cd and Pb than their standard counterparts. Taking into account the intake of low-fat milk and dairy products declared by respondents, such products must be regarded safe in terms of Cd and Pb content. The maximum supply of Cd and Pb for both groups of women did not exceed 3% TWI and 2% BMDL10.

  4. Role of cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the reinforcing actions of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Álvaro, Antonio; Ternianov, Alexander; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Navarrete, Francisco; García-Gutiérrez, Maria Salud; Manzanares, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2 r) on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption. The time-related and dose-response effects of ethanol on rectal temperature, handling-induced convulsions (HIC) and blood ethanol concentrations were evaluated in CB2 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. The reinforcing properties of ethanol were evaluated in conditioned place preference (CPP), preference and voluntary ethanol consumption and oral ethanol self-administration. Water-maintained behavior schedule was performed to evaluate the degree of motivation induced by a natural stimulus. Preference for non-alcohol tastants assay was performed to evaluate the differences in taste sensitivity. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions were also measured in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively. CB2 KO mice presented increased HIC score, ethanol-CPP, voluntary ethanol consumption and preference, acquisition of ethanol self-administration, and increased motivation to drink ethanol compared with WT mice. No differences were found between genotypes in the water-maintained behavior schedule or preference for non-alcohol tastants. Naïve CB2 KO mice presented increased μ-opioid receptor gene expression in NAcc. Acute ethanol administration (1-2 g/kg) increased TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions in CB2 KO mice, whereas the lower dose of ethanol decreased TH gene expression in WT mice. These results suggest that deletion of the CB2 r gene increased preference for and vulnerability to ethanol consumption, at least in part, by increased ethanol-induced sensitivity of the TH and μ-opioid receptor gene expressions in mesolimbic neurons. Future studies will determine the role of CB2 r as a target for the treatment of problems related with alcohol consumption. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Chronic intermittent ethanol regulates hippocampal GABA(A receptor delta subunit gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eFollesa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol consumption causes structural and functional reorganization in the hippocampus and induces alterations in the gene expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs. Distinct forced intermittent exposure models have been used previously to investigate changes in GABAAR expression, with contrasting results. Here, we used repeated cycles of a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol paradigm to examine the relationship between voluntary, dependence-associated ethanol consumption and GABAAR gene expression in mouse hippocampus. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to four 16-h ethanol vapor (or air cycles in inhalation chambers alternated with limited-access two-bottle choice between ethanol (15% and water consumption. The mice exposed to ethanol vapor showed significant increases in ethanol consumption compared to their air-matched controls. GABAAR alpha4 and delta subunit gene expression were measured by qRT-PCR at different stages. There were significant changes in GABAAR delta subunit transcript levels at different time points in ethanol-vapor exposed mice, while the alpha4 subunit levels remained unchanged. Correlated concurrent blood ethanol concentrations suggested that GABAAR delta subunit mRNA levels fluctuate depending on ethanol intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal state. Using a vapor-based Chronic Intermittent Ethanol procedure with combined two-bottle choice consumption, we corroborated previous evidences showing that discontinuous ethanol exposure affects GABAAR delta subunit expression but we did not observe changes in alpha4 subunit. These findings indicate that hippocampal GABAAR delta subunit expression changes transiently over the course of a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol paradigm associated with voluntary intake, in response to ethanol-mediated disturbance of GABAergic neurotransmission.

  6. Fungal protein and ethanol from lignocelluloses using Rhizopus pellets under simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh FazeliNejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of the 2nd generation bioethanol production process cannot rely on a single product but on a biorefinery built around it. In this work, ethanol and fungal biomass (animal feed were produced from acid-pretreated wheat straw slurry under an innovative simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and filtration (SSFF strategy. A membrane unit separated the solids from the liquid and the latter was converted to biomass or to both biomass and ethanol in the fermentation reactor containing Rhizopus sp. pellets. Biomass yields of up to 0.34 g/g based on the consumed monomeric sugars and acetic acid were achieved. A surplus of glucose in the feed resulted in ethanol production and reduced the biomass yield, whereas limiting glucose concentrations resulted in higher consumption of xylose and acetic acid. The specific growth rate, in the range of 0.013-0.015/h, did not appear to be influenced by the composition of the carbon source. Under anaerobic conditions, an ethanol yield of 0.40 g/g was obtained. The present strategy benefits from the easier separation of the biomass from the medium and the fungus ability to assimilate carbon residuals in comparison with when yeast is used. More specifically, it allows in-situ separation of insoluble solids leading to the production of pure fungal biomass as a value-added product.

  7. Simultaneous biosorption and bioethanol production from lead-contaminated media by Mucor indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Samadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucor indicus with different morphologies was used for ethanol production and Pb2+ biosorption. With increasing Pb2+ concentration in the cultivation medium, the fungus morphology changed from purely filamentous to mostly filamentous and the biosorption capacity was increased. The maximum adsorption capacity predicted by Langmuir model was 118 mg/g for purely filamentous form. All morphologies were also cultivated in the presence of high Pb2+ concentration (300 mg/L in consecutive stages. After the first stage of cultivation, the live biomass was separated and cultivated in a new medium similar to the first stage and cultivation was performed within five stages. All morphologies of M. indicus were able to grow and produce ethanol in the presence of lead at all stages but with lower yields than those cultivated in the absence of lead. The highest ethanol yields of 0.46 and 0.35 g ethanol per g consumed glucose were obtained by mostly filamentous morphology at the first and the last stages, respectively. The presence of lead decreased the glucose consumption rate of all morphologies and the yeast-like morphology consumed glucose within a shorter time than the other morphologies. Different morphologies were able to adsorb lead ions considerably (97–99% within the five consecutive stages.

  8. Methane and Ethanol Ignition Behind Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matveeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toughening environmental standards for concentration of emitting greenhouse gas (GHG and soot particulates in combustion of the hydrocarbon fuels initiate development of new fuels. One of the perspectives for development is the partial or complete replacement of fossil fuels with biofuel. Alcohols and, in particular, ethanol are the promising types of biofuel. A number of publications experimentally show the use of ethanol as an additive to the traditional fuels in internal combustion engines with forced ignition and self-ignition. The paper carries out an experimental study of the ignition of stoichiometric mixtures of methane / oxygen, ethanol / oxygen and methane / ethanol / oxygen behind shock waves. The experiments were conducted in a shock tube of standard construction behind reflected shock waves in the range of temperatures and pressures, respectively, 1140-1825 K and 4.82-5.98 bars. The temperature dependences of the ignition delays were measured for mixtures of 3.3% CH4 + 6.7% O2 + Ar, 2.5% C2H5OH + 7.5% O2 + Ar, 1.5% CH4 + 1.5% C2H5OH + 7.5% O2 + Ar. It is shown that the addition of ethanol to the methane / oxygen mixture reduces a value of the ignition delays. A kinetic simulation of the ignition process of the combustible compositions under study was carried out. The experimental data were used to try out the kinetic mechanisms from the literature. For one mechanism, we failed to reach a good agreement with experimental data for all three variants of the mixtures studied. The paper analyses the change in the kinetic ways of ethanol consumption and formation in combustion of the ethanol-methane mixture and shows a disagreement between the existing kinetic mechanisms. The new experimental data obtained in the paper can further help when developing the kinetic mechanisms of combustion of various traditional fuel mixtures with alcohols, in particular, with ethanol.

  9. Acamprosate {monocalcium bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate)} reduces ethanol-drinking behavior in rats and glutamate-induced toxicity in ethanol-exposed primary rat cortical neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Michiko; Hirouchi, Masaaki; Tamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Seishi; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2013-10-15

    Acamprosate, the calcium salt of bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate), contributes to the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients, but its mechanism of action in the central nervous system is unclear. Here, we report the effect of acamprosate on ethanol-drinking behavior in standard laboratory Wistar rats, including voluntary ethanol consumption and the ethanol-deprivation effect. After forced ethanol consumption arranged by the provision of only one drinking bottle containing 10% ethanol, the rats were given a choice between two drinking bottles, one containing water and the other containing 10% ethanol. In rats selected for high ethanol preference, repeated oral administration of acamprosate diminished voluntary ethanol drinking. After three months of continuous access to two bottles, rats were deprived of ethanol for three days and then presented with two bottles again. After ethanol deprivation, ethanol preference was increased, and the increase was largely abolished by acamprosate. After exposure of primary neuronal cultures of rat cerebral cortex to ethanol for four days, neurotoxicity, as measured by the extracellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was induced by incubation with glutamate for 1h followed by incubation in the absence of ethanol for 24h. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine, the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine and the voltage-gated calcium-channel blocker nifedipine all inhibited glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons. Acamprosate inhibited the glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons more strongly than that from intact neurons. In conclusion, acamprosate showed effective reduction of drinking behavior in rats and protected ethanol-exposed neurons by multiple blocking of glutamate signaling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise training with ageing protects against ethanol induced myocardial glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Pushpalatha; Kesireddy, Sathyavelureddy; Christiaan, Leeuwenburgh

    2008-05-01

    Glutathione plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular antioxidant defense. The alterations in the glutathione and associated recyclic enzymes caused by both exercise training and ethanol are well documented; however, their interactive effects with age are not well understood. Therefore, the influence of ageing and the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial glutathione system in 3 months and 18 months old rats were examined. The results showed a significant (pEthanol consumption significantly (pethanol consumption significantly (pethanol significantly (pethanol treated rats in both age groups, indicating the suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training. In conclusion, there was a compensatory myocardial response lessening ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training, which seemed to result from the higher activity of glutathione recycling and utilizing enzymes, which may be critical for preventing chronic oxidative damage to the myocardium during ageing and even due to ethanol consumption.

  11. Influence of ethanol on development of hyperplastic nodules in alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde; Eriksen, J

    1987-01-01

    % in those who consumed an excessive amount. In conclusion, alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis develop hyperplastic nodules during follow-up, the rate and prevalence of which is significantly related to the amount of ethanol consumed during follow-up. Ethanol consumption may inhibit hepatocellular......The type of cirrhosis was blindly evaluated in follow-up liver biopsies performed on 106 alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis. The median time interval from entry to follow-up liver biopsy was 31 mo (range, 3-44 mo). Patients were stratified into four groups according to their maximal...... registered ethanol consumption during follow-up. Thirty-six patients (34%) abstained from ethanol, 40 patients (38%) consumed a small amount of ethanol (less than 50 g/day), 19 patients (18%) consumed a moderate amount of ethanol (51-100 g/day), and 11 patients (10%) consumed an excessive amount of ethanol...

  12. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol

  13. Mechanisms of Ethanol-induced Death of Cerebellar Granule Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. The most deleterious effect of fetal alcohol exposure is inducing neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that is most susceptible to ethanol during development. Ethanol exposure causes a loss of both cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. This review focuses on the toxic effect of ethanol on cerebellar granule cells (CGC) and the underlying mechanisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that ethanol induces apoptotic death of CGC. The vulnerability of CGC to ethanol-induced death diminishes over time as neurons mature. Several mechanisms for ethanol-induced apoptosis of CGC have been suggested. These include inhibition of NMDA receptors, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, disturbance of potassium channel currents, thiamine deficiency, and disruption of translational regulation. Cultures of CGC provide an excellent system to investigate cellular/molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and to evaluate interventional strategies. This review will also discuss the approaches leading to neuroprotection against ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. PMID:20927663

  14. Optimization of an acetate reduction pathway for producing cellulosic ethanol by engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kong, In Iok; Wei, Na; Peng, Dairong; Turner, Timothy L; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-12-01

    Xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing NADPH-linked xylose reductase (XR) and NAD + -linked xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) suffers from redox imbalance due to cofactor difference between XR and XDH, especially under anaerobic conditions. We have demonstrated that coupling of an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway with surplus NADH producing xylose metabolism enabled not only efficient xylose fermentation, but also in situ detoxification of acetate in cellulosic hydrolysate through simultaneous co-utilization of xylose and acetate. In this study, we report the highest ethanol yield from xylose (0.463 g ethanol/g xylose) by engineered yeast with XR and XDH through optimization of the acetate reduction pathway. Specifically, we constructed engineered yeast strains exhibiting various levels of the acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) activities. Engineered strains exhibiting higher activities of AADH and ACS consumed more acetate and produced more ethanol from a mixture of 20 g/L of glucose, 80 g/L of xylose, and 8 g/L of acetate. In addition, we performed environmental and genetic perturbations to further improve the acetate consumption. Glucose-pulse feeding to continuously provide ATPs under anaerobic conditions did not affect acetate consumption. Promoter truncation of GPD1 and gene deletion of GPD2 coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to produce surplus NADH also did not lead to improved acetate consumption. When a cellulosic hydrolysate was used, the optimized yeast strain (SR8A6S3) produced 18.4% more ethanol and 41.3% less glycerol and xylitol with consumption of 4.1 g/L of acetate than a control strain without the acetate reduction pathway. These results suggest that the major limiting factor for enhanced acetate reduction during the xylose fermentation might be the low activities of AADH and ACS, and that the redox imbalance problem of XR/XDH pathway can be exploited

  15. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  16. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Calhoun, William J

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to alcoholic lung disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  18. [Association between ethanol intake and ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Bacà, Marco; Cosentino, Nicola; Fabretti, Alessandro; Crea, Filippo

    2008-11-01

    Most world populations consume alcoholic beverages. Ethanol may have both protective and harmful effects on health depending on the amount and way of consumption. An extensive body of data shows concordant J or U-shaped associations between alcohol intake and a variety of adverse health outcomes, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. In particular, moderate ethanol consumption is associated with cardioprotective benefits such as lower cardiovascular risk and mortality, probably mediated by beneficial effects on inflammation, lipids, and coagulation. In contrast, binge and/or heavy drinking results in proportional worsening of outcomes, increasing cardiovascular events and mortality. This harmful effect has been recently associated with the blockade of ischemic preconditioning mediated by high doses of ethanol. In this review, we highlight the recent epidemiological and experimental evidences regarding the specific benefits and risks of ethanol in the setting of ischemic heart disease.

  19. Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods present...

  20. Gene-specific disruption of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the probable roles played by cannabinoid (CB) receptors in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) induction in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Searching of public databases (GenBank, Ensembl) indicated that the Japanese rice fish genome includes three human ortholog CB receptor genes (cnr1a, cnr1b and cnr2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) techniques were used to analyze the expression of these cnr genes during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and also in response to developmental ethanol exposure. qPCR analyses showed that the expression of all three CB receptor genes were developmentally regulated and only cnr2 showed maternal expression. The mRNA concentrations of these genes were found to be enhanced after 3 dpf and attained maximal levels either prior to or after hatching. WMISH technique indicated that all three cnr genes were expressed in the head region of hatchlings. During development, ethanol selectively attenuated the expression of cnr1a mRNA only. Blocking of cnr1a mRNA by CB1 receptor antagonists rimonabant (10-20 μM) or AM251 (0.2-1 μM) 0-2 dpf were unable to induce any FASD-related phenotypic features in embryos or in hatchlings. However, continuous exposure of the embryos (0-6 dpf) to AM251 (1 μM) was able to reduce the hatching efficiency of the embryos. Our data indicated that in Japanese rice fish, ethanol disrupted the expression of only cnr1a in a concentration-dependent manner that induced delay in hatching and might be responsible for the development of FASD phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  2. IS THE MEAT OF WILD WATERFOWL FIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION? PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CADMIUM AND LEAD CONCENTRATION IN PECTORAL MUSCLES OF MALLARDS AND COOTS SHOT IN 2006 IN SOUTHERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Jakub Binkowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of cadmium and lead in pectoral muscles of mallards (N = 15 and coots (N = 15 shot on fishponds in Zator area (southern Poland, Europe were determined with the graphite furnace AAS. Samples were dried and wet digested in the mixture of HNO3 and HClO4. Median concentration of cadmium was 0.0616 µg.g-1d.w. among mallards and 0.0868 µg.g-1d.w. among coots. Concentrations of lead were higher and median run to 0.1898 µg.g-1d.w. in mallards and to 0.2637 µg.g-1d.w. in coots. No differences in heavy metals concentrations between species were statistically significant. According to the thresholds for foodstuff given by European Commission, meat of all birds was edible in the aspect of cadmium concentration (only meat of one coot contained cadmium near the given border. In the aspect of lead, 26% of researched birds have concentration beyond the safety limit and their meat was not fit for human consumption. Considering the annually number of shot birds, any kind of monitoring must be planned to assess potential consumers’ safety.

  3. energy characteristics of ethanol-diesel mix for automotive use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 1% to 5% by volume of 99.6% ethanol was mixed with diesel fuel. A 500ml of each mix was used to power a 9.545kW diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determined. Performance test indicates a 4.2% drop in power output at a 5% ethanol addition to diesel and an ...

  4. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S....... cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  5. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  6. Biofuel Food Disasters and Cellulosic Ethanol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, David

    2009-01-01

    As shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, become evident, the United States has moved to convert corn grain into ethanol with the goal to make the nation oil independent. Using more than 20% of all U.S. corn on 15 million acres in 2007 was providing the nation with less than 1% of U.S. oil consumption. Because the corn ethanol…

  7. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL. CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL. CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. USE. W. A. Akpan1, A. Offiong2 and E. G. Ikrang3, *. 1111, , , , 2222 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY ...

  8. Cyamemazine decreases ethanol intake in rats and convulsions during ethanol withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naassila, M; Legrand, E; d'Alche-Birée, F; Daoust, M

    1998-12-01

    The effect of cyamemazine a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist on voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and on ethanol withdrawal in mice was examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in a free choice (water and 10% ethanol) experiment and consumed 5 g/kg ethanol daily. Rats were treated daily IP with cyamemazine (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg) or acamprosate (100 mg/kg) during 2 weeks. Both acamprosate and 1 mg/kg cyamemazine significantly decreased ethanol intake by 45% without affecting either fluid or food intake. The lowest dose of cyamemazine had no effect on alcohol intake but increased food intake. The highest dose had no effect on any variables. During the post-treatment period, only 1 mg/kg cyamemazine decreased both ethanol and fluid intakes. Mice were made dependent on alcohol using a chocolate fluid diet containing increasing concentrations of alcohol and withdrawn after 9 days. Mice were treated with cyamemazine (1 or 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) or with the same doses of lorazepam acutely on the day of withdrawal or chronically (during alcohol treatment). Both chronic and acute cyamemazine and lorazepam treatments decreased convulsions during ethanol withdrawal. Both acute treatments decreased locomotor activity in control and alcohol dependent mice. Chronic treatment had no effect on locomotor activity. We suggest that cyamemazine could reduce alcohol consumption by antagonizing the activation of the dopaminergic pathways during the induction of alcohol dependence. The action of cyamemazine on 5-HT3 receptors could also explain its effect on alcohol convulsions during withdrawal convulsions.

  9. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  10. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  11. Performance of a stationary diesel engine using vapourized ethanol as supplementary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajav, E.A. [Ibadan Univ., Agricultural Engineering Dept., Ibadan (Nigeria); Singh, Bachchan [G.B. Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Coll. of Technology, Pantnagar (India); Bhattacharya, T.K. [G.B. Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Dept., Pantnagar (India)

    1998-12-31

    The modification and testing of a compression ignition engine using diesel and vapourized ethanol as fuel has been carried out. Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. Modifications were made in the introduction of the ethanol and air. A carburettor was used to vaporize aqueous ethanol into the engine. The effect of preheating the intake ethanol-air mixture was also investigated. Performance was evaluated in terms of engine horsepower, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, the exhaust gas temperature, lubricating oil temperature and exhaust emissions. The vapourized ethanol partially reduced diesel fuel consumption but also increased total fuel delivery. Vaporization increased power output, thermal efficiency and exhaust emission but lowered exhaust temperature and lubricating oil temperatures. (Author)

  12. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  13. Tolerance of yeast to ethanol decreased after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z.; He, J.; Jiang, X.; Fan, Y.; Zhuang, F.

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industry microorganism and the tolerance to ethanol is one of the main characteristics to decide its yield potential USA researchers reported that E coli cells growing in simulated microgravity environment were much more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and production-inhibitory effects of ethanol than cells growing in shaken flasks In this research we will investigate the tolerance of yeast to ethanol in real microgravity environment Method S cerevisiae cells were cultured for 18 d in YPD medium containing various concentrations of ethanol 0 6 8 and 10 V V during the China s 22 th recoverable satellite mission Optical density living cells counts metabolism and morphology in each culture were measured S cerevisiae cells were exposed to 20 V V ethanol to investigate the tolerance to ethanol Result The biomass of cells culture at 0 times g is 40 lower than that of the ground control in medium of YPD With the increase of concentration of ethanol in medium the rate of living cells decreased steeply especially in 0 times g culture The living cell of 0 times g is 65 5 lower than the control cells The viability of 0 times g cells and ground control cells exposed to 20 ethanol for 6h is 1 7 and 10 5 respectively No remarkable differences were found in the cell morphology and glucose consumption Conclusion These results suggest that under

  14. Role of interleukin-1 receptor signaling in the behavioral effects of ethanol and benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Benavidez, Jillian M; Black, Mendy; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R Adron

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression studies identified the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) as part of a pathway associated with a genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, and lack of the endogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) strongly reduced ethanol intake in mice. Here, we compared ethanol-mediated behaviors in mice lacking Il1rn or Il1r1. Deletion of Il1rn (the gene encoding IL-1ra) increases sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and flurazepam and reduces severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, deletion of Il1r1 (the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1R1) reduces sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol and flurazepam and increases the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. The sedative effects of ketamine and pentobarbital were not altered in the knockout (KO) strains. Ethanol intake and preference were not changed in mice lacking Il1r1 in three different tests of ethanol consumption. Recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination was only altered in female mice lacking Il1r1. Mice lacking Il1rn (but not Il1r1) showed increased ethanol clearance and decreased ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The increased ethanol- and flurazepam-induced sedation in Il1rn KO mice was decreased by administration of IL-1ra (Kineret), and pre-treatment with Kineret also restored the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal severity were changed in opposite directions in the null mutants, indicating that these responses are likely regulated by IL-1R1 signaling, whereas ethanol intake and preference do not appear to be solely regulated by this pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Interleukin-1 Receptor Signaling in the Behavioral Effects of Ethanol and Benzodiazepines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies identified the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) as part of a pathway associated with a genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, and lack of the endogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) strongly reduced ethanol intake in mice. Here, we compared ethanol-mediated behaviors in mice lacking Il1rn or Il1r1. Deletion of Il1rn (the gene encoding IL-1ra) increases sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and flurazepam and reduces severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, deletion of Il1r1 (the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1R1) reduces sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol and flurazepam and increases the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. The sedative effects of ketamine and pentobarbital were not altered in the knockout (KO) strains. Ethanol intake and preference were not changed in mice lacking Il1r1 in three different tests of ethanol consumption. Recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination was only altered in female mice lacking Il1r1. Mice lacking Il1rn (but not Il1r1) showed increased ethanol clearance and decreased ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The increased ethanol- and flurazepam-induced sedation in Il1rn KO mice was decreased by administration of IL-1ra (Kineret), and pre-treatment with Kineret also restored the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal severity were changed in opposite directions in the null mutants, indicating that these responses are likely regulated by IL-1R1 signaling, whereas ethanol intake and preference do not appear to be solely regulated by this pathway. PMID:25839897

  16. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential ...

  18. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; P?rez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Dom?nguez, Mayrel; Souza, Ver?nica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; G?mez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Guti?rrez-Ruiz, Mar?a-Concepci?n

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde,...

  19. Estimating the time between drinking and death from tissue distribution patterns of ethanol.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Akira; Moriya, Fumio; Ishizu, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    To establish a method for estimating the time between the last consumption of alcohol and death, we examined the ethanol levels in body fluids and tissues of rats that had been orally administered 1 g/kg ethanol. We observed the following relationships between ethanol levels in the cardiac blood (blood in the heart itself), vitreous humor, and urine: cardiac blood > vitreous humor > urine at 10 min (early absorption stage); vitreous humor > cardiac blood > urine from 20 to 50 min (late absorp...

  20. Circadian rhythms of granzyme B, perforin, IFN-gamma, and NK cell cytolytic activity in the spleen: effects of chronic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2004-03-01

    Recent studies show that alterations in the body's biological rhythms can lead to serious pathologies, including cancer. Acute and chronic ethanol consumption impairs the immune system by causing specific defects in the cellular components of the innate immune response and by creating increased risk and susceptibility to infections and cancer. NK cells are critical for immune surveillance against infected and malignant cells. To assess whether NK cell function follows a circadian trend and to determine ethanol effects on this rhythm, we measured, over a 24-h period, mRNA and protein levels of granzyme B, perforin, and the cytokine IFN-gamma, as well as NK cell activity, in the splenocytes of ad libitum-fed, pair-fed, and ethanol-fed Sprague Dawley male rats. Circadian rhythms were found in mRNA and protein levels of granzyme B, perforin, and IFN-gamma. A circadian pattern was also detected in NK cell cytolytic activity. Our data further demonstrated how chronic ethanol suppressed NK cell activity by directly disrupting the circadian rhythms of granzyme B, perforin, and IFN-gamma. These findings identify the circadian functions of splenic NK cells and show the vulnerability of these rhythms to chronic ethanol.

  1. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy K. Dess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose; ethanol concentration (4% or 10%; and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib. during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS or low (LoS saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.

  2. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carrillo Lizbeth; López-Cervantes Malaquías; Ramírez-Espitia Armando; Rueda Celina; Fernández-Ortega Cielo; Orozco-Rivadeneyra Sergio

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk f...

  3. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  4. Ethanol obtention from fruit biomass; Obtencao de etanol a partir da biomassa de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Gabriela Chiele; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Steinmacher, Nadia Cristiane [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil)], emails: gabriela.chj@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, nadiac@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The development of a region is directly related to the increase of energy consumption and hence the growth of the generation of residual biomass of fruits per capita. Any kind of fruit biomass produced in cities, resulting from human activities and that is released into the environment, is classified as organic waste and is rarely reused. Biomass is any renewable resource derived from organic matter that can be used as an energy source. The use of fruit biomass for ethanol production leads to an improvement of environmental quality, preventing it being thrown in landfills, causing no harm to society. An example would be the biomass generated in the region's supermarkets, which usually are not included in recovery programs. This study aimed to test the production of ethanol from biomass of different combinations of fruits, through analysis of soluble solids, pH, alcohol content and titratable acids. We obtained a detailed analysis of the correlation of the properties and characteristics of the biomass of the fruits used, allowing to define the best combination of residual biomass for ethanol production, from the point of view technical and economical. 3:1:1 proportion of banana: apple: orange, respectively, was the better combination related with alcoholic degree. (author)

  5. Landuse Carbon Implications of a Drawdown of Ethanol Production and an Increase in Well-Managed Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; Phillips, J.

    2011-12-01

    of rotational grazing are believed to reverse degradation and potentially lead to soil and pasture improvement if well managed, with implications for soil carbon storage. As the debate over societal subsidization of ethanol continues, the scientific communities should prepare for a potential drawdown of ethanol, and be aware of the potential land use impacts. An integrated biogeophysical socioeconomic model is used to evaluate three levels of potential reductions in ethanol production along with the possibility of conversion of non-profitable cropland to pasture management. The integrated model (POLYSYS) is driven by data on economics, terrestrial carbon dynamics, remotely-sensed land cover, and energy consumption. Preliminary results indicate that up to 10 million hectares of cropland could convert to pastureland, reducing agricultural land use emissions by nearly 10 teragrams carbon equivalent (TgCeq), a 36% decline in agricultural land use carbon equivalent emissions.

  6. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, L; López-Cervantes, M; Ramírez-Espitia, A; Rueda, C; Fernández-Ortega, C; Orozco-Rivadeneyra, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR=2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75) in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p=0.005). This association remained among intestinal (OR=2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend=0.031 ) and diffuse (OR=4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend=0.018 ) gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p=0.068). Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine, with emphasis on components other than ethanol regarding the incidence of gastric cancer, even among populations with moderate to low levels of alcohol consumption.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  8. Co-production of hydrogen and ethanol by Escherichia coli SS1 and its recombinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Shyan Soo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: HybC could improve glycerol consumption rate and ethanol productivity of E. coli despite lower hydrogen and ethanol yields. Higher glycerol consumption rate of recombinant hybC could be an advantage for bioconversion of glycerol into biofuels. This study could serve as a useful guidance for dissecting the role of hydrogenase in glycerol metabolism and future development of effective strain for biofuels production.

  9. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  10. Comparison of ethanol production performance in 10 varieties of sweet potato at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhou, Lingling; Zhao, Hai

    2012-10-01

    The performance in the ethanol production of 10 varieties of sweet potato was evaluated, and the consumption in raw materials, land occupation and fermentation waste residue in producing 1 ton of anhydrous ethanol were investigated. The comparative results between 10 varieties of sweet potato at 3 growth stages indicated that NS 007 and SS 19 were better feedstocks for ethanol production, exhibiting less feedstock consumption (6.19 and 7.59 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the least land occupation (0.24 and 0.24 ha/ton ethanol, respectively), less fermentation waste residue (0.56 and 0.55 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the highest level of ethanol output per unit area (4.17 and 4.17 ton/ha, respectively), and a lower viscosity of the fermentation culture (591 and 612 mPa S, respectively). The data above are average data. In most varieties, the ethanol output speed at day 130 was the highest. Therefore, NS 007 and SS 19 could be used for ethanol production and harvested after 130 days of growth from an economic point of view. In addition, the high content of fermentable sugars and low content of fiber in sweet potatoes are criteria for achieving low viscosity in ethanol fermentation cultures.

  11. An improved method of determining ethanol use in a chronic pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Bridgit; West, Robert; Gutierrez, Ronita; Latyshev, Sergey; Mikel, Charles; Almazan, Perla; Pesce, Amadeo; West, Cameron; Rosenthal, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Determination of ethanol use in the pain patient population being treated with chronic opioid therapy is critically important to the treating physician. Urinary ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) have been used to identify alcohol use. Because urine samples are shipped to reference laboratories, the possibility of glucose fermentation during transit producing ethanol complicates interpretation. The purpose of this study was to establish whether ethanol-positive urine samples were due to ingestion or fermentation during shipping. The authors obtained 94 ethanol-positive urine samples from pain patients, which were further tested for EtG, EtS, and glucose. Only 62 of the 94 samples contained EtS or EtS. Of the 94 samples, 63 samples had glucose values above 10 mg/dL. Four of the 32 EtG-negative patients had ethanol levels that were nonphysiologic. Limitations of the study include the lack of demographic data beyond treatment with opioids for chronic pain. Roughly one-third of the time, ethanol-positive urine samples that have been shipped were positive because of fermentation and not because of patient alcohol consumption. This method is a combination of urinary ethanol measurement and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of both EtG and EtS. In the absence of these metabolites, the presence of urinary ethanol is attributed to fermentation. The improvement is a better definition of the source of the ethanol. Confirmatory testing showing the presence of the ethanol metabolites EtG and EtS is needed to validate that the ethanol is due to consumption. The presence of glucose, while common in the ethanol-positive samples, is not an absolute indicator that the ethanol was due to fermentation.

  12. Stress-induced enhancement of ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic ethanol exposure: Involvement of kappa opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 hr/day x 4 days/week to ethanol vapor (CIE group or air (CTL group. Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 hour access to 15% ethanol. Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min, the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg, or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0,1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg one hour prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS. All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was

  13. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  14. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine depletes hepatic glutathione but protects against ethanol-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Terrence M; Curry-McCoy, Tiana V; Todero, Sandra L; White, Ronda L; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Nanji, Amin A; Osna, Natalia A

    2007-06-01

    L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine (BSO) is an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and has been used as an effective means of depleting glutathione from cells and tissues. Here we investigated whether treatment with BSO enhanced ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Female C57Bl/6 mice were pair fed with control and ethanol-containing liquid diets in which ethanol was 29.2% of total calories. During the final 7 days of pair feeding, groups of control-fed and ethanol-fed mice were given 0, 5 or 7.6 mM BSO in the liquid diets. Compared with controls, ethanol given alone decreased total liver glutathione. This effect was exacerbated in mice given ethanol with 7.6 mM BSO, causing a 72% decline in hepatic glutathione. While ethanol alone caused no decrease in mitochondrial glutathione, inclusion of 7.6 mM BSO caused a 2-fold decline compared with untreated controls. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine did not affect ethanol consumption, but serum ethanol levels in BSO-treated mice were nearly 6-fold lower than in mice given ethanol alone. The latter decline in serum ethanol was associated with a significant elevation in the specific activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase in livers of BSO-treated animals. Ethanol consumption caused a 3.5-fold elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase levels but the enzyme fell to control levels when BSO was included in the diet. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine administration also attenuated ethanol-induced steatosis, prevented the leakage of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytosol, and prevented the ethanol-elicited decline in proteasome activity. L-Buthionine (S,R) sulfoximine, administered with ethanol, significantly depleted hepatic glutathione, compared with controls. However, despite the decrease in hepatic antioxidant levels, liver injury by ethanol was alleviated, due, in part, to a BSO-elicited acceleration of ethanol metabolism.

  15. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573 on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting nonspecific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting nonspecific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol

  16. Magnesium homeostasis and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Andrea M P

    2008-12-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence indicates alcohol consumption as one of the major causes of magnesium loss from several tissues. As a result of this loss, serum magnesium tends to decrease while urinary magnesium excretion increases 2-3 fold. Experimental data confirm that chronic consumption of 6% ethanol in the Lieber De-Carli diet for 3 weeks results in a marked decrease in total tissue magnesium content in rats. This decrease affects brain, liver and all skeletal muscle, including heart, to a varying extent. While a full picture of the implications of magnesium loss in these tissues is still lacking, it is becoming progressively clear that magnesium loss affects energy production, protein synthesis, cell cycle, and specific functions in the various organs affected. In addition, as magnesium regulated cytokine production and secretion, especially in macrophages and leukocytes, a major role of magnesium deficiency in alcohol-induced inflammatory processes can be envisioned. Considering all these various aspects together, it becomes apparent that magnesium loss may represent a predisposing factor to the onset of alcohol-induced pathologies including brain stroke, sarcopenia, cardiomyopathy, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The present review will attempt to clarify some of the mechanisms by which ethanol impairs magnesium transport and homeostasis in brain, brain vasculature, skeletal muscle, heart and liver cells, as a first step towards more mechanistic studies aimed at relating magnesium loss with the incurrence of short- and long-term ethanol-induced complications in these organs.

  17. Quantification of ethanol methyl (1)H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Graham S; O'Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2010-03-01

    In vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl (1)H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol's intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol (1)H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T(2) within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to non-human primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in non-human primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Caffeine on the Behavioral Effects of Ethanol Related to Abuse and Addiction: A Review of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of caffeine on the behavioral effects of ethanol, including ethanol consumption and abuse, has become a topic of great interest due to the rise in popularity of the so-called energy drinks. Energy drinks high in caffeine are frequently taken in combination with ethanol under the popular belief that caffeine can offset some of the intoxicating effects of ethanol. However, scientific research has not universally supported the idea that caffeine can reduce the effects of ethanol in humans or in rodents, and the mechanisms mediating the caffeine–ethanol interactions are not well understood. Caffeine and ethanol have a common biological substrate; both act on neurochemical processes related to the neuromodulator adenosine. Caffeine acts as a nonselective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, while ethanol has been demonstrated to increase the basal adenosinergic tone via multiple mechanisms. Since adenosine transmission modulates multiple behavioral processes, the interaction of both drugs can regulate a wide range of effects related to alcohol consumption and the development of ethanol addiction. In the present review, we discuss the relatively small number of animal studies that have assessed the interactions between caffeine and ethanol, as well as the interactions between ethanol and subtype-selective adenosine receptor antagonists, to understand the basic findings and determine the possible mechanisms of action underlying the caffeine–ethanol interactions. PMID:24761272

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf, stem, seed and fruit of an Indian medicinal plant, Bryonopsis laciniosa, used traditionally as potent medication in healing several ailments such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against ...

  20. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been associated with diverse health defects such as cancer and skin lesions. Some plants of medicinal value have been reported to show protective effects against toxins. In this study, the effects of ethanol extract of the leaves of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against ...

  1. Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.J.I.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific

  2. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and lung cancers, as well as urinary stone, dental caries, etc. The present review focuses on the beneficial effects of tea consumption on human health. Keywords: Antioxidants, Theaflavonoides, Anticaries, Ethanol intoxication, Tea consumption > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 6 (3) 2007: pp. 785-792 ...

  3. Consumption externalities and preference complementarities

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Rebecca; Carlson, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions can lead to a variety of phenomena including consumption externalities and complementarities. Consumption externalities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the total value of a household's purchases; complementarities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the marginal value of a household's purchases. This paper develops a conceptual model that separately identifies consumption externalities and complementarities and illustrates their significan...

  4. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50 = 19.8 mM being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50 = 42.1 mM. This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation.

  5. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  6. Ethanol Induction of CYP2A5: Role of CYP2E1-ROS-Nrf2 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongke; Zhang, Xu Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption was previously shown to induce CYP2A5 in mice, and this induction of CYP2A5 by ethanol was CYP2E1 dependent. In this study, the mechanisms of CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5 were investigated. CYP2E1 was induced by chronic ethanol consumption to the same degree in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (Cyp2a5 –/–) mice, suggesting that unlike the CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is not CYP2A5 dependent. Microsomal ethanol oxidation was about 25% lower in Cyp2a5 –/– mice compared with that in WT mice, suggesting that CYP2A5 can oxidize ethanol although to a lesser extent than CYP2E1 does. CYP2A5 was induced by short-term ethanol consumption in human CYP2E1 transgenic knockin (Cyp2e1 –/– KI) mice but not in CYP2E1 knockout (Cyp2e1 –/–) mice. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was also induced by acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 –/– KI mice but not in Cyp2e1 –/– mice. Ethanol induction of CYP2A5 in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 –/–) mice was lower compared with that in WT mice, whereas CYP2E1 induction by ethanol was comparable in WT and Nrf2 –/– mice. Antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine and vitamin C), which blocked oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol in WT mice and acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 –/– KI mice, also blunted the induction of CYP2A5 and Nrf2 by ethanol but not the induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. These results suggest that oxidative stress induced by ethanol via induction of CYP2E1 upregulates Nrf2 activity, which in turn regulates ethanol induction of CYP2A5. Results obtained from primary hepatocytes, mice gavaged with binge ethanol or fed chronic ethanol, show that Nrf2-regulated ethanol induction of CYP2A5 protects against ethanol-induced steatosis. PMID:22552773

  7. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  8. Neonatal experiences with ethanol intoxication modify respiratory and thermoregulatory plasticity and affect subsequent ethanol intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Anunziata, Florencia; Haymal, Olga Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between .0-3.0 g/kg and tested in terms of breathing patterns and thermoregulation. At PDs 11 and 12, ethanol intake was examined. The main findings were as follows: i) pre-exposure to the drug resulted in brief depressions in breathing frequencies and an exacerbated predisposition toward apneic episodes; ii) these effects were not dependent upon thermoregulatory alterations; iii) early ethanol treatment increased initial consumption of the drug which also caused a marked hypothermia that appeared to regulate a subsequent decrement in ethanol consumption; and iv) ethanol exposure retarded overall body growth and even one exposure to the drug (PD 9) was sufficient to reduce brain weights although there were no indications of microcephaly. In conjunction with studies performed during the late gestational period in the rat, the results indicate that relatively brief binge-like episodes during a critical window of brain vulnerability disrupts the respiratory network and exacerbates initial acceptance of the drug. In addition, ethanol treatments were not found to induce tolerance relative to respiratory and thermal disruptions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  10. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  11. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Methods Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Results Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Conclusion Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure. PMID:24676223

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  13. Selectively Bred Crossed High Alcohol Preferring Mice Drink To Intoxication And Develop Functional Tolerance, But Not Locomotor Sensitization During Free-Choice Ethanol Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M.; Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Crossed High Alcohol Preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1xHAP2 replicate lines, and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol. Methods Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% ethanol access (0, 3, 14 or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% ethanol and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. Results We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice ethanol access. Conclusions Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol’s behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied

  14. Microstructural Analysis of Rat Ethanol and Water Drinking Patterns Using a Modified Operant Self-administration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stacey L.; McCool, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethanol drinking pattern has emerged as an important factor in the development, maintenance, and health consequences of alcohol use disorders in humans. The goal of these studies was to further our understanding of this important factor through refinement of an operant rodent model of ethanol consumption capable of drinking pattern microstructural analysis. We evaluated measures of total consumption, appetitive behavior, and drinking microstructure for ethanol and water at baseline and assessed alterations induced by two treatments previously shown to significantly alter gross ethanol appetitive and consummatory behaviors in opposing directions. Methods Male Long Evans rats were trained on an FR1 operant paradigm which allowed for continuous liquid access until an 8 second pause in consumption resulted in termination of liquid access. Total appetitive and consummatory behaviors were assessed in addition to microstructural drinking pattern for both ethanol and water during a five day baseline drinking period, after chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure, and following administration of a cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716a. Results As in previous operant studies, ethanol vapor exposure resulted in increases in ethanol-directed responding, total consumption, and rate of intake. Further, striking differential alterations to ethanol and water bout size, duration, and lick pattern occurred consistent with alterations in hedonic evaluation. Vapor additionally specifically reduced the number of ethanol-directed lever presses which did not result in subsequent consumption. SR141716a administration reversed many of these effects. Conclusions The addition of microstructural analysis to operant self-administration by rodents provides a powerful and translational tool for the detection of specific alterations in ethanol drinking pattern which may enable insights into neural mechanisms underlying specific components of drug consumption. PMID:26037631

  15. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  16. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  17. Ethanol : separating fact from fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This fact sheet presents documented information that dispels some of the myths that people have developed about ethanol. Once the facts are revealed, it becomes clear that using and producing ethanol for transportation is good for the country's econo...

  18. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  19. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Yaacob

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2 are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2 and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2 in response to 2% (w/v glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell

  20. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2013-09-16

    VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the process oscillation under the

  3. Regular Alcohol Consumption Mimics Cardiac Preconditioning by Protecting against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Masami; Diamond, Ivan; Weiner, Michael W.; Camacho, S. Albert; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    1997-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that long-term alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of coronary disease and may improve outcome after myocardial infarction. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction improves survival. This study investigates the possibility that alcohol consumption can improve survival after myocardial infarction by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hearts were isolated from guinea pigs after drinking ethanol for 3-12 weeks and subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts from animals drinking ethanol showed improved functional recovery and decreased myocyte damage when compared with controls. Adenosine A1 receptor blockade abolished the protection provided by ethanol consumption. These findings indicate that long-term alcohol consumption reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and that adenosine A1 receptors are required for this protective effect of ethanol. This cardioprotective effect of long-term alcohol consumption mimics preconditioning and may, in part, account for the beneficial effect of moderate drinking on cardiac health.

  4. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  5. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  6. Ethanol as a prodrug: brain metabolism of ethanol mediates its reinforcing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Bustamante, Diego; Gonzalez-Lira, Víctor; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2011-04-01

     While the molecular entity responsible for the rewarding effects of virtually all drugs of abuse is known, that for ethanol remains uncertain. Some lines of evidence suggest that the rewarding effects of alcohol are mediated not by ethanol per se but by acetaldehyde generated by catalase in the brain. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of catalase has not allowed strong conclusions to be drawn about its role on the rewarding properties of ethanol. The present studies determined the effect on voluntary alcohol consumption of two gene vectors, one designed to inhibit catalase synthesis and one designed to synthesize alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), to respectively inhibit or increase brain acetaldehyde synthesis.  The lentiviral vectors, which incorporate the genes they carry into the cell genome, were (i) one encoding a shRNA anticatalase synthesis and (ii) one encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (rADH1). These were stereotaxically microinjected into the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Wistar-derived rats bred for generations for their high alcohol preference (UChB), which were allowed access to an ethanol solution and water.  Microinjection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector encoding the anticatalase shRNA virtually abolished (-94% p alcohol by the rats. Conversely, injection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector coding for ADH greatly stimulated (2 to 3 fold p brain. Data suggest novel targets for interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Isoprostan Urin Sebagai Biomarka Keracunan Etanol dan Upaya Detoksikasinya dengan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Manggis (URINE ISOPROSTANE AS TOXIC BIOMARKER OF ETHANOL AND DETOXICATION EFFORTS BY USING ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SKIN MANGOSTEEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Suaniti; Manuntun Manurung

    2017-01-01

    Isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress which is a toxic metabolite of fatty acids, can be formedafter experiencing lipid peroxidation duo to ethanol. The aim of this study was to analyze the isoprostaneas early detection biomarker in urine of Wistar rats after ethanol consumption in sub-acute, followed byadministration of ethanol extract of rind of mangosteen fruit (EERMF). ELISA was use in this study fordiagnostic method as it can analyze the content of biological fluids even in small a...

  8. Antecedent ethanol ingestion prevents postischemic microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kazuma; Dayton, Catherine B; Yamaguchi, Taiji; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2004-04-01

    Prolonged ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) results in impaired endothelial cell function in all segments of the microvasculature. Moreover, microcirculatory dysfunction plays a major role in the genesis of the reperfusion component of total tissue injury in I/R. Thus, preservation of endothelial function is an important therapeutic goal for ameliorating injury in tissues subjected to I/R. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that low to moderate ethanol consumption produces an adaptive transformation to a protected phenotype in both microvascular endothelium and parenchymal cells such that they are rendered resistant to the pathologic effects of I/R. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the signaling pathways underlying the development of the preconditioned state induced by antecedent ethanol in arteriolar, capillary, and venular endothelium. In addition, we will highlight understudied areas with regard to microvascular protection afforded by antecedent ethanol in the hopes that this will stimulate investigation of its underlying mechanisms. Understanding these signaling pathways may provide a mechanistic rationale for the development of novel treatment interventions that target both the microcirculatory and parenchymal sequelae to I/R, thereby maximizing the therapeutic potential of the protected phenotypes produced by pharmacologic preconditioning.

  9. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. GIRK3 gates activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway by ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Melissa A.; Sidhu, Harpreet; Stouffer, David G.; Kreifeldt, Max; Le, David; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Munoz, Michaelanne B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Parsons, Loren H.; Roberto, Marisa; Wickman, Kevin; Slesinger, Paul A.; Contet, Candice

    2015-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are critical regulators of neuronal excitability and can be directly activated by ethanol. Constitutive deletion of the GIRK3 subunit has minimal phenotypic consequences, except in response to drugs of abuse. Here we investigated how the GIRK3 subunit contributes to the cellular and behavioral effects of ethanol, as well as to voluntary ethanol consumption. We found that constitutive deletion of GIRK3 in knockout (KO) mice selectively increased ethanol binge-like drinking, without affecting ethanol metabolism, sensitivity to ethanol intoxication, or continuous-access drinking. Virally mediated expression of GIRK3 in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reversed the phenotype of GIRK3 KO mice and further decreased the intake of their wild-type counterparts. In addition, GIRK3 KO mice showed a blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway to ethanol, as assessed by ethanol-induced excitation of VTA neurons and DA release in the nucleus accumbens. These findings support the notion that the subunit composition of VTA GIRK channels is a critical determinant of DA neuron sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Furthermore, our study reveals the behavioral impact of this cellular effect, whereby the level of GIRK3 expression in the VTA tunes ethanol intake under binge-type conditions: the more GIRK3, the less ethanol drinking. PMID:25964320

  11. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  12. Physiology, Genomics, and Pathway Engineering of an Ethanol-Tolerant Strain of Clostridium phytofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Zuroff, Trevor R; Ramya, Mohandass; Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-08-15

    Novel processing strategies for hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass in a single reactor offer large potential cost savings for production of biocommodities and biofuels. One critical challenge is retaining high enzyme production in the presence of elevated product titers. Toward this goal, the cellulolytic, ethanol-producing bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans was adapted to increased ethanol concentrations. The resulting ethanol-tolerant (ET) strain has nearly doubled ethanol tolerance relative to the wild-type level but also reduced ethanol yield and growth at low ethanol concentrations. The genome of the ET strain has coding changes in proteins involved in membrane biosynthesis, the Rnf complex, cation homeostasis, gene regulation, and ethanol production. In particular, purification of the mutant bifunctional acetaldehyde coenzyme A (CoA)/alcohol dehydrogenase showed that a G609D variant abolished its activities, including ethanol formation. Heterologous expression of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the ET strain increased cellulose consumption and restored ethanol production, demonstrating how metabolic engineering can be used to overcome disadvantageous mutations incurred during adaptation to ethanol. We discuss how genetic changes in the ET strain reveal novel potential strategies for improving microbial solvent tolerance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  14. Determination of the efficiency of ethanol oxidation in a proton exchange membrane electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    Products and residual ethanol in the anode and cathode exhausts of an ethanol electrolysis cell (EEC) have been analyzed by proton NMR and infrared spectrometry under a variety of operating conditions. This provides a full accounting of the fate of ethanol entering the cell, including the stoichiometry of the ethanol oxidation reaction (i.e. the average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule), product distribution and the crossover of ethanol and products through the membrane. The reaction stoichiometry (nav) is the key parameter that determines the faradaic efficiency of both EECs and direct ethanol fuel cells. Values determined independently from the product distribution, amount of ethanol consumed, and a simple electrochemical method based on the dependence of the current on the flow rate of the ethanol solution are compared. It is shown that the electrochemical method yields results that are consistent with those based on the product distribution, and based on the consumption of ethanol when crossover is accounted for. Since quantitative analysis of the cathode exhaust is challenging, the electrochemical method provides a valuable alternative for routine determination of nav, and hence the faradaic efficiency of the cell.

  15. Adenosine 2A receptor antagonist prevented and reversed liver fibrosis in a mouse model of ethanol-exacerbated liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian J Chiang

    Full Text Available The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on liver fibrosis is not well understood, but evidence suggests that adenosine may play a role in mediating the effects of moderate ethanol on tissue injury. Ethanol increases the concentration of adenosine in the liver. Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR activation is known to enhance hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation and A2AR deficient mice are protected from fibrosis in mice. Making use of a novel mouse model of moderate ethanol consumption in which female C57BL/6J mice were allowed continued access to 2% (vol/vol ethanol (11% calories or pair-fed control diets for 2 days, 2 weeks or 5 weeks and superimposed with exposure to CCl4, we tested the hypothesis that moderate ethanol consumption increases fibrosis in response to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and that treatment of mice with an A2AR antagonist prevents and/or reverses this ethanol-induced increase in liver fibrosis. Neither the expression or activity of CYP2E1, required for bio-activation of CCl4, nor AST and ALT activity in the plasma were affected by ethanol, indicating that moderate ethanol did not increase the direct hepatotoxicity of CCl4. However, ethanol feeding enhanced HSC activation and exacerbated liver fibrosis upon exposure to CCl4. This was associated with an increased sinusoidal angiogenic response in the liver. Treatment with A2AR antagonist both prevented and reversed the ability of ethanol to exacerbate liver fibrosis.Moderate ethanol consumption exacerbates hepatic fibrosis upon exposure to CCl4. A2AR antagonism may be a potential pharmaceutical intervention to decrease hepatic fibrosis in response to ethanol.

  16. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  17. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0.......This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  18. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Sue L. T.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a) consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education) (a spin off from home economics) and (b) consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing). This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, ...

  19. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  20. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Lead Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Blood Lead Test Blood Lead Level BLL Formal Name Lead, ...

  1. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, D.; Santiago, A. D.; Garrido, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L), whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption. (Author)

  2. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  3. Role of GABAA receptors in alcohol use disorders suggested by chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W; Liang, Jing

    2017-09-20

    GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects. Compensatory up-regulation of synaptically localized α4 and α2 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes, mediating ethanol-sensitive synaptic inhibitory currents follow, but exhibit altered physio-pharmacology, seizure susceptibility, hyperexcitability, anxiety, and tolerance to GABAergic positive allosteric modulators, corresponding to heightened alcohol withdrawal syndrome. All these changes (behavioral, physiological, and biochemical) induced by ethanol administration are transient and return to normal in a few days. After chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment the same changes are observed but they become persistent after 30 or more doses, lasting for at least 120 days in the rat, and probably for life. We conclude that the ethanol-induced changes in GABAA receptors represent aberrant plasticity contributing critically to ethanol dependence and increased voluntary consumption. We suggest that the craving, drug-seeking, and increased consumption in the rat model are tied to ethanol-induced plastic changes in GABAA receptors, importantly the development of ethanol-sensitive synaptic GABAA receptor-mediating inhibitory currents

  4. Ethanol concentrations in the human gastrointestinal tract after intake of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbens, Jari; Brouwers, Joachim; Wolfs, Kris; Adams, Erwin; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-04-30

    The goal of this study was to monitor gastric and duodenal ethanol concentrations arising from the consumption of commonly used alcoholic beverages. In a cross-over study, five fasting volunteers were asked to drink two standard consumptions of commercially available alcoholic beverages, including beer (Stella Artois®, 500 mL, 5.2% ethanol), wine (Blanc du Blanc®, 200 mL, 11% ethanol) and whisky (Gallantry Whisky®, 80 mL, 40% ethanol). The volunteers finished drinking beer within 10 min and wine or whisky within 5 min. Ethanol concentrations in gastric and duodenal fluids, aspirated as a function of time, were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. In all three conditions, the average gastric profile shows a maximum ethanol concentration (Cmax) at 7 min, while the mean duodenal profiles have a Tmax at 20, 7 and 12 min for beer, wine and whisky, respectively. The median gastric ethanol Cmax (min-max) for the beer, wine and whisky conditions amounts to 4.1% (3.1-4.1), 4.1% (2.6-7.3) and 11.4% (6.3-21.1), respectively. The mean duodenal profiles follow the same pattern as their corresponding gastric profiles, albeit with lower percentages of ethanol. Median duodenal ethanol Cmax (min-max) for beer, wine and whisky are 1.97% (0.89-4.3), 2.39% (2.02-5.63) and 5.94% (3.55-17.71), respectively. Intraluminal ethanol concentrations appear to decline relatively rapidly in fasting conditions: both stomach and duodenum contained less than 0.05% of ethanol after 120 min. This in vivo study is the first to present intraluminal ethanol concentrations in man after the intake of alcoholic beverages. Relatively low and fast declining gastric ethanol concentrations were observed, contrasting with the current Food and Drug Administration guidelines for the in vitro testing of formulations with respect to ethanol resistance. The presented gastric and duodenal ethanol concentrations and their variation may serve as reference data to design relevant models for predicting (i

  5. Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Whittaker, John; Agudo, Antonio; Vineis, Paolo; Boffetta, Paolo; Jensen, Majken K; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kyriazi, Georgia; Soukara, Stavroula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Pérez, Maria-José Sánchez; Quirós, José Ramón; Berglund, Göran; Janzon, Lars; Rasmuson, Torgny; Weinehall, Lars; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco

  6. Ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, S.; Linseisen, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Whittaker, J.; Agudo, A.; Vineis, P.; Boffetta, P.; Jensen, M.K.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Kyriazi, G.; Soukara, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Peeters, P.H.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Gram, I.T.; Lund, E.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Dorronsoro, M.; Perez, M.J.; Quiros, J.R.; Berglund, G.; Janzon, L.; Rasmuson, T.; Weinehall, L.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco

  7. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF BIOFUEL ETHANOL RECOVERY USING THE PERVAPORATION SEPARATION TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu [Kocaeli University Chemical Engineering Department Veziroglu Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The climatic impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have become a major problem. The production of renewable biofuels from biomass has received increasing attention. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of fuel ethanol's use it is considered one of the most important renewable fuels. In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered by pervaporation from the fermentation broth as it is formed. The hybrid process is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics and to decrease environmental pollution. The separaiton of alcohol from mixtures with ethanol produced by fermentation is usually carried out by distillation and the energy consumption is very high when azeotropic concentration is reached, which corresponds to 5% water in ethanol/water mixture. The pervaporation process provides an economical alternative to the existing distillation technique. A continous recovery of alcohol could be achieved by using the pervaporation process during fermentation, making the process more energy efficient. In this work, for the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation; zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano-sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. From the sorption tests it is concluded that, ethanol/water azeotropy can be breaked by pervaporation.

  9. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  10. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  11. DNA-Based Detecton of Ethanol-Producing Microorganisms in Postmortem Blood and Tissues by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vu, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    .... The quantitative aspects of ethanol are often complicated by postmortem putrefactive changes, leading to microbial fermentation-mediated production of alcohol and its subsequent redistribution...

  12. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  13. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion...... of ethanol over the most active catalysts at the applied conditions. At these temperatures the offgas composition was close to the thermodynamical equilibrium. Operation at high temperatures, 700 °C and 750 °C, gave the lowest carbon deposition corresponding to 30–60 ppm of the carbon in the feed ending...

  14. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  15. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  16. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  17. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  18. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Carrillo Lizbeth

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR = 2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75 in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p = 0.005. This association remained among intestinal (OR = 2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend = 0.031 and diffuse (OR = 4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend = 0.018 gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p = 0.068. Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine, with emphasis on components other than ethanol regarding the incidence of gastric cancer, even among populations with moderate to low levels of alcohol consumption.

  19. Ethanol alters alveolar fluid balance via Nadph oxidase (NOX signaling to epithelial sodium channels (ENaC in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Downs

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of ICU-related morbidity and mortality, primarily from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. One explanation is that alcohol regulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC via oxidant signaling to promote a pro- injury environment. We used small rodent models to mimic acute and chronic alcohol consumption and tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH would affect lung fluid clearance by up-regulating ENaC activity in the lung. Fluorescence labeling of rat lung slices and in vivo mouse lung revealed an increase in ROS production in response to acute EtOH exposure. Using western blots and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling, we conclude that EtOH exposure modifies cysteines of α-ENaC while data from single channel patch clamp analysis confirm that 0.16% EtOH increased ENaC activity in rat alveolar cells. In vivo lung fluid clearance demonstrated a latent increase in fluid clearance in mice receiving EtOH diet. Ethanol mice given a tracheal instillation of LPS demonstrated early lung fluid clearance compared to caloric control mice and C57Bl/6 mice. Standard biochemical techniques reveal that chronic EtOH consumption resulted in greater protein expression of the catalytic gp91(phox subunit and the obligate Rac1 protein. Collectively these data suggest that chronic EtOH consumption may lead to altered regulation of ENaC, contributing to a 'pro-injury' environment in the alcohol lung.

  20. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-03-03

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.

  1. Heavy Alcohol Consumption Effects on Blood Pressure and on Kidney Structure Persist After Long-Term Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified. Glomerular volume density, areal density of glomerular tuft and renal corpuscles were determined. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R protein expression was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks of ethanol consumption causes atrophy of renal corpuscles and glomeruli and reduces the volume of glomeruli. Glomerular changes induced by ethanol consumption were still evident after withdrawal. Renal AT1R levels were increased in ethanol-treated rats and returned to control levels during withdrawal. Ethanol consumption also induced an increase in BP, uric acid and albumin levels. Upon withdrawal, systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased, but were still higher than in controls rats. Conclusion: Ethanol consumption induces changes in glomerular morphology associated with increased BP and AT1R expression. Long-term withdrawal was inefficient to restore the structural integrity of renal corpuscles and in lowering systolic pressure.

  2. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesis...

  3. Prenatal exposure to ethanol stimulates hypothalamic CCR2 chemokine receptor system: Possible relation to increased density of orexigenic peptide neurons and ethanol drinking in adolescent offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and animal studies indicate that maternal consumption of ethanol during pregnancy increases alcohol drinking in the offspring. Possible underlying mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides, which are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure and themselves promote drinking. Building on evidence that ethanol stimulates neuroimmune factors such as the chemokine CCL2 that in adult rats is shown to colocalize with the orexigenic peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), the present study sought to investigate the possibility that CCL2 or its receptor CCR2 in LH are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure, perhaps specifically within MCH neurons. Our paradigm of intraoral administration of ethanol to pregnant rats, at low-to-moderate doses (1 or 3 g/kg/day) during peak hypothalamic neurogenesis, caused in adolescent male offspring two-fold increase in drinking of and preference for ethanol and reinstatement of ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice paradigm under an intermittent access schedule. This effect of prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with an increased expression of MCH and density of MCH+ neurons in LH of preadolescent offspring. Whereas CCL2+ cells at this age were low in density and unaffected by ethanol, CCR2+ cells were dense in LH and increased by prenatal ethanol, with a large percentage (83–87%) identified as neurons and found to colocalize MCH. Prenatal ethanol also stimulated the genesis of CCR2+ and MCH+ neurons in the embryo, which co-labeled the proliferation marker, BrdU. Ethanol also increased the genesis and density of neurons that co-expressed CCR2 and MCH in LH, with triple-labeled CCR2+/MCH+/BrdU+ neurons that were absent in control rats accounting for 35% of newly generated neurons in ethanol-exposed rats. With both the chemokine and MCH systems believed to promote ethanol consumption, this greater density of CCR2+/MCH+ neurons in the LH of preadolescent rats suggests that these systems

  4. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  5. Consumption, Happiness, and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mark A.; Vandenbergh, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we explore the implications of this literature for understanding the relationship between climate change policies and consumption. We identify a number of ways in which accounting for the implications of the new happiness literature could lead to laws and policies that influence consumption in ways that increase the prospects for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in developed and developing countries. We do not examine every nuance of the growing happiness literature, but we ...

  6. Chemiluminescent imaging of transpired ethanol from the palm for evaluation of alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kita, Kazutaka; Wang, Xin; Miyajima, Kumiko; Toma, Koji; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-05-15

    A 2-dimensional imaging system was constructed and applied in measurements of gaseous ethanol emissions from the human palm. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase system. Conversions of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional chemiluminescence were conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. Thus, a mixture of a high-purity luminol solution of luminol sodium salt HG solution instead of standard luminol solution and an enhancer of eosin Y solution was adapted to refine the chemiluminescent intensity of the imaging system, and improved the detection limit to 3 ppm gaseous ethanol. The highly sensitive imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each site on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions corresponding to the amount of alcohol metabolized upon consumption. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  8. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  9. CIRCADIAN AND ACAMPROSATE MODULATION OF ELEVATED ETHANOL DRINKING IN mPer2 CLOCK GENE MUTANT MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Brager, Allison J.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2011-01-01

    The Per2 clock gene modulates ethanol consumption, such that mutant mice not expressing functional mPer2 have altered circadian behavior that promotes higher ethanol intake and preference. Experiments were undertaken to characterize circadian-related behavioral effects of mPer2 deletion on ethanol intake and to explore how acamprosate (used to reduce alcohol dependence) alters diurnal patterns of ethanol intake. Male mPer2 mutant and WT (wild-type) mice were entrained to a 12L:12D photocycle ...

  10. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-03-27

    In 2007, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) conducted a survey of US ethanol production plants to provide an assessment of the current US ethanol industry. The survey covers plant operations in both corn dry mills and wet mills. In particular, it includes plant type, ownership structure, capacity, feedstocks, production volumes, coproducts, process fuel and electricity usage, water consumption, and products transportation and distribution. This report includes a summary and analysis of these results.

  11. Engineering ligninolytic consortium for bioconversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Zohaib; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hou, Jialin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Hairong, Cheng

    2018-01-21

    Raising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading the world to design green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass is enormous and renewable biological resource to produce ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis. Although, bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can largely satisfy the possible inconsistency of first generation ethanol since it utilizes inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks, primarily sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Two major polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass namely, cellulose and hemicellulose constitute a complex lignocellulosic network by connecting with lignin which is highly recalcitrant to depolymerization. Several attempts have been made to reduce the cost involved in the process through improving the pretreatment process. While, the ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) including laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have appeared as versatile biocatalysts for delignification of several lignocellulosic residues. The first part of the review mainly focused on engineering ligninolytic consortium. In the second part, WRF and its unique ligninolytic enzyme-based bio-delignification of lignocellulosic biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation of hydrolyzed feedstock are discussed. The metabolic engineering, enzymatic engineering, synthetic biology aspects for ethanol production and platform chemicals production are comprehensively reviewed in the third part. Towards the end information is also given on futuristic viewpoints. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Ethanol production from wet oxidized corn straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Yin, Y.; Thygesen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In order to find out the appropriate process for ethanol production from corn straw, alkaline wet-oxidation pretreatment (195°C, 15 min, Na2CO3 2 g/L, O2 1200 kPa) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were adopted to produce ethanol. The results showed that 90% of cellulose...... was obtained. The estimated total ethanol production was 262.7 kg/t raw material by assuming the consumption of both C-6 and C-5. No obvious inhibition effect occurred during SSF. These offered experiment evidences for ethanol production from corn straw....... remained in the solid fraction and recovery of cellulose was 95.87% after pretreatment. After 24 h hydrolysis at 50°C using cellulase, the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was about 67.6%. After 142 h of SSF with substrate concentration of 8%, ethanol yield of 79.0% of the theoretical...

  13. Ethanol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human adipose tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Anne; Bruun, Jens M; Nielsen, Maria P; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2008-12-16

    Moderate alcohol consumption is suggested to be associated with reduced inflammation and morbidity. Human adipose tissue (AT) and obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, so the present study wanted to investigate the effects of ethanol on inflammation in human AT in vitro. Subcutaneous human AT was incubated with ethanol [11-88 mM] under non- or LPS-stimulated [50mg/mL] conditions. Protein and mRNA levels of adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and CD68 were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Non-stimulated, ethanol incubations up to 24h increased adiponectin release and mRNA expression (p0.05). In conclusion, ethanol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human AT, suggesting that ethanol may attenuate whole-body inflammation.

  14. Synthesis of zeolite from rice husk ash waste of brick industries as hydrophobic adsorbent for fuel grade ethanol purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, A.; Alhanif, M.; Khotimah, C.; Zuhra, UA; Putri, BR; Kumoro, AC

    2017-11-01

    A lot of researchers have devoted on ethanol utilization as renewable energy to substitute petroleum based gasoline. When ethanol is being used as a new fuel candidate, it should have at least of 99.5% purity. Usually produced via sugar fermentation process, further purification of ethanol from other components in fermentation broth to obtain its fuel grade is a crucial step. The purpose of this research is to produce synthetic zeolite as hydrophobic adsorbent from rice husk ash for ethanol-water separation and to investigate the influence of weight, adsorption time and initial ethanol concentration on zeolite adsorption capacity. This research consisted of rice husk silica extraction, preparation of hydrophobic zeolite adsorbent, physical characterization using SEM, EDX and adsorption test for an ethanol-water solution. Zeolite with highest adsorption capacity was obtained with 15: 1 alumina silica composition. The best adsorption condition was achieved when 4-gram hydrophobic zeolite applied for adsorption of 100 mL of 10% (v/v) ethanol-water solution for 120 minutes, which resulted in ethanol with 98.93% (v/v) purity. The hydrophobic zeolite from rice husk ash is a potential candidate as an efficient adsorbent to purify raw ethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Implementation of this new adsorbent for ethanol production in commercial scale may reduce the energy consumption of that usually used for the distillation processes.

  15. Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Saxena, Puneet; Meena, Hardayal; Mangal, Daya Krishan

    2012-07-01

    It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  17. Fibroblast function and wound breaking strength is impaired by acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzer, Matthew J; Chen, Lin; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication occurs in nearly half of all trauma patients and increases the morbidity, mortality, and healing complications of these patients. Prior studies in our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated impairments in re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and inflammation in wounds following acute ethanol exposure. Clinically, acute ethanol exposure has been shown to cause an increased breakdown of wounds. To date, the mechanisms by which acute ethanol exposure modifies wound strength have received little experimental attention. To examine how ethanol influences functions critical to the development of wound strength, the effect of ethanol exposure on fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix production was examined. Normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were exposed to ethanol (100 mg/dl) and then examined for proliferative capacity and mRNA production of collagen I, collagen III, and lysyl oxidase (LOX). In in vivo studies, the wound breaking strength, LOX activity, collagen, and hyaluronic acid (HA) contents of wounds of ethanol-exposed (100 mg/dl) mice were examined. At 24, 48, and 72 hours after acute ethanol exposure (8 hours duration), NHDF displayed a significant impairment in proliferative capacity (up to 50% at 24 hours p ethanol exposure, NHDF produced less collagen I and LOX mRNA, but more collagen III mRNA than control fibroblasts (p Ethanol exposure in vivo caused a reduction in wound breaking strength of up to 40% when compared to control mice (p ethanol-exposed mice were significantly reduced (p ethanol prior to injury can cause a significant decrease in wound breaking strength. Our studies suggest that ethanol directly impairs fibroblast function, leading to decreased collagen production. The results provide a possible explanation for how acute ethanol exposure might increase in wound complications and wound failure. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Essential medicines containing ethanol elevate blood acetaldehyde concentrations in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, H C; Mulla, H; Hubbard, M; Cordell, R L; Monks, P S; Yakkundi, S; McElnay, J C; Nunn, A J; Turner, M A

    2016-06-01

    Neonates administered ethanol-containing medicines are potentially at risk of dose-dependent injury through exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde. Here, we determine blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in 49 preterm infants (median birth weight = 1190 g) dosed with iron or furosemide, medicines that contain different amounts of ethanol, and in 11 control group infants (median birth weight = 1920 g) who were not on any medications. Median ethanol concentrations in neonates administered iron or furosemide were 0.33 (range = 0-4.92) mg/L, 0.39 (range = 0-72.77) mg/L and in control group infants were 0.15 (range = 0.03-5.4) mg/L. Median acetaldehyde concentrations in neonates administered iron or furosemide were 0.16 (range = 0-8.89) mg/L, 0.21 (range = 0-2.43) mg/L and in control group infants were 0.01 (range = 0-0.14) mg/L. There was no discernible relationship between blood ethanol or acetaldehyde concentrations and time after medication dose. Although infants dosed with iron or furosemide had low blood ethanol concentrations, blood acetaldehyde concentrations were consistent with moderate alcohol exposure. The data suggest the need to account for the effects of acetaldehyde in the benefit-risk analysis of administering ethanol-containing medicines to neonates. • Neonates are commonly treated with ethanol-containing medicines, such as iron and furosemide. • However, there is no data on whether this leads to appreciable increases in blood concentrations of ethanol or its metabolite, acetaldehyde. What is New: • In this study, we find low blood ethanol concentrations in neonates administered iron and/or furosemide but markedly elevated blood acetaldehyde concentrations in some infants receiving these medicines. • Our data suggest that ethanol in drugs may cause elevation of blood acetaldehyde, a potentially toxic metabolite.

  19. Use of continuous lactose fermentation for ethanol production by Kluveromyces marxianus for verification and extension of a biochemically structured model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, S.; Hobley, Timothy John; Curcio, S.

    2013-01-01

    production of ms = 0.6029 and me= 0.4218 (C-mol)*(C-mol*h)-1, respectively. True yield coefficients for biomass, ethanol and glycerol production were calculated to be Ytrue sx = 0.114, Ytrue ex = 0.192 and Ysg = 2.250 (C-mol)*(C-mol)-1, respectively. Model calculated maintenance and true yield coefficients......A biochemically structured model has been developed to describe the continuous fermentation of lactose to ethanol by Kluveromyces marxianus and allowed metabolic coefficients to be determined. Anaerobic lactose-limited chemostat fermentations at different dilution rates (0.02 – 0.35 h-1) were...... performed. Species specific rates of consumption/formation, as well as yield coefficients were determined. Ethanol yield (0.655 C-mol ethanol*C-mol lactose-1) was as high as 98 % of theoretical. The modeling procedure allowed calculation of maintenance coefficients for lactose consumption and ethanol...

  20. Emission consequences of introducing bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Mentz; Møller, Flemming; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the direct vehicle emission impact of the future use of bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars in Denmark arising from the vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission differences between neat gasoline (E0) and E5/E85 gasoline-ethanol fuel blends derived from emission......% in 2030. As predicted by the vehicle specific emission differences the calculated emission impacts of using bio ethanol are small for NOx, VOC and CO. Instead, for FS, BS1 and BS2 large emission reductions are due to the gradually cleaner new sold gasoline cars and the decline in total mileage until...

  1. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  2. Ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the sigma-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; DiLeo, Alyssa; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2016-01-15

    The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone protein that has been implicated in drug abuse and addiction. Multiple studies have characterized the role the Sig-1R plays in psychostimulant addiction; however, fewer studies have specifically investigated its role in alcohol addiction. We have previously shown that antagonism of the Sig-1R reduces excessive drinking and motivation to drink, whereas agonism induces binge-like drinking in rodents. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Sig-1R gene deletion in C57Bl/6J mice on ethanol drinking and other ethanol-related behaviors. We used an extensive panel of behavioral tests to examine ethanol actions in male, adult mice lacking Oprs1, the gene encoding the Sig-1R. To compare ethanol drinking behavior, Sig-1 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were subject to a two-bottle choice, continuous access paradigm with different concentrations of ethanol (3-20% v/v) vs. water. Consumption of sweet and bitter solutions was also assessed in Sig-1R KO and WT mice. Finally, motor stimulant sensitivity, taste aversion and ataxic effects of ethanol were assessed. Sig-1R KO mice displayed higher ethanol intake compared to WT mice; the two genotypes did not differ in their sweet or bitter taste perception. Sig-1R KO mice showed lower sensitivity to ethanol stimulant effects, but greater sensitivity to its taste aversive effects. Ethanol-induced sedation was instead unaltered in the mutants. Our results prove that the deletion of the Sig-1R increases ethanol consumption, likely by decreasing its rewarding effects, and therefore indicating that the Sig-1R is involved in modulation of the reinforcing effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethanol does not delay muscle recovery but decreases testosterone/cortisol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugvad, Anders; Haugvad, Lars; Hamarsland, Håvard; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on recovery from traditional resistance exercise in recreationally trained individuals. Nine recreationally trained volunteers (eight males and one female, 26 ± 4 yr, 81 ± 4 kg) conducted four resistance exercise sessions and consumed a low (0.6 (females) and 0.7 (males) g · kg(-1) body mass) or a high dose (1.2 or 1.4 g · kg(-1) body mass) of ethanol 1-2.5 h after exercise on two occasions. The first session was for familiarization with the tests and exercises and was performed without ethanol consumption. As a control trial, alcohol-free drinks were consumed after the exercise session. The sequence of trials, with low and high ethanol doses and alcohol-free drinks (control), was randomized. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) (knee extension), electrically stimulated contractions (knee extension), squat jumps, and hand grip strength were assessed 10-15 min and 12 and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. In addition to a baseline sample, blood was collected 1, 12, and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. The exercise session comprised 4 × 8 repetition maximum of squats, leg presses, and knee extensions. MVC were reduced by 13%-15% immediately after the exercise sessions (P < 0.01). MVC, electrically stimulated force, and squat jump performance were recovered 24 h after ethanol drinks. MVC was not fully recovered at 24 h in the control trial. Compared with those in the control, cortisol increased and the free testosterone/cortisol ratio were reduced after the high ethanol dose (P < 0.01). Neither a low nor a high dose of ethanol adversely affected recovery of muscle function after resistance exercise in recreationally strength-trained individuals. However, the increased cortisol levels and reduced testosterone/cortisol ratio after the high ethanol dose could translate into long-term negative effects.

  4. Water use impact of ethanol at a gasoline substitution ratio of 5% from cassava in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeoti, O. [Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Along Ikare Road, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    The process of fuel ethanol production from cassava root is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resource of the country where the cassava plant is grown and the root processed into fuel ethanol. The paper assesses the impact of the domestic production of 5 per cent ethanol (E5) needed under the Nigerian biofuel programme from cassava root on the water resource of Nigeria. Using the 2007 Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) consumption as the baseline, Nigeria will require about 0.49 hm{sup 3} of ethanol to blend 9.32 hm{sup 3} of PMS to arrive at the 2007 consumption estimates. The impact of the domestic production of this ethanol requirement translates to about 6.0 km{sup 3} of water; out of which about 48 per cent is green and about 52 per cent is blue. Addressing future impact typical of a developing economy like Nigeria, a three-scenario analysis was adopted to examine the impact of future growth in cassava-fuel ethanol requirement on the water resource of Nigeria, and also, the impact of improved water use on the future water footprint of E5. The projected water impact of cassava-ethanol production into the future ranges from 6.02 to 7.28 km{sup 3}, while improved water use could lower these values by about 0.04-2.35 km{sup 3} for the same period, 2010 to 2020, under the projection assumptions made. (author)

  5. Comportamento da atomização eletrotérmica de ouro, prata, bismuto, cádmio, chumbo e estanho em soluções aquosas e em etanol, a partir de diferentes superfícies atomizadoras Behavior of electrothermal atomization of gold, silver, bismuth, cadmium, lead, and tin in aqueous solutions and in ethanol starting from different atomizing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Borba da Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The atomization behavior of Au, Ag, Bi, Cd, Pb, and Sn from pyrolitic graphite coating (L'vov platform with the use Pd and Mg solutions, and zirconium coated platform with the analytes in nitric acid 0.2% v/v and in ethanol was investigated. In ethanol medium, the sensitivity gain was three-fold for Bi and Cd using Zr as modifier. Without modifier, the ethanol medium is appropriate only for Au and Cd. In nitric acid medium, the Zr coated platform elevates sensitivity at least two-fold for Bi and Cd. The method was applied to the determination of Ag, Au and Bi of certified steel samples, after on-line preconcentration, sorption on a minicolumn filled with C-18 bonded to silica gel and elution with ethanol. The concentrations obtained agreed with the recommended values.

  6. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sena, Maria Clécia P; Nunes, Fabíola C; Stiebbe Salvadori, Mirian G S; Carvalho, Cleyton Charles D; Morais, Liana Clébia S L; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. METHOD: Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n  =  16) had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n  =  15) had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Grou...

  7. Association of alcohol consumption with coronary artery disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Patricia; Mazocco, Leticia; Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Badimon, Lina; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini; Pellanda, Lucia; Gomes, Irênio; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-08-01

    The ingestion of small to moderate alcohol consumption amounts has been associated to cardiovascular protection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease severity. Cross-sectional Study with patients undergoing coronary angiography. Age, cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and alcohol drinking habit were investigated. Alcohol consumption was divided in three categories: nondrinker, moderate alcohol consumption (less than 15 g ethanol/day for women or 30 g ethanol/day for men) and heavy alcohol consumption. Coronary artery disease severity was assessed through the Friesinger Score (FS) in the coronary angiography, by interventional cardiologists blinded to alcohol consumption. The final sample included 363 adults; of those, 228 were men (62.81%). Mean age was 60.5 ± 10.9 y. Unadjusted analyses identified sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and alcohol consumption as the main covariates associated with the Friesinger score. Lower Friesinger scores were also observed in moderate alcohol consumption when comparing to those who do not drink (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.95). Among patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing coronary angiography, moderate alcohol consumption is associated to a lower coronary artery disease severity than heavy drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene specific modifications unravel ethanol and acetaldehyde actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEDY eISRAEL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde mainly by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, while mainly by the action of catalase in the brain. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 metabolizes acetaldehyde into acetate in both organs. Gene specific modifications reviewed here show that an increased liver generation of acetaldehyde (by transduction of a gene coding for a high-activity liver alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1*B2 leads to increased blood acetaldehyde levels and aversion to ethanol in animals. Similarly aversive is an increased acetaldehyde level resulting from the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2 synthesis (by an antisense coding gene against aldh2 mRNA. The situation is diametrically different when acetaldehyde is generated in the brain. When the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA is endowed with an increased ability to generate acetaldehyde (by transfection of liver rADH the reinforcing effects of ethanol are increased, while a highly specific inhibition of catalase synthesis (by transduction of a shRNA anti catalase mRNA virtually abolishes the reinforcing effects of ethanol as seen by a complete abolition of ethanol intake in rats bred for generations as high ethanol drinkers. Data shows two divergent effects of increases in acetaldehyde generation: aversive in the periphery but reinforcing in the brain.

  9. Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the main constituent of alcoholic beverages that exerts toxicity to neuronal development. Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third trimester of pregnancy, and in rodents this period corresponds to the initial few weeks of postnatal development. In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations. Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol’s harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening of neuronal plasticity. Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the signaling mechanisms that are required for proper neuronal development, and how these processes are impaired by ethanol resulting in harmful consequences to brain development.

  10. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  11. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase α in the dorsomedial striatum promotes excessive ethanol-drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Sami; Darcq, Emmanuel; Wang, Jun; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanhky; Kharazia, Viktor; Ron, Dorit

    2013-09-04

    We previously found that excessive ethanol drinking activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) (Wang et al., 2010; Gibb et al., 2011). Ethanol-mediated Fyn activation in the DMS leads to the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, to the enhancement of the channel's activity, and to the development and/or maintenance of ethanol drinking behaviors (Wang et al., 2007, 2010). Protein tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) is essential for Fyn kinase activation (Bhandari et al., 1998), and we showed that ethanol-mediated Fyn activation is facilitated by the recruitment of PTPα to synaptic membranes, the compartment where Fyn resides (Gibb et al., 2011). Here we tested the hypothesis that PTPα in the DMS is part of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway and is thus a major contributor to the neuroadaptations underlying excessive ethanol intake behaviors. We found that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated PTPα knockdown in the DMS reduces excessive ethanol intake and preference in rodents. Importantly, no alterations in water, saccharine/sucrose, or quinine intake were observed. Furthermore, downregulation of PTPα in the DMS of mice significantly reduces ethanol-mediated Fyn activation, GluN2B phosphorylation, and ethanol withdrawal-induced long-term facilitation of NMDAR activity without altering the intrinsic features of DMS neurons. Together, these results position PTPα upstream of Fyn within the DMS and demonstrate the important contribution of the phosphatase to the maladaptive synaptic changes that lead to excessive ethanol intake.

  13. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dust from lead-based paint. Toys and furniture painted before 1976. Painted toys and decorations made ... by decades of car exhaust or years of house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil ...

  14. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hard, durable surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes ... OTHERS: Lead has recently been found in some plastic mini-blinds and vertical blinds which were made ...

  15. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  16. Dependence Induced Increases in Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Tara L.; Powers, Matthew S.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments used the Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (a) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (3, 6 or 9 infusions/day), (b) varying the dose per infusion (Low, Medium or High), and (c) varying the duration of passive exposure (3, 5 or 10 days). All experiments included control groups passively exposed to water. B6 mice generally self-infused more ethanol than D2 mice, but passive ethanol exposure increased IGAC in both strains, with D2 mice showing larger relative increases during the first few days of ethanol access. Bout data supported the characterization of B6 mice as sippers and D2 mice as gulpers. Three larger infusions per day produced a stronger effect on IGAC than six or nine smaller infusions, especially in D2 mice. Increased IGAC was strongly predicted by cumulative ethanol dose and intoxication during passive exposure in both strains. Withdrawal during the passive exposure phase was also a strong predictor of increased IGAC in D2 mice. However, B6 mice showed little withdrawal, precluding analysis of its potential role. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that dependence-induced increases in IGAC are jointly determined by two processes that might vary across genotypes: (a) tolerance to aversive post-absorptive ethanol effects, and (b) negative reinforcement (i.e., alleviation of withdrawal by self-administered ethanol). PMID:21955048

  17. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, nations are seeking ways to decrease CO2 emissions and to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, especially oil and gas deriving from so-called politically unstable regions. The efforts comprise the energy sector (heat and electricity) as well as the transport sector....... An increasing use of biomass as energy carrier is in both sectors a prioritised way of achieving these aims, and for the transport sector, the conversion of biomass to ethanol is at present the technological pathway most strongly promoted by governments in countries all over the world. Recent research has...... available for energy purposes - be it from waste, agricultural residues or energy crops - show, however, that biomass is very limited compared to the potential use of it. Even in the most optimistic near term scenarios (30 years ahead), the total physically available biomass can at maximum substitute around...

  18. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  19. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  20. A blocker of N- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels attenuates ethanol-induced intoxication, place preference, self-administration, and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa J; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-Sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P; Messing, Robert O

    2008-11-05

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 also attenuated the reinforcing and rewarding properties of ethanol, measured by operant self-administration and the expression of an ethanol conditioned place preference, and abolished stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking. NP078585 did not affect alcohol responses in mice lacking N-type calcium channels. These results suggest that selective calcium channel inhibitors may be useful in reducing acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol consumption by human alcoholics.

  1. Consolidated bioprocessing strategy for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Kluyveromyces marxianus under high gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Chang, B L; Ren, J G; Liu, J P; Bai, F W; Li, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    CBP system not only saves energy consumption for ethanol distillation, but also significantly reduces the amount of waste distillage discharged from the distillation system. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. The effect of ethanol on human brain metabolites longitudinally characterized by proton MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Armin; Bartsch, Andreas J; Homola, György; Solymosi, László; Bendszus, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The effect ethanol exerts on the human brain has not yet been addressed by longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic experiments. Therefore, we longitudinally characterized cerebral metabolite changes in 15 healthy individuals by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) subsequent to the ingestion of a standard beverage (mean peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC): 51.43 +/- 10.27 mg/dL). Each participant was examined before, over 93.71 +/- 11.17 mins immediately after and 726.36 +/- 94.96 mins (12.11 +/ -1.58 h) past per os alcohol exposure. Fronto-mesial and cerebellar ethanol concentrations over time were similar as determined by the LCModel analysis of spectral data. Alcohol-induced changes of fronto-mesial creatine, choline, glucose, inositol and aspartate levels at 5.79 +/- 2.94 [corrected] mins upon ingestion as well as cerebellar choline and inositol levels at 8.64 +/- 2.98 [corrected] mins past exposure. Closely associated with ethanol concentrations, supratentorial creatine, choline, inositol and aspartate levels decreased after ethanol administration, whereas glucose levels increased. Similarly, infratentorial choline and inositol concentrations were negatively correlated with ethanol levels over time. There were no changes in N-acetyl-aspartate levels upon alcohol exposure. Furthermore, no influence of ethanol on brain water integrals was detected. Ethanol consumption may directly increase oxidative stress and the neuronal vulnerability to it. In addition, our results are compatible with ethanol-induced cell membrane modifications and alternative energy substrate usage upon alcohol exposure.

  3. Immunohistochemical changes and atrophy after chronic ethanol intoxication in rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism in humans is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by loss of ethanol consumption control. Previous studies have reported that prolonged exposure to ethanol was responsible for alterations in glandular tissues of human and rodents. However, the interrelationship between ethanol and the glandular system is still the subject of numerous investigations, including the possible resistance of the submandibular gland (SG). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may affect the parotid gland (PG) and SG in female rats. Female rats (n=16) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (dose of 6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) through gavage for 55 days. Glands were collected, weighed and submitted to histological processing. Morphometric analysis was assessed by parenchymal and stromal area measurements. Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and apoptotic caspase-3 (CAS) were measured using ImageJ® software. Chronic ethanol administration did not alter the body weight of rats after treatment, although it increased glandular weight (pethanol induced CK19 and CAS overexpression, and the occurrence of duct-like structures in SG. These results suggest that ethanol induces histological and morphometric changes in salivary glands of female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these alterations needs to be investigated but may be not related to the inflammatory process.

  4. An evolutionary conserved role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase in behavioral responses to ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy W Lasek

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs. These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention.

  5. Assessing resource intensity and renewability of cellulosic ethanol technologies using eco-LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Smith, Raymond L

    2012-02-21

    Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. Despite being resource intensive compared to gasoline, cellulosic ethanol offers the possibility of a reduction in crude oil consumption by as much as 96%. Soil erosion and land area requirements can be sources of concern for cellulosic ethanol derived directly from managed agriculture. The analysis of two broad types of thermodynamic metrics, namely: various types of physical return on investment and a renewability index, which indicate competitiveness and sustainability of cellulosic ethanol, respectively, show that only ethanol from waste resources combines a favorable thermodynamic return on investment with a higher renewability index. However, the production potential of ethanol from waste resources is limited. This finding conveys a possible dilemma of biofuels: combining high renewability, high thermodynamic return on investment, and large production capacity may remain elusive. A plot of renewability versus energy return on investment is suggested as one of the options for providing guidance on future biofuel selection.

  6. Effect of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Epididymal Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth of epididymis in neonatal mice. Three groups of adult female mice were used. The pups of group 1 served as control while the pups of groups 2 and 3 were given 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy and during pregnancy and ...

  7. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol consumption implies the ingestion of any alcoholic drink or beverage. When digested, alcohol is metabolized by the liver to release its active ingredient, ethanol. Alcohol misuse is a very important global health problem with a pattern of abuse varying in different parts of the world. According to the World ...

  8. Ethanol enhances tau accumulation in neuroblastoma cells that inducibly express tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tania F.; McCartney, Sharon; Causevic, Ena; Ko, Li-wen; Yen, Shu-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes pathological changes in the brain and neuronal loss. Ethanol toxicity may partially result from the perturbation of microtubule associated proteins, like tau. Tau dysfunction is well known for its involvement in certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the effect of ethanol on tau was examined using differentiated human neuroblastoma cells that inducibly express the 4R0N isoform of tau via a tetracycline-off expression system. During tau induction, ethanol exposure (1.25-5 mg/ml) dose-dependently increased tau protein levels and reduced cell viability. The increase in cell death likely resulted from tau accumulation since increased levels of tau were sufficient to reduce cell viability and ethanol was toxic to cells expressing tau but not to non-induced controls. Tau accumulation did not result from greater tetracycline-off induction since ethanol neither increased tau mRNA expression nor the expression of the tetracycline-controlled transactivator. Additionally, ethanol increased endogenous tau protein levels in neuroblastoma cells lacking the tetracycline-off induction system for tau. Ethanol delayed tau clearance suggesting ethanol impedes its degradation. Though ethanol inhibited neither cathepsin B, cathepsin D, nor chymotrypsin-like activity, it did significantly reduce calpain 1 expression and activity. Calpain I knockdown by shRNA increased tau levels indicating that calpain participates in tau degradation in this model. Moreover, the activation of calpain, by the calcium ionophore A23187, partially reversed the accumulation of tau resulting from ethanol exposure. Impaired calpain-mediated degradation may thus contribute to the increased accumulation of tau caused by ethanol. PMID:18672021

  9. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  10. Metabolic engineering of ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Yao

    2010-11-15

    yield beyond that obtained with glucose and xylose. The ldh gene coding for lactate dehydrogenase was deleted from strain BG1 to eliminate an NADH oxidation pathway (BG1L1). To further facilitate NADH regeneration used for ethanol formation, a heterologous gene gldA encoding an NAD+ dependent glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH) was expressed in T. mathranii with or without concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. With a functional lactate formation pathway, expression of GLDH in a recombinant T. mathranii strain (BG1G2) leads to a significantly decreased ethanol yield accompanied by an increased lactate formation, which was shown to be the preferred route for the regeneration of NAD+. However, with an inactivated lactate formation pathway, expression of GLDH in another recombinant T. mathranii strain (BG1G1) leads to an increased carbon flux channelled towards the production of ethanol over acetate, hence restoring the redox balance. Finally, it was shown that strain BG1G1 acquired the capability to utilize glycerol as an extra carbon source in the presence of xylose, and utilization of the more reuduced substrate glycerol resulted in a higher ethanol yield. (Author)

  11. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts. R O Adome, J W Gachihi, B Onegi, J Tamale, S O Apio. Abstract. Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence ...

  13. Ethanol production from crop residues and soil organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    In decision making about the use of residues from annual crops for ethanol production, alternative applications of these residues should be considered. Especially important is the use of such residues for stabilizing and increasing levels of soil organic carbon. Such alternative use leads to a

  14. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... and Pelargonium graveolens) against Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic strains. These plants are used more ... sed on pathogens, such as Listeria which is recognized as one of the leading causes of ... spices were extracted by ethanolic extraction by soaking 20 g of plant part in 100 mL of 90% ...

  15. influence of fructose on the mechanisms for ethanol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    fatty acids, resulting in triacylglycerol synthesis, and possibly its hepatic accummulation. Ethanol-induced increase in. NADH also causes an elevation in. [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio (Mascord et al. 1991) and this leads to hyperlactacidaemia, an acidotic condition that decreases the capacity of the kidneys to excrete uric acid.

  16. Regulation of ethanol-related behavior and ethanol metabolism by the Corazonin neurons and Corazonin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Kai; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Im, Jeongdae; Lee, Gyunghee G; Loeffler, Frank; Park, Jae H

    2014-01-01

    Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR) as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD) flies displayed significantly delayed recovery from ethanol-induced sedation that we refer to as hangover-like phenotype. Newly generated mutant lacking Crz Receptor (CrzR(01) ) and CrzR-knockdown flies showed even more severe hangover-like phenotype, which is causally associated with fast accumulation of acetaldehyde in the CrzR(01) mutant following ethanol exposure. Higher levels of acetaldehyde are likely due to 30% reduced ALDH activity in the mutants. Moreover, increased ADH activity was found in the CrzR(01) mutant, but not in the Crz-CD flies. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed transcriptional upregulation of Adh gene in the CrzR(01) . Transgenic inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also results in significantly increased ADH activity and Adh mRNA levels, indicating PKA-dependent transcriptional regulation of Adh by CrzR. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA or cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in CrzR cells leads to comparable hangover-like phenotype to the CrzR(01) mutant. These findings suggest that CrzR-associated signaling pathway is critical for ethanol detoxification via Crz-dependent regulation of ALDH activity and Crz-independent transcriptional regulation of ADH. Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism.

  17. Aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent versus adult rats: potential causes and implication for future drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Foscue, Ethan; Glowacz, Susan; Haseeb, Naadeyah; Wang, Nancy; Zhou, Cathy; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2010-12-01

    Many people experiment with alcohol and other drugs of abuse during their teenage years. Epidemiological evidence suggests that younger initiates into drug taking are more likely to develop problematic drug seeking behavior, including binge and other high-intake behaviors. The level of drug intake for any individual depends on the balance of rewarding and aversive effects of the drug in that individual. Multiple rodent studies have demonstrated that aversive effects of drugs of abuse are reduced in adolescent compared to adult animals. In this study, we addressed 2 key questions: First, do reduced aversive effects of ethanol in younger rats correlate with increased ethanol consumption? Second, are the reduced aversive effects in adolescents attributable to reduced sensitivity to ethanol's physiologic effects? Adolescent and adult rats were tested for ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) followed by a voluntary drinking period, including postdeprivation consumption. Multivariate regression was used to assess correlations. In separate experiments, adolescent and adult rats were tested for their sensitivity to the hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, and for blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). We observed that in adolescent rats but not adults, taste aversion was inversely correlated with postdeprivation consumption. Adolescents also exhibited a greater increase in consumption after deprivation than adults. Furthermore, the age difference in ethanol CTA was not attributable to differences in hypothermia, sedation, or BECs. These results suggest that during adolescence, individuals that are insensitive to aversive effects are most likely to develop problem drinking behaviors. These results underscore the importance of the interaction between developmental stage and individual variation in sensitivity to alcohol. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Cellulosic ethanol. Potential, technology and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarbach, M. [Sued-Chemie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    -site enzyme production further reduces production costs substantially and assures independence from external suppliers. Aproprietary and innovative ethanol separation method cuts energy demand by up to 50% compared to standard distillation. Thus, the energy derived from the byproducts like lignin and fermentation meet the entire electricity and heat demand of the production process, leading to close to 100% GHG reductions of the resulting ethanol. In July 2011 construction started on a demonstration plant with an annual ethanol output of 1,000 tons. The plant started into operation in July 2012. It will demonstrate the economic competitiveness to first generation processes and constitutes the last step from laboratory to commercial production. Additionally, the technology opens up a pathway to a second generation sugar platform to ultimately produce green chemicals for a wide range of applications, e.g. organic acids (lactic acid, succinic acid..), green solvents, C4 alcohols, furfural or furfuryl alcohol and their derivates or other specialty and bulk chemicals which can be further converted into biobased plastics and polymers. (orig.)

  19. Inactivation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex increases drinking in ethanol-dependent but not non-dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Gilstrap, Meghin; Eaton, Bethany; Fedarovich, Hleb; Motts, Andrew; Woodward, John J

    2016-08-01

    Long-term consumption of ethanol affects cortical areas that are important for learning and memory, cognition, and decision-making. Deficits in cortical function may contribute to alcohol-abuse disorders by impeding an individual's ability to control drinking. Previous studies from this laboratory show that acute ethanol reduces activity of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) neurons while chronic exposure impairs LOFC-dependent reversal learning and induces changes in LOFC excitability. Despite these findings, the role of LOFC neurons in ethanol consumption is unknown. To address this issue, we examined ethanol drinking in adult C57Bl/6J mice that received an excitotoxic lesion or viral injection of the inhibitory DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) into the LOFC. No differences in ethanol consumption were observed between sham and lesioned mice during access to increasing concentrations of ethanol (3-40%) every other day for 7 weeks. Adulterating the ethanol solution with saccharin (0.2%) or quinine (0.06 mM) enhanced or inhibited, respectively, consumption of the 40% ethanol solution similarly in both groups. Using a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure model that produces dependence, we found no difference in baseline drinking between sham and lesioned mice prior to vapor treatments. CIE enhanced drinking in both groups as compared to air-treated animals and CIE treated lesioned mice showed an additional increase in ethanol drinking as compared to CIE sham controls. This effect persisted during the first week when quinine was added to the ethanol solution but consumption decreased to control levels in CIE lesioned mice in the following 2 weeks. In viral injected mice, baseline drinking was not altered by expression of the inhibitory DREADD receptor and repeated cycles of CIE exposure enhanced drinking in DREADD and virus control groups. Consistent with the lesion study, treatment with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) further

  20. NADPH Oxidase Plays a Role on Ethanol-Induced Hypertension and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in the Vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Katia Colombo; Ceron, Carla Speroni; Muniz, Jaqueline J; De Martinis, Bruno S; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato

    2016-09-01

    Investigate the role of NADPH oxidase on ethanol-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v). Apocynin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) prevented ethanol-induced hypertension. The increased contractility of endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings from ethanol-treated rats to phenylephrine was prevented by apocynin. Ethanol consumption increased superoxide anion (O2 (-)) generation and lipid peroxidation and apocynin prevented these responses. The decrease on plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels induced by ethanol was not prevented by apocynin. Treatment with ethanol did not affect aortic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or reduced glutathione (GSH). Ethanol did not alter the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Ethanol increased the expression of Nox1, PKCδ, nNOS, SAPK/JNK and SOD2 in the rat aorta and apocynin prevented these responses. No difference on aortic expression of Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1), eNOS and iNOS was detected after treatment with ethanol. Ethanol treatment did not alter the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK, p38MAPK, c-Src, Rac1 or PKCδ. The major new finding of our study is that the increased vascular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ethanol is related to increased vascular Nox1/NADPH oxidase expression. This mechanism is involved in vascular dysfunction and hypertension induced by ethanol. Additionally, we conclude that ethanol consumption induces the expression of different proteins that regulate vascular contraction and growth and that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in such response. The key findings of our study are that ethanol-induced hypertension is mediated by NADPH oxidase. Moreover, increased vascular Nox1 expression is related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ethanol. Finally, ROS induced by ethanol increase the

  1. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ∼0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

  2. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-03-10

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ∼ 0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo.

  3. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more