Sample records for et-r r-1 reactor

  1. Electrical system regulations of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), is a research reactor open pool type, designed and built by the U.S. firm Babcock and Wilcox, having, as coolant and moderator, deionized light water and beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. Until about 1988, the reactor safety systems received power from only one source of energy. As an example, it may be cited the control desk that was powered only by the vital electrical system 220V, which, in case the electricity fails, is powered by the generator group: no-break 220V. In the years 1989 and 1990, a reform of the electrical system upgrading to increase the reactor power and, also, to meet the technical standards of the ABNT (Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas) was carried out. This work has the objective of showing the relationship between the electric power system and the IEA-R1 reactor security. Also, it demonstrates that, should some electrical power interruption occur, during the reactor operation, this occurrence would not start an accident event. (author)

  2. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Campolina, Daniel de A.M.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  3. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN)]. E-mail:


    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  4. Core calculations for the upgrading of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Santos, Adimir dos; Perrotta, Jose A.; Bastos, Jose Luis F.; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;


    The IEA-R1 Research Reactor is a multipurpose reactor. It has been used for basic and applied research in the nuclear area, training and radioisotopes production since 1957. In 1995, the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) took the decision to modernize and upgrade the power from 2 to 5 MW and increase the operational cycle. This work presents the design requirements and the calculations effectuated to reach this goal. (author)

  5. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica do reator TRIGA IPR-R1

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fortini, Maria Auxiliadora [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    The subchannel approach, normally employed for the analysis of power reactor cores that work under forced convection, have been used for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of a TRIGA Mark I reactor, named IPR-R1, at 250 kW power level. This was accomplished by using the PANTERA-1P subchannel code, which has been conveniently adapted to the characteristics of natural convection of TRIGA reactors. The analysis of results indicates that the steady state operation of IPR-R1 at 250 kW do not imply risks to installations, workers and public. (author)

  6. Visual inspections of the neutron absorber control rods of the IEA-R1 reactor; Inspecoes visuais nas barras absorvedoras de neutrons do reator IEA-R1

    Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Castanheira, Myrthes; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Damy, Margaret de A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail:


    The Fuel Engineering Division at IPEN/CNEN-SP developed facilities for visual inspection of the IEA-R1 fuel elements and neutron absorbing control rod assemblies inside the research reactor pool. This work presents the method of visual inspection performed at IEA-R1 research reactor. These inspections were adopted to evaluate and to follow the state of the Ag-In-Cd control assemblies fabricated at CERCA in 1972 that remain in use at the reactor core. In 1998, 2000 and 20001, visual inspections were performed in these control rod assemblies, which the general conditions were evaluated. (author)

  7. Proposed design for the PGAA facility at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Menezes, Maria Angela BC; Leal,Alexandre S.


    Background This work presents an initial proposed design of a Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) facility to be installed at the TRIGA IPR-R1, a 60 years old research reactor of the Centre of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) in Brazil. The basic characteristics of the facility and the results of the neutron flux are presented and discussed. Findings The proposed design is based on a quasi vertical tube as a neutron guide from the reactor core, inside the reactor pool, 6 m below t...

  8. Spent fuel management - two alternatives at the FiR 1 reactor

    Salmenhaara, S.E.J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), FIN-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)


    The FiR 1 -reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The reactor with its subsystems has experienced a large renovation work in 1996-97. The main purpose of the upgrading was to install the new Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) irradiation facility. The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: four days per week for BNCT purposes and only one day per week for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. The Council of State (government) granted for the reactor a new operating license for twelve years starting from the beginning of the year 2000. There is however a special condition in the new license. We have to achieve a binding agreement between our Research Centre and the domestic Nuclear Power Plant Companies about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for our spent fuel, if we want to continue the reactor operation beyond the year 2006. In addition to the choosing of one of the spent fuel management alternatives the future of the reactor will also depend strongly on the development of the BNCT irradiations. If the number of patients per year increases fast enough and the irradiations of the patients will be economically justified, the operation of the reactor will continue independently of the closing of the USDOE alternative in 2006. Otherwise, if the number of patients will be low, the funding of the reactor will be probably stopped and the reactor will be shut down. (author)

  9. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail:; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail:; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail:; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail:


    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  10. Design of a new wet storage rack for spent fuels from IEA-R1 reactor

    Rodrigues, Antonio C.I.; Madi Filho, Tufic; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Ricci Filho, Walter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 research reactor operates in a regimen of 64h weekly, at the power of 4.5 MW. In these conditions, the racks of the spent fuel elements have less than half of its initial capacity. Thus, maintaining these operating conditions, the storage will have capacity for about six years. Since the estimated useful life of the IEA-R1 is about another 20 years, it will be necessary to increase the storage capacity of spent fuel. Dr. Henrik Grahn, expert of the International Atomic Energy Agency on wet storage, visiting the IEA-R1 Reactor (September/2012) made some recommendations: among them, the design and installation of racks made with borated stainless steel and internally coated with an aluminum film, so that corrosion of the fuel elements would not occur. After an extensive literature review of material options given for this type of application we got to Boral® manufactured by 3M due to numerous advantages. This paper presents studies on the analysis of criticality using the computer code MCNP 5, demonstrating the possibility of doubling the storage capacity of current racks to attend the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor while attending the safety requirements the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  11. Neutrons characterization of the nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia; Caracterizacion de los neutrones del reactor nuclear IAN-R1 de Colombia

    Gonzalez P, L. X.; Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Carretera Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa, 150003 Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    By means of Monte Carlo methods, with the code MCNPX, the neutron characteristics of the research nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia, in power off but with the neutrons source in their start position, have been valued. The neutrons spectra, the total flow and their average power were calculated in the irradiation spaces inside the graphite reflector, as well as in the cells with air. Also the spectra, the total flow and the absorbed dose were calculated in several places distributed along the radial shaft inside the water moderator. The neutrons total flow was also considered to the long of the axial shaft. The characteristics of the neutrons spectra vary depending on their position regarding the source and the material that surrounds to the cell where the calculation was made. (Author)

  12. Spent fuel management plans for the FiR 1 Reactor

    Salmenhaara, S. E. J. [V1T Processes Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Otakaari 3 A, P.O. Box 1404, FIN-02044 VTT, (Finland)


    The FiR 1-reactor, a 250 kW TRIGA reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: three days per week for BNCT purposes and only two days per week for other purposes such as the neutron activation analysis and isotope production. The final disposal site is situated in Olkiluoto, on the western coast of Finland. Olkiluoto is also one of the two nuclear power plant sites in Finland. In the new operating license of our reactor there is a special condition. We have to achieve a binding agreement between our Research Centre and either the domestic Nuclear Power Companies about the possibility to use the Olkiluoto final disposal facility for our spent fuel or US DOE about the return of our spent fuel back to USA. If we want to continue the reactor operation beyond the year 2006. the domestic final disposal is the only possibility. At the moment it seems to be reasonable to prepare to both possibilities: the domestic final disposal and the return to the USA offered by US DOE. Because the cost estimates of the both possibilities are on the same order of magnitude, the future of the reactor itself will decide, which of the spent fuel policies will be obeyed. In a couple of years' time it will be seen, if the funding of the reactor and the incomes from the BNCT treatments will cover the costs. If the BNCT and other irradiations develop satisfactorily, the reactor can be kept in operation beyond the year 2006 and the domestic final disposal will be implemented. If, however, there is still lack of money, there is no reason to continue the operation of the reactor and the choice of US DOE alternative is natural. (author)

  13. Measured and calculated effective delayed neutron fraction of the IPR-R1 Triga reactor

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Dalle, Hugo M.; Campolina, Daniel A.M., E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.b, E-mail: dallehm@cdtn.b, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The effective delayed neutron fraction, {beta}{sub eff}, one of the most important parameter in reactor kinetics, was measured for the 100 kW IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The current reactor core has 63 fuel elements, containing about 8.5% and 8% by weight of uranium enriched to 20% in U{sup 235}. The core has cylindrical configuration with an annular graphite reflector. Since the first criticality of the reactor in November 1960, the core configuration and the number of fuel elements have been changed several times. At that time, the reactor power was 30 kW, there were 56 fuel elements in the core, and the {beta}{sub eff} value for the reactor recommended by General Atomic (manufacturer of TRIGA) was 790 pcm. The current {beta}{sub eff} parameter was determined from experimental methods based on inhour equation and on the control rod drops. The estimated values obtained were (774 {+-} 38) pcm and (744 {+-} 20) pcm, respectively. The {beta}{sub eff} was calculated by Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 and it was obtained 747 pcm. The calculated and measured values are in good agreement, and the relative percentage error is -3.6% for the first case, and 0.4% for the second one. (author)

  14. IEA-R1 reactor spent fuel element surveillance; Acompanhamento da irradiacao dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1

    Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Teodoro, Celso A.; Lucki, Georgi; Castanheira, Myrthes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The irradiation surveillance is an important part of a qualification program of the U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion nuclear fuels manufactured in IPEN/CNEN-SP. This work presents the surveillance results regarding the fuel and control elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor during the period from June/1999 until December/2003, which embraced register of visual inspections, irradiation conditions, burn-up calculations, thermal hydraulic parameters and failure occurrences. Also providing information that helps the safe operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor, the irradiation surveillance is a collaboration work involving researchers of the Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN) and the operators' staff of the Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq), both from IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

  15. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation; Aspectos da avaliacao sismica do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  16. Experimental distribution of coolant in the IPR-R1 Triga nuclear reactor core

    Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Reis, Patricia A.L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.b, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    The IPR-R1 is a typical TRIGA Mark I light-water and open pool type reactor. The core has an annular configuration of six rings and is cooled by natural circulation. The core coolant channels extend from the bottom grid plate to the top grid plate. The cooling water flows through the holes in the bottom grid plate, passes through the lower unheated region of the element, flows upwards through the active region, passes through the upper unheated region, and finally leaves the channel through the differential area between a triangular spacer block on the top of the fuel element and a round hole in the grid. Direct measurement of the flow rate in a coolant channel is difficult because of the bulky size and low accuracy of flow meters. The flow rate through the channel may be determined indirectly from the heat balance across the channel using measurements of the water inlet and outlet temperatures. This paper presents the experiments performed in the IPR-R1 reactor to monitoring some thermo-hydraulic parameters in the core coolant channels, such as: the radial and axial temperature profile, temperature, velocity, mass flow rate, mass flux and Reynolds's number. Some results were compared with theoretical predictions, as it was expected the variables follow the power distribution (or neutron flux) in the core. (author)

  17. Safety analysis of 5 MW IEAR-1 reactor; Analise de seguranca do reator IEA-R1 a 5 MW

    Silva, Antonio T. e; Maprelian, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Antonio C.I.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Molnary, Leslie de; Mesquita, Ricardo N.; Mendonca, Arlindo G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores. E-mail:


    This paper presents the methods and procedures utilized in the safety analysis of IEA-R1 research reactor. Four postulated accidents are quantitatively analyzed, being the fuel channel blockage accident considered as the Maximum Credible Accident for the reactor. The potential accident consequences and the criteria for radiological doses acceptance are evaluated and discussed. (author)

  18. How the nuclear safety team conducts emergency exercises at the IEA-R1 reactor

    Vaz, Antonio C.A.; Silva, Davilson G.; Toyoda, Eduardo Y.; Santia, Paulo S.; Conti, Thadeu N.; Semmler, Renato; Carvalho, Ricardo N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.b, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This work introduces the Diagram of Emergency Exercise Coordination designed by the Nuclear Safety Team for better Emergency Exercise coordination. The Nuclear Safety Team was created with the mission of avoiding, preventing and mitigating the causes and effects of accidents at the IEA-R1. The facility where we conduct our work is located in an area of a huge population, what increases the responsibility of our mission: conducting exercises and training are part of our daily activities. During the Emergency Exercise, accidents ranked 0-4 on INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) are simulated and involve: Police Department, Fire Department, workers, people from the community, and others. In the last exercise held in June 2014, the scenario contemplated a terrorist organization action that infiltrated in a group of students who were visiting the IEA-R1, tried to steal fresh fuel element to fabricate a dirty bomb. Emergency procedures and plans, timeline and metrics of the actions were applied to the Emergency Exercise evaluation. The next exercise will be held in November, with the simulation of the piping of the primary cooling circuit rupture, causing the emptying of the pool and the lack of cooling of the fuel elements in the reactor core: this will be the scenario. The skills acquired and the systems improvement have been very important tools for the reactor operation safety and the Nuclear Safety Team is making technical efforts so that these Emergency Exercises may be applied to other nuclear and radiological facilities. Equally important for the process of improving nuclear safety is the emphasis placed on implementing quality improvements to the human factor in the nuclear safety area, a crucial element that is often not considered by those outside the nuclear sector. Surely, the Diagram of Emergency Exercise Coordination application will improve and facilitate the organization, coordination and evaluation tasks. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the physical protection system of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Vaz, Antonio C.A.; Conti, Thadeu das N., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The '09/11' in New York and the accident at the Fukushima power plant are two events that served as worldwide reference to review some aspects of the Physical Protection System (PPS) in nuclear areas. The nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 has followed this new world order and improved the protection systems that are directly related to detection (CCTV, sensors, alarms, etc), delay (turnstile, gates, barriers, etc) and response (communication systems, response force, etc), for operation against malicious act, seeking always to avoid or minimize any possibility of threat, theft and sabotage. These actions were performed to prevent and to mitigate the consequence on the environment, economy and society from damages caused by natural hazard, as well. This study evaluates the PPS of the IEA-R1 regarding the weaknesses, strengths,and impacts of the changes resulting from the system implanted. The analyses were based on methodology developed by security experts from SANDIA National Laboratories in Texas - U.S.A, allowing the evaluation of the system through probabilistic and hypothetical analysis. (author)

  20. New digital control system for the operation of the Colombian research reactor IAN-R1; Nuevo sistema de control digital para la operacion del reactor de investigacion Colombiano IAN-R1

    Celis del A, L.; Rivero, T.; Bucio, F.; Ramirez, R.; Segovia, A.; Palacios, J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    En 2011, Mexico won the Colombian international tender for the renewal of instrumentation and control of the IAN-R1 Reactor, to Argentina and the United States. This paper presents the design criteria and the development made for the new digital control system installed in the Colombian nuclear reactor IAN-R1, which is based on a redundant and diverse architecture, which provides increased availability, reliability and safety in the reactor operation. This control system and associated instrumentation met all national export requirements, with the safety requirements established by the IAEA as well as the requirements demanded by the Colombian Regulatory Body in nuclear matter. On August 20, 2012, the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor reached its first criticality controlled with the new system developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). On September 14, 2012, the new control system of the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor was officially handed over to the Colombian authorities, this being the first time that Mexico exported nuclear technology through the ININ. Currently the reactor is operating successfully with the new control system, and has an operating license for 5 years. (Author)

  1. Experience on wet storage spent fuel sipping at IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia do Nucleo


    The IEA-R1 research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) is a pool type reactor of B and W design, that has been operating since 1957 at a power of 2 MW. Irradiated (spent) fuels have been stored at the facility during the various years of operation. At present there are 40 spent fuel assemblies at dry storage, 79 spent fuel assemblies at wet storage and 30 fuel assemblies in the core. The oldest fuels are of United States origin, made with U-Al alloy, both of LEU and HEU MTR fuel type. many of these fuel assemblies have corrosion pits along their lateral fuel plates. These pits originate by galvanic corrosion between the fuel plate and the stainless steel storage racks. As a consequence of the possibility of sending the irradiated old fuels back to the U.S.A., sipping tests were performed with the spent fuel assemblies. The reason for this was to evaluate their {sup 137}Cs leaking rate, if any. This work describes the procedure and methodology used to perform the sipping tests with the fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for the {sup 137}Cs sipping water activity for each fuel assembly. A correlation is made between the corrosion pits and the activity values measured. A {sup 137}Cs leaking rate is determined and compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies before shipment. (author).

  2. Experience on wet storage spent fuel sipping at IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A


    The IEA-R1 research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) is a pool type reactor of B and W design, that has been operating since 1957 at a power of 2 MW. Irradiated (spent) fuels have been stored at the facility during the various years of operation. At present there are 40 spent fuel assemblies at dry storage, 79 spent fuel assemblies at wet storage and 30 fuel assemblies in the core. The oldest fuels are of United States origin, made with U-Al alloy, both of LEU and HEU MTR fuel type. Many of these fuel assemblies have corrosion pits along their lateral fuel plates. These pits originate by galvanic corrosion between the fuel plate and the stainless steel storage racks. As a consequence of the possibility of sending the irradiated old fuels back the U.S.A., sipping tests were performed with the spent fuel assemblies. The reason for this was to evaluate their {sup 137}Cs leaking rate, if any. This work describes the procedure and methodology used to perform the sipping tests with the fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for the {sup 137}Cs sipping water activity for each fuel assembly. A correlation is made between the corrosion pits and the activity values measured. A {sup 137}Cs leaking rate is determined and compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies before shipment.

  3. Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method

    Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  4. Application of Nondestructive Methods for Qualification of High Density Fuels in the IEA-R1 Reactor

    Silva, J.E.R.; Silva, A.T.; Domingos, D.B.; Terremoto, L.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Av.Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP in Brazil is a pool type research reactor cooled and moderated by demineralised water and having Beryllium and Graphite as reflectors. Since 1990, IPEN/CNEN-SP has been fabricating and qualifying its own U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuels. The U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion fuel is qualified to a uranium density of 2.3 gU/cm{sup 3} and the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuel up to 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3}. The IEA-R1 reactor core is constituted of the fuels above, with low enrichment in U-235 (19.9% of U-235). Nowadays, IPEN/CNEN-SP is interested in qualifying the above dispersion fuels at higher densities. Fuel miniplates of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuels, with densities of 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3}, respectively, which are the maximal uranium densities qualified worldwide for these dispersion fuels, were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The miniplates were put in an irradiation device, with similar external dimensions of IEA-R1 fuel assemblies, which was placed in a peripheral position of the IEA-R1 reactor core. IPEN/CNEN-SP has no hot cells to provide destructive analysis of the irradiated fuel. As a consequence, non destructive methods are being used to evaluate irradiation performance of the fuel miniplates: i) monitoring the fuel miniplate performance during the IEA-R1 operation for the following parameters: reactor power, time of operation, neutron flux at the position of each fuel assembly, burnup, inlet and outlet water, and radiochemistry analysis of reactor water; ii) periodic underwater visual inspection of fuel miniplates and eventual sipping test for the fuel miniplate suspected of leakage. The miniplates are being periodically visually inspected by an underwater radiation-resistant camera inside the IEA-R1 reactor pool, to verify its integrity and its general plate surface conditions. A new special system was designed for the fuel miniplate swelling evaluation. The

  5. Circuits design of action logics of the protection system of nuclear reactor IAN-R1 of Colombia; Diseno de los circuitos de la logica de actuacion del sistema de proteccion del reactor nuclear IAN-R1 de Colombia

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Sainz M, E., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Due to the obsolescence of the instrumentation and control system of the nuclear research reactor IAN-R1, the Institute of Geology and Mining of Colombia, IngeoMinas, launched an international convoking for renewal it which was won by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). Within systems to design, the reactor protection system is described as important for safety, because this carried out, among others two primary functions: 1) ensuring the reactor shutdown safely, and 2) controlling the interlocks to protect against operational errors if defined conditions have not been met. To fulfill these functions, the various subsystems related to the safety report the state in which they are using binary signals and are connected to the inputs of two redundant logic wiring circuits called action logics (Al) that are part of the reactor protection system. These Al also serve as logical interface to indicate at all times the status of subsystems, both the operator and other systems. In the event that any of the subsystems indicates a state of insecurity in the reactor, the Al generate signals off (or scram) of the reactor, maintaining the interlock until the operator sends a reset signal. In this paper the design, implementation, verification and testing of circuits that make up the Al 1 and 2 of IAN-R1 reactor is described, considering the fulfillment of the requirements that the different international standards imposed on this type of design. (Author)

  6. Ageing implementation and refurbishment development at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor: a 15 years experience

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Ricci Filho, Walter; Carvalho, Marcos R. de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Marra Neto, Adolfo, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.b, E-mail: wricci@ipen.b, E-mail: carvalho@ipen.b, E-mail: jrretta@ipen.b, E-mail: amneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) is a nuclear research center established into the Secretary of Science and Technology from the government of the state of Sao Paulo, and administered both technically and financially by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), a federal government organization under the Ministry of Science and Technology. The institute is located inside the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo city, Brazil. One of major nuclear facilities at IPEN is the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. It is the unique Brazilian research reactor with substantial power level suitable for application with research in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, as well as radioisotope production for medical and other applications. Designed and built by Babcok-Wilcox, in accordance with technical specifications established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, and financed by the US Atoms for Peace Program, it is a swimming pool type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector elements. The first criticality was achieved on September 16, 1957 and the reactor is currently operating at 4.0 MW on a 64h per week cycle. Since 1996, an IEA-R1 reactor ageing study was established at the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) related with general deterioration of components belonging to some operational systems, as cooling towers from secondary cooling system, piping and pumps, sample irradiation devices, radiation monitoring system, fuel elements, rod drive mechanisms, nuclear and process instrumentation and safety operational system. Although basic structures are almost the same as the original design, several improvements and modifications in components, systems and structures had been made along reactor life. This work aims to show the development of the ageing program in the IEA-R1 reactor and the upgrading (modernization) that was carried out, concerning several equipment and system in the

  7. Study of neutronic flux in IPR-R1 reactor with MCNPX; Estudo do fluxo neutronico no reator IPR-R1 com o MCNPX

    Melo, J.A.S.; Castrillo, L.S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Oliveira, R.M.B.M., E-mail: [Secretaria Executiva de Educacao do Estado de Pernambuco (SEE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    MCNPX computer code, one of the latest versions of code MCNP transport were used to study the flux distribution and its neutronic fluence as a function of energy in two research reactor irradiation IPR-R1. The model developed was validated with research conducted by Dalle (2005). Initially, in the simulation is considered fresh fuel whose core configuration contained three neutron rods control, being two of them 100% ejected while the other inserted 3,1 x 10{sup -1} m deep, as adopted in the literature situation. The neutron source used was the critical type, through KSRC card. The results of the neutron flow and neutronic fluence were obtained in the central tube and the turntable on a range of energy spectrum that ranged from 1.0 x 10{sup -9} MeV to 10 MeV, showing good correlations with the model used in validation. Finally, a hypothetical situation wherein the three reactor control rods are ejected simultaneously was simulated. The simulation results showed an increase in the neutron flux of 7% in the central tube and 5% on the turntable.

  8. Characterization of spent fuel elements stored at IEA-R1 research reactor based on visual inspections and sipping tests

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Castanheira, Myrthes; Lucki, Georgi; Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Aluminum spent nuclear fuels are susceptible to corrosion attack, or mechanical damage from improper handling, while in pool reactor storage. Storage practices have been modified to reduce the potential for damage, based on recommendations presented at second WS on Spent Fuel Characterization, promoted by IAEA. In this work, we present the inspection program proposed to the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel elements, in order to provide information on the physical condition during the interim storage time under wet condition at the reactor pool. The inspection program is based on non-destructive tests results (visual inspection and sipping tests) already periodically performed to exam the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel and fuel elements from the core reactor. To record the available information and examination results it was elaborated a document in the format of a catalogue containing the proposed inspection program for the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel, the description of the visual inspection and sipping tests systems, a compilation of information and images result from the tests performed for all stored standard spent fuel element and, in annexes, copies of the reference documents. That document constitutes an important step of the effective implementation of the referred IEA-R1 spent fuel inspection program and can be used to address regulatory and operational needs for the demonstration, for example, of safe storage throughout the pool storage period. (author)

  9. Reactivity-worth estimates of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    Klann, R. T.; Perret, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    An initial series of calculations of the reactivity-worth of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor with the R1-UO2 core configuration were completed. The reactor model was generated using the REBUS code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The calculations are based on the specifications for fabrication, so they are considered preliminary until sampling and analysis have been completed on the fabricated samples. The estimates indicate a range of reactivity effect from -22 pcm to +25 pcm compared to the natural U sample.

  10. Feasibility studies of producing {sup 99} Mo by capture in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Concilio, Roberta; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;


    Everyday the production of {sup 99} Mo for {sup 99m} Tc generators, becomes more necessary, whose properties are ideal for medical diagnosis. This works presents a description and an analysis of the production of {sup 99} Mo by radioactive capture at {sup 98} Mo using the research reactor IEA-R1 in 5 MW and operating 5 days a week, referring to the use of targets, separation methods, total and specific activity attained and its limitations. (author)

  11. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  12. Upgrading the electrical system of the IEA-R1 reactor to avoid triggering event of accidents

    Mello, Jose Roberto de; Madi Filho, Tufic, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 research reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) is a research reactor open pool type, built and designed by the American firm 'Babcox and Wilcox', having as coolant and moderator demineralized light water and Beryllium and graphite, as reflectors. The power supply system is designed to meet the electricity demand required by the loads of the reactor (Security systems and systems not related to security) in different situations the plant can meet, such as during startup, normal operation at power, shutdown, maintenance, exchange of fuel elements and accident situations. Studies have been done on possible accident initiating events and deterministic techniques were applied to assess the consequences of such incidents. Thus, the methods used to identify and select the accident initiating events, the methods of analysis of accidents, including sequence of events, transient analysis and radiological consequences, have been described. Finally, acceptance criteria of radiological doses are described. Only a brief summary of the item concerning loss of electrical power will be presented. The loss of normal electrical power at the IEA-R1 reactor is very common. In the case of Electric External Power Loss, at the IEA-R1 reactor building, there may be different sequences of events, as described below. When the supply of external energy in the IEA-R1 facility fails, the Electrical Distribution Vital System, consisting of 4 (four) generators type 'UPS', starts operation, immediately and it will continue supplying power to the reactor control table, core cooling system and other security systems. To contribute to security, in the electric power failure, starts to operate the Emergency Cooling System (SRE). SRE has the function of removing residual heat from the core to prevent the melting of fuel elements in the event of loss of refrigerant to the core. Adding to the generators with batteries group system, new auxiliary

  13. Application of nondestructive methods for qualification of high density fuels in the IEA-R1 reactor

    Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio T.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Terremoto, Luis A.A., E-mail: jersilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN/CNEN-SP manufactures fuels to be used in its research reactor - the IEA-R1. To qualify those fuels, it is necessary to check if they have a good performance under irradiation. As Brazil still does not have nuclear research reactors with high neutron fluxes, or suitable hot cells for carrying out post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels, IPEN/CNEN-SP has conducted a fuel qualification program based on the use of uranium compounds (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed in Al matrix) internationally tested and qualified to be used in research reactors, and has attained experience in the technological development stages for the manufacturing of fuel plates, irradiation and non-destructive post-irradiation testing. Fuel elements containing low volume fractions of fuel in the dispersion were manufactured and irradiated successfully directly in the core of the IEA-R1. However, there are plans at IPEN/CNEN-SP to increase the uranium density of the fuels. Ten fuel miniplates (five containing U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and five containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al), with densities of 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} respectively, are being irradiated inside an irradiation device placed in a peripheral position of the IEA-R1 core. Non-destructive methods will be used to evaluate irradiation performance of the fuel miniplates after successive cycles of irradiation, by means: monitoring the reactor parameters during operation; periodic underwater visual inspection of fuel miniplates, eventual sipping test for fuel miniplates suspected of leakage and underwater measuring of the miniplate thickness for assessment of the fuel miniplate swelling. (author)

  14. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)


    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  15. Non destructive testing of irradiated fuel assemblies at the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Lucki, Georgi [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails:;;;;;;


    Fuel performance and nuclear fuel qualification require a post-irradiation analysis. Non-destructive methods are utilised both in irradiated fuel storage pools and in hot-cells laboratories. As Brazil does not have hot-cells facilities for post-irradiation analysis, a qualification program for the Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements made at IPEN/CNEN-SP was adopted, based on non-destructive tests. The IPEN Fuel Engineering Group - CENC developed basic facilities for fuels post-irradiated analysis inside the reactor pool, which gives indications of: general state, by visual inspection; the integrity of the irradiated fuel cladding, by sipping tests; thickness measurements of the fuel miniplates during the irradiation time, for swelling evaluation; and, local burn-up evaluation by gamma spectrometry along the active area of the fuel element. This work describes that facilities, equipment and examples of some irradiated fuels analysis performed. (author)

  16. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the bnct research facility at IEA-R1 reactor

    Vinicius Alexandre de Castro


    A Terapia por Captura de Nêutrons pelo Boro (BNCT) é uma técnica radioterapêutica, que visa o tratamento de alguns tipos de câncer, em que sua energia útil é proveniente da reação nuclear promovida pela incidência de nêutrons térmicos no isótopo de 10B. No Brasil existe uma instalação, localizada junto ao canal de irradiação número 3 do Reator de Pesquisas IEA-R1 do IPEN, que foi projetada para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em BNCT. Para uma aplicação adequada da técnica é necessário que o f...

  17. Study of molybdenum-99 production in IEA-R1m reactor using a beryllium irradiator; Estudos sobre a producao de molibdenio no reator IEA-R1m utilizando um irradiador de berilio

    Ricci Filho, Walter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Joao M.L. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 reactor has undergone a modernization to increase its operating power to 5 MW, in order to allow a more efficient production of the {sup 99} Mo radioisotope. An irradiation element made of Be was acquired for the reactor and studies were initiated for determining its performance when compared to other irradiators available in the reactor, the water and graphite types. The results obtained showed some advantages of the Be irradiation element for producing {sup 99} Mo: the epithermal neutron flux in the irradiation element is approximately 15% greater than in the water and in the graphite irradiation elements; the negative reactivity introduced in the reactor by the Be irradiation element is substantially smaller than the those introduced by the other elements: - 1636 pcm for the Be irradiator, -2568 for the graphite irradiator and -2977 pcm for the water irradiator. It is concluded that the production of the {sup 99M}o radioisotope with the Be irradiation element can be increased by 15% in the IEA-R1m reactor. It also requires less fuel for the reactor operation due to the smaller negative reactivity introduced in the reactor core. (author) 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. OSMOSE program : statistical review of oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    Stoven, G.; Klann, R.; Zhong, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    The OSMOSE program is a collaboration on reactor physics experiments between the United States Department of Energy and the France Commissariat Energie Atomique. At the working level, it is a collaborative effort between the Argonne National Laboratory and the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The objective of this program is to measure very accurate integral reaction rates in representative spectra for the actinides important to future nuclear system designs, and to provide the experimental data for improving the basic nuclear data files. The main outcome of the OSMOSE measurement program will be an experimental database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark to verify and validate reactor analysis codes. The OSMOSE program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in Eupraxic Spectra) aims at improving neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through oscillation measurements in the MINERVE facility on samples containing the following separated actinides: {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, and {sup 245}Cm. The first part of this report provides an overview of the experimental protocol and the typical processing of a series of experimental results which is currently performed at CEA-Cadarache. In the second part of the report, improvements to this technique are presented, as well as the program that was created to process oscillation measurement results from the MINERVE facility in the future.

  19. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor; Investigacao experimental da distribuicao de temperaturas no reator nuclear de pesquisa TRIGA IPR-R1

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias


    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  20. Low enriched uranium UAl{sub X}-Al targets for the production of Molybdenum-99 in the IEA-R1 and RMB reactors

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nishiyama, Pedro J.B. de O., E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)


    The IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP in Brazil is a pool type research reactor cooled and moderated by demineralized water and having Beryllium and Graphite as reflectors. In 1997 the reactor received the operating licensing for 5 MW. A new research reactor is being planned in Brazil to replace the IEA-R1 reactor. This new reactor, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned for 30 MW, is now in the conception design phase. Low enriched uranium (LEU) (<20% {sup 235}U) UAl{sub x} dispersed in Al targets are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed, respectively, to compare the production of {sup 99}Mo for these targets in IEA-R1 reactor and RMB and to determine the temperatures achieved in the UAl{sub x}-Al targets during irradiation. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION, CITATION and SCALE and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations was utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1. (author)

  1. The awareness of the functional and near population with the relation to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1

    Vanni, Silvia R.; Martins, Maria da Penha S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    After the natural accident that hit Japan in the beginning of March of 2011, and that ended into an accident of great proportions in the nuclear installations of Fukushima, it has now the debate over the lack of information that the population in general has over the nuclear energy. The dissemination of information, about the operation and security of the nuclear reactors, has the purpose of softening the effect that the pessimistic atmosphere has over its using. This study was reinforced by the memories of serious consequences due to other nuclear accidents that have already happened (Chernobyl, Three-Mile and Hiroshima/Nagasaki event), bringing insecurity, fear and even revenge from part of the public. Over all, people are not sufficiently informed about the positives and negatives aspects of the nuclear energy. It is necessary the adoption of a clear and aware policy with the population, about the pacific use of nuclear energy. Today, the international and national organizations of control of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), have respectively, published information about this subject using a more professional way and of hard access for the public in general. This work has the goal of checking the level of information that the population of workers and individuals of the close public to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1, located in the Institute of Nuclear Research (IPEN), University City, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has over it. The way used for this study, involved questionnaires with straight questions and of simple language over the subject, to people of all different social, economic and cultural classes, from 12 to 80 years old. From the results found after this work, it was verified the necessity to elaborate a project of awareness of information and clarification about the nuclear energy, using ways of communication that exist and that are easy for the public to understand. (author)

  2. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails:;


    The objective of this work is the study of human factors and situational variables, which, when modified, can interfere in the work actions of the operators of nuclear installations. This work is focused on the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that may lead to accidents or even other events which may originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named - Behavioral Analysis - is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also the situational ones, which include physical, work, environment, organizational and social variables. Subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behavior analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  3. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails:;


    Human factors and situational variables, which ca, when modified, interfere in the actions of operators of nuclear installations is studied. This work is focused in the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that can lead to accidents or even other events which can originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named 'Behavioral Analysis' is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also situational, including in these categories; physical variables, work environment, organizational and the social ones. The subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behaviour analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  4. Application of a new operating license for the Finnish FiR 1 reactor and the change of generation of the reactor personnel

    Salmenhaara, Seppo; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Otaniemi, Espoo (Finland)


    The FiR 1 epithermal BNCT facility is a TRIGA Mark II reactor: 250 kW; 15 kg U containing 3 kg {sup 235}U (20% enrichment) in the special TRIGA uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (8-12 w% U, 91% Zr, 1% H); epithermal neutrons are created by the FLUENTAL{sup TM} neutron moderator; Neutron collimation: Bi + Li-Poly cone; epithermal neutron flux: 1.1 10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}s; fast neutron dose: 2 Gy/10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. The schedule of the Operating License Application is as follows: - 2009 decision to apply a new license; - 2010 preparation of the documents needed for the application; - 2011 the documents will be checked by the authorities and at the end of the year the new license should be granted by the Government; - 2012-2016 probable period of the new license The supplementary documents to the application for an operating license are: 1. Details of the site; 2. The quality and maximum amounts of the nuclear material 3. An outline of the technical operating principles and arrangements whereby the safety has been ensured; 4. A description of the safety principles that have been observed, and an evaluation of the fulfillment of the principles; 5. A description of the measures to restrict the burden caused by the nuclear facility on the environment; 6. The expertise available to the applicant and the operating organization; 7. Plans for arranging nuclear waste management. The applicant submits to the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority: 1. The final safety analysis report; 2. A probabilistic safety analysis; 3. A quality assurance programme for the operation of the nuclear facility; 4. Technical specifications; 5. A summary programme for periodic inspections; 6. A description of the arrangements for physical protection and emergencies; 7. A description on how to arrange the safeguards that are necessary to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons; 8. Administrative rules; 9. A programme for radiation monitoring in the environment. Reactor key persons and the

  5. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio


    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  6. Development and implementation of a new pneumatic transfer system for materials irradiation at IEA-R1 reactor; Desenvolvimento e implementacao de um novo sistema pneumatico de transferencia para irradiacao de materiais no reator IEA-R1

    Fernando, Alberto de Jesus


    Pneumatic Transfer Systems (PTS) are classified as mechanical equipment largely operated all over the world for transport of a huge sort of objects, samples and materials located at nearly terminals or even at separated ones. System applicability is often recognized in many activities, such as medicine (hospital settings, clinical analysis labs), industry (steel, automobiles, mining, chemical, food, construction), trading (gas station, movies, supermarkets, banks, e-commerce) and federal agencies (post services, federal courts, public enterprises). In the nuclear settings, PTS shows also a vast array of applications, being a part of radioisotope production, as well as short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, including 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 18 F and 123 I-ultra pure. Besides, PTS are also used at radioactive waste management plants and research institutes that apply neutron activation analysis (NAA). This work was directed toward the design and operation of a new PTS for the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor settled at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for NAA application. With this aim, it was calculated the charge of reactor core grid plate and sample transport testing. Neutron flux at irradiating position was determined as 3,70 {+-} 0,26 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A


    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor; Otimizacao do feixe de irradiacao na instalacao para estudos em BNCT junto ao reator IEA-R1

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de


    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  9. Implementation of the optimization for the methodology of the neutronic calculation and thermo-hydraulic in IEA-R1 reactor

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo de; Conti, Thadeu das Neves; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Maio, Mireia F., E-mail: gstefani@ipen.b, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.b, E-mail: g.fedorenko@ipen.b, E-mail: vcastro@ipen.b, E-mail: mfmaio@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Thiago Augusto dos, E-mail: tsantos@ipen.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    This work objective was to create a manager program that would automate the programs and computer codes in use for neutronic calculation and thermo-hydraulic in IEA-R1 reactor thus making the process for calculation of safety parameters and for configuration change up to 98% faster than that used in the reactor today. This process was tested in combination with the reactor operators and is being implemented by the quality department. The main codes and programs involved in the calculations of configuration change are Leopard, Hammier-Technion, Twodb, Citation and Cobra. Calculations of delayed neutron and criticality coefficients given in the process of safety parameters calculation are given by the Hammer-Technion and Citation in a process that involves about eleven repetitions so that it meets all the necessary conditions (such different temperatures of the moderator and fuel). The results are entirely consistent with the expected and absolutely the same as those given by manual process. Thus the work shows its reliability as well the advantage of saving time, once a process that could take up to four hours was turned in one that takes around five minutes when done in a home computer. Much of this advantage is due to the fact that were created subprograms to treat the output of each program used and transform them into the input of the other programs, removing from it the intermediate essential data for this to occur, thus avoiding also a possible human error by handling the various data supplied. (author)

  10. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci


    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  11. Commissioning of the STAR test section for experimental simulation of loss of coolant accident using the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Torres, Walmir M.; Prado, Adelk C.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Franca, Renato L.; Santos, Samuel C.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SO (Brazil)


    The three basic safety functions of Research Reactors (RR) are the safe shutdown of the reactor, the proper cooling of the decay heat of the fuel elements and the confinement of radioactive materials. Compared to Nuclear Power Reactors, RR power release is small, yet its three safety functions must be met to ensure the integrity of the reactor. During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in pool type RR, partial or complete loss of pool water may occur, with consequent partial or complete uncovering of the fuel assemblies. In such an accident, the decay heat removal safety function must not be compromised. The Test Section for Experimental Simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (STAR) is in commissioning phase. This test section will provide experimental data on partial and total uncovering of the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly (IFA) irradiated in the IEA-R1. Experimental results will be useful in validation of computer codes for RR safety analysis, particularly on heat removal efficiency aspects (safety function) in accident conditions. STAR comprises a base on which is installed the IFA, the cylindrical stainless steel hull, the compressed air system for the test section emptying and refilling, and the instrumentation for temperature and level measurements. The commissioning tests or pre-operational check, consist of several preliminary tests to verify experimental procedures, the difficulties during assembling of STAR in the pool, the difficulties in control the emptying and refilling velocities, as well as, the repeatability capacity, tests of equipment, valves and systems and tests of instrumentation and data acquisition system. Safety, accuracy and easiness of operation will be checked. (author)

  12. Design and construction of an irradiation apparatus with controlled atmosphere and temperature for radiation damage evaluation of nuclear materials in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Lucki, Georgi; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Castanheira, Myrthes; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    A material irradiation apparatus CIMAT (Capsula de Irradiacao de Materiais) with controlled temperature and atmosphere is described. The device was specifically designed to perform experiments inside the core of the IEA-R1 swimming pool reactor and allows fast neutron (E=1 MeV) irradiations of multiple miniature metallic samples at temperature between 100 deg C and 500 deg C, in Argon or Helium atmosphere to inhibit corrosion. The aim of CIMAT is to make a comparative assessment of Radiation Embrittlement (RE) on the AS 508 cl.3 steel, of different origins (ELETROMETAL-Brazil and VITCOVICE-Chekia) used in Pressure Vessels (PV) of PWR, for fluence of 10 exp 19 nvt at 300 C, by means of mechanical post irradiation evaluation. Previous characterization of non-irradiated samples of these materials is presented. In situ electrical and magnetic measurements, at high temperatures, are foreseen to be made with this apparatus. Extensive temperature stability and leak-tightness tests performed in the reactor swimming pool have proven the CIMAT to be intrinsically safe and operational. (author)

  13. Determination of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni in spent ion-exchange resins from the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN-CNEN/SP)

    Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail:, E-mail: [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Vicente, Roberto; Marumo, Julio T.; Terremoto, Luis A. Albiac, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Iron and nickel are used in a wide range of metallic alloys employed in reactor core structures and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low-level wastes and effluents. Both {sup 63} Ni and {sup 55} Fe are neutron activation products. {sup 63} Ni is produced by a neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 62} Ni and by a neutron-proton reaction of-{sup 63}Cu. Iron-55 is produced by neutron activation of two major stable iron isotopes: neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 54} Fe and neutron-to-neutron reaction of {sup 56}Fe. Nickel-63 is a pure beta emitter with maximum energy of 66.95 keV and half-life of 100.1 years, and {sup 55}Fe, with a half life of 2.7 years, decays via electron capture to stable {sup 55}Mn with the emission of Auger electrons and 5.89 keV X-rays. {sup 63} Ni is an important radionuclide in safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories and {sup 55} Fe is an important contributor to the radioactivity of nuclear waste in the first few years of storage. In this work, liquid scintillation counting was used for the determination of both radionuclides in spent ion-exchange resins taken from the water retreatment system of the IEA-R1 reactor and stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Since nuclear waste usually contains many beta emitters, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs, a highly efficient chemical separation method is required to isolate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from all other radionuclides. Hydroxide precipitation was used to separate {sup 55} Fe and {sup 63}Ni from the waste matrix and ion exchange chromatography was used to separate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from each other as well as from interfering radionuclides. The chemical yield was above 90% for {sup 63}Ni and above 60% for {sup 55}Fe. The results of activity measurements correlated well with the concentration of {sup 60}Co in this waste

  14. Self-organizing maps of Kohonen (SOM) applied to multidimensional monitoring data of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Affonso, Gustavo S.; Pereira, Iraci M.; Mesquita, Roberto N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine I., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)


    Multivariate statistics comprise a set of statistical methods used in situations where many variables are database space subsets. Initially applied to human, social and biological sciences, these methods are being applied to many other areas such as education, geology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and many others. This spectra expansion was possible due to recent technological development of computation hardware and software that allows high and complex databases to be treated iteratively enabling further analysis. Following this trend, the neural networks called Self-Organizing Maps are turning into a powerful tool on visualization of implicit and unknown correlations in big sized database sets. Originally created by Kohonen in 1981, it was applied to speech recognition tasks. The SOM is being used as a comparative parameter to evaluate the performance of new multidimensional analysis methodologies. Most of methods require good variable input selection criteria and SOM has contributed to clustering, classification and prediction of multidimensional engineering process variables. This work proposes a method of applying SOM to a set of 58 IEA-R1 operational variables at IPEN research reactor which are monitored by a Data Acquisition System (DAS). This data set includes variables as temperature, flow mass rate, coolant level, nuclear radiation, nuclear power and control bars position. DAS enables the creation and storage of historical data which are used to contribute to Failure Detection and Monitoring System development. Results show good agreement with previous studies using other methods as GMDH and other predictive methods. (author)

  15. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences


    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  16. Impact of uranium concentration reduction in side plates of the fuel elements of IEA-R1 reactor on neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses; Impacto da reducao na concentracao de uranio nas placas laterais dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1 nas analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica

    Rios, Ilka Antonia


    This master thesis presents a study to verify the impact of the uranium concentration reduction in the side plates of the reactor IEA-R1 fuel elements on the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. To develop such study, a previous IPEN-CNEN/SP research was reproduced by simulating the fuel elements burn-up, with side plate uranium density reduced to 50, 60 and 70% of the standard fuel element plates. This research begins with the neutronic analysis using the computer code HAMMER and the first step consists in the calculation of the cross section of all materials presented at the reactor core, with their initial concentration; the second step consists in the calculation of the fast and thermal neutron group fluxes and power densities for fuel elements using the computer code CITATION. HAMMER output data is used as input data. Once the neutronic analysis is finished and the most critical fuel elements with highest power density have been defined, the thermal-hydraulics analysis begins. This analysis uses MCTR-IEA-R1 thermal-hydraulics model, which equations are solved by commercial code EES. Thermalhydraulics analysis input is the power density data calculated by CITATION: it is considered the highest power density on each fuel element, where there is a higher energy release and, consequently, higher temperatures. This data is used on energy balance equations to calculate temperatures on critical fuel element regions. Reactor operation comparison for three different uranium densities on fuel side plates is presented. Uranium density reduction contributes to the cladding surface temperature to remain below the established limit, as reactor operation safety requirement and it does not affect significantly fuel element final burn-up nor reactor reactivity. The reduction of uranium in the side plates of the fuel elements of the IEA-R1 showed to be a viable option to avoid corrosion problems due to high temperatures. (author)

  17. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations for an irradiation device to be used in the qualification process of dispersion fuels in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Domingos, Douglas Borges; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Conti, Thadeu das Neves; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations were developed to estimate the safety of an irradiation device placed in the IEA-R1 reactor core. The irradiation device will be used to receive miniplates of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al e U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuels, LEU type (19.9% of {sup 235}U), with uranium densities of, respectively, 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8gU/cm{sup 3}. The fuel miniplates will be irradiated to nominal {sup 235}U burnup levels of 50% and 80%, in order to qualify the above high-density dispersion fuels to be used in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, now in the conception phase. For the neutronic calculation, the computer code CITATION was utilized. The computer code FLOW was used to calculate the coolant flow rate in the irradiation device, allowing the determination of the fuel miniplate temperatures with the computer model MTRCR-IEA-R1. A postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) was analyzed with the computer codes LOSS and TEMPLOCA, allowing the calculation of the fuel miniplate temperatures after the reactor pool draining. The calculations showed that the irradiation of the fuel miniplates will happen without any adverse consequence in the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  18. The implementation and evaluation of physical protection system of the IEA-R1 reactor; Implementacao e avaliacao do sistema de protecao fisica do reator IEA-R1

    Vaz, Antonio Carlos Alves


    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant on March 2011 and the recent attacks in Paris on November 2015 are examples of events that justify the efforts of the International Agency of Energy Atomic - IAEA to improve security at nuclear facility. The Brazilian government has been collaborating with this project and investing resources to improve the Physical Protection System - PPS of the nuclear research reactor system, technically is associated with the elements of detection, delay and response. The PPS is an integrated system of people, equipment and procedures used to protect nuclear facilities and radioactive sources against threat, theft or sabotage. The PPS works to avoid, to mitigate or to minimize the consequences caused by these actions. This study evaluates the PPS of the reactor, identifying the vulnerabilities and suggesting ways to improve the system effectiveness. The analyses were based on the methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories´ security experts in Albuquerque - USA, allowing the system evaluation through hypothetical and probabilistic analyzes; identifying threats, determining the targets and analyzing the possible adversaries paths. From the methodology adopted was obtained the value around 40% for PE indicator, which shows the need to improve the system to minimizing the vulnerabilities. (author)

  19. Proposal of a synchro panel meter instrument to replace the obsolete Synchro/Resolver reading device used as position indicator of safety rods assembly of the Brazilian IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Cardenas, Jose Patricio N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) was founded in 1956 (as Atomic Energy Institute - IEA) as a facility complex, for the research, development and application, in the nuclear technology field. The institute is recognized as a national leader in nuclear research and development (R and D), including the areas of reactor operation, radiopharmaceuticals, industrial and laboratory applications, materials science and laser technologies and applications. IPEN's main facility is the IEA-R1, nuclear research reactor (NRR), today, the only one in Brazil with a power level suitable for applications in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Some radioisotopes are also produced in IEA-R1, for medical and other applications. A common problem faced in the IEA-R1 maintenance is instrumentation obsolescence; spare parts are no more available, because of discontinued production, and an updating program is mandatory, aiming at modernization of old-aged I and C systems. In the presented context, an electronic system is here proposed, as a replacement for the reactor safety (shim) rods assembly position indicator, based on an open-source physical computing platform called Arduino, which includes a simple microcontroller board and a software-code development environment. A mathematical algorithm for the synchro-motor signal processing was developed, and the obtained resolution was better than 1.5%. (author)

  20. Automation of the computational programs and codes used in the methodology of neutronic and thermohydraulic calculation for the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor; Automatizacao dos programas e codigos computacionais utilizados na metodologia de calculo neutronico e termohidraulico do reator nuclear IEA-R1

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo de, E-mail: gstefani@ipen.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Conti, Thadeu das Neves, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This work proceeds the elaboration of a computational program for execution of various neutron and thermalhydraulic calculation methodology programs of the IEA-R1-Sao Paulo, Brazil, making the process more practical and safe, besides transforming de output data of each program an automatic process. This reactor is largely used for production of radioisotopes for medical use, material irradiation, personnel training and also for basic research. For that purposes it is necessary to change his core configuration in order to adapt the reactor for different uses. The work will transform various existent programs into subroutines of a principal program, i.e.,a program which call each of the programs automatically when necessary, and create another programs for manipulation the output data and therefore making practical the process

  1. Reactors

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva


    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  2. Engineered Deinococcus radiodurans R1 with NiCoT genes for bioremoval of trace cobalt from spent decontamination solutions of nuclear power reactors.

    Gogada, Raghu; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Lunavat, Shanti Kumari; Pamarthi, Maruthi Mohan; Rodrigue, Agnes; Vadivelu, Balaji; Phanithi, Prakash-Babu; Gopala, Venkateswaran; Apte, Shree Kumar


    The aim of the present work was to engineer bacteria for the removal of Co in contaminated effluents. Radioactive cobalt ((60)Co) is known as a major contributor for person-sievert budgetary because of its long half-life and high γ-energy values. Some bacterial Ni/Co transporter (NiCoT) genes were described to have preferential uptake for cobalt. In this study, the NiCoT genes nxiA and nvoA from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 (RP) and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F-199 (NA), respectively, were cloned under the control of the groESL promoter. These genes were expressed in Deinococcus radiodurans in reason of its high resistance to radiation as compared to other bacterial strains. Using qualitative real time-PCR, we showed that the expression of NiCoT-RP and NiCoT-NA is induced by cobalt and nickel. The functional expression of these genes in bioengineered D. radiodurans R1 strains resulted in >60 % removal of (60)Co (≥5.1 nM) within 90 min from simulated spent decontamination solution containing 8.5 nM of Co, even in the presence of >10 mM of Fe, Cr, and Ni. D. radiodurans R1 (DR-RP and DR-NA) showed superior survival to recombinant E. coli (ARY023) expressing NiCoT-RP and NA and efficiency in Co remediation up to 6.4 kGy. Thus, the present study reports a remarkable reduction in biomass requirements (2 kg) compared to previous studies using wild-type bacteria (50 kg) or ion-exchanger resins (8000 kg) for treatment of ~10(5)-l spent decontamination solutions (SDS).

  3. Development of an artificial neural network for monitoring and diagnosis of sensor fault and detection in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN; Utilizacao de redes neurais artificiais na monitoracao e deteccao de falhas em sensores do reator IEA-R1

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio


    The increasing demand on quality in production processes has encouraged the development of several studies on Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems in industrial plant, where the interruption of the production due to some unexpected change can bring risk to the operator's security besides provoking economic losses, increasing the costs to repair some damaged equipment. Because of these two points, the economic losses and the operator's security, it becomes necessary to implement Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems. In this work, a Monitoring and Diagnosis Systems was developed based on the Artificial Neural Networks methodology. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The development of this system was divided in three stages: the first was dedicated to monitoring, the second to the detection and the third to diagnosis of failures. In the first stage, several Artificial Neural Networks were trained to monitor the temperature variables, nuclear power and dose rate. Two databases were used: one with data generated by a theoretical model and another one with data to a typical week of operation of the IEA-R1 reactor. In the second stage, the neural networks used to monitor the variables was tested with a fault database. The faults were inserted artificially in the sensors signals. As the value of the maximum calibration error for special thermocouples is {+-}0,5 deg C, it had been inserted faults of {+-} 10 C in the sensors for the reading of the variables T3 and T4. In the third stage a Fuzzy System was developed to carry out the faults diagnosis, where were considered three conditions: a normal condition, a fault of {sub 1}0 C , and a fault of + 10 C . This system will indicate which thermocouple is faulty. (author)

  4. Analysis of neutron flux distribution using the Monte Carlo method for the feasibility study of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departmento de Energia Nuclear; Soares, Alexandre L.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN), Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor and operates at 100 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in {sup 235}U. The implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) using this research reactor will significantly increase in number of chemical elements analysed and the kind of matrices. A project is underway in order to implement this technique at CDTN. The objective of this study was to contribute in feasibility analysis of implementing this technique. For this purpose, MCNP is being used. Some variance reduction tools in the methodology, that has been already developed, was introduced for calculating of the neutron flux in the neutron extractor inclined. The objective was to reduce the code error and thereby increasing the reliability of the results. With the implementation of the variance reduction tools, the results of the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes presented a significant improvement in both calculations. (author)

  5. Utilization of radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of U, Pu and Am in activated charcoal from IEA-R1 reactor

    Geraldo, Bianca; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    Activated charcoal is a radioactive waste arising from the water purification system of the nuclear research reactor. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to identify and quantify the existing radionuclides, including those known as 'difficult-to-measure radionuclides' (RDM). The analysis of these RDM usually involves complex radiochemical costly and time consuming procedures for the purification and separation of them. The objective of this work was to define a methodology of sequential analysis of isotopes of U, Pu and Am, present in activated charcoal, evaluating chemical recovery, analysis time, quantity of radioactive waste generated and cost. Ion exchange and the chromatographic extraction methodologies were compared. Both methods showed high chemical recoveries, ranged from 74 and 100% for U, 76 and 100% for Pu and 87 and 100% for Am, demonstrating that these methods provide accurate and reliable results. However, chromatographic extraction method is more suitable for the determination of the radionuclides because it generates the smaller volume of waste and is more cost-effectively. (author)

  6. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures; Estudo de fatores humanos e observacao dos seus aspectos basicos, focados em operadores do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1, objetivando a prevencao de acidentes ocasionados por falhas humanas

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches


    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  7. Survey of nuclear parameters from the TRIGA Mark I IPR R1 Brazilian reactor with concentric configuration aiming the application of K{sub 0} neutron activation technique; Levantamento de parametros nucleares do reator TRIGA Mark I IPR R1 com configuracao concentrica visando a aplicacao da tecnica de ativacao neutronica K{sub 0}

    Franco, Milton Batista


    This research intended to determine the nuclear parameters a, f, spectral index and neutron temperature in several irradiations positions of the TRIGA Mark 1 IPR-R1 reactor, for use on the parametric method K{sub 0} in the CDTN. K{sub 0} is a monostandard method of neutron activation analysis. It is, on the whole, experimentally simple, flexible and an important tool for accurate and convenient standardization in instrumental multi-element analysis. At the time the parameters were determined at the rotatory rack, lower layer and in the central thimble: alpha was calculated applying the three bare monitor method using {sup 197}Au, {sup 94}Zr and {sup 96}Zr; f determination was done according to the bare bi-isotopic method; neutron temperature was calculated through the direct method using {sup 176}Lu, {sup 94}Zr, {sup 96}Zr and {sup 197}Au and the Westcott's g(Tn) function for the {sup 176}Lu was calculated and the result was interpolated in the Grintakis and Kim (1975) Table, determining the neutron temperature. The procedure to check the parameters consisted in using standard solutions of Au (metal foil, NBS), Lu (LuO{sub 2}, Johnson Mattey Company - JMC) and Zr (ZrO{sub 2} and metal foil, Johnson Mattey Company 99,99% and Zry - 4: 98,14% of Zr, National Bureau of Standard- NBS). Several certified reference materials and two samples of intercomparisons (samples of sediment of the IAEA/ARCAL XXVI project) have been analysed by means of k{sub 0}- INAA in order to verify the efficiency of the method and the quality of the parameters. The certified reference materials were: GXR-2, GXR-5 and GXR-6 of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Soil-5, Soil-7 and SL-1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  8. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor; Determinacao de fatores de escala para estimativa do inventario de radionuclideos em rejeitos de media e baixa atividades do reator IEA-R1

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo


    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  9. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating events of loss of flow caused by channel blockage and loss of coolant caused by a large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit - PSA level 1

    Hirata, Daniel Massami [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This work applies the methodology of Probabilistic Safety Assessment Level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid caused by large pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions in which these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  10. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of devices for irradiation of LEU targets type of UAL{sub x}-Al and U-Ni to production of {sup 99}Mo in reactor IEA-R1 and RMB; Analises neutronicas e termo-hidraulica de dispositivos para irradiacao de alvos tipo LEU de UAL{sub x}-Al e U-Ni para producao de {sup 99}Mo nos reatores IEA-R1 e RMB

    Domingos, Douglas Borges


    In this work neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses were made to compare three types of targets (UAl{sub 2}-Al, U-Ni cylindrical and U-Ni plate) used for the production of {sup 99}Mo by fission of {sup 235}U. Some experiments were conducted to validate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulics methodologies used in this work. For the neutronic calculations the computational programs NJOY99.0, AMPX-II and HAMMERTECHNION were used to generate the cross sections. SCALE 6.0 and CITATION computational programs were used for three-dimensional calculations of the reactor cores, fuel burning and the production of {sup 99}Mo. The computational programs MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX were used to calculate the thermal and hydraulic parameters of the irradiation devices and for comparing them to limits and design criteria. First were performed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyzes for the reactor IEA-R1 with the targets of UAl{sub 2}-Al (10 mini plates). Analyses have shown that the total activity obtained for {sup 99}Mo on the mini plates does not meet the demand of Brazilian hospitals (450 Ci/week) and that no limit of thermo-hydraulic design is overtaken. Next, the same calculations were performed for the three target types in Multipurpose Brazilian Reactor (MBR). The neutronic analyzes demonstrated that the three targets meet the demand of Brazilian hospitals. The thermal hydraulic analysis shows that a minimum speed of 7 m/s for the target UAl{sub 2}-Al, 8 m/s for the cylindrical target U-Ni and 9 m/s for the target U-Ni plate will be necessary in the irradiation device to not exceed the design limits. Were performed experiments using a test bench for validate the methodologies for the thermal-hydraulic calculation. The experiments performed to validate the neutronic calculations were made in the reactor IPEN/MB-01. All experiments were simulated with the methodologies described above and the results compared. The simulations results showed good agreement with experimental

  11. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the outermost fuel plates of a MTR5 fuel element used in the IEA-R1 research reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica das placas externas de um elemento combustivel tipo placa utilizado no reator de pesquisas IEA-R1

    Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Torres, Walmir Maximo; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;


    This work presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis for the outermost fuel plates for 5 MW reactor operation power, considering internal flow distribution experimentally measured, and by using the flow through the channels between two fuel elements, external flow. Results showed the necessity of changing the fuel element design, which was taken into account through the reduction of uranium concentration for external plates in order to guarantee its suitable cooling.

  12. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of a device for irradiation of LEU UAl{sub x}-Al targets for {sup 99}Mo production in the IEA-R1 reactor; Analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica de um dispositivo para irradiacao de alvos tipo LEU de UAl{sub x}-Al para producao de {sup 99}MO no reator IEA-R1

    Nishiyama, Pedro Julio Batista de Oliveira


    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc), the product of radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 ( Mo), is one of the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, covering approximately 80% of all radiodiagnosis procedures in the world. Nowadays, Brazil requires an amount of about 450 Ci of {sup 99}Mo per week. Due to the crisis and the shortage of {sup 99}Mo supply chain that has been observed on the world since 2008, IPEN/CNEN-SP decided to develop a project to produce {sup 99}Mo through fission of uranium-235. The objective of this dissertation was the development of neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations to evaluate the operational safety of a device for {sup 99}Mo production to be irradiated in the IEA-Rl reactor core at 5 MW. In this device will be placed ten targets of UAl{sub x}-Al dispersion fuel with low enriched uranium (LEU) and density of 2.889 gU/cm{sup 3}. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION and CITATION and the maximum temperatures reached in the targets were calculated with the code MTRCR-IEA-R1. The analysis demonstrated that the device irradiation will occur without adverse consequences to the operation of the reactor. The total amount of {sup 99}Mo was calculated with the program SCALE and considering that the time needed for the chemical processing and recovering of the {sup 99}Mo will be five days after the irradiation, we have that the {sup 99}Mo activity available for distribution will be 176 Ci for 3 days of irradiation, 236 Ci for 5 days of irradiation and 272 Ci for 7 days of targets irradiation. (author)'.

  13. Methodology to monitor and diagnostic vibrations of the motor-pumps used in the primary cooling system of IEAR-1 nuclear research reactor; Metodologia para monitoracao e diagnostico de vibracao das bombas moto-operadas do circuito primario de refrigeracao do Reator IEA-R1

    Benevenuti, Erion de Lima


    The objectives of this study are to establish a strategy to monitor and diagnose vibrations of the motor pumps used in the primary reactor cooling system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, to verify the possibility of using the existing installed monitoring vibration system and to implement such strategy in a continuous way. Four types of mechanical problems were considered: unbalancing, misalignment, gaps and faults in bearings. An adequate set of analysis tools, well established by the industry, was selected. These are: global measurements of vibration, velocity spectrum and acceleration envelope spectrum. Three sources of data and information were used; the data measured from the primary pumps, experimental results obtained with a Spectra Quest machine used to simulate mechanical defects and data from the literature. The results show that, for the specific case of the motor-pumps of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, although the technique using the envelope of acceleration, which is not available in the current system used to monitor the vibration of the motor pumps, is the one with best performance, the other techniques available in the system are sufficient to monitor the four types of mechanical problems mentioned. The proposed strategy is shown and detailed in this work. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the thermal neutron flux in samples of Al–Au alloy irradiated in the carrousel channels of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor using MCNP code

    Salomé, J.A.D.; Guerra, B.T. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 – PCA1 – Anexo Engenharia – Pampulha, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, C., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 – PCA1 – Anexo Engenharia – Pampulha, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Menezes, M.Â.B.C. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Campus da UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901, P.O. Box 941, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, C.A.M. da [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 – PCA1 – Anexo Engenharia – Pampulha, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dalle, H.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Campus da UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 31270-901, P.O. Box 941, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Highlights: • The TRIGA IPR-R1 was modelled using MCNP. • The thermal neutron flux through the samples in eleven irradiation channels was obtained. • The simulated results were compared to experimental values. • The relative error, the relative trend, the z-score test and uncertainty were analysed. - Abstract: The TRIGA IPR-R1 was modelled using MCNP. The model consists of a cylinder filled with water, fuel elements, radial reflectors, central tube, control rods and neutron source. Around the core is placed the Rotary Specimen Rack (RSR) with adequate groove to insert the samples to irradiation. The values of the thermal neutron flux through the samples in eleven irradiation channels were simulated and compared to the experimental results to validate the model. After that, the values of the thermal neutron flux, in the same channels, were simulated on two horizontal planes at different heights and compared to validate the model. These channels were characterized as representative channels of the neutron flux distribution in the RSR. To evaluate the results, the relative errors, the relative trend, the z-score test and the relevance to a confidence interval of 95% were analysed. Good agreement has been obtained for the most channels when compared with the experimental results.

  15. Reactor

    Evans, Robert M.


    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  16. [R1 resection of esophageal carcinoma].

    Gockel, I; Wittekind, C


    The microscopic identification of residual tumor tissue in the oral or aboral resection margins (R1 resection) of esophageal specimens following oncologic esophageal resection, increases the risk of tumor recurrence and disease-related morbidity. Esophageal resection with its associated risks is only meaningful, if an R0 situation can be safely achieved. The relevance of microscopic involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) in esophageal carcinoma in its different definitions by the British and the American Societies of Pathology has up to now never been investigated in a prospective study. According to the German S3 guideline, radiochemotherapy should be performed in a postoperatively proven R1 situation, which cannot be converted by a curative extended re-resection into an R0 situation or in unfavorable conditions for an extended re-resection, independent of neoadjuvant therapy. In the case of an R1 situation in the region of the CRM, an extended re-resection is not simply possible on account of the anatomical conditions with corresponding limitations by the aorta and the spinal column, in contrast to extensions of the re-resection orally or aborally.

  17. Nuclear Reactors

    Hogerton, John


    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  18. Sociétés de montagne et réforme religieuse en terre d’islam

    Jean-Pierre Van Staëvel


    Full Text Available La Revue de l’Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée a consacré, il y a de cela plus d’un quart de siècle, un numéro spécial en hommage au grand géographe français Jean Dresch (Désert et montagne au Maghreb. Hommage à Jean Dresch, n°41-42, 1986. Cette livraison faisait alors la part belle à des travaux consacrés au Maroc et au Maghreb, dans une perspective qui, si elle n’excluait pas l’histoire (antique et récente, renvoyait surtout aux domaines géographiques couverts par l’activité intell...

  19. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  20. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  1. Novel benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists.

    Carpenter, Andrew J; Al-Barazanji, Kamal A; Barvian, Kevin K; Bishop, Michael J; Britt, Christy S; Cooper, Joel P; Goetz, Aaron S; Grizzle, Mary K; Hertzog, Donald L; Ignar, Diane M; Morgan, Ronda O; Peckham, Gregory E; Speake, Jason D; Swain, Will R


    The identification of an MCH R1 antagonist screening hit led to the optimization of a class of benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists. Structure-activity relationships and efforts to optimize pharmacokinetic properties are detailed along with the demonstration of the effectiveness of an MCH R1 antagonist in an animal model of obesity.

  2. L’ekphrasis photographique dans Dora Bruder de Patrick Modiano : entre magnétisme et réfraction

    Valeria Sperti


    Full Text Available L’article examine, à partir de la première édition de Dora Bruder de Patrick Modiano, la représentation de l’acte photographique, à travers neuf ekphrasis des portraits de la famille Bruder et de leur fille et de deux images énigmatiques d’un monde social et urbain disparu que l’auteur choisit d’évoquer. L’analyse, à travers les documents d’archives insérés dans la diégèse, se propose de montrer l’impuissance du déclic photographique devant la reconstruction de l’histoire de Dora. Les images en prose sont ensuite étudiées de façon à montrer comment l’écriture magnétise et réfracte le cliché, qui n’est pas reproduit dans le livre. La cohérence textuelle des descriptions des clichés au niveau de l’énoncé et de la signification dissimule des manques, des trous. L’absence de connotation émotionnelle réservée aux ekphrasis des portraits de famille apparaît comme un vide nécessaire au narrateur pour entrer en résonance avec la disparue.The article analyses – starting from the first edition of Patrick Modiano's Dora Bruder – the representation of the photographic act, the nine ekphrasis of portraits of the Bruder's family and their daughter and the two puzzling pictures of a social and urban world which disappeared. The goal of the analysis is to show the impotence of the photographic object when faced with the reconstruction of Dora's story and to compare it to the official documents inserted in the diegesis. The analysis then considers the pictures in prose to show how writing magnetises and refracts the cliché, being this document absent in the narration. The textual coherence of these descriptions on the level of the discourse and of the significance conceals some gaps. The absence of emotional connotation – reserved to the ekphrasis of family portraits – appears like a gap necessary for the narrator to create a resonance, through narrative, with the disappeared girl.

  3. Langage, imagination, et référence. Ricœur lecteur de Wittgenstein et Goodman

    Samuel Lelièvre


    troite le monde de l’expérience et des actions d’un homme faillible et capable. Dans cette perspective, une entrée possible dans une lecture ricœurienne de la philosophie analytique se joue à travers deux auteurs : Ludwig Wittgenstein et Nelson Goodman. Dans les deux cas, Ricœur confronte moins les approches et résultats d’une “philosophie analytique” à ceux d’une “philosophie continentale” qu’il ne cherche à renouveler sa réflexion sur le langage, l’imagination, et la référence. On pourra rendre compte de cette évolution à travers deux étapes : une première étape se concentrera sur la confrontation opérée par Ricœur entre la dernière philosophie de Husserl et la dernière philosophie de Wittgenstein ; lors d’une seconde étape, il s’agit de reconsidérer une lecture ricœurienne de la théorie générale de la référence de Goodman.Mots-clés: Goodman, Imagination, Langage, Phénoménologie, Philosophie analytique, Référence, Wittgenstein.

  4. Transient cases analyses of the TRIGA IPR-R1 using thermal hydraulic and neutron kinetic coupled codes

    Reis, Patricia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Scari, Maria E., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear


    Simulations and analyses of nuclear reactors have been improved by utilization of coupled thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutron kinetics (NK) system codes especially to simulate transients that involve strong feedback effects between NK and TH. The TH-NK coupling technique was initially developed and used to simulate the behavior of power reactors; however, several coupling methodologies are now being applied for research reactors. This work presents the coupling methodology application between RELAP5 and PARCS codes using as a model the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor. Analyses of steady state and transient conditions and comparisons with results from simulations using only the RELAP5 code are being presented in this paper. (author)

  5. H Reactor

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  6. Neutronic parameters characterization of the TRIGA IPR-R1 using scale 6.0 (KENO VI)

    Faria, Victor; Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo; Barrachina, Teresa [Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Universitat Politecnica de València (Spain); Silva, Clarysson A. Mello da; Pereira, Claubia [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Dalle, Hugo Moura [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    KENO-VI is a Monte Carlo based transport code used to obtain the criticality of a nuclear system. A model built using this code in the SCALE6.0 software system was developed for the characterization of neutronic parameters of the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor. A comparison with experimental values and those calculated with a MCNP code model could be then attained with the purpose to validate this methodology. (author)

  7. TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor simulation using Monte Carlo transport methods

    Hugo Moura Dalle


    Resumo: A utilização do método Monte Carlo na simulação do transporte de partículas em reatores nucleares é crescente e constitui uma tendência mundial. O maior inconveniente dessa técnica, a grande exigência de capacidade de processamento, vem sendo superado pelo contínuo desenvolvimento de processadores cada vez mais rápidos. Esse contexto permitiu o desenvolvimento de metodologias de cálculo neutrônico de reatores nas quais se acopla a parte do transporte de partículas, feita com um código...

  8. Reactor Physics

    Ait Abderrahim, A


    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  9. Reactor safeguards

    Russell, Charles R


    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  10. Reactor operation

    Shaw, J


    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  11. Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook

    Wang, Pete


    "Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook" is a practical best practices tutorial focused entirely on Oracle Business Activity Monitoring. An intermediate-to-advanced guide, step-by-step instructions and an accompanying demo project will help SOA report developers through application development and producing dashboards and reports. If you are a developer/report developer or SOA Architect who wants to learn valuable Oracle BAM best practices for monitoring your operations in real time, then "Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook" is for you. Administrators will also find the book useful. You should already be comfortabl

  12. Analytical properties of the $R^{1/m}$ law

    Ciotti, L


    In this paper we describe some analytical properties of the R^{1/m} law proposed by Sersic to categorize the photometric profiles of elliptical galaxies. In particular, we present the full asymptotic expansion for the dimensionless scale factor b(m) that is introduced when referring the profile to the standard effective radius. Surprisingly, our asymptotic analysis turns out to be useful even for values of m as low as unity, thus providing a unified analytical tool for observational and theoretical investigations based on the R^{1/m} law for the entire range of interesting photometric profiles, from spiral to elliptical galaxies.

  13. Analytical properties of the $R^{1/m}$ luminosity law

    Ciotti, L


    In this paper we describe some analytical properties of the R^{1/m} law proposed by Sersic (1968) to categorize the photometric profiles of elliptical galaxies. In particular, we present the full asymptotic expansion for the dimensionless scale factor b(m) that is introduced when referring the profile to the standard effective radius. Surprisingly, our asymptotic analysis turns out to be useful even for values of m as low as unity, thus providing a unified analytical tool for observational and theoretical investigations based on the R^{1/m} law for the entire range of interesting photometric profiles, from spiral to elliptical galaxies.


    Gupta, R C


    Two kinds of 'shapunkha', the 'Shvet' (white) and 'Rakta' (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as 'Shvet sharpunkha' due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing "Shvet sharpunkha'. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro - an microscopical feature.

  15. Reactor Neutrinos

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...


    Untermyer, S.


    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  17. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Main-Belt Comet P/2008 R1 (Garradd)

    Jewitt, David; Haghighipour, Nader


    We present a study of the newly-discovered main-belt comet P/2008 R1 (Garradd), an object with the dynamical characteristics of an asteroid and the physical characteristics of a comet. Photometry sets a limit to the effective radius of the nucleus at r_e < 0.7 km (red geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). The coma shows a secular fading in our data caused by the escape of dust particles from the near-nucleus environment. The optical reflection spectrum is a nearly neutral continuum devoid of gaseous emission lines, from which we derive a limit to the cyanide (CN) radical production rate of Q_CN <1.4e23/s and infer a mass loss rate <1.5 kg/s at the time of our observations. Unlike the first-reported main-belt comets, P/2008 R1 is not dynamically stable. The nearby 8:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter induces dynamical instability on timescales 20 to 30 Myr. Hence, we conclude that P/2008 R1 has recently arrived from a more stable source elsewhere. The high Tisserand parameter of the orbit (in fact, with T...

  19. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle



    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  20. 4-Phenyldiazenyl-2-[(R-(1-phenylethyliminomethyl]phenol

    Yoshikazu Aritake


    Full Text Available The title chiral photochromic Schiff base compound, C21H19N3O, was synthesized from (R-1-phenylethylamine and the salicylaldehyde of an azobenzene derivative. The molecule corresponds to the phenol–imine tautomer, the C=N and N—C bond distances being 1.279 (3 and 1.477 (3 Å, respectively. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond occurs. The diazenyl group adopts a trans form with an N=N distance of 1.243 (3 Å.

  1. Multifunctional reactors

    Westerterp, K.R.


    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  2. Effects of cyclothiazide on GluR1/AMPA receptors

    Fucile, Sergio; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio


    Cyclothiazide (CTZ), a positive allosteric modulator of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors, is used frequently to block the desensitization of both native and heterologously expressed AMPA receptors. Specifically, CTZ is known to produce a fast inhibition of AMPA receptor desensitization and a much slower potentiation of the AMPA current. By using patch-clamp techniques, the effects of CTZ were studied in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the rat flip GluR1 subunit. Upon CTZ treatment, we found an increased apparent affinity for the agonist, a slow whole-cell current potentiation, a fast inhibition of desensitization, and a lengthening of single-channel openings. Furthermore, we show that CTZ alters the channel gating events modifying the relative contribution of different single-channel classes of conductance (γ), increasing and decreasing, respectively, the contributions of γM (medium) and γL (low) without altering that of the γH (high) conductance channels. We also present a kinetic model that predicts well all of the experimental findings of CTZ action. Finally, we suggest a protocol for standard cell treatment with CTZ to attain maximal efficacy of CTZ on GluR1 receptors. PMID:16473938

  3. (4R-4-[(1R-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-1-[(1R-1-phenylethyl]pyrrolidin-2-one

    Peter D. W. Boyd


    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H19NO3, was obtained as one of the two isomers of a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction of (1S-1-[(1R-1-phenylethyl]-4-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one. The absolute stereochemistry of this isomer was determined from the known stereochemistry (R at the bridge C atom between the phenyl and pyrrolidine rings. The molecules form one-dimensional tapes along the b axis via hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl O atom and the alcohol groups of neighbouring molecules. These assemble into sheets via interdigitative stacking of the phenyl rings and C—H...O interactions.

  4. Molecular characterization of the Jatropha curcas JcR1MYB1 gene encoding a putative R1-MYB transcription factor

    Hui-Liang Li


    Full Text Available The cDNA encoding the R1-MYB transcription factor, designated as JcR1MYB1, was isolated from Jatropha curcas using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. JcR1MYB1 contains a 951 bp open reading frame that encodes 316 amino acids. The deduced JcR1MYB1 protein was predicted to possess the conserved, 56-amino acid-long DNA-binding domain, which consists of a single helix-turn-helix module and usually occurs in R1-MYBs. JcR1MYB1 is a member of the R1-MYB transcription factor subfamily. A subcellular localization study confirmed the nuclear localization of JcR1MYB1. Expression analysis showed that JcR1MYB1 transcripts accumulated in various examined tissues, with high expression levels in the root and low levels in the stem. JcR1MYB1 transcription was up-regulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and cold treatments, as well as by abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatment. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing JcR1MYB1 indicates an inportant function for this gene in salt stress.

  5. Reactor vessel

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A


    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  6. 圈C4的(St(r),St(r+1)Gr,St(r+1)-冠的优美性%On the gracefulness of the(St(r), St(r+1)Gr, St(r+1)- corona of the cycle C4

    康芳茂; 吴跃生


    给出了圈C4的(St(r), St(r+1)Gr, St(r+1)-冠的定义,讨论了圈C4的(St(r), St(r+1)Gr, St(r+1)-冠的优美性,用构造性的方法给出了圈C4的(St(r), St(r+1)Gr, St(r+1)-冠的优美标号。%Gave the definition of the (St (r ), St (r +1), Gr , St (r +1)) - corona of the cycle C4.Discussed the gracefulness of the (St (r ), St (r +1), Gr , St (r +1)) - corona of the cycleC4.The graceful labelings was given by the method of construction.

  7. Chemical Reactors.

    Kenney, C. N.


    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  8. Reactor Neutrinos

    Soo-Bong Kim


    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.


    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.


    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  10. Reactor Engineering

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  11. Reactor Neutrinos

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  12. miR-1 exacerbates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse models.

    Zhenwei Pan

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs in regulating cardiac injury. Among them, the cardiac enriched microRNA-1(miR-1 has been extensively investigated and proven to be detrimental to cardiac myocytes. However, solid in vivo evidence for the role of miR-1 in cardiac injury is still missing and the potential therapeutic advantages of systemic knockdown of miR-1 expression remained unexplored. In this study, miR-1 transgenic (miR-1 Tg mice and locked nucleic acid modified oligonucleotide against miR-1 (LNA-antimiR-1 were used to explore the effects of miR-1 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. The cardiac miR-1 level was significantly increased in miR-1 Tg mice, and suppressed in LNA-antimiR-1 treated mice. When subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, miR-1 overexpression exacerbated cardiac injury, manifested by increased LDH, CK levels, caspase-3 expression, apoptosis and cardiac infarct area. On the contrary, LNA-antimiR-1 treatment significantly attenuated cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of PKCε and HSP60 was significantly repressed by miR-1 and enhanced by miR-1 knockdown, which may be a molecular mechanism for the role miR-1 in cardiac injury. Moreover, luciferase assay confirmed the direct regulation of miR-1 on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60. In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-1 is a causal factor for cardiac injury and systemic LNA-antimiR-1 therapy is effective in ameliorating the problem.

  13. The FiR 1 photon beam model adjustment according to in-air spectrum measurements with the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber.

    Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S


    The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model.

  14. CSIR wins R1 million gas generator contract


    The Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, has signed a R1 million contract with Slagment (Pty) Ltd for the supply, installation and commissioning during the first half of 1989 of a fluidized-bed hot gas generator. The contract was won on selected tender. A demonstration plant was built during 1984 in Pretoria West and funded by the Development of Mineral and Energy Affairs, to demonstrate to industry the ability of fluidized-bed technology to burn discard coal, thus reducing energy costs. It has been in operation for more than 20 000 hours and has demonstrated that it can successfully operate on coals with up to 70% ash and 8% sulfur content as well as on duff coal and char with a fines content of up to 50% less than 2mm diameter. The importance of offering a solution to the serious problem of stockpiling local inferior coals and the prospect of developing local expertise in the new, emerging technology, gave the research project the required support. The following are discussed: fluidization, fluidized beds and combustion of coal, fluidized bed boilers burning coal, fluidized-bed hot gas generator burning coal; advantages of fluidized-bed combustors, and applications. 2 figs.

  15. Microarray analysis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum strain R1.

    Jens Twellmeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phototrophy of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was explored for decades. The research was mainly focused on the expression of bacteriorhodopsin and its functional properties. In contrast, less is known about genome wide transcriptional changes and their impact on the physiological adaptation to phototrophy. The tool of choice to record transcriptional profiles is the DNA microarray technique. However, the technique is still rarely used for transcriptome analysis in archaea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a whole-genome DNA microarray based on our sequence data of the Hbt. salinarum strain R1 genome. The potential of our tool is exemplified by the comparison of cells growing under aerobic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. We processed the raw fluorescence data by several stringent filtering steps and a subsequent MAANOVA analysis. The study revealed a lot of transcriptional differences between the two cell states. We found that the transcriptional changes were relatively weak, though significant. Finally, the DNA microarray data were independently verified by a real-time PCR analysis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first DNA microarray analysis of Hbt. salinarum cells that were actually grown under phototrophic conditions. By comparing the transcriptomics data with current knowledge we could show that our DNA microarray tool is well applicable for transcriptome analysis in the extremely halophilic archaeon Hbt. salinarum. The reliability of our tool is based on both the high-quality array of DNA probes and the stringent data handling including MAANOVA analysis. Among the regulated genes more than 50% had unknown functions. This underlines the fact that haloarchaeal phototrophy is still far away from being completely understood. Hence, the data recorded in this study will be subject to future systems biology analysis.

  16. Bioconversion reactor

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre


    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  17. La temporalité de l’utopie : entre création et réaction The temporality of Utopia: between creation and reaction

    Marie-Ange Cossette-Trudel


    Full Text Available La conception prédominante de l’utopie comme système clos est à l’origine même de son enfermement, tant notionnel que conceptuel. Hors du temps, sise dans un espace extérieur au réel, l’utopie ainsi axiomatisée peut difficilement être saisie comme une composante effective du présent. Outre l’acceptation généralisée de cet ou-topos (non-lieu, le manque de consensus sur sa définition fait partie de son épigraphie chronographique. Accusée tour à tour de créer une vision sociétale totalitaire, messianique ou encore technocratique, la nature de l’utopie est encore à ce jour insaisissable, et la matrice de son plan théorique reste imprécise. Pour lui trouver une définition qui enchâsse ses différentes fractions, nous devrons observer de plus près ses deux dimensions constitutives, entre création et réaction, là où l’utopie est bien plus qu’un projet de subversion ; là où les possibles cessent de coïncider avec le réel pour laisser place à l’actualisation du virtuel, de l’élan vital. À la lumière de cette nouvelle définition de l’utopie, la relecture de l’œuvre de Charles Fourier est particulièrement pertinente : l’élan à la base de son projet d’expérimentation concrète transcende le temps historique et redonne à l’utopie ses deux dimensions insécables. De l’attraction passionnée au Phalanstère, il est un des rares penseurs à avoir joué tant sur le plan immanent que transcendant de l’utopie.The predominant conception of utopia as a closed system has become its own conceptual and notional prison. Out of the reach of Time, based in a space outside reality, utopia can hardly be seen as part of the present. Aside from the generally accepted idea that utopia is a u-topos (non-place, the lack of consensus on how to define it represents its historical continuum. Accused of producing a totalitarian, Messianic or technocratic vision of society, the nature of utopia is still

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-1 - Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business.


    ... lines of business. 1.414(r)-1 Section 1.414(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-1 Requirements applicable to qualified separate lines of business. (a) In general. Section 414(r) prescribes the conditions under which an employer is treated as operating...

  19. The Maize enr System of r1 Haplotype–Specific Aleurone Color Enhancement Factors

    We describe a family of three dominant r1 haplotype-specific enhancers of aleurone color in Zea mays. Stable alleles of the three enhancement of r1 loci (enr1, enr2 and enr3) intensify aleurone color conferred by certain pale and near-colorless r1 haplotypes. In addition, unstable alleles of enr1 ac...

  20. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N


    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  1. Development of methodology for characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 using the Monte Carlo method; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para caracterizacao do filtro cuno do reator IEA-R1 utilizando o Metodo Monte Carlo

    Costa, Priscila


    The Cuno filter is part of the water processing circuit of the IEA-R1 reactor and, when saturated, it is replaced and becomes a radioactive waste, which must be managed. In this work, the primary characterization of the Cuno filter of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN was carried out using gamma spectrometry associated with the Monte Carlo method. The gamma spectrometry was performed using a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe). The germanium crystal represents the detection active volume of the HPGe detector, which has a region called dead layer or inactive layer. It has been reported in the literature a difference between the theoretical and experimental values when obtaining the efficiency curve of these detectors. In this study we used the MCNP-4C code to obtain the detector calibration efficiency for the geometry of the Cuno filter, and the influence of the dead layer and the effect of sum in cascade at the HPGe detector were studied. The correction of the dead layer values were made by varying the thickness and the radius of the germanium crystal. The detector has 75.83 cm{sup 3} of active volume of detection, according to information provided by the manufacturer. Nevertheless, the results showed that the actual value of active volume is less than the one specified, where the dead layer represents 16% of the total volume of the crystal. A Cuno filter analysis by gamma spectrometry has enabled identifying energy peaks. Using these peaks, three radionuclides were identified in the filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 60}Co. From the calibration efficiency obtained by the Monte Carlo method, the value of activity estimated for these radionuclides is in the order of MBq. (author)

  2. Studies with the human cohesin establishment factor, ChlR1. Association of ChlR1 with Ctf18-RFC and Fen1.

    Farina, Andrea; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Do-Hyung; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Kelman, Zvi; Seo, Yeon-Soo; Hurwitz, Jerard


    Human ChlR1 (hChlR1), a member of the DEAD/DEAH subfamily of helicases, was shown to interact with components of the cohesin complex and play a role in sister chromatid cohesion. In order to study the biochemical and biological properties of hChlR1, we purified the protein from 293 cells and demonstrated that hChlR1 possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and helicase activities. This helicase translocates on single-stranded DNA in the 5' to 3' direction in the presence of ATP and, to a lesser extent, dATP. Its unwinding activity requires a 5'-singlestranded region for helicase loading, since flush-ended duplex structures do not support unwinding. The helicase activity of hChlR1 is capable of displacing duplex regions up to 100 bp, which can be extended to 500 bp by RPA or the cohesion establishment factor, the Ctf18-RFC (replication factor C) complex. We show that hChlR1 interacts with the hCtf18-RFC complex, human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and hFen1. The interactions between Fen1 and hChlR1 stimulate the flap endonuclease activity of Fen1. Selective depletion of either hChlR1 or Fen1 by targeted small interfering RNA treatment results in the precocious separation of sister chromatids. These findings are consistent with a role of hChlR1 in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion and suggest that its action may contribute to lagging strand processing events important in cohesion.

  3. Site Investigation for Detection of KIJANG Reactor Core Center

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jeeyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It was planned for the end of March 2017 and extended to April 2018 according to the government budget adjustment. The KJRR project is intended for filling the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increasing the NTD capacity and developing technologies related to the research reactor. In project, site investigation is the first activity that defines seismologic and related geologic aspects of the site. Site investigation was carried out from Oct. 2012 to Jan. 2014 and this study is intended to describe detail procedures in locating the reactor core center. The location of the reactor core center was determined by collectively reviewing not only geological information but also information from architects engineering. EL 50m was selected as ground level by levering construction cost. Four recommended locations (R-1a - R-1d) are displayed for the reactor core center. R-1a was found optimal in consideration of medium rock contour, portion of medium rock covering reactor buildings, construction cost, physical protection and electrical resistivity. It is noted that engineering properties of the medium rock is TCR/RQD 100/53, elastic modulus 7,710 - 8,720MPa, permeability coefficient 2.92E-06cm/s, and S-wave velocity 1,380m/s, sound for foundations of reactor buildings.

  4. The first Swedish nuclear reactor - from technical prototype to scientific instrument; Sveriges foersta kaernreaktor - fraan teknisk prototyp till vetenskapligt instrument

    Fjaestad, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of History of Science and Technology


    The first Swedish reactor R1, constructed at the Royal Inst. of Technology in Stockholm, went critical in July 1954. This report presents historical aspects of the reactor, in particular about the reactor as a research instrument and a centre for physical science. The tensions between its role as a prototype and a step in the development of power reactors and that as a scientific instrument are especially focused.

  5. Cloning and Expression of Ama r 1, as a Novel Allergen of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen

    Payam Morakabati


    Full Text Available Sensitisation to Amaranthus retroflexus pollen is very common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study we aimed to produce a recombinant allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this weed. To predict cross-reactivity of this allergen (Ama r 1 with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Ama r 1 was investigated. The expression of Ama r 1 in Escherichia coli was performed by using a pET-21b(+ vector. The IgE-binding potential of recombinant Ama r 1 (rAma r 1 was evaluated by immunodetection and inhibition assays using 26 patients’ sera sensitised to A. retroflexus pollen. The coding sequence of the Ama r 1 cDNA indicated an open reading frame of 507 bp encoding for 168 amino acid residues which belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family. Of the 26 serum samples, 10 (38.46% had significant specific IgE levels for rAma r 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays revealed that the purified rAma r 1 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Ama r 1, the second allergen from the A. retroflexus pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein.

  6. BubR1 is modified by sumoylation during mitotic progression.

    Yang, Feikun; Hu, Liyan; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Jianxiu; O'Connell, Christopher B; Khodjakov, Alexey; Pagano, Michele; Dai, Wei


    BubR1 functions as a crucial component that monitors proper chromosome congression and mitotic timing during cell division. We investigated molecular regulation of BubR1 and found that BubR1 was modified by an unknown post-translation mechanism during the cell cycle, resulting in a significant mobility shift on denaturing gels. We termed it BubR1-M as the nature of modification was not characterized. Extended (>24 h) treatment of HeLa cells with a microtubule disrupting agent including nocodazole and taxol or release of mitotic shake-off cells into fresh medium induced BubR1-M. BubR1-M was derived from neither phosphorylation nor acetylation. Ectopic expression coupled with pulling down analyses showed that BubR1-M was derived from SUMO modification. Mutation analysis revealed that lysine 250 was a crucial site for sumoylation. Significantly, compared with the wild-type control, ectopic expression of a sumoylation-deficient mutant of BubR1 induced chromosomal missegregation and mitotic delay. Combined, our study identifies a new type of post-translational modification that is essential for BubR1 function during mitosis.

  7. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  8. D and DR Reactors

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  9. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  10. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Kalindi Bakshi

    Full Text Available Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1 activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21 prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  11. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan


    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  12. SLC9A3R1 stimulates autophagy via BECN1 stabilization in breast cancer cells.

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Shao, Rong-Guang


    Autophagy, a self-catabolic process, has been found to be involved in abrogating the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. SLC9A3R1 (solute carrier family 9, subfamily A [NHE3, cation proton antiporter 3], member 3 regulator 1), a multifunctional scaffold protein, is involved in suppressing breast cancer cells proliferation and the SLC9A3R1-related signaling pathway regulates the activation of autophagy processes. However, the precise regulatory mechanism and signaling pathway of SLC9A3R1 in the regulation of autophagy processes in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we report that the stability of BECN1, the major component of the autophagic core lipid kinase complex, is augmented in SLC9A3R1-overexpressing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, subsequently stimulating autophagy by attenuating the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2. Initially, we found that SLC9A3R1 partially stimulated autophagy through the PTEN-PI3K-AKT1 signaling cascade in MDA-MB-231 cells. SLC9A3R1 then attenuated the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2 to stimulate the autophagic core lipid kinase complex. Further findings revealed that SLC9A3R1 bound to BECN1 and subsequently blocked ubiquitin-dependent BECN1 degradation. And the deletion of the C-terminal domain of SLC9A3R1 resulted in significantly reduced binding to BECN1. Moreover, the lack of C-terminal of SLC9A3R1 neither reduced the ubiquitination of BECN1 nor induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. The decrease in BECN1 degradation induced by SLC9A3R1 resulted in the activity of autophagy stimulation in breast cancer cells. These findings indicate that the SLC9A3R1-BECN1 signaling pathway participates in the activation of autophagy processes in breast cancer cells.

  13. The discovery and optimization of pyrimidinone-containing MCH R1 antagonists.

    Hertzog, Donald L; Al-Barazanji, Kamal A; Bigham, Eric C; Bishop, Michael J; Britt, Christy S; Carlton, David L; Cooper, Joel P; Daniels, Alex J; Garrido, Dulce M; Goetz, Aaron S; Grizzle, Mary K; Guo, Yu C; Handlon, Anthony L; Ignar, Diane M; Morgan, Ronda O; Peat, Andrew J; Tavares, Francis X; Zhou, Huiqiang


    Optimization of a series of constrained melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH R1) antagonists has provided compounds with potent and selective MCH R1 activity. Details of the optimization process are provided and the use of one of the compounds in an animal model of diet-induced obesity is presented.

  14. Engineering assessment and certification of integrity of the 141-R1U1 tank system

    Graser, D.A. (Science Applications International Corp. (USA))


    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tank 141-R1U1 is in response to the requirements of 40 CFR 265.191 for an existing tank system that stores hazardous waste and does not have secondary containment. This technical assessment has been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California registered professional engineer, who has certified the tank system to be adequately designed and compatible with the stored waste so that it will not collapse rupture, or fail. This document will be kept on file at the facility. Onground retention tanks 141-R1O1 and 141-R1O2, which are also part of the 141-R1 retention tank system, do not have secondary containment; consequently, certification documentation for these tanks is not included in this assessment. A discussion of the onground tanks, however, is included in this report to provide a complete description of the 141-R1 retention tank system. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B


    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  16. Reactor and method of operation

    Wheeler, John A.


    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  17. Decreasing TfR1 expression reverses anemia and hepcidin suppression in β-thalassemic mice.

    Li, Huihui; Choesang, Tenzin; Bao, Weili; Chen, Huiyong; Feola, Maria; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Li, Jie; Sun, Shuming; Follenzi, Antonia; Pham, Petra; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jinghua; Ponka, Prem; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Fleming, Robert; Rivella, Stefano; Li, Guiyuan; Ginzburg, Yelena


    Iron availability for erythropoiesis and its dysregulation in β-thalassemia are incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that exogenous apo-transferrin leads to more effective erythropoiesis, decreasing erythroferrone and de-repressing hepcidin in β-thalassemic mice. Transferrin-bound iron binding to transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is essential for cellular iron delivery during erythropoiesis. We hypothesize that apo-transferrin's effect is mediated via decreased TfR1 expression, and evaluate TfR1 expression in β-thalassemic mice in vivo and in vitro with and without added apo-transferrin. Our findings demonstrate that β-thalassemic erythroid precursors overexpress TfR1, an effect which can be reversed by the administration of exogenous apo-transferrin. In vitro experiments demonstrate that apo-transferrin inhibits TfR1 expression independent of erythropoietin- and iron-related signaling, decreases TfR1 partitioning to reticulocytes during enucleation, and enhances enucleation of defective β-thalassemic erythroid precursors. These findings strongly suggest that overexpressed TfR1 may play a regulatory role contributing to iron overload and anemia in β-thalassemic mice. To evaluate further, we crossed TfR1+/- mice--themselves exhibiting iron-restricted erythropoiesis with increased hepcidin--with β-thalassemic mice. Resultant double-heterozygote mice demonstrate long-term improvement in ineffective erythropoiesis, hepcidin de-repression, and increased erythroid enucleation relative to β-thalassemic mice. Our data demonstrates for the first time that TfR1+/- haplo-insufficiency reverses iron overload specifically in β-thalassemic erythroid precursors. Taken together, decreasing TfR1 expression during β-thalassemic erythropoiesis, either via directly induced haplo-insufficiency or exogenous apo-transferrin, decreases ineffective erythropoiesis and provides an endogenous mechanism to upregulate hepcidin, leading to sustained iron

  18. RyR1 S-nitrosylation underlies environmental heat stroke and sudden death in Y522S RyR1 knockin mice.

    Durham, William J; Aracena-Parks, Paula; Long, Cheng; Rossi, Ann E; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Boncompagni, Simona; Galvan, Daniel L; Gilman, Charles P; Baker, Mariah R; Shirokova, Natalia; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert; Hamilton, Susan L


    Mice with a malignant hyperthermia mutation (Y522S) in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) display muscle contractures, rhabdomyolysis, and death in response to elevated environmental temperatures. We demonstrate that this mutation in RyR1 causes Ca(2+) leak, which drives increased generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Subsequent S-nitrosylation of the mutant RyR1 increases its temperature sensitivity for activation, producing muscle contractures upon exposure to elevated temperatures. The Y522S mutation in humans is associated with central core disease. Many mitochondria in the muscle of heterozygous Y522S mice are swollen and misshapen. The mutant muscle displays decreased force production and increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation with aging. Chronic treatment with N-acetylcysteine protects against mitochondrial oxidative damage and the decline in force generation. We propose a feed-forward cyclic mechanism that increases the temperature sensitivity of RyR1 activation and underlies heat stroke and sudden death. The cycle eventually produces a myopathy with damaged mitochondria.

  19. Separating the spindle, checkpoint, and timer functions of BubR1.

    Rahmani, Zohra; Gagou, Mary E; Lefebvre, Christophe; Emre, Doruk; Karess, Roger E


    BubR1 performs several roles during mitosis, affecting the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic timing, and spindle function, but the interdependence of these functions is unclear. We have analyzed in Drosophila melanogaster the mitotic phenotypes of kinase-dead (KD) BubR1 and BubR1 lacking the N-terminal KEN box. bubR1-KD individuals have a robust SAC but abnormal spindles with thin kinetochore fibers, suggesting that the kinase activity modulates microtubule capture and/or dynamics but is relatively dispensable for SAC function. In contrast, bubR1-KEN flies have normal spindles but no SAC. Nevertheless, mitotic timing is normal as long as Mad2 is present. Thus, the SAC, timer, and spindle functions of BubR1 are substantially separable. Timing is shorter in bubR1-KEN mad2 double mutants, yet in these flies, lacking both critical SAC components, chromosomes still segregate accurately, reconfirming that in Drosophila, reliable mitosis does not need the SAC.

  20. On entire f-maximal graphs in the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1

    An, H. V. Q.; Cuong, D. V.; Duyen, N. T. M.; Hieu, D. T.; Nam, T. L.


    In the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1, we give a comparison theorem between the f-volume of an entire f-maximal graph and the f-volume of the hyperbolic Hr+ under the condition that the gradient of the function defining the graph is bounded away from 1. This condition comes from an example of non-planar entire f-maximal graph in Gn ×R1 and is equivalent to the hyperbolic angle function of the graph being bounded. As a consequence, we obtain a Calabi-Bernstein type theorem for f-maximal graphs in Gn ×R1.

  1. Rapports socio-environnementaux, construction de l'espace, et régimes de nature dans la Réserve de biosphère de Celestún, Yucatán, Mexique

    Sabinot, Catherine; Doyon, S.


    Cet article examine les processus de construction de l'espace et de déploiement de "régimes de nature" au sein de la Réserve de biosphère de Celestún (Yucatán, Mexique) inscrite dans le réseau de l'Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture. Pour ce faire, nous analysons les différentes activités des acteurs du village de Celestún qui contribuent à la production d'un espace particulier : les activités productives du village (pêche et récolte de sel) ainsi que le...

  2. Mondrian ; Serge Lemoine. Mondrian et De Stijl ; Piet Mondrian. Ecrits français ; Piet Mondrian. Réalité naturelle et réalité abstraite


    La fortune critique de l’œuvre de Piet Mondrian est assurément un sujet passionnant, indissociable de la réception de l’art abstrait en général. Sans compter la parenthèse anglaise de 1938-1941, il a successivement vécu dans trois pays, les Pays-Bas, la France et les Etats-Unis et rédigé des textes dans les trois langues qui y sont parlées. A divers titres, ces trois pays seraient en droit de le réclamer : le premier en tant que terre natale, mais aussi pour l’importance de la tradition holla...

  3. New Salmonella serotype: Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2).

    McDougal, D L; Treleaven, B E; Renshaw, E C


    A new Salmonella serotype, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2), was isolated from the stool of a 35-year-old man with mild gastroenteritis. He had just returned from Sudan, Africa.

  4. Mammalian ChlR1 has a role in heterochromatin organization

    Inoue, Akira; Hyle, Judith [Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Lechner, Mark S. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lahti, Jill M., E-mail: [Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States)


    The ChlR1 DNA helicase, encoded by DDX11 gene, which is responsible for Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS), has a role in sister-chromatid cohesion. In this study, we show that human ChlR1 deficient cells exhibit abnormal heterochromatin organization. While constitutive heterochromatin is discretely localized at perinuclear and perinucleolar regions in control HeLa cells, ChlR1-depleted cells showed dispersed localization of constitutive heterochromatin accompanied by disrupted centromere clustering. Cells isolated from Ddx11{sup -/-} embryos also exhibited diffuse localization of centromeres and heterochromatin foci. Similar abnormalities were found in HeLa cells depleted of combinations of HP1{alpha} and HP1{beta}. Immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed a decreased level of HP1{alpha} at pericentric regions in ChlR1-depleted cells. Trimethyl-histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9-me3) was also modestly decreased at pericentric sequences. The abnormality in pericentric heterochromatin was further supported by decreased DNA methylation within major satellite repeats of Ddx11{sup -/-} embryos. Furthermore, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) assay revealed a decreased chromatin density at the telomeres. These data suggest that in addition to a role in sister-chromatid cohesion, ChlR1 is also involved in the proper formation of heterochromatin, which in turn contributes to global nuclear organization and pleiotropic effects. -- Highlights: {yields} New role for ChlR1 (DDX11), a cohesinopathy gene, in heterochromatin organization. {yields} Loss of ChlR1 altered heterochromatin localization and centromere clustering. {yields} Reduced ChlR1 levels also reduced HP1{alpha} and H3K9-me3 binding to pericentric DNA. {yields} Decreased DNA methylation was found in pericentric repeats of Ddx11{sup -/-} embryos. {yields} These findings will aid in understanding the pathogenesis of Warsaw breakage syndrome.

  5. Unified segmentation based correction of R1 brain maps for RF transmit field inhomogeneities (UNICORT).

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Lutti, Antoine; Helms, Gunther; Novak, Marianne; Ashburner, John; Hutton, Chloe


    Quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1=1/T1) in the human brain enables the investigation of tissue microstructure and macroscopic morphology which are becoming increasingly important for clinical and neuroimaging applications. R1 maps are now commonly estimated from two fast high-resolution 3D FLASH acquisitions with variable excitation flip angles, because this approach is fast and does not rely on special acquisition techniques. However, these R1 maps need to be corrected for bias due to RF transmit field (B1(+)) inhomogeneities, requiring additional B1(+) mapping which is usually time consuming and difficult to implement. We propose a technique that simultaneously estimates the B1(+) inhomogeneities and R1 values from the uncorrected R1 maps in the human brain without need for B1(+) mapping. It employs a probabilistic framework for unified segmentation based correction of R1 maps for B1(+) inhomogeneities (UNICORT). The framework incorporates a physically informed generative model of smooth B1(+) inhomogeneities and their multiplicative effect on R1 estimates. Extensive cross-validation with the established standard using measured B1(+) maps shows that UNICORT yields accurate B1(+) and R1 maps with a mean deviation from the standard of less than 4.3% and 5%, respectively. The results of different groups of subjects with a wide age range and different levels of atypical brain anatomy further suggest that the method is robust and generalizes well to wider populations. UNICORT is easy to apply, as it is computationally efficient and its basic framework is implemented as part of the tissue segmentation in SPM8.

  6. miR-1 Inhibits Cell Growth, Migration, and Invasion by Targeting VEGFA in Osteosarcoma Cells

    Junjie Niu


    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs and have been shown to play a crucial role in the osteosarcoma (OS tumorigenesis and progression. VEGFA is a key regulator of angiogenesis and plays an important role in regulation of tumor metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether VEGFA was involved in miR-1-mediated suppression of proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. The expression levels of miR-1 were significantly lower in OS tumor tissues than those in adjacent normal tissues and in SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines compared to a normal osteoblast (NHOst cell line. VEGFA was upregulated in OS tumor tissues and SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines. The results of CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that miR-1 acted as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in U2OS cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that VEGFA was a direct and functional target gene of miR-1. miR-1 directly inhibits the protein expression of VEGFA via its 3′-UTR. Knockdown of VEGFA by siRNA inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of U2OS cells. Our study suggested the potential inhibitory function of miR-1 in OS cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via inhibiting VEGFA.

  7. Regulation of the cardioprotective adiponectin and its receptor AdipoR1 by salt.

    Arnold, Nicholas; Mahmood, Abuzar; Ramdas, Maya; Ehlinger, Paul P; Pulakat, Lakshmi


    Both circulating adiponectin (APN) and cardiac APN exert cardioprotective effects and improve insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Low circulating APN serves as a biomarker for cardiovascular risk. Ablation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) causes myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Although high salt intake is a contributor to cardiovascular disease, how it modulates the expression of APN or AdipoR1 in cardiomyocytes is not known. We report that APN mRNA expression was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner in mouse cardiomyocyte cell line HL-1 exposed to salt concentrations ranging from 0.75% to 1.5% for 12 h. High-salt exposure (0.88% and 1.25% for 12 h) also suppressed APN and AdipoR1 protein expression significantly in rat cardiac muscle H9c2 cells. Co-immunostaining for AdipoR1 and mitochondrial complex 1 indicated that AdipoR1 may be co-localized with mitochondria. These data show for the first time that high salt is an important suppressor of cardiovascular protective APN and AdipoR1.


    Sych I.V.


    Full Text Available Introduction: The analysis of modern literature, including overseas one, showed that a lot of the scientific researches is devoted to finding and creating biologically active compounds on base 1,3,4-thiadiazole. Derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazole are the large group of heterocyclic compounds with high rates of antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antidiabetic, antineoplastic and anticonvulsant activity. Material and methods: The purpose of this study was the expansion of sulfone derivatives substituted nitrogen-containing heterocyclic systems through the synthesis of 2-R1-N (5-R-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ilbenzolsulfonamides and prediction their pharmacological activity for future planning pharmacological screening. Synthesis of semi-products 2-amino-5-R-1,3,4-thiadiazoles was carried out by cyclization thiosemicarbazide and substituted derivatives of carboxylic acids in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. The synthesis of target compounds 2-R1-N(5-R-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylbenzolsulfon-amides was carried out by N-acylation of 2-amino-5R-1,3,4-thiadiazole substituted benzolsul-fochlorides in the presence of anhydrous pyridine. The reaction proceeds by the classic SN2-mechanism. The resulting compounds are white crystalline substances, soluble in alcohol, chloroform and acetone, difficult to dissolve in water. Yields of obtained compounds was satisfactory (76-84%. The purity of the obtained compounds was determined by TLC. The structure of the obtained compounds was proved by elemental analysis, IR methods and 1H NMR spectroscopy. NMR 1H spectra were recorded at Bruker WM spectrometer (200 MHz; solvent DMSO-d6; chemical shifts were in ppm, internal standard (TMS (tetramethylsilane was used. The prognosis of biological activity for obtained compounds were carried out using the program PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances in order to plan the further pharmacological screening. The program PASS predicts more than 500 kinds of biological

  9. Alterations in CD200-CD200R1 System during EAE Already Manifest at Presymptomatic Stages

    Tony Valente


    Full Text Available In the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis, activated microglia/macrophages appear in active lesions and in normal appearing white matter. However, whether they play a beneficial or a detrimental role in the development of the pathology remains a controversial issue. The production of pro-inflammatory molecules by chronically activated microglial cells is suggested to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative processes in neurological disease. In the healthy brain, neurons control glial activation through several inhibitory mechanisms, such as the CD200-CD200R1 interaction. Therefore, we studied whether alterations in the CD200-CD200R1 system might underlie the neuroinflammation in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of multiple sclerosis. We determined the time course of CD200 and CD200R1 expression in the brain and spinal cord of an EAE mouse model from presymptomatic to late symptomatic stages. We also assessed the correlation with associated glial activation, inflammatory response and EAE severity. Alterations in CD200 and CD200R1 expression were mainly observed in spinal cord regions in the EAE model, mostly a decrease in CD200 and an increase in CD200R1 expression. A decrease in the expression of the mRNA encoding a full CD200 protein was detected before the onset of clinical signs, and remained thereafter. A decrease in CD200 protein expression was observed from the onset of clinical signs. By contrast, CD200R1 expression increased at EAE onset, when a glial reaction associated with the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers occurred, and continued to be elevated during the pathology. Moreover, the magnitude of the alterations correlated with severity of the EAE mainly in spinal cord. These results suggest that neuronal-microglial communication through CD200-CD200R1 interaction is compromised in EAE. The early decreases in CD200 expression in EAE suggest that this downregulation might also

  10. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Zahra Etemadifar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  11. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Naoya Matsumoto


    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  12. Reactor Physics Programme

    De Raedt, C


    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  13. Improved dechlorinating performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors by incorporation of Dehalospirillum multivorans into granular sludge

    Hörber, Christine; Christiansen, Nina; Arvin, Erik


    .5 mM acetate and were operated under sterile conditions. In the test reactor, an average of 93% (mole/mole) of the effluent chloroethenes was dichloroethene (DCE), compared to 99% (mole/mole) in the Ri reactor. The R2 reactor, with no inoculation, produced only trichloroethene (TCE), averaging 43......% (mole/mole) of the effluent chloroethenes. No dechlorination of PCE was observed in an abiotic control consisting of sterile granules without inoculum, During continuous operation with stepwise-reduced hydraulic retention times (HRTs), both the test reactor and the R1 reactor showed conversion of PCE...

  14. Engagement et réflexivité


    Contre les visions routinisées d’une coupure entre savoir sociologique et engagement, l’article met en avant les atouts d’une familiarité réflexive se nourrissant de l’observation participante. Cette hypothèse épistémologique et méthodologique est principalement travaillée à partir d’une enquête menée sur le mouvement étudiant de 2006 dans une ville de province en France. Tant l’analyse des différentes dimensions du mouvement en train de se faire que des conditions de son démarrage ont bénéfi...

  15. Attrition reactor system

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.


    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  16. Agonistic CD200R1 DNA Aptamers Are Potent Immunosuppressants That Prolong Allogeneic Skin Graft Survival

    Aaron Prodeus


    Full Text Available CD200R1 expressed on the surface of myeloid and lymphoid cells delivers immune inhibitory signals to modulate inflammation when engaged with its ligand CD200. Signalling through CD200/CD200R1 has been implicated in a number of immune-related diseases including allergy, infection, cancer and transplantation, as well as several autoimmune disorders including arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. We report the development and characterization of DNA aptamers, which bind to murine CD200R1 and act as potent signalling molecules in the absence of exogenous CD200. These agonistic aptamers suppress cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction in 5-day allogeneic mixed leukocyte culture and induce rapid phosphorylation of the CD200R1 cytoplasmic tail thereby initiating immune inhibitory signalling. PEGylated conjugates of these aptamers show significant in vivo immunosuppression and enhance survival of allogeneic skin grafts as effectively as soluble CD200Fc. As DNA aptamers exhibit inherent advantages over conventional protein-based therapeutics including low immunogenicity, ease of synthesis, low cost, and long shelf life, such CD200R1 agonistic aptamers may emerge as useful and safe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

  17. Protein-Nanocrystal Conjugates Support a Single Filament Polymerization Model in R1 Plasmid Segregation

    Choi, Charina L.; Claridge, Shelley A.; Garner, Ethan C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Mullins, R. Dyche


    To ensure inheritance by daughter cells, many low-copy number bacterial plasmids, including the R1 drug-resistance plasmid, encode their own DNA segregation systems. The par operon of plasmid R1 directs construction of a simple spindle structure that converts free energy of polymerization of an actin-like protein, ParM, into work required to move sister plasmids to opposite poles of rod-shaped cells. The structures of individual components have been solved, but little is known about the ultrastructure of the R1 spindle. To determine the number of ParM filaments in a minimal R1 spindle, we used DNA-gold nanocrystal conjugates as mimics of the R1 plasmid. Wefound that each end of a single polar ParM filament binds to a single ParR/parC-gold complex, consistent with the idea that ParM filaments bind in the hollow core of the ParR/parC ring complex. Our results further suggest that multifilament spindles observed in vivo are associated with clusters of plasmidssegregating as a unit.

  18. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 regulates dendritic architecture of motor neurons

    Inglis, Fiona M.; Crockett, Richard; Korada, Sailaja; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Hollmann, Michael; Kalb, Robert G.


    The morphology of the mature motor neuron dendritic arbor is determined by activity-dependent processes occurring during a critical period in early postnatal life. The abundance of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in motor neurons is very high during this period and subsequently falls to a negligible level. To test the role of GluR1 in dendrite morphogenesis, we reintroduced GluR1 into rat motor neurons at the end of the critical period and quantitatively studied the effects on dendrite architecture. Two versions of GluR1 were studied that differed by the amino acid in the "Q/R" editing site. The amino acid occupying this site determines single-channel conductance, ionic permeability, and other essential electrophysiologic properties of the resulting receptor channels. We found large-scale remodeling of dendritic architectures in a manner depending on the amino acid occupying the Q/R editing site. Alterations in the distribution of dendritic arbor were not prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. These observations suggest that the expression of GluR1 in motor neurons modulates a component of the molecular substrate of activity-dependent dendrite morphogenesis. The control of these events relies on subunit-specific properties of AMPA receptors.

  19. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)


    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  20. GHS-R1a constitutive activity and its physiological relevance

    Yves Louis MEAR


    Full Text Available Abundant evidences have shown that ghrelin, by its binding to GHS-R1a, plays an important role for fundamental physiological functions. Increasing attention is given to the GHS-R1a unusually high constitutive activity and its contribution to downstream signalling and physiological processes. Here, we review recent lines of evidences showing that the interaction between ligand-binding pocket TM domains and the ECL2 could be partially responsible for this high constitutive activity. Interestingly, GHSR-1a constitutive activity activates in turn the downstream PLC, PKC and CRE signalling pathways and this activation is reversed by the inverse agonist [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]-substance P (MSP. Noteworthy, GHSR-1a exhibits a C-terminal-dependent constitutive internalization. Non-sense GHS-R1a mutation (Ala204Glu, first discovered in Moroccan patients, supports the role of GHSR-1a constitutive activity in physiological impairments. Ala204Glu-point mutation, altering exclusively the GHSR-1a constitutive activity, was associated with familial short stature syndrome. Altogether, these findings suggest that GHS-R1a constitutive activity could contribute to GH secretion or body weight regulation. Consequently, future research on basic and clinical applications of GHS-R1a inverse agonists will be challenging and potentially rewarding.

  1. Effect of tryptone and ammonia on the biogas process in continuously stirred tank reactors treating cattle manure

    Nielsen, Hanne Bjerg; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    . Three days after the pulses a second peak in acetate concentration and a decrease in methane production indicated an ammonia-inhibition of the acetoclastic methanogens. During the pulses of tryptone the performance of R1 was slightly more affected than R2. Pulses of ammonia (0.79 g l(-1) as N) resulted...... in a decrease in methane production of both reactors but no immediate increases in VFA concentrations was observed illustrating that the ammonia inhibition during this experiment was an overall inhibition of the biogas process and not only an inhibition of the methanogens.......Two themophilic continuously stirred tank reactors, R1 and Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors, R1 and R2, were subject to pulses of tryptone and ammonia. R1 was operated at an ammonia-N concentration of 3.0 g l(-1) and R2 was operated at an ammonia-N concentration of 1.7 g l(-1...

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Kawakami, Hiroto


    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  3. Primary identification, biochemical characterization, and immunologic properties of the allergenic pollen cyclophilin cat R 1.

    Ghosh, Debajyoti; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Schramm, Gabriele; Edwards, Lori L; Petersen, Arnd; London, Robert E; Haas, Helmut; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati


    Cyclophilin (Cyp) allergens are considered pan-allergens due to frequently reported cross-reactivity. In addition to well studied fungal Cyps, a number of plant Cyps were identified as allergens (e.g. Bet v 7 from birch pollen, Cat r 1 from periwinkle pollen). However, there are conflicting data regarding their antigenic/allergenic cross-reactivity, with no plant Cyp allergen structures available for comparison. Because amino acid residues are fairly conserved between plant and fungal Cyps, it is particularly interesting to check whether they can cross-react. Cat r 1 was identified by immunoblotting using allergic patients' sera followed by N-terminal sequencing. Cat r 1 (∼ 91% sequence identity to Bet v 7) was cloned from a cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Cat r 1 was utilized to confirm peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PPIase) activity by a PPIase assay and the allergenic property by an IgE-specific immunoblotting and rat basophil leukemia cell (RBL-SX38) mediator release assay. Inhibition-ELISA showed cross-reactive binding of serum IgE from Cat r 1-allergic individuals to fungal allergenic Cyps Asp f 11 and Mala s 6. The molecular structure of Cat r 1 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The antigenic surface was examined in relation to its plant, animal, and fungal homologues. The structure revealed a typical cyclophilin fold consisting of a compact β-barrel made up of seven anti-parallel β-strands along with two surrounding α-helices. This is the first structure of an allergenic plant Cyp revealing high conservation of the antigenic surface particularly near the PPIase active site, which supports the pronounced cross-reactivity among Cyps from various sources.

  4. Fine mapping of the red plant gene R1 in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum)

    ZHAO Liang; CAI CaiPing; ZHANG TianZhen; GUO WangZhen


    Sub 16 is a substitution line with G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 genetic background except that the 16th chro-mosome (Chr. 16) is replaced by the corresponding homozygous chromosome of G. barbadense cv. 3-79, and T586 is a G. hirsutum multiple gene marker line with 8 dominant mutation genes. The R1 gene for anthocyanin pigmentation was tagged in Chr. 16 in T586. The objective of this research was to screen SSR markers tightly linked with R1 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants derived from the cross of Sub 16 and T586 and the backbone genetic linkage map from G. hir-sutumxG, barbadense BC1 newly updated by our laboratory. Genetic analysis suggested that the se-gregation ratio of red plants in the F2 population fit Mendelian 1:2:1 inheritance, confirming that the red plant trait was controlled by an incomplete dominance gene. Preliminary mapping of R1 was conducted using 237 randomLy selected F2 individuals and JoinMap v3.0 software. Then, a fine map of R1 was constructed using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants, and R1 was located between NAU4956 and NAU6752, with only 0.49 cM to the nearest maker loci (NAU6752). These results pro-vided a foundation for map-based cloning of R1 and further development of cotton cultivars with red fibers by transgenic technology.

  5. 2-Heteroaryl Benzimidazole Derivatives as Melanin Concentrating Hormone Receptor 1 (MCH-R1) Antagonists

    Lim, Chae Jo; Kim, Jeong Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwangseok; Yi, Kyu Yang [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A novel series of 2-heteroaryl substituted benzimidazole derivatives, containing the piperidinylphenyl acetamide group at the 1-position, were synthesized and evaluated as MCH-R1 antagonists. Extensive SAR investigation probing the effects of C-2 heteroaryl group led to the identification of 2-[2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl] analog 3o, which exhibits highly potent MCH-R1 binding activity with an IC{sub 50} value of 1 nM. This substance 3o also has low hERG binding activity, good metabolic stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

  6. Light water reactor safety

    Pershagen, B


    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  7. Nuclear reactor physics

    Stacey, Weston M


    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(r)-1 - Withholding on distributions of Indian gaming profits to tribal members.


    ... profits to tribal members. 31.3402(r)-1 Section 31.3402(r)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(r)-1 Withholding on distributions of Indian gaming profits to tribal members. (a) (1) General rule. Section...

  9. Direct binding between BubR1 and B56-PP2A phosphatase complexes regulate mitotic progression

    Kruse, Thomas; Zhang, Gang; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo;


    and mutation of these residues prevents the establishment of a proper metaphase plate and delays cells in mitosis. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation of S670 and S676 stimulates the binding of B56 to BubR1 and that BubR1 targets a pool of B56 to kinetochores. Our data suggests that BubR1 counteracts...


    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi


    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  11. Spinning fluids reactor

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DS8R-1AIJS [Confc[Archive

    Full Text Available 1DS8R-1AIJS 1DS8 1AIJ R S ------------ALLSFERKYRVPGGTL-------VGGN...line> LEU CA 264 ALA CA 260 LYS CA 280 1AIJ... S 1AIJS...el> 1 1AIJ S 1AIJ...8992214202881 7.358476161956787 2 1AIJ

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DS8R-1AIJM [Confc[Archive

    Full Text Available 1DS8R-1AIJM 1DS8 1AIJ R M --------------ALLSFERKYRVPGGTL-------VG...244 SER CA 310 ALA CA 262 VAL CA 196 1AIJ... M 1AIJM LEU CA 264 ALA CA 260 LYS CA 280 1AIJ... M 1AIJM YGLSFAAPLKE

  14. Homotopy classification of maps between r-1 connected 2r dimensional manifolds


    In this paper,we study the homotopy classification of continuous maps between two r-1 connected 2r dimensional topological manifolds M,N.If we assume some knowledge on the homotopy groups of spheres,then the complete classification can be obtained from the homotopy invariants of M,N.We design an algorithm and compose a program to give explicit computations.

  15. Prion pathogenesis is unaltered following down-regulation of SIGN-R1.

    Bradford, Barry M; Brown, Karen L; Mabbott, Neil A


    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders characterised by accumulations of abnormal prion glycoprotein in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure, many prion strains replicate upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in lymphoid tissues before infecting the brain. An intact splenic marginal zone is important for the efficient delivery of prions to FDC. The marginal zone contains a ring of specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin related 1 (SIGN-R1)-expressing macrophages. This lectin binds dextran and capsular pneumococcal polysaccharides, and also enhances the clearance of apoptotic cells via interactions with complement components. Since prions are acquired as complement-opsonized complexes we determined the role of SIGN-R1 in disease pathogenesis. We show that transient down-regulation of SIGN-R1 prior to intravenous prion exposure had no effect on the early accumulation of prions upon splenic FDC or their subsequent spread to the brain. Thus, SIGN-R1 expression by marginal zone macrophages is not rate-limiting for peripheral prion disease pathogenesis.

  16. Association study of human VN1R1 pheromone receptor gene alleles and gender.

    Mitropoulos, Constantinos; Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Menounos, Panagiotis G; Kolonelou, Christina; Pappa, Magda; Bertolis, George; Gerou, Spiros; Patrinos, George P


    Pheromones are water-soluble chemicals that elicit neuroendocrine and physiological changes, while they also provide information about gender within individuals of the same species. VN1R1 is the only functional pheromone receptor in humans. We have undertaken a large mutation screening approach in 425 adult individuals from the Hellenic population to investigate whether the allelic differences, namely alleles 1a and 1b present in the human VN1R1 gene, are gender specific. Here we show that both VN1R1 1a and 1b alleles are found in chromosomes of both male and female subjects at frequency of 26.35% and 73.65%, respectively. Given the fact that those allelic differences potentially cause minor changes in the protein conformation and its transmembrane domains, as simulated by the TMHMM software, our data suggest that the allelic differences in the human VN1R1 gene are unlikely to be associated with gender and hence to contribute to distinct gender-specific behavior.

  17. Homotopy classification of maps between r-1 connected 2r dimensional manifolds

    Xu-an ZHAO; Hong-zhu GAO; Xiao-le SU


    In this paper, we study the homotopy classification of continuous maps between two r - 1 connected 2r dimensional topological manifolds M, N. If we assume some knowledge on the homotopy groups of spheres, then the complete classification can be obtained from the homotopy invariants of M, N. We design an algorithm and compose a program to give explicit computations.

  18. Determination of taste receptor type 1 member 1 (TAS1R1) gene ...



    Oct 10, 2011 ... DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1379 ... (TAS1R1) gene polymorphism and association with ... 1Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, ... In this study, the coding and flanking .... Note: Exons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are located at base pairs 1~191, 1746~2052, ...

  19. The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches

    Bee Yin Khor


    Full Text Available Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1 from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in “Brugia Rapid”. However, the structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein is yet to be elucidated. Here we study the three dimensional structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein using comparative modeling, threading and ab initio protein structure prediction. The best predicted structure obtained via an ab initio method (Rosetta was further refined and minimized. A total of 5 ns molecular dynamics simulation were performed to investigate the packing of the protein. Here we also identified three epitopes as potential antibody binding sites from the molecular dynamics average structure. The structure and epitopes obtained from this study can be used to design a binder specific against BmR1, thus aiding future development of antigen-based filariasis diagnostics to complement the current diagnostics.

  20. Asymptotic behaviour of H~p (R~n×R_+) (1



    Asymptotic behaviour of Hp (Rn×R+) (1

  1. Age-related decline in BubR1 impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Yang, Z; Jun, H.; Choi, C.I.; Yoo, K.H.; Cho, C.H.; Hussaini, S.M.; Simmons, A.J.; Kim, S.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Baker, D.J.; Jang, M.H.


    Aging causes significant declines in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to cognitive disability. Emerging evidence demonstrates that decline in the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 level occurs with natural aging and induces progeroid features in both mice and children with mosaic variegated

  2. Scalar-tensor cosmology with R^{-1} curvature correction by Noether Symmetry

    Motavali, H; Jog, M Rowshan Almeh


    We discuss scalar-tensor cosmology with an extra $R^{-1}$ correction by the Noether Symmetry Approach. The existence of such a symmetry selects the forms of the coupling $\\omega(\\phi)$, of the potential $V(\\phi)$ and allows to obtain physically interesting exact cosmological solutions.

  3. Identifying the Proteins that Mediate the Ionizing Radiation Resistance of Deinococcus Radiodurans R1

    Battista, John R


    The primary objectives of this proposal was to define the subset of proteins required for the ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans R1, characterize the activities of those proteins, and apply what was learned to problems of interest to the Department of Energy.

  4. R1 Resection by Necessity for Colorectal Liver Metastases Is It Still a Contraindication to Surgery?

    de Haas, Robbert J.; Wicherts, Dennis A.; Flores, Eduardo; Azoulay, Daniel; Castaing, Denis; Adam, Rene


    Objective: To compare long-term outcome of R0 (negative margins) and R1 (positive margins) liver resections for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) treated by an aggressive approach combining chemotherapy and repeat surgery. Summary Background Data: Complete macroscopic resection with negative margins

  5. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Montserrat Samsó


    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  6. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo


    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  7. Cdk5r1 Overexpression Induces Primary β-Cell Proliferation

    Carrie Draney


    Full Text Available Decreased β-cell mass is a hallmark of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Islet transplantation as a method of diabetes therapy is hampered by the paucity of transplant ready islets. Understanding the pathways controlling islet proliferation may be used to increase functional β-cell mass through transplantation or by enhanced growth of endogenous β-cells. We have shown that the transcription factor Nkx6.1 induces β-cell proliferation by upregulating the orphan nuclear hormone receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Using expression analysis to define Nkx6.1-independent mechanisms by which Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 induce β-cell proliferation, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (Cdk5r1 is upregulated by Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 but not by Nkx6.1. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 is sufficient to induce primary rat β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 in β-cells confers protection against apoptosis induced by etoposide and thapsigargin, but not camptothecin. The Cdk5 kinase complex inhibitor roscovitine blocks islet proliferation, suggesting that Cdk5r1 mediated β-cell proliferation is a kinase dependent event. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 results in pRb phosphorylation, which is inhibited by roscovitine treatment. These data demonstrate that activation of the Cdk5 kinase complex is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion.

  8. Evaluation of the parametric neutron activation applied in the soil and sediments analysis using the IPR-R1 reactor; Avaliacao da ativacao neutronica parametrica na analise de solos e sedimentos, utilizando o reator IPR-R1

    Franco, Milton B.; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Kastner, Geraldo F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rossi, Eduardo H.M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)


    This work describes a mono standard method for multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis using sodium as comparator, and gamma spectrometry with a ultrapure Ge detector. The method was checked by analysing 16 elements presents in soils and sediments reference materials from IAEA and United States Geological Survey. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Experimental research in neutron physic and thermal-hydraulic at the CDTN Triga reactor

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Pinto, Antonio J.; Costa, Antonio C.L.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b, E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.b, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.b, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The IPR-R1 TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes production, General Atomics) at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) is a pool type reactor cooled by natural circulation of light water and an open surface. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world and characterized by inherent safety. The IPR-R1 is the only Brazilian nuclear research reactor available and able to perform experiments in which interaction between neutronic and thermal-hydraulic areas occurs. The IPR-R1 has started up on November 11th, 1960. At that time the maximum thermal power was 30 kW. The present forced cooling system was built in the 70th and the power was upgraded to 100 kW. Recently the core configuration and instrumentation was upgraded again to 250 kW at steady state, and is awaiting the license of CNEN to operate definitely at this new power. This paper describes the experimental research project carried out in the IPR-R1 reactor that has as objective evaluate the behaviour of the reactor operational parameters, and mainly to investigate the influence of temperature on the neutronic variables. The research was supported by Research Support Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The research project meets the recommendations of the IAEA, for safety, modernization and development of strategic plan for research reactors utilization. This work is in line with the strategic objectives of Brazil, which aims to design and construct the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (RMB). (author)

  10. Et. réact. $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} \\gamma$, $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} e^{+} e^{-}$ et $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e ^{-} \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ pour la calibrat. cristaux BGO calorim. électromagn. L3,, CERN, mesure luminosité LEP

    Rayo, F


    Et. réact. $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} \\gamma$, $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} e^{+} e^{-}$ et $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e ^{-} \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ pour la calibrat. cristaux BGO calorim. électromagn. L3,, CERN, mesure luminosité LEP

  11. SNTP program reactor design

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.


    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  12. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Moir, R.W.


    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  13. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel


    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  14. TRAPPIST monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    Opitom, C.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.


    We present the results of a dense photometric monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (Ison) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using narrow-band cometary filters and the 60-cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope [1]. We were able to isolate the emission of the OH, NH, CN, C_2, and C_3 radicals for both comets as well as the dust continuum in four bands. By applying a Haser model [2] and fitting the observed profiles, we derive gas production rates. From the continuum bands, we computed the dust Afρ parameters [3]. We were able to follow the evolution of the gas and dust activity of these comets for weeks, looking for changes with the heliocentric distance, study the coma morphology, and analyze their composition and dust coma properties. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was observed about three times a week from October 12 (r=1.43 au) to November 23, 2013. It was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.33 au, only five days before perihelion, when it disintegrated. This dense monitoring allowed us to detect fast changes of the cometary activity. We observed a slowly rising activity in October and early November, and two major outbursts around November 13 and November 19 [4], the gas and dust production rates being multiplied by at least a factor of five during each outburst and then slowly decreasing in the following days. These outbursts were correlated with changes in gas-production-rate ratios. The coma morphology study revealed strong jets in both gas and dust filters. Since the comet was very active in November, we were even able to detect OH jets in our images. Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) was observed before perihelion from September 9 (r=1.94 au) to November 16 (r=1.12 au), 2013 when the comet was too far North. We recovered the comet post-perihelion on February 13 (r=1.24 au), 2014 and planned to observe it until May (r=2.5 au) with narrow-band filters. We compare the evolution of gas and dust activity as well as the evolution of gas production rates ratios on both sides of perihelion. The

  15. LMFBR type reactor

    Kanbe, Mitsuru


    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  16. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Eduardo Villarino


    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  17. Multi purpose research reactor

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail:; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  18. Characterization of AvaR1, a butenolide-autoregulator receptor for biosynthesis of a Streptomyces hormone in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Sultan, Suandi Pratama; Kitani, Shigeru; Miyamoto, Kiyoko T; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Atago, Tokitaka; Ikeda, Haruo; Nihira, Takuya


    Streptomyces hormones, sometimes called as autoregulators, are important signaling molecules to trigger secondary metabolism across many Streptomyces species. We recently identified a butenolide-type autoregulator (termed avenolide) as a new class of Streptomyces hormone from Streptomyces avermitilis that produces important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Avenolide triggers the production of avermectin with minimum effective concentration of nanomolar. Here, we describe the characterization of avaR1 encoding an avenolide receptor in the regulation of avermectin production and avenolide biosynthesis. The disruption of avaR1 resulted in transcriptional derepression of avenolide biosynthetic gene with an increase in avenolide production, with no change in the avermectin production profile. Moreover, the avaR1 mutant showed increased transcription of avaR1. Together with clear DNA-binding capacity of AvaR1 toward avaR1 upstream region, it suggests that AvaR1 negatively controls the expression of avaR1 through the direct binding to the promoter region of avaR1. These findings revealed that the avenolide receptor AvaR1 functions as a transcriptional repressor for avenolide biosynthesis and its own synthesis.

  19. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.

    Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K


    Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions.

  20. PIK3R1 Mutations Cause Syndromic Insulin Resistance with Lipoatrophy

    Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Auclair, Martine; Duplomb, Laurence; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Avila, Magali; St-Onge, Judith; Le Merrer, Martine; Le Luyer, Bernard; Héron, Delphine; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Bitoun, Pierre; Petit, Jean-Michel; Odent, Sylvie; Amiel, Jeanne; Picot, Damien; Carmignac, Virginie; Thevenon, Julien; Callier, Patrick; Laville, Martine; Reznik, Yves; Fagour, Cédric; Nunes, Marie-Laure; Capeau, Jacqueline; Lascols, Olivier; Huet, Frédéric; Faivre, Laurence; Vigouroux, Corinne; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste


    Short stature, hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (SHORT) syndrome is a developmental disorder with an unknown genetic cause and hallmarks that include insulin resistance and lack of subcutaneous fat. We ascertained two unrelated individuals with SHORT syndrome, hypothesized that the observed phenotype was most likely due to de novo mutations in the same gene, and performed whole-exome sequencing in the two probands and their unaffected parents. We then confirmed our initial observations in four other subjects with SHORT syndrome from three families, as well as 14 unrelated subjects presenting with syndromic insulin resistance and/or generalized lipoatrophy associated with dysmorphic features and growth retardation. Overall, we identified in nine affected individuals from eight families de novo or inherited PIK3R1 mutations, including a mutational hotspot (c.1945C>T [p.Arg649Trp]) present in four families. PIK3R1 encodes the p85α, p55α, and p50α regulatory subunits of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3Ks), which are known to play a key role in insulin signaling. Functional data from fibroblasts derived from individuals with PIK3R1 mutations showed severe insulin resistance for both proximal and distal PI3K-dependent signaling. Our findings extend the genetic causes of severe insulin-resistance syndromes and provide important information with respect to the function of PIK3R1 in normal development and its role in human diseases, including growth delay, Rieger anomaly and other ocular affections, insulin resistance, diabetes, paucity of fat, and ovarian cysts. PMID:23810378

  1. Improvement of Biodesulfurization Rate of Alginate Immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis R1

    Derikvand, Peyman; Etemadifar, Zahra


    Background: Sulfur oxides released from the burning of oil causes severe environmental pollution. The sulfur can be removed via the 4S pathway in biodesulfurization (BDS). Immobilization approaches have been developed to prevent cell contamination of oil during the BDS process. Objectives: The encapsulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 in calcium alginate beads was studied in order to enhance conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) as the final product. Also the e...

  2. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.


    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  3. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Zimmermann, H; Schafer, M; Schmitz, C; Bucker, H


    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA.

  4. Thermophilic (55°C) conversion of methanol in methanogenic-UASB reactors: influence of sulphate on methanol degradation and competition

    Paulo, P.L.; Vallero, M.V.G.; Trevino, R.H.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.


    Two upflow sludge bed reactors (UASB) were operated for 80 days at 55 degreesC with methanol as the substrate with an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 20 g COD l(-1) per day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h. One UASB was operated without sulphate addition (control reactor-R1) whereas

  5. AHR prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3 differentiation to natural killer cells

    Hughes, Tiffany; Briercheck, Edward L.; Freud, Aharon G.; Trotta, Rossana; McClory, Susan; Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen; Deng, Youcai; Cole, Jordan; Harrison, Nicholas; Mao, Charlene; Zhang, Jianying; Benson, Don M.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.


    SUMMARY Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34-CD117+CD94- immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) types that includes interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ IFN-gamma-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES) and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET). Hence, AHR is a transcription factor that prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells. PMID:24953655

  6. HCN observations of comets C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    Wirström, E S; Källström, P; Levinsson, A; Olivefors, A; Tegehall, E


    HCN J=1-0 emission from the long-period comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) was observed from the Onsala Space Observatory on multiple occasions during the month before its perihelion passage on December 22, 2013. We report detections for seven different dates, spanning heliocentric distances (R_h) decreasing from 0.94 to 0.82 au. Estimated HCN production rates are generally higher than previously reported for the same time period, but the implied increase in production rate with heliocentric distance, Q_{HCN} proportionate to R_h^{-3.2}, represent well the overall documented increase since it was first observed at R_h=1.35. The implied mean HCN abundance relative to water in R1 Lovejoy is 0.2%. We also report on a detection of HCN with the new 3 mm receiver system at Onsala Space Observatory in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on January 14, 2015, when its heliocentric distance was 1.3 au. Relative to comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), the HCN production rate of C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) was more than 5 times higher at similar heliocentri...

  7. An optimized method for (15)N R(1) relaxation rate measurements in non-deuterated proteins.

    Gairí, Margarida; Dyachenko, Andrey; González, M Teresa; Feliz, Miguel; Pons, Miquel; Giralt, Ernest


    (15)N longitudinal relaxation rates are extensively used for the characterization of protein dynamics; however, their accurate measurement is hindered by systematic errors. (15)N CSA/(1)H-(15)N dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CC) and amide proton exchange saturation transfer from water protons are the two main sources of systematic errors in the determination of (15)N R1 rates through (1)H-(15)N HSQC-based experiments. CC is usually suppressed through a train of 180° proton pulses applied during the variable (15)N relaxation period (T), which can perturb water magnetization. Thus CC cancellation is required in such a way as to minimize water saturation effects. Here we examined the level of water saturation during the T period caused by various types of inversion proton pulses to suppress CC: (I) amide-selective IBURP-2; (II) cosine-modulated IBURP-2; (III) Watergate-like blocks; and (IV) non-selective hard. We additionally demonstrate the effect of uncontrolled saturation of aliphatic protons on (15)N R1 rates. In this paper we present an optimized pulse sequence that takes into account the crucial effect of controlling also the saturation of the aliphatic protons during (15)N R1 measurements in non-deuterated proteins. We show that using cosine-modulated IBURP-2 pulses spaced 40 ms to cancel CC in this optimized pulse program is the method of choice to minimize systematic errors coming from water and aliphatic protons saturation effects.

  8. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François


    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  9. Development of a research nuclear reactor simulator using LABVIEW®

    Lage, Aldo Marcio Fonseca; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Souza, Luiz Claudio Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The International Atomic Energy Agency recommends the use of safety and friendly interfaces for monitoring and controlling the operational parameters of the nuclear reactors. The most important variable in the nuclear reactors control is the power released by fission of the fuel in the core which is directly proportional to neutron flux. It was developed a digital system to simulate the neutron evolution flux and monitoring their interaction on the other operational parameters. The control objective is to bring the reactor power from its source level (mW) to a few W. It is intended for education of basic reactor neutronic principles such as the multiplication factor, criticality, reactivity, period, delayed neutron and control by rods. The 250 kW IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor at Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN (Belo Horizonte/Brazil) was used as reference. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world. They are cooled by light water under natural convection and are characterized by being inherently safety. The simulation system was developed using the LabVIEW® (Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench) software, considering the modern concept of virtual instruments (VI's). The main purpose of the system is to provide to analyze the behavior, and the tendency of some processes that occur in the reactor using a user-friendly operator interface. The TRIGA simulator system will allow the study of parameters, which affect the reactor operation, without the necessity of using the facility.(author)

  10. Reactor Materials Research

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  11. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  12. Light water reactor program

    Franks, S.M.


    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  13. MiR-23-TrxR1 as a novel molecular axis in skeletal muscle differentiation.

    Mercatelli, Neri; Fittipaldi, Simona; De Paola, Elisa; Dimauro, Ivan; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Jackson, Malcolm J; Caporossi, Daniela


    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a selenocysteine-containing protein involved in cellular redox homeostasis which is downregulated in skeletal muscle differentiation. Here we show that TrxR1 decrease occurring during myogenesis is functionally involved in the coordination of this cellular process. Indeed, TrxR1 depletion reduces myoblasts growth by inducing an early myogenesis -related gene expression pattern which includes myogenin and Myf5 up-regulation and Cyclin D1 decrease. On the contrary, the overexpression of TrxR1 during differentiation delays myogenic process, by negatively affecting the expression of Myogenin and MyHC. Moreover, we found that miR-23a and miR-23b - whose expression was increased in the early stage of C2C12 differentiation - are involved in the regulation of TrxR1 expression through their direct binding to the 3' UTR of TrxR1 mRNA. Interestingly, the forced inhibition of miR-23a and miR-23b during C2C12 differentiation partially rescues TrxR1 levels and delays the expression of myogenic markers, suggesting the involvement of miR-23 in myogenesis via TrxR1 repression. Taken together, our results depict for the first time a novel molecular axis, which functionally acts in skeletal muscle differentiation through the modulation of TrxR1 by miR-23.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Role of Global Transcriptional Regulator GntR1 in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Tanaka, Yuya; Takemoto, Norihiko; Ito, Terukazu; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Yukawa, Hideaki; Inui, Masayuki


    The transcriptional regulator GntR1 downregulates the genes for gluconate catabolism and pentose phosphate pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Gluconate lowers the DNA binding affinity of GntR1, which is probably the mechanism of gluconate-dependent induction of these genes. In addition, GntR1 positively regulates ptsG, a gene encoding a major glucose transporter, and pck, a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Here, we searched for the new target of GntR1 on a genome-wide scal...

  15. Status of French reactors

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)


    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  16. Nuclear reactor design


    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  17. Mirror reactor surface study

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.


    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  18. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo


    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1.

  19. Association of social defeat stress-induced anhedonia-like symptoms with mGluR1-dependent decrease in membrane-bound AMPA-GluR1 in the mouse ventral midbrain.

    Yashiro, Sayori; Seki, Kenjiro


    Anhedonia is a core symptom of social defeat stress (SDS)-induced depression associated with the reward system. We previously reported that decreased membrane-bound AMPA-GluR1 in the reward system is associated with lipopolysaccharide-induced anhedonia-like symptoms. Since group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation reduces the surface density of GluR1, we examined whether group I mGluR-dependent decrease in membrane-bound GluR1 in the reward system is involved in SDS-induced anhedonia-like symptoms. Mice exposed to SDS for 4 consecutive days had markedly decreased membrane-bound GluR1 and GluR2 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and membrane-bound GluR1 in the ventral midbrain (VM) along with lower sucrose preference (SP). Intra-PFC injection of the group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; 100 μmol) demonstrated decrease in membrane-bound GluR1 and GluR2 in the PFC 2 and 24 h and membrane-bound GluR1 in the VM 24 h after injection. Moreover, intra-PFC injection of DHPG decreased SP only in the second 24-h (24-48 h) period. Conversely, intra-VM injection of DHPG decreased SP in both the first and second 24-h period and decreased membrane-bound GluR1 in the VM 2 and 24 h after injection. Pre-treatment with the mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 (30 mg/kg, subcutaneous) prevented SDS-decreased SP and membrane-bound GluR1 in the VM. The mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP; 10 mg/kg, subcutaneous) prevented SDS-induced decrease in membrane-bound GluR1 and GluR2 in the PFC, whereas MPEP did not affect SDS-induced decrease in SP and membrane-bound GluR1 in the VM. These results suggest that mGluR1-mediated decrease in membrane-bound GluR1 in VM is involved in SDS-induced anhedonia-like symptoms.

  20. The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase.

    Hao Ding

    Full Text Available Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI. The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ with an invariant glutamine (Q residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11 gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.

  1. BDNF activates mTOR to regulate GluR1 expression required for memory formation.

    Leandro Slipczuk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR kinase plays a key role in translational control of a subset of mRNAs through regulation of its initiation step. In neurons, mTOR is present at the synaptic region, where it modulates the activity-dependent expression of locally-translated proteins independently of mRNA synthesis. Indeed, mTOR is necessary for different forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM formation. However, little is known about the time course of mTOR activation and the extracellular signals governing this process or the identity of the proteins whose translation is regulated by this kinase, during mnemonic processing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA LTM entails mTOR activation in the dorsal hippocampus at the moment of and 3 h after training and is associated with a rapid and rapamycin-sensitive increase in AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit expression, which was also blocked by intra-hippocampal delivery of GluR1 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO. In addition, we found that pre- or post-training administration of function-blocking anti-BDNF antibodies into dorsal CA1 hampered IA LTM retention, abolished the learning-induced biphasic activation of mTOR and its readout, p70S6K and blocked GluR1 expression, indicating that BDNF is an upstream factor controlling mTOR signaling during fear-memory consolidation. Interestingly, BDNF ASO hindered LTM retention only when given into dorsal CA1 1 h after but not 2 h before training, suggesting that BDNF controls the biphasic requirement of mTOR during LTM consolidation through different mechanisms: an early one involving BDNF already available at the moment of training, and a late one, happening around 3 h post-training that needs de novo synthesis of this neurotrophin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IN CONCLUSION, OUR FINDINGS DEMONSTRATE THAT: 1 mTOR-mediated mRNA translation is required for memory consolidation during

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Raoultella terrigena R1Gly, a Diazotrophic Endophyte.

    Schicklberger, M; Shapiro, N; Loqué, D; Woyke, T; Chakraborty, R


    Raoultella terrigena R1Gly is a diazotrophic endophyte isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Nicotiana tabacum. The whole-genome sequence was obtained to investigate the endophytic characteristics of this organism at the genetic level, as well as to compare this strain with its close relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first genome obtained from the Raoultella terrigena species and only the third genome from the Raoultella genus, after Raoultella ornitholytic and Raoultella planticola. This genome will provide a foundation for further comparative genomic, metagenomic, and functional studies of this genus.

  3. Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J


    Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields.

  4. Slurry reactor design studies

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))


    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Distinct domains in Bub1 localize RZZ and BubR1 to kinetochores to regulate the checkpoint

    Zhang, Gang; Lischetti, Tiziana; Hayward, Daniel G;


    , we show that a distinct region in Bub1 mediates kinetochore localization of BubR1 through direct binding, but surprisingly removal of this region increases checkpoint strength. Our work thus uncovers how Bub1 coordinates checkpoint signalling by distinct domains for RZZ and BubR1 recruitment...

  6. Bacterial Mitosis: ParM of Plasmid R1 Moves Plasmid DNA by an Actin-like Insertional Polymerization Mechanism

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette


    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...

  7. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.


    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  8. Gas cooled fast reactor



    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  9. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL


    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxis methyltransferase CheR1 impacts on bacterial surface sampling.

    Juliane Schmidt

    Full Text Available The characterization of factors contributing to the formation and development of surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms has become an area of intense interest since biofilms have a major impact on human health, the environment and industry. Various studies have demonstrated that motility, including swimming, swarming and twitching, seems to play an important role in the surface colonization and establishment of structured biofilms. Thereby, the impact of chemotaxis on biofilm formation has been less intensively studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a very complex chemosensory system with two Che systems implicated in flagella-mediated motility. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemotaxis protein CheR1 is a methyltransferase that binds S-adenosylmethionine and transfers a methyl group from this methyl donor to the chemoreceptor PctA, an activity which can be stimulated by the attractant serine but not by glutamine. We furthermore demonstrate that CheR1 does not only play a role in flagella-mediated chemotaxis but that its activity is essential for the formation and maintenance of bacterial biofilm structures. We propose a model in which motility and chemotaxis impact on initial attachment processes, dispersion and reattachment and increase the efficiency and frequency of surface sampling in P. aeruginosa.

  11. Transcriptional control by two leucine-responsive regulatory proteins in Halobacterium salinarum R1

    Tarasov Valery


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea combine bacterial-as well as eukaryotic-like features to regulate cellular processes. Halobacterium salinarum R1 encodes eight leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp-homologues. The function of two of them, Irp (OE3923F and lrpA1 (OE2621R, were analyzed by gene deletion and overexpression, including genome scale impacts using microarrays. Results It was shown that Lrp affects the transcription of multiple target genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis, central metabolism, transport processes and other regulators of transcription. In contrast, LrpA1 regulates transcription in a more specific manner. The aspB3 gene, coding for an aspartate transaminase, was repressed by LrpA1 in the presence of L-aspartate. Analytical DNA-affinity chromatography was adapted to high salt, and demonstrated binding of LrpA1 to its own promoter, as well as L-aspartate dependent binding to the aspB3 promoter. Conclusion The gene expression profiles of two archaeal Lrp-homologues report in detail their role in H. salinarum R1. LrpA1 and Lrp show similar functions to those already described in bacteria, but in addition they play a key role in regulatory networks, such as controlling the transcription of other regulators. In a more detailed analysis ligand dependent binding of LrpA1 was demonstrated to its target gene aspB3.

  12. Teste dos relógios e R-1 - forma B: evidências de validade

    Noronha, Ana Paula


    Full Text Available Considerando a necessidade de construção de testes brasileiros, com análises apropriadas de parâmetros psicométricos, o presente estudo objetivou analisar as evidências de validade do R-1: Teste não-verbal de avaliação da inteligência, por meio da correlação desse instrumento com Teste dos Relógios. Foram estudados 68 alunos de cursos de Educação de Jovens e Adultos, com idade média de 34,12 e desvio padrão de 13,76. Os resultados indicaram que a correlação entre os dois instrumentos foi significativa e com uma magnitude que pode ser considerada boa (0,64, indicando que 41% da variância é comum a ambos os testes. Entretanto, não foi aceita a hipótese de que o Teste dos Relógios estaria mais correlacionado com o Fator 2 do R-1

  13. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M


    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  14. New reactor type proposed


    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  15. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    Hayes, A C


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  16. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Gubel, P


    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  17. Characterization of RyR1-slow, a ryanodine receptor specific to slow-twitch skeletal muscle.

    Morrissette, J; Xu, L; Nelson, A; Meissner, G; Block, B A


    Two distinct skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) are expressed in a fiber type-specific manner in fish skeletal muscle (11). In this study, we compare [(3)H]ryanodine binding and single channel activity of RyR1-slow from fish slow-twitch skeletal muscle with RyR1-fast and RyR3 isolated from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Scatchard plots indicate that RyR1-slow has a lower affinity for [(3)H]ryanodine when compared with RyR1-fast. In single channel recordings, RyR1-slow and RyR1-fast had similar slope conductances. However, the maximum open probability (P(o)) of RyR1-slow was threefold less than the maximum P(o) of RyR1-fast. Single channel studies also revealed the presence of two populations of RyRs in tuna fast-twitch muscle (RyR1-fast and RyR3). RyR3 had the highest P(o) of all the RyR channels and displayed less inhibition at millimolar Ca(2+). The addition of 5 mM Mg-ATP or 2.5 mM beta, gamma-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (AMP-PCP) to the channels increased the P(o) and [(3)H]ryanodine binding of both RyR1s but also caused a shift in the Ca(2+) dependency curve of RyR1-slow such that Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation was attenuated. [(3)H]ryanodine binding data also showed that Mg(2+)-dependent inhibition of RyR1-slow was reduced in the presence of AMP-PCP. These results indicate differences in the physiological properties of RyRs in fish slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle, which may contribute to differences in the way intracellular Ca(2+) is regulated in these muscle types.

  18. Future Reactor Experiments

    He, Miao


    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  19. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    Cao, Jun


    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  20. Department of Reactor Technology

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  1. Helias reactor studies

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  2. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Eduardo Villarino; Alicia Doval


    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper ...

  3. Élaboration d’indicateurs pour l’évaluation des collectivités-amies des aînés au Canada : démarche et résultats

    H. Orpana


    Full Text Available Introduction : En 2006, l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS a lancé le projet mondial « Villes-amies des aînés » afin de favoriser un vieillissement actif. Si un grand nombre d’initiatives « amies des aînés » ont été mises en oeuvre au Canada, on dispose de peu d’information sur l’efficacité et les résultats des initiatives des collectivités-amies des aînés (CAA. En outre, les intervenants affirment qu’ils n’ont pas la capacité et les outils nécessaires pour élaborer et réaliser des évaluations relatives à leurs initiatives de CAA. Afin de pallier ces lacunes, l’Agence de la santé publique du Canada a mis au point des indicateurs pour l’évaluation des initiatives de CAA dans de nombreuses collectivités canadiennes. Ces indicateurs, destinés à répondre aux différents besoins des collectivités, ne sont pas conçus pour faire l’évaluation de répercussions collectives ou pour rendre possible une comparaison entre collectivités. Méthodologie : Une démarche de consultation itérative fondée sur des données probantes a été employée pour l’élaboration d’indicateurs relatifs aux CAA. Elle a nécessité une revue de la littérature et une analyse du contexte. Deux rondes de consultation auprès d’experts et d’intervenants clés ont été menées, ce qui a permis de classer les indicateurs potentiels en fonction de leur importance, de leur capacité à être mis en pratique et de leur faisabilité. Une liste définitive d’indicateurs et de mesures potentielles a ensuite été mise au point, en fonction des résultats de ces consultations et de considérations clés relatives aux politiques. Résultats : Trente-neuf indicateurs répartis en huit domaines relevant des CAA et quatre indicateurs relevant des résultats liés à la santé et aux conditions sociales à long terme ont été sélectionnés. Tous sont conformes à l’objectif énoncé, à savoir l’évaluation des

  4. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  5. Moon base reactor system

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.


    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  6. Development of new plasmid DNA vaccine vectors with R1-based replicons

    Bower Diana M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been renewed interest in biopharmaceuticals based on plasmid DNA (pDNA in recent years due to the approval of several veterinary DNA vaccines, on-going clinical trials of human pDNA-based therapies, and significant advances in adjuvants and delivery vehicles that have helped overcome earlier efficacy deficits. With this interest comes the need for high-yield, cost-effective manufacturing processes. To this end, vector engineering is one promising strategy to improve plasmid production. Results In this work, we have constructed a new DNA vaccine vector, pDMB02-GFP, containing the runaway R1 origin of replication. The runaway replication phenotype should result in plasmid copy number amplification after a temperature shift from 30°C to 42°C. However, using Escherichia coli DH5α as a host, we observed that the highest yields of pDMB02-GFP were achieved during constant-temperature culture at 30°C, with a maximum yield of approximately 19 mg pDNA/g DCW being observed. By measuring mRNA and protein levels of the R1 replication initiator protein, RepA, we determined that RepA may be limiting pDMB02-GFP yield at 42°C. A mutant plasmid, pDMB-ATG, was constructed by changing the repA start codon from the sub-optimal GTG to ATG. In cultures of DH5α[pDMB-ATG], temperature-induced plasmid amplification was more dramatic than that observed with pDMB02-GFP, and RepA protein was detectable for several hours longer than in cultures of pDMB02-GFP at 42°C. Conclusions Overall, we have demonstrated that R1-based plasmids can produce high yields of high-quality pDNA without the need for a temperature shift, and have laid the groundwork for further investigation of this class of vectors in the context of plasmid DNA production.

  7. A structural model of the pore-forming region of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1.

    Srinivas Ramachandran


    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors (RyRs are ion channels that regulate muscle contraction by releasing calcium ions from intracellular stores into the cytoplasm. Mutations in skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1 give rise to congenital diseases such as central core disease. The absence of high-resolution structures of RyR1 has limited our understanding of channel function and disease mechanisms at the molecular level. Here, we report a structural model of the pore-forming region of RyR1. Molecular dynamics simulations show high ion binding to putative pore residues D4899, E4900, D4938, and D4945, which are experimentally known to be critical for channel conductance and selectivity. We also observe preferential localization of Ca(2+ over K(+ in the selectivity filter of RyR1. Simulations of RyR1-D4899Q mutant show a loss of preference to Ca(2+ in the selectivity filter as seen experimentally. Electrophysiological experiments on a central core disease mutant, RyR1-G4898R, show constitutively open channels that conduct K(+ but not Ca(2+. Our simulations with G4898R likewise show a decrease in the preference of Ca(2+ over K(+ in the selectivity filter. Together, the computational and experimental results shed light on ion conductance and selectivity of RyR1 at an atomistic level.

  8. Temperature dependence of the chromium(III) R1 linewidth in emerald

    Carceller-Pastor, Ivana; Hutchison, Wayne D.; Riesen, Hans


    The temperature dependent contribution to the R1 (2E ← 4A2) linewidth in emerald, Be3Al2Si6O18:Cr3, has been measured by employing spectral hole-burning, fluorescence line narrowing and conventional luminescence experiments. The contribution varies from 0.6 MHz at 6.5 K to ˜420 GHz at 240 K and the line red-shifts by ˜570 GHz. Above 60 K, the dependence is well described by a non-perturbative formalism for two-phonon Raman scattering. Below this temperature the direct one-phonon process between the levels of the split 2E excited state dominates. However, it appears that a localized low-energy phonon leads to a deviation from the standard pattern at lowest temperatures.

  9. Structure determination of the neutral exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Gagnon, Fleur; Nishimura, Junko; Makino, Seiya


    The neutral exopolysaccharide (NPS) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain OLL1073R-1 was purified and characterized. The molecular mass was 5.0×10(6) g/mol. Sugar and absolute configuration analyses gave the following composition: d-Glc, 1; d-Gal, 1.5. The NPS was also submitted to periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction and Smith degradation. Sugar and methylation analyses, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry of the NPS or of its specifically modified products allowed determining the repeating unit sequence: {2)Glc(α1-3)Glc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)]Gal(β1-4)Gal(α1-}n. The structure is compared to that of exopolysaccharides produced by other Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains.

  10. The interaction of the Eco R1 restriction enzyme E.coli with nucleotides

    Hollis, Donald F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Eco R1 restriction enzyme can be shown to be inhibited by nucleotides which correspond to any part of its known site of phosphodiesterase activity. A series of di-, tetra-, and hexa-nucleotide fragments were synthesized and their effect on the activity of the enzyme upon superhelical Co1 E1 DNA studied. The inhibition caused by the individual mononucleotides were also studied. In general all the nucleotide fragments showed some form of interaction with the enzyme system. Tetranucleotides were stronger inhibitors than dinucleotides, which in turn were stronger inhibitors than the mononucleotides. Within each category of inhibitors, those containing the phosphodiester bond which is acted upon by the enzyme were the strongest inhibitors. Only those fragments which were consistent with the enzymes site of activity showed competitive inhibition kinetics. Nucleotides which do not fit within the site of phosphodiesterase activity show non-competitive inhibition kinetics.

  11. How chromosome mis-segregation leads to cancer: lessons from BubR1 mouse models.

    Lee, Hyunsook


    Alteration in chromosome numbers and structures instigate and foster massive genetic instability. As Boveri has seen a hundred years ago (Boveri, 1914; 2008), aneuploidy is hallmark of many cancers. However, whether aneuploidy is the cause or the result of cancer is still at debate. The molecular mechanism behind aneuploidy includes the chromo-some mis-segregation in mitosis by the compromise of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). SAC is an elaborate network of proteins, which monitor that all chromosomes are bipolarly attached with the spindles. Therefore, the weakening of the SAC is the major reason for chromosome number instability, while complete compromise of SAC results in detrimental death, exemplified in natural abortion in embryonic stage. Here, I will review on the recent progress on the understanding of chromosome mis-segregation and cancer, based on the comparison of different mouse models of BubR1, the core component of SAC.

  12. Harvesting biohydrogen from cellobiose from sulfide or nitrite-containing wastewaters using Clostridium sp. R1.

    Ho, Kuo-Ling; Lee, Duu-Jong


    Harvesting biohydrogen from inhibiting wastewaters is of practical interest since the toxicity of compounds in a wastewater stream commonly prevents the bioenergy content being recovered. The isolated Clostridium sp. R1 is utilized to degrade cellobiose in sulfide or nitrite-containing medium for biohydrogen production. The strain can effectively degrade cellobiose free of severe inhibitory effects at up to 200 mgl(-1) sulfide or to 5 mgl(-1) nitrite, yielding hydrogen at >2.0 mol H2 mol(-1) cellobiose. Principal metabolites of cellobiose fermentation are acetate and butyrate, with the concentration of the former increases with increasing sulfide and nitrite concentrations. The isolated strain can yield hydrogen from cellobiose in sulfide-laden wastewaters. However, the present of nitrite significantly limit the efficiency of the biohydrogen harvesting process.

  13. Role of miR-1 and miR-133a in myocardial ischemic postconditioning

    Xie Bing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemic postconditioning (IPost has aroused much attention since 2003 when it was firstly reported. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs in IPost has rarely been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether miRNAs were involved in the protective effect of IPost against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury and the probable mechanisms involved. Methods Thirty SD rats weighing 250-300 g were equally randomized to three groups: Control group, where the rats were treated with thoracotomy only; IR group, where the rats were treated with ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion for 180 min; and IPost group, where the rats were treated with 3 cycles of transient IR just before reperfusion. The extent of myocardial infarction, LDH and CK activities were measured immediately after treatment. Myocardial apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. The myocardial tissue was collected after IR or IPost stimulation to evaluate the miRNAs expression level by miRNA-microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Real-time PCR was conducted to identify changes in mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes such as Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-9 (CASP9, and Western blot was used to compare the protein expression level of CASP9 in the three groups. The miRNA mimics and anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMO were transferred into the cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and myocardium before they were treated with IR. The effect of miRNAs on apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. CASP9, as one of the candidate target of miR-133a, was compared during IR after the miR-133a mimic or AMO-133a was transferred into the myocardium. Results IPost reduced the IR-induced infarct size of the left ventricle, and decreased CK and LDH levels. TUNEL assay showed that myocardial apoptosis was attenuated by IPost compared with IR. MiRNA-microarray and RT-PCR showed that myocardial-specific miR-1 and miR-133a were down-regulated by IR, and up

  14. The role of TonB-dependent receptor TbdR1 in Riemerella anatipestifer in iron acquisition and virulence.

    Lu, Fengying; Miao, Shuang; Tu, Jing; Ni, Xintao; Xing, Linlin; Yu, Hui; Pan, Ling; Hu, Qinghai


    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important duck pathogen and causes serious economic losses to the duck industry worldwide. To date, four full R. anatipestifer genomic sequences have been submitted to the GenBank database and 31 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors, which may play critical roles in host-bacteria interactions, were predicted for R. anatipestifer strain GSM15868. In our previous study, we reported that the TonB-dependent receptor TbdR1 was a cross immunogenic antigen among R. anatipestifer serotypes 1, 2, and 10. However, the biological functions of TbdR1 in R. anatipestifer remain unclear. In the present study, a tbdR1 (Riean_1607) deletion mutant CH3ΔtbdR1 of R. anatipestifer strain CH3 was constructed and characterized for iron-limited growth, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity to ducklings. Our results showed that TbdR1 was involved in hemin iron acquisition and the tbdR1 deletion significantly reduced biofilm formation and adhesion to and invasion of Vero cells. Animal experiments indicated that the median lethal dose of the CH3ΔtbdR1 mutant in ducklings was about 45-fold higher than that of the wild-type CH3 strain. Additional analysis indicated that bacterial loads in blood, liver, and brain tissues in CH3ΔtbdR1-infected ducklings were decreased significantly compared to those in wild-type CH3-infected ducklings. Thus, our results demonstrated that TbdR1 was involved in hemin iron acquisition and necessary for optimal bacterial virulence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Study of Potential Negative Allosteric Modulators of mGluR1 from Chinese Herbs

    Ludi Jiang


    Full Text Available The metabotropic glutamate subtype 1 (mGluR1, a member of the metabotropic glutamate receptors, is a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. However, due to the lower subtype selectivity of mGluR1 orthosteric compounds, a new targeted strategy, known as allosteric modulators research, is needed for the treatment of mGluR1-related diseases. Recently, the structure of the seven-transmembrane domain (7TMD of mGluR1 has been solved, which reveals the binding site of allosteric modulators and provides an opportunity for future subtype-selectivity drug design. In this study, a series of computer-aided drug design methods were utilized to discover potential mGluR1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs. Pharmacophore models were constructed based on three different structure types of mGluR1 NAMs. After validation using the built-in parameters and test set, the optimal pharmacophore model of each structure type was selected and utilized as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD. Then, three different hit lists of compounds were obtained. Molecular docking was used based on the latest crystal structure of mGluR1-7TMD to further filter these hits. As a compound with high QFIT and LibDock Score was preferred, a total of 30 compounds were retained. MD simulation was utilized to confirm the stability of potential compounds binding. From the computational results, thesinine-4ʹ-O-β-d-glucoside, nigrolineaxanthone-P and nodakenin might exhibit negative allosteric moderating effects on mGluR1. This paper indicates the applicability of molecular simulation technologies for discovering potential natural mGluR1 NAMs from Chinese herbs.

  16. Protein conformational exchange measured by 1H R1ρ relaxation dispersion of methyl groups.

    Weininger, Ulrich; Blissing, Annica T; Hennig, Janosch; Ahlner, Alexandra; Liu, Zhihong; Vogel, Hans J; Akke, Mikael; Lundström, Patrik


    Activated dynamics plays a central role in protein function, where transitions between distinct conformations often underlie the switching between active and inactive states. The characteristic time scales of these transitions typically fall in the microsecond to millisecond range, which is amenable to investigations by NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. Processes at the faster end of this range are more challenging to study, because higher RF field strengths are required to achieve refocusing of the exchanging magnetization. Here we describe a rotating-frame relaxation dispersion experiment for (1)H spins in methyl (13)CHD2 groups, which improves the characterization of fast exchange processes. The influence of (1)H-(1)H rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effects (ROE) is shown to be negligible, based on a comparison of R 1ρ relaxation data acquired with tilt angles of 90° and 35°, in which the ROE is maximal and minimal, respectively, and on samples containing different (1)H densities surrounding the monitored methyl groups. The method was applied to ubiquitin and the apo form of calmodulin. We find that ubiquitin does not exhibit any (1)H relaxation dispersion of its methyl groups at 10 or 25 °C. By contrast, calmodulin shows significant conformational exchange of the methionine methyl groups in its C-terminal domain, as previously demonstrated by (1)H and (13)C CPMG experiments. The present R 1ρ experiment extends the relaxation dispersion profile towards higher refocusing frequencies, which improves the definition of the exchange correlation time, compared to previous results.

  17. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    P. Delmolino


    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.


    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.


    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  19. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  20. Comparative performance of fixed-film biological filters: Application of reactor theory

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.


    Nitrification is classified as a two-step consecutive reaction where R1 represents the rate of formation of the intermediate product NO2-N and R2 represents the rate of formation of the final product NO3-N. The relative rates of R1 and R2 are influenced by reactor type characterized hydraulically as plug-flow, plug-flow with dispersion and mixed-flow. We develop substrate conversion models for fixed-film biofilters operating in the first-order kinetic regime based on application of chemical reactor theory. Reactor type, inlet conditions and the biofilm kinetic constants Ki (h-1) are used to predict changes in NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and BOD5. The inhibiting effects of the latter on R1 and R2 were established based on the ?? relation, e.g.:{A formula is presented}where BOD5,max is the concentration that causes nitrification to cease and N is a variable relating Ki to increasing BOD5. Conversion models were incorporated in spreadsheet programs that provided steady-state concentrations of nitrogen and BOD5 at several points in a recirculating aquaculture system operating with input values for fish feed rate, reactor volume, microscreen performance, make-up and recirculating flow rates. When rate constants are standardized, spreadsheet use demonstrates plug-flow reactors provide higher rates of R1 and R2 than mixed-flow reactors thereby reducing volume requirements for target concentrations of NH4-N and NO2-N. The benefit provided by the plug-flow reactor varies with hydraulic residence time t as well as the effective vessel dispersion number, D/??L. Both reactor types are capable of providing net increases in NO2-N during treatment but the rate of decrease in the mixed-flow case falls well behind that predicted for plug-flow operation. We show the potential for a positive net change in NO2-N increases with decreases in the dimensionless ratios K2, (R2 )/K1,( R1 ) and [NO2-N]/[NH4-N] and when the product K1, (R1) t provides low to moderate NH4-N conversions. Maintaining

  1. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors operated under high salinity conditions.

    Ismail, S B; de La Parra, C J; Temmink, H; van Lier, J B


    Considering the importance of stable and well-functioning granular sludge in anaerobic high-rate reactors, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the production and composition of EPS in high sodium concentration wastewaters pertaining to anaerobic granule properties. The UASB reactors were fed with either fully acidified substrate (FAS) consisting of an acetate medium (reactor R1) or partly acidified substrate (PAS) consisting of acetate, gelatine and starch medium (reactors R2, R3, and R4). For EPS extraction, the cation exchange resin (CER) method was used. Strength and particle size distribution were determined by assessing the formation of fines sludge under conditions of high shear rate and by laser diffraction, respectively. Batch tests were performed in 0.25L bottles to study Ca(2+) leaching from anaerobic granular sludge when incubated in 20g Na(+)/L in the absence of feeding for 30 days. Results show a steady increase in the bulk liquid Ca(2+) concentration during the incubation period. UASB reactor results show that the amounts of extracted proteins were higher from reactors R2 and R3, fed with PAS compared to the sludge samples from reactor R1, fed with FAS. Strikingly, the amount of extracted proteins also increased for all reactor sludges, irrespective of the Na(+) concentration applied in the feed, i.e. 10 or 20gNa(+)/L. PAS grown granular sludges showed an important increase in particle size during the operation of the UASB reactors. Results also show that, addition of 1gCa(2+)/L to the high salinity wastewater increases the granules' strength. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki


    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  3. NCoR1-independent mechanism plays a role in the action of the unliganded thyroid hormone receptor.

    Mendoza, Arturo; Astapova, Inna; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Gallop, Molly R; Al-Sowaimel, Lujain; MacGowan, S M Dileas; Bergmann, Tim; Berg, Anders H; Tenen, Danielle E; Jacobs, Christopher; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Tsai, Linus; Hollenberg, Anthony N


    Nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) is considered to be the major corepressor that mediates ligand-independent actions of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) during development and in hypothyroidism. We tested this by expressing a hypomorphic NCoR1 allele (NCoR1ΔID), which cannot interact with the TR, in Pax8-KO mice, which make no thyroid hormone. Surprisingly, abrogation of NCoR1 function did not reverse the ligand-independent action of the TR on many gene targets and did not fully rescue the high mortality rate due to congenital hypothyroidism in these mice. To further examine NCoR1's role in repression by the unliganded TR, we deleted NCoR1 in the livers of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice and examined the effects on gene expression and enhancer activity measured by histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) acetylation. Even in the absence of NCoR1 function, we observed strong repression of more than 43% of positive T3 (3,3',5-triiodothyronine) targets in hypothyroid mice. Regulation of approximately half of those genes correlated with decreased H3K27 acetylation, and nearly 80% of these regions with affected H3K27 acetylation contained a bona fide TRβ1-binding site. Moreover, using liver-specific TRβ1-KO mice, we demonstrate that hypothyroidism-associated changes in gene expression and histone acetylation require TRβ1. Thus, many of the genomic changes mediated by the TR in hypothyroidism are independent of NCoR1, suggesting a role for additional signaling modulators in hypothyroidism.

  4. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Chaouadi, R


    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  5. Impaired associative fear learning in mice with complete loss or haploinsufficiency of AMPA GluR1 receptors

    Michael Feyder


    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA glutamate receptors containing the GluR1 subunit contribute to the molecular mechanisms associated with learning. AMPA GluR1 glutamate receptor knockout mice (KO exhibit abnormal hippocampal and amygdala plasticity, and deficits on various assays for cognition including Pavlovian fear conditioning. Here we examined associative fear learning in mice with complete absence (KO or partial loss (heterozygous mutant, HET of GluR1 on multiple fear conditioning paradigms. After multi-trial delay or trace conditioning, KO displayed impaired tone and context fear recall relative to WT, whereas HET were normal. After one-trial delay conditioning, both KO and HET showed impaired tone and context recall. HET and KO showed normal nociceptive sensitivity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. These data demonstrate that the complete absence of GluR1 subunit-containing receptors prevents the formation of associative fear memories, while GluR1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to impair one-trial fear learning. These findings support growing evidence of a major role for GluR1-containing AMPA receptors in amygdalamediated forms of learning and memory.

  6. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)


    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  7. Mouse oocytes depend on BubR1 for proper chromosome segregation but not for prophase I arrest

    Touati, Sandra A.; Buffin, Eulalie; Cladière, Damien; Hached, Khaled; Rachez, Christophe; van Deursen, Jan M.; Wassmann, Katja


    Mammalian female meiosis is error prone, with rates of meiotic chromosome missegregations strongly increasing towards the end of the reproductive lifespan. A strong reduction of BubR1 has been observed in oocytes of women approaching menopause and in ovaries of aged mice, which led to the hypothesis that a gradual decline of BubR1 contributes to age-related aneuploidization. Here we employ a conditional knockout approach in mouse oocytes to dissect the meiotic roles of BubR1. We show that BubR1 is required for diverse meiotic functions, including persistent spindle assembly checkpoint activity, timing of meiosis I and the establishment of robust kinetochore-microtubule attachments in a meiosis-specific manner, but not prophase I arrest. These data reveal that BubR1 plays a multifaceted role in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and suggest that age-related decline of BubR1 is a key determinant of the formation of aneuploid oocytes as women approach menopause. PMID:25897860

  8. Conflits armés et Environnement : Cadre, modalités, méthodes et rôle de l’Évaluation Environnementale

    Michel-André Bouchard


    Full Text Available Les conflits armés sont source de catastrophes majeures pour l’environnement. Dans les années 60, la défoliation de la jungle vietnamienne par l’armée américaine a interpellé la conscience collective sur la protection de l’environnement en situation de conflit armé (Pearce, 2000. La guerre du Golfe de 1990-1991, avec l’utilisation des armes à l’uranium appauvri et l’incendie des puits de pétrole a fait de la protection de l’environnement lors des conflits armés une préoccupation internationale. Des dispositions juridiques et réglementaires du droit international interdisent et limitent les actions néfastes sur l’environnement en temps de guerre. Au nombre de ces dispositions, il y a la Convention ENMOD de 1976, le Protocole I de Genève de 1977 et les Directives de la Croix-Rouge pour la formation des forces armées (1996. La difficulté de mise en œuvre de ces instruments est l’une des causes principales de l’exacerbation et de la persistance des impacts environnementaux des conflits armés. Un bref aperçu des travaux effectués dans ce domaine montre que cette question est jusque-là abordée sous un angle purement théorique, empirique et descriptif (causes, manifestations et typologies des conflits. Et, contrairement aux autres domaines de connaissances (scientifiques, économistes, juristes, universitaires, les spécialistes de l’évaluation environnementale se sont à ce jour peu intéressés à cette question.L’analyse des impacts environnementaux permet de dresser une typologie axée sur les trois grandes phases de déroulement des conflits armés: pré-conflit, syn-conflit et post-conflit. S’y ajoutent les impacts « collatéraux » qui se poursuivent même pendant la phase post-conflit.L’article analyse l’applicabilité de la procédure d’Evaluation Environnementale (EE et d’Evaluation Environnementale Stratégique (EES en distinguant les différentes phases des conflits armés et en

  9. Operation of Reactor


    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  10. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    Lanin, Anatoly


    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  11. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Schock, Alfred


    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  12. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.


    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  13. Deacetylation of the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1 at lysine 250 by SIRT2 and subsequent effects on BubR1 degradation during the prometaphase/anaphase transition.

    Suematsu, Tomohisa; Li, Yanze; Kojima, Hirotada; Nakajima, Koichi; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Inoue, Toshiaki


    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death that occurs during mitosis and after mitotic slippage to a tetraploid state, plays an important role in the efficacy of cancer cell killing by microtubule inhibitors. Prolonged mitotic arrest at the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a well-known requirement for mitotic catastrophe and, thus, for conferring sensitivity to microtubule inhibitors. We previously reported that downregulation of SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, confers resistance to microtubule inhibitors by abnormally prolonging mitotic arrest and thus compromising the cell death pathway after mitotic slippage. Thus, turning off SAC activation after a defined period is an additional requirement for efficient post-slippage death. Here, we investigated whether SIRT2 deacetylates BubR1, which is a core component of the SAC; acetylation of BubR1 at lysine 250 (K250) during prometaphase inhibits its APC/C-dependent proteolysis and thus regulates timing in anaphase entry. We showed that SIRT2 deacetylates BubR1 K250 both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that SIRT2 knockdown leads to increased levels of BubR1 acetylation at prometaphase; however, this increase is not substantial to elevate the levels of total BubR1 or delay the transition from prometaphase to anaphase. The present study shows that SIRT2 is a deacetylase for BubR1 K250, although the abnormally prolonged SAC activation observed in SIRT2 knockdown cells is not accompanied by a change in BubR1 levels or by delayed progression from prometaphase to anaphase.

  14. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Slavnić Danijela S.


    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  15. Fault detection of sensors in nuclear reactors using self-organizing maps

    Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Tiago, Graziela Marchi [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this work a Fault Detection System was developed based on the self-organizing maps methodology. This method was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN using a database generated by a theoretical model of the reactor. The IEA-R1 research reactor is a pool type reactor of 5 MW, cooled and moderated by light water, and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector. The theoretical model was developed using the Matlab Guide toolbox. The equations are based in the IEA-R1 mass and energy inventory balance and physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. In order to test the model ability for fault detection, faults were artificially produced. As the value of the maximum calibration error for special thermocouples is +- 0.5 deg C, it had been inserted faults in the sensor signals with the purpose to produce the database considered in this work. The results show a high percentage of correct classification, encouraging the use of the technique for this type of industrial application. (author)

  16. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  17. Reactor Materials Research

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  18. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M


    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  19. Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn


    Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

  20. Genome of Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, a specialized diazotrophic endophyte of tropical grasses.

    Fábio O Pedrosa


    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme--GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.

  1. Imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    Borisov, Galin; Bagnulo, Stefano; Nikolov, Plamen; Bonev, Tanyu


    We have obtained imaging polarimetry of the comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) with 2-Channel-Focal-Reducer Rozhen instrument at 2m Ritchey-Chrétien-Coudé telescope of the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen in two dust continuum filters covering wavelength intervals clear from molecular emissions and centred at 4430 Å in blue filter and at 6840 Å in red filter. In imaging mode we measured the degree of linear polarisation 17.01±0.09% in the blue and 18.81±0.02% in the red, which is in a very good agreement with measurements of other comets at the similar phase angle. We have also obtained polarisation maps in both filters. We found a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of the polarisation and the dust colour. Spectropolarimetry of the nucleus region shows an increase of the polarisation with wavelength, and a depolarisation in the spectral regions with gas emission lines, most noticeable in C2 emission band, which shows a polarisation of 6.0±1.1%.

  2. Imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    Borisov, Galin; Nikolov, Plamen; Bonev, Tanyu


    We have obtained imaging polarimetry of the comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) with 2-Channel-Focal-Reducer Rozhen instrument at 2m Ritchey-Chr\\'etien-Coud\\'e telescope of the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen in two dust continuum filters covering wavelength intervals clear from molecular emissions and centred at $4430\\AA$ in (blue filter) and at $6840\\AA$ in (red filter). In imaging mode we measured the degree of linear polarisation $17.01\\pm0.09$% in the blue and $18.81\\pm0.02$% in the red, which is in a very good agreement with measurements of other comets at the similar phase angle. We have also obtained polarisation maps in both filters. We found a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of the polarisation and the dust colour. Spectropolarimetry of the nucleus region shows an increase of the polarisation with wavelength, and a depolarisation in the spectral regions with gas emission lines, most noticeable in C$_2$ emission band, which shows a polarisation of $6.0\\pm1.1$%.

  3. Atlas of products for wave-Sobolev spaces on $\\mathbf R^{1+3}$

    D'Ancona, Piero; Selberg, Sigmund


    The wave-Sobolev spaces $H^{s,b}$ are $L^2$-based Sobolev spaces on the Minkowski space-time $\\R^{1+n}$, with Fourier weights are adapted to the symbol of the d'Alembertian. They are a standard tool in the study of regularity properties of nonlinear wave equations, and in such applications the need arises for product estimates in these spaces. Unfortunately, it seems that with every new application some estimates come up which have not yet appeared in the literature, and then one has to resort to a set of well-established procedures for proving the missing estimates. To relieve the tedium of having to constantly fill in such gaps "by hand", we make here a systematic effort to determine the complete set of estimates in the bilinear case. We determine a set of necessary conditions for a product estimate $H^{s_1,b_1} \\cdot H^{s_2,b_2} \\hookrightarrow H^{-s_0,-b_0}$ to hold. These conditions define a polyhedron $\\Omega$ in the space $\\R^6$ of exponents $(s_0,s_1,s_2,b_0,b_1,b_2)$. We then show, in space dimension...

  4. Bandlike electrical transport in P r1 -xC axMn O3 manganites

    Kadyrov, L. S.; Zhang, T.; Zhukova, E. S.; Anzin, V. B.; Trotsenko, V. G.; Torgashev, V. I.; Dressel, M.; Gorshunov, B. P.


    The conductivity and dielectric permittivity spectra of polycrystalline manganites P r1 -xC axMn O3 with x =0.3 , 0.4, and 0.5 have been measured in a broad frequency range (5 -3000 c m-1 ) down to low temperatures. From the dispersion analysis the existence of a Drude component can be established that is associated with small polarons coherently moving within a band several meV wide. The temperature-dependent conductivity shows an activated behavior with an activation energy of approximately 165 meV above 170 K and 4.8 meV below 120 K. The change in the activation energy is assigned to the onset of magnetic order at 120 K. In all three samples an absorption band is discovered at 40 -60 c m-1 that is associated with the transition between Stark-split P r3 + electron states which gain optical activity due to coupling to acoustical phonons.

  5. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  6. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Cloning and Function Analysis of Transcription Factor Gene NtGRAS-R1 from Nicotiana tabacum L.%烟草转录因子基因NtGRAS-R1的克隆与功能分析

    李富欣; 许芳芳; 李素敏; 肖万福; 孙艳敏; 刘卫群; 郭红祥


    为了分析NtGRAS-R1的生物学功能,在NCBI上BLAST植物的EST数据库拼接获得Nt-GRAS-R1的全长序列;根据该序列设计特异引物,利用PCR方法从烟草根系cDNA 中扩增Nt-GRAS-R1,将其连接到pS1300表达载体上,采用农杆菌介导的花序侵染法转化拟南芥,采用RT-PCR法检测转基因拟南芥植株;获得稳定转基因拟南芥后观察生长性状,并用qPCR方法检测At-CLV3基因的表达情况。结果显示,NtGRAS-R1基因属于HAM亚家族,编码508个氨基酸;观察发现,转基因拟南芥植株根长和根体积明显大于野生型;qPCR结果表明,转基因拟南芥AtCLV3的表达量明显低于野生型拟南芥。初步表明NtGRAS-R1参与根系生长发育调控过程。%The aim of this research is to explore the function of NtGRAS-R1 . The full-length sequence of NtGRAS-R1 was acquired with in silico cloning method. The ORF fragment of NtGRAS-R1 was obtained with PCR amplification method, and then pS1300-NtGRAS-R1 expression vector was constructed. Transgenic Arabidopsis with NtGRAS-R1 was obtained with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated floral dip transformation method. RT-PCR was used to identify transgenic plants. The phenotypic of transgenic Arabidopsis was observed, and the expression of AtCLV3 was detected with qPCR method. The results showed that NtGRAS-R1 belonged to HAM subfamily,having an ORF of 1 527 bp to encode a protein of 508 amino acids. Compared to wild type plants, the root length and volume of transgenic Arabidopsis obviously increased. The expression of AtCLV3 in transgenic Arabidopsis was lower than wild type plant. In the present study, NtGRAS-R1 was successfully cloned, and the phenotypic analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis shows that NtGRAS-R1 has a role in the process of tobacco roots growth and development.

  8. Reactor operation safety information document


    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  9. Longitudinal T1 relaxation rate (R1) captures changes in short-term Mn exposure in welders.

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Flynn, Michael R; Lee, Eun-Young; Van Buren, Scott; Van Buren, Eric; Du, Guangwei; Fry, Rebecca C; Herring, Amy H; Kong, Lan; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei


    We demonstrated recently that the T1 relaxation rate (R1) captured short-term Mn exposure in welders with chronic, relatively low exposure levels in a cross-sectional study. In the current study, we used a longitudinal design to examine whether R1 values reflect the short-term dynamics of Mn exposure. Twenty-nine welders were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Occupational questionnaires estimated short-term welding exposure using welding hours in the 90days prior to each study visit (HrsW90). In addition, blood Mn levels, the pallidal index (PI; globus pallidus T1-weighted intensity (T1WI)/frontal white matter T1WI), and R1 values in brain regions of interest (ROIs) were determined as Mn biomarkers at each visit. Associations between changes in estimated welding exposure and changes in purported Mn biomarkers were assessed by Spearman's correlations with adjustment for age and baseline R1, HrsW90, and blood Mn values. Changes in welding hours (HrsW90: the short-term welding exposure estimate), was associated significantly with changes in R1 values in the putamen (r=0.541, p=0.005), caudate (R=0.453, p=0.023), globus pallidus (R=0.430, p=0.032), amygdala (R=0.461, p=0.020), and hippocampus (R=0.447, p=0.025), but not with changes in blood Mn levels or the PI. Changes in R1 values correlated with changes in the short-term welding exposure estimate, but not with more traditional measures of Mn exposure (blood Mn levels or PI). These results suggest that R1 may serve as a useful marker to capture the short-term dynamics in Mn brain accumulation related to welding exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.


    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.


    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.


    King, L.D.P.


    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.


    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.


    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  14. Fusion reactor materials



    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  15. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.


    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  16. The First Reactor.

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  17. Thermal Reactor Safety


    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  18. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.


    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  19. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.


    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  20. Brazilian multipurpose reactor



    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  1. A Genetic Screen To Assess Dopamine Receptor (DopR1 Dependent Sleep Regulation in Drosophila

    Yiqin Jiang


    Full Text Available Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here, we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilizes DopR in daytime sleep regulation. These data are supported by multiple examples of spatially restricted genetic rescue data in discrete circuits of the mushroom body, as well as immunohistochemistry that corroborates the localization of DopR protein within mushroom body circuits. Independent loss of function data using an inducible RNAi construct in the same specific circuits also supports a requirement for DopR in daytime sleep. Additional circuit activation of discrete DopR+ mushroom body neurons also suggests roles for these subpopulations in sleep behavior. These conclusions support a new separable function for DopR in daytime sleep regulation within the mushroom body. This daytime regulation is independent of the known role of DopR in nighttime sleep, which is regulated within the Fan-Shaped Body (FSB. This study provides new neuroanatomical loci for exploration of dopaminergic sleep functions in Drosophila, and expands our understanding of sleep regulation during the day vs. night.

  2. Clinicopathologic findings in (anti-FcepsilonR1alpha) autoimmune-related chronic urticaria.

    Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Kasprowicz, Sarah; Schafer, Ewa; Story, Rachel; Clarke, Michael S; Walls, Timothy; Snyder, Vivian; Gleason, Briana C; Thomas, Antoinette B; Cibull, Thomas


    One cause of chronic urticaria is autoreactivity which is diagnosed by detecting autoantibodies against the IgE receptor alpha subunit (anti-Fc R1alpha). To compare the histopathologic features of chronic urticaria patients testing positive for anti-IgE receptor antibody (Ab) to those testing negative. Totally, 438 patients with a clinical presentation of chronic urticaria (2011-2013) had anti-IgE receptor Ab tested and 37 of those patients had skin biopsy. We evaluated microscopic features including: spongiosis, dermal edema, presence of mast cells, density of lymphocytic infiltration, predomination of eosinophils/neutrophils; intravascular neutrophils and presence of vasculitis. The aforementioned features were compared between negative and positive anti-IgE receptor Ab groups. Of 37 patients , 69% were women and 31% were men. 49% had positive anti-IgE receptor Ab and 51% had negative anti-IgE receptor Ab. In the positive anti-IgE receptor Ab group, 83% showed intravascular neutrophils. Eosinophil predominance was identified in 72% and neutrophil predominance was identified in 28%. In the negative anti-IgE receptor Ab group, 89% showed intravascular neutrophils. Eosinophil predominance was identified in 53% and neutrophil predominance was identified in 47%. There was no evidence of vasculitis in either group. There were no significant histopathologic differences between the anti-IgE receptor Ab positive and negative cases. Therefore, serum testing for anti-IgE receptor Ab is required to identify this subgroup of chronic urticaria patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G


    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  4. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Roth, R. J.


    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  5. Sinorhizobium meliloti CpdR1 is critical for co-ordinating cell cycle progression and the symbiotic chronic infection.

    Kobayashi, Hajime; De Nisco, Nicole J; Chien, Peter; Simmons, Lyle A; Walker, Graham C


    ATP-driven proteolysis plays a major role in regulating the bacterial cell cycle, development and stress responses. In the nitro -fixing symbiosis with host plants, Sinorhizobium meliloti undergoes a profound cellular differentiation, including endoreduplication of the ome. The regulatory mechanisms governing the alterations of the S. meliloti cell cycle in planta are largely unknown. Here, we report the characterization of two cpdR homologues, cpdR1 and cpdR2, of S. meliloti that encode single-domain response regulators. In Caulobacter crescentus, CpdR controls the polar localization of the ClpXP protease, thereby mediating the regulated proteolysis of key protein(s), such as CtrA, involved in cell cycle progression. The S. meliloti cpdR1-null mutant can invade the host cytoplasm, however, the intracellular bacteria are unable to differentiate into bacteroids. We show that S. meliloti CpdR1 has a polar localization pattern and a role in ClpX positioning similar to C. crescentus CpdR, suggesting a conserved function of CpdR proteins among alpha-proteobacteria. However, in S. meliloti, free-living cells of the cpdR1-null mutant show a striking morphology of irregular coccoids and aberrant DNA replication. Thus, we demonstrate that CpdR1 mediates the co-ordination of cell cycle events, which are critical for both the free-living cell division and the differentiation required for the chronic intracellular infection.

  6. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration.

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo


    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications.

  7. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Bowden, N. S.


    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  8. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.


    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  9. Computer Measuring and Controlling System for Temperature Field at R1/R2 Test Section in ESPRESSO Loop

    ZHAO; Fei; WU; Chun-liang; SHEN; Feng-yang; GU; Chun-xing


    <正>ESPRESSO loop was the one of the sodium loops imported from Italy by the Fast Reactor of the China Institute of Atomic Energy, which would do necessary sodium experiments for developing core (include fuel rod assemblies, control rod assemblies) or for testing before domestic and foreign components into the reactor, i.e., the high temperature durability test, and the thermal shock test to test the

  10. Photoprotection of Skin Fibroblasts from Uitraviolet Radiation by Notoginsenoside R1%三七皂苷R1对UV辐射皮肤成纤维细胞的影响

    谢璟; 何黎; 郝萍; 万屏


    Objective To observe the photoprotection of notoginsenoside R1 on fibroblasts after UVB and UVA irradiation and to explore the relative molecular mechanism. Methods Fibroblasts were obtained from human skin. The cells were irradiated with different dosages of UV and treated with notoginsenoside R1. The damage of fibroblasts was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope. Cellular proliferation activity was detected by MTT method. The hy-droxyproline amount in the culture supernatant was measured by colorimetric method, and the level of matrix metal-loproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secreted by fibroblasts was measured with ELISA kits. Results The irradiation damage degree of the cells was dependent with the irradiated dose. The number and morphology of the cells remained normal when they were pretreated with notoginsenoside R1. The activity of proliferation of fibroblasts irradiated by UV was increased and MMP-1 protein secretion level was suppressed when the dose of notoginsenoside R1 was 5 μg· mL-1 and 20 μg· mL-1. Conclusion UVA and UVB irradiation can induce obvious damage to fibroblasts of human skin. Notoginsenoside R1 protects the damage of fibroblasts from UV irradiation.%目的 探讨三七皂苷R1对UV诱导的人皮肤成纤维细胞的保护作用及其相关分子机制.方法 采用不同剂量UV照射原代培养的人皮肤成纤维细胞,同时加入三七皂苷R1干预处理,倒置相差显微镜观察细胞损伤的形态学变化,并用MTT法检测其增殖活性,比色法检测成纤维细胞培养上清中羟脯氨酸的含量,ELISA法检测成纤维细胞MMP-1蛋白水平.结果 UVB、UVA辐射成纤维细胞后,细胞损伤程度呈剂量依赖性,加入三七皂苷R1后,体外培养成纤维细胞未出现明显的数量上和形态学改变;三七皂苷R1浓度为5,20 μg·mL-1时经UV照射的FB细胞增殖活性增加;三七皂苷R1浓度为5,20 μg· mL-1时抑制MMP-1的分泌.结论 UVB、UVA辐射对皮肤成纤维细胞具有明

  11. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  12. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor

    Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: mrgual@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, InSTEC, Avenida Salvador Allende y Luaces, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza de la Revolucion, Havana, AP 6163 (Cuba); Milian, Felix M. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, IF-USP, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, no. 187, Ciudade Universitaria, Butanta, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, Paulo R.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)


    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation.

  13. Cloning and characterization of XiR1, a locus responsible for dagger nematode resistance in grape.

    Hwang, Chin-Feng; Xu, Kenong; Hu, Rong; Zhou, Rita; Riaz, Summaira; Walker, M Andrew


    The dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, feeds aggressively on grape roots and in the process, vectors grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) leading to the severe viral disease known as fanleaf degeneration. Resistance to X. index and GFLV has been the key objective of grape rootstock breeding programs. A previous study found that resistance to X. index derived from Vitis arizonica was largely controlled by a major quantitative trait locus, XiR1 (X. index Resistance 1), located on chromosome 19. The study presented here develops high-resolution genetic and physical maps in an effort to identify the XiR1 gene(s). The mapping was carried out with 1,375 genotypes in three populations derived from D8909-15, a resistant selection from a cross of V. rupestris A. de Serres (susceptible) x V. arizonica b42-26 (resistant). Resistance to X. index was evaluated on 99 informative recombinants that were identified by screening the three populations with two markers flanking the XiR1 locus. The high-resolution genetic map of XiR1 was primarily constructed with seven DNA markers developed in this study. Physical mapping of XiR1 was accomplished by screening three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries constructed from D8909-15, V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon and V. arizonica b42-26. A total of 32 BAC clones were identified and the XiR1 locus was delineated within a 115 kb region. Sequence analysis of three BAC clones identified putative nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) genes. This is the first report of a closely linked major gene locus responsible for ectoparasitic nematode resistance. The markers developed from this study are being used to expedite the breeding of resistant grape rootstocks.

  14. MicroRNA miR-1 is up-regulated in remote myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Bostjancic, E; Zidar, N; Stajner, D; Glavac, D


    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNA molecules that mediate regulation of gene expression, thus affecting a variety of physiological, developmental and pathological conditions. They are believed to be new promising therapeutic targets. In recent studies two muscle-specific microRNAs were discovered to contribute to heart diseases and development: miR-1 and miR-133, but there is little data on their expression patterns in human myocardial infarction. We performed simultaneous expression analysis of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b in samples of infarcted tissue and remote myocardium from twenty- four patients with acute myocardial infarction. MicroRNA expression was analysed using quantitative real-time PCR and compared to the expression patterns in myocardium of eight healthy adults who died in accidents. We found ~3.8-fold miR-1 up-regulation in remote myocardium when compared to infarcted tissue or healthy adult hearts. As miR-1 has been shown in animal models and clinical studies to contribute to arrhythmogenesis by regulating pacemaker channel genes, our finding of miR-1 up-regulation in patients with myocardial infarction indicates that it might be responsible for the higher risk for arrhythmias in these patients. In addition, miR-133a/b down-regulation in infarcted tissue and remote myocardium was observed, indicating miR-133a/b involvement in the heart response to myocardial infarction. We conclude that miR-1 and miR-133 seem to be important regulators of heart adaptation after ischaemic stress.

  15. Chloroform extract of hog barn dust modulates skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR1)

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Fenster, Danielle S.; Mixan, Mark; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.


    Skeletal muscle weakness is a reported ailment in individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities. To date, specific mechanisms responsible for this symptom remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to assess whether hog barn dust (HBD) contains components that are capable of binding to and modulating the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel (RyR1), a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. HBD collected from confinement facilities in Nebraska were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and rotary evaporated to dryness. Residues were resuspended in hexane-chloroform (20:1) and precipitates, referred to as HBDorg, were air-dried and studied further. In competition assays, HBDorg dose-dependently displaced [3H]ryanodine from binding sites on RyR1 with an IC50 of 1.5 ± 0.1 μg/ml (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.0 μg/ml). In single-channel assays using RyR1 reconstituted into a lipid bilayer, HBDorg exhibited three distinct dose-dependent effects: first it increased the open probability of RyR1 by increasing its gating frequency and dwell time in the open state, then it induced a state of reduced conductance (55% of maximum) that was more likely to occur and persist at positive holding potentials, and finally it irreversibly closed RyR1. In differentiated C2C12 myotubes, addition of HBD triggered a rise in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by pretreatment with ryanodine. Since persistent activation and/or closure of RyR1 results in skeletal muscle weakness, these new data suggest that HBD is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle ailment reported by hog confinement workers. PMID:20576841

  16. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio


    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  17. Developing new PET tracers to image the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a).

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Shimoda, Yoko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Zhang, Yiding; Hatori, Akiko; Xie, Lin; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kumata, Katsushi; Ohkubo, Takayuki; Kurihara, Yusuke; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong


    `The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, and its endogenous ligand is ghrelin. GHS-R1a contributes to regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory and learning, food addiction, and neuroprotection. Several PET tracers for GHS-R1a have been developed, but none have been reported to be clinically applicable to GHS-R1a imaging. In this study, we developed three new PET tracers for GHS-R1a: (18)F-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), (11)C-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-methoxyethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (2), and (11)C-labeled (S)-(4-(1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methanone (3). [(18)F]1 was synthesized by the (18)F-fluoroethylation; [(11)C]2 or [(11)C]3 was synthesized by the (11)C-methylation. Biodistribution studies and PET studies were conducted in mice. We successfully radiosynthesized [(18)F]1, [(11)C]2, and [(11)C]3 with appropriate radioactivity for the animal study. In the ex vivo biodistribution study, 60min following injection, the radioactivity level of [(18)F]1 was relatively high in the small intestine, that of [(11)C]2 was high in the liver, and that of [(11)C]3 was high in the pancreas. The radioactivity levels of the three PET tracers were relatively low in the brain. Under pretreatment with YIL781 (a selective and high affinity antagonist for GHS-R1a), the pancreas radioactivity level at 30min following [(11)C]3 injection was significantly reduced to 55% of control, but the radioactivity in the brain was not changed. In the PET study under control conditions, high radioactivity levels in the liver and pancreas were observed following [(11)C]3 injection. With YIL781 pretreatment, the accumulated radioactivity in the pancreas 15-60min after [(11)C]3 injection was significantly decreased to 78% of control. [(11)C]3 exhibited relatively high uptake

  18. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G;


    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  19. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay system to investigate ligand/AdipoR1 interactions that lead to cellular signaling.

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p. The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are

  20. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assay System to Investigate Ligand/AdipoR1 Interactions That Lead to Cellular Signaling

    Aouida, Mustapha


    Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc) activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc) in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p). The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides\\' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are homologous to

  1. Regulation of Fear Extinction in the Basolateral Amygdala by Dopamine D2 Receptors Accompanied by Altered GluR1, GluR1-Ser845 and NR2B Levels.

    Shi, Yan-Wei; Fan, Bu-Fang; Xue, Li; Wen, Jia-Ling; Zhao, Hu


    The amygdala, a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervation and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of a previously learned fear, appears to require the dopaminergic system. The specific roles of D2 receptors in mediating associative learning underlying fear extinction require further study. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusions of a D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and a D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, prior to fear extinction and extinction retention were tested 24 h after fear extinction training for long-term memory (LTM). LTM was facilitated by quinpirole and attenuated by sulpiride. In addition, A-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit, GluR1 phospho-Ser845, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor NR2B subunit levels in the BLA were generally increased by quinpirole and down-regulated by sulpiride. The present study suggests that activation of D2 receptors facilitates fear extinction and that blockade of D2 receptors impairs fear extinction, accompanied by changes in GluR1, GluR1-Ser845 and NR2B levels in the amygdala.

  2. RSK1 protects P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 against ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation by downregulating the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Chiaki; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu


    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a critical determinant of multidrug resistance in cancer. We previously reported that MAPK inhibition downregulates P-gp expression and that P-gp undergoes ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation regulated by UBE2R1 and SCFFbx15. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between MAPK inhibition and the ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation of P-gp. Proteasome inhibitors or knockdown of FBXO15 and/or UBE2R1 cancelled MEK inhibitor-induced P-gp downregulation. RSK1 phosphorylated Thr162 on UBE2R1 but did not phosphorylate FBXO15. MEK and RSK inhibitors increased UBE2R1-WT but not UBE2R1-T162D and -T162A expression. UBE2R1-T162D showed higher self-ubiquitination and destabilisation than UBE2R1-WT and -T162A. Unlike UBE2R1-WT and -T162A, UBE2R1-T162D did not induce P-gp ubiquitination. UBE2R1-WT or -T162A downregulated P-gp expression and upregulated rhodamine 123 level and sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. However, UBE2R1-T162D did not confer any change in P-gp expression, rhodamine 123 accumulation and sensitivity to the drugs. These results suggest that RSK1 protects P-gp against ubiquitination by reducing UBE2R1 stability. PMID:27786305

  3. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L


    as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may...

  4. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN. Geneva


    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.


    Wheeler, J.A.


    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Reactors.

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong


    Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system.

  7. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...


    Greenstreet, B.L.


    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  9. 利用酿酒酵母R1再生废轮胎橡胶的研究%Preliminary study of the reclaimation of ground tyre rubber by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R1

    陶子溢; 王雅琴; 赵素合; 李元虎


    The yeast species S. Cerevisiae R1 has the capability to recycle waste rubber. However the many toxic additives in rubber have a significant inhibiting effect on the growth of S. Cerevisiae R1, as shown by our toxicity tests. Ethanol leaching of the rubber material can remove some of these toxic additives, reducing the adverse impact on the growth of the microorganism. After 132 hours of regeneration, a remarkable decrease in crosslink density, increase in swelling ratio(4. 6% ) , and better physical properties were observed for the resulting styrene butadiene rubber/devulcanized ground tyre rubber (SBR/DGTR) blend, compared with the corresponding values for untreated SBR/GTR. Scanning electron microscopy images of SBR/DGTR also showed an improvement in interfacial binding force and good adhesion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that there was no obvious change in carbon content, but the content of sulfur decreased markedly(23. 86% ) , indicative of a significant desulfurization effect.%通过毒性实验分析了废轮胎橡胶( GTR)主要组分对酿酒酵母(S.cerevisiae)R1生长的影响,并用乙醇解毒,减少其对S.cerevisiae R1的抑制作用.经132 h再生后,30份再生GTR填充到丁苯橡胶(SBR)基体中的力学性能均好于未经S.cerevisiae R1再生的硫化橡胶,其溶胀值增加4.6%,交联密度下降,撕裂强度提高了26%.再生GTR与SBR界面接触良好,XPS测试显示C元素基本不变,S元素质量分数降低了23.86%,具有显著的脱硫效果.


    Heckman, T.P.


    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  11. The OPAL reactor

    Miller, R.; Irwin, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Ordonez, J.P. [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)


    The project to provide a replacement for Australia's HIFAR reactor began with governmental approval in September 1997 and reached its latest milestone with the achievement of the first full power operation of the OPAL reactor in November 2006. OPAL is a pool-type reactor with a thermal power of 20 MW and a fuel enrichment maximum of 20 per cent. This has been a successful project for both ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and the contractor INVAP SE. This project was characterised by extensive interaction with the project's stake-holders during project definition and the use of a performance-based turnkey contract which gave the contractor the maximum opportunity to optimise the design to achieve performance and cost effectiveness. The contactor provided significant in-house resources as well as capacity to manage an international team of suppliers and sub-contractors. A key contributor to the project's successful outcomes has been the development and maintenance of an excellent working relationship between ANSTO and INVAP project teams. Commissioning was undertaken in accordance with the IAEA recommended stages. This paper presents the approaches used to define the project requirements, to choose the supplier and to deliver the project. The main results of hot commissioning are reviewed and the problems encountered examined. Operational experience since hot commissioning is also reviewed.

  12. Attenuated Pik3r1 Expression Prevents Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Macrophage Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    McCurdy, Carrie E.; Schenk, Simon; Holliday, Michael J.; Philp, Andrew; Houck, Julie A.; Patsouris, David; MacLean, Paul S.; Majka, Susan M.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Friedman, Jacob E.


    Obese white adipose tissue (AT) is characterized by large-scale infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages, in parallel with systemic insulin resistance; however, the cellular stimulus that initiates this signaling cascade and chemokine release is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunits on AT macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. Here, we find that the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (i.e., p85α/p55α/p50α) are highly induced in AT from high-fat diet–fed obese mice, concurrent with insulin resistance. Global heterozygous deletion of the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (αHZ), but not knockout of Pik3r2 (p85β), preserves whole-body, AT, and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, despite severe obesity. Moreover, ATM accumulation, proinflammatory gene expression, and ex vivo chemokine secretion in obese αHZ mice are markedly reduced despite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Furthermore, bone marrow transplant studies reveal that these improvements in obese αHZ mice are independent of reduced Pik3r1 expression in the hematopoietic compartment. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Pik3r1 expression plays a critical role in mediating AT insulin sensitivity and, more so, suggest that reduced PI3K activity is a key step in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in obese AT. PMID:22698915

  13. Pharmacological properties of homomeric and heteromeric GluR1o and GluR3o receptors

    Nielsen, B S; Banke, T G; Schousboe, A


    Homomeric and heteromeric alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1o and GluR3o were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Membranes containing the recombinant receptors showed a doublet of bands of the expected size (99-109 kDa) after...

  14. Investigation of signal transduction routes within the sensor/transducer protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Staude, Michael W; Frederick, Thomas E; Natarajan, Sivanandam V; Wilson, Brian D; Tanner, Carol E; Ruggiero, Steven T; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W


    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [Fisher, J. F., Meroueh, S. O., and Mobashery, S. (2005) Chem. Rev. 105, 395-424; Llarrull, L. I., Fisher, J. F., and Mobashery, S. (2009) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4051-4063; Llarrull, L. I., Toth, M., Champion, M. M., and Mobashery, S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 38148-38158]. Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β-lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1.

  15. Mouse oocytes depend on BubR1 for proper chromosome segregation but not for prophase I arrest

    Touati, S.A.; Buffin, E.; Cladiere, D.; Hached, K.; Rachez, C.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Wassmann, K.


    Mammalian female meiosis is error prone, with rates of meiotic chromosome missegregations strongly increasing towards the end of the reproductive lifespan. A strong reduction of BubR1 has been observed in oocytes of women approaching menopause and in ovaries of aged mice, which led to the hypothesis

  16. Normas do Teste de Inteligência Não Verbal R-1 para adultos não alfabetizados

    Maria Olinda Gottsfritz


    Full Text Available The R-1: Non-Verbal Intelligence Test is a Brazilian test to measure general intelligence. It was created to assess future drivers. However, the last published test manual does not have standards for illiterate adults. This study was designed to establish norms in the R-1 Test among illiterate adults and to present an analysis of frequencies of success for each item. The sample was composed by 151 adults, aged from 16 to 77 years of both sexes, enrolled in literacy courses in São Paulo city. The R-1 Test was collectively administered, with no time limits. Results indicated that illiterate adult’s means were lower than more educated people, confirming that education influences intelligence test scores, as it was suggested by literature. A comparison of the relative frequencies of passing individual items between the illiterate group and the more educated sample, revealed that items presented the same relative difficulty to both, although success percentages were lower for the illiterate group.   Keywords: R-1 Test; illiteracy; intellectual development; intelligence tests.

  17. Efficient bioremediation of radioactive iodine using biogenic gold nanomaterial-containing radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Choi, Mi Hee; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Shim, Ha Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Mushtaq, Sajid; Choi, Dae Seong; Jang, Beom-Su; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, Yong Jun; Jeon, Jongho


    We herein report a new bioremediation method using a radiation-resistant bacterium. Biogenic gold nanomaterial-containing Deinococcus radiodurans R1 showed excellent capability for the removal of radioactive iodine (>99%) in several aqueous solutions. These observations demonstrated that our remediation system would be efficiently applied to the treatment of radioactive wastes.

  18. Mouse oocytes depend on BubR1 for proper chromosome segregation but not for prophase I arrest

    Touati, S.A.; Buffin, E.; Cladiere, D.; Hached, K.; Rachez, C.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Wassmann, K.


    Mammalian female meiosis is error prone, with rates of meiotic chromosome missegregations strongly increasing towards the end of the reproductive lifespan. A strong reduction of BubR1 has been observed in oocytes of women approaching menopause and in ovaries of aged mice, which led to the hypothesis

  19. Eclipse period of R1 plasmids during downshift from elevated copy number: Nonrandom selection of copies for replication.

    Olsson, Jan A; Berg, Otto; Nordström, Kurt; Dasgupta, Santanu


    The classical Meselson-Stahl density-shift method was used to study replication of pOU71, a runaway-replication derivative of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli. The miniplasmid maintained the normal low copy number of R1 during steady growth at 30°C, but as growth temperatures were raised above 34°C, the copy number of the plasmid increased to higher levels, and at 42°C, it replicated without control in a runaway replication mode with lethal consequences for the host. The eclipse periods (minimum time between successive replication of the same DNA) of the plasmid shortened with rising copy numbers at increasing growth temperatures (Olsson et al., 2003). In this work, eclipse periods were measured during downshifts in copy number of pOU71 after it had replicated at 39 and 42°C, resulting in 7- and 50-fold higher than normal plasmid copy number per cell, respectively. Eclipse periods for plasmid replication, measured during copy number downshift, suggested that plasmid R1, normally selected randomly for replication, showed a bias such that a newly replicated DNA had a higher probability of replication compared to the bulk of the R1 population. However, even the unexpected nonrandom replication followed the copy number kinetics such that every generation, the plasmids underwent the normal inherited number of replication, n, independent of the actual number of plasmid copies in a newborn cell.

  20. Pik3r1 Is Required for Glucocorticoid-Induced Perilipin 1 Phosphorylation in Lipid Droplet for Adipocyte Lipolysis.

    Kuo, Taiyi; Chen, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Rebecca A; Nguyen, Nguyen Huynh Thao; Broughton, Augusta E; Zhang, Danyun; Wang, Jen-Chywan


    Glucocorticoids promote lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) to adapt to energy demands under stress, whereas superfluous lipolysis causes metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Glucocorticoid-induced lipolysis requires the phosphorylation of cytosolic hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (Plin1) in the lipid droplet by protein kinase A (PKA). We previously identified Pik3r1 (also called p85α) as a glucocorticoid receptor target gene. Here, we found that glucocorticoids increased HSL phosphorylation, but not Plin1 phosphorylation, in adipose tissue-specific Pik3r1-null (AKO) mice. Furthermore, in lipid droplets, the phosphorylation of HSL and Plin1 and the levels of catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA were increased by glucocorticoids in wild-type mice. However, these effects were attenuated in AKO mice. In agreement with reduced WAT lipolysis, glucocorticoid- initiated hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia were improved in AKO mice. Our data demonstrated a novel role of Pik3r1 that was independent of the regulatory function of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in mediating the metabolic action of glucocorticoids. Thus, the inhibition of Pik3r1 in adipocytes could alleviate lipid disorders caused by excess glucocorticoid exposure. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Schock, Alfred


    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  2. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    den Hoed P.


    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  3. Identification of potential small molecule allosteric modulator sites on IL-1R1 ectodomain using accelerated conformational sampling method.

    Chao-Yie Yang

    Full Text Available The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R is the founding member of the interleukin 1 receptor family which activates innate immune response by its binding to cytokines. Reports showed dysregulation of cytokine production leads to aberrant immune cells activation which contributes to auto-inflammatory disorders and diseases. Current therapeutic strategies focus on utilizing antibodies or chimeric cytokine biologics. The large protein-protein interaction interface between cytokine receptor and cytokine poses a challenge in identifying binding sites for small molecule inhibitor development. Based on the significant conformational change of IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1 ectodomain upon binding to different ligands observed in crystal structures, we hypothesized that transient small molecule binding sites may exist when IL-1R1 undergoes conformational transition and thus suitable for inhibitor development. Here, we employed accelerated molecular dynamics (MD simulation to efficiently sample conformational space of IL-1R1 ectodomain. Representative IL-1R1 ectodomain conformations determined from the hierarchy cluster analysis were analyzed by the SiteMap program which leads to identify small molecule binding sites at the protein-protein interaction interface and allosteric modulator locations. The cosolvent mapping analysis using phenol as the probe molecule further confirms the allosteric modulator site as a binding hotspot. Eight highest ranked fragment molecules identified from in silico screening at the modulator site were evaluated by MD simulations. Four of them restricted the IL-1R1 dynamical motion to inactive conformational space. The strategy from this study, subject to in vitro experimental validation, can be useful to identify small molecule compounds targeting the allosteric modulator sites of IL-1R and prevent IL-1R from binding to cytokine by trapping IL-1R in inactive conformations.

  4. Vitamin D insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians positively associates with polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 genes.

    Naser Elkum

    Full Text Available A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC, Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1 and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1 and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OHD levels in Arabs populations.Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OHD were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay.GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850 were found to be associated with 25(OHD serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714 and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563 were found to be significantly associated with 25(OHD serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OHD levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OHD levels in people from South East Asia.Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041, CYP2R1 (rs10741657 SNPs and 25(OHD levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714 and one GC SNP (rs1155563 were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population.

  5. New reactors for laboratory studies

    Berty, J.M.


    Recent developments in design of laboratory and bench-scale reactors reflect mostly the developments in reaction engineering; that is the improved understanding of physical and chemical rate limiting processes, their interactions, and their effects on commercial-scale reactor performance. Whether a laboratory reactor is used to study the fundamentals of a commercial process or for pure scientific interest, it is important to know what physical or chemical process is limiting or influencing the rate and selectivity. To clarify this, a definition is required of the regime where physical influences exist, and study the intrinsic kinetics at conditions where physical processes do not affect the rate. Reactors are illustrated whose design was influenced by the above considerations. These reactors produce results which are independent of the reactors in which they were measured, and which can be scaled up with up-to-date reaction engineering techniques.

  6. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  7. Turning points in reactor design

    Beckjord, E.S.


    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  8. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Buden, D.


    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  9. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.


    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  10. Fast reactor programme in India

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar


    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  11. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao


    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  12. Preparation of (R)-1,2-propanediol through asymmetric reduction with bakers yeast%酵母不对称催化制备R-1,2-丙二醇

    陈勇; 李凤梅; 韩荣伟; 杜德红; 于春娣


    研究了采用面包酵母还原丙酮醇制备R-1,2-丙二醇的工艺.采用摇瓶对转化条件进行单因素实验,确定最优转化条件:丙酮醇浓度0.3 mmol/mL,pH 7.0,酵母质量浓度150 g/L,乙醇浓度为0.3 mmol/mL,转化时间25 h.在此条件下,采用分批流加策略进行1.5 L规模发酵罐转化试验,转化25 h后,发酵液的R-1,2-丙二醇浓度为0.27 mmol/mL.

  13. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu


    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  14. Effect of MLP on Expression of AdipoR1 in Diabetic Nephropathy Rats%桑叶多糖对糖尿病肾病大鼠AdipoR1表达的影响

    韩智学; 薛继婷; 李齐; 宋铁军; 王桂云; 刘洪凤


    观察桑叶多糖(mulberry leaves polysaccharide,MLP)对糖尿病肾病(diaketic nephropathy,DN)大鼠空腹血糖(FBG)、血脂水平及肾脏脂联素受体1(AdipoR1)基因表达的影响,探讨桑叶多糖对糖尿病肾病大鼠肾脏保护作用及机制.

  15. Presence of Cryptosporidium scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    García-Presedo, Ignacio; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio


    The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain). A sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (DFA). The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA was determined using nested PCR involving amplification of a fragment of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). A total of 35 (16.7%) samples tested positive with both techniques. However, sequencing was only possible in 27 samples. Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 19, 5 and 3 of the samples, respectively. Moreover, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting all age groups (juveniles, sub adults and adults). Sequence analyses of the glycoprotein (GP60) gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 in 2 juveniles and IIaA13G1R1 in 1 sub adult wild boar. These species and subtypes have previously been described in human patients, indicating that isolates from asymptomatic wild boars might have zoonotic potential. This is the first report of the presence of C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in wild boars (S. scrofa) in Spain.

  16. Teste de Inteligência R1-Forma B e G36: evidência de validade convergente R1-Forma B Intelligence Test and G36: evidences of convergent validity

    Acácia A. Angeli dos Santos


    Full Text Available Considerando-se a relevância de se obter medidas confiáveis para a avaliação da inteligência, este estudo foi proposto com o objetivo de verificar a validade convergente entre os testes R1-Forma B e o G36. Participaram 78 alunos que freqüentavam o Telecurso do ensino médio, com idades entre 15 e 64 anos (média = 36,84; DP = 10,10, sendo 27 (34,6% do sexo feminino e 51 (65,4% do masculino. Os resultados apontaram para uma alta correlação entre os testes (r = 0,80, o que permite afirmar que medem o mesmo construto. Apesar disso, a hipótese de que o G36 estaria mais correlacionado com o Fator 2 do R-1 não pôde ser confirmada. Esse dado pode indicar que o G36 não seja unidimensional e se relacione mais com a inteligência cristalizada do que com o fator g.Considering the relevance of obtaining trustful measurement for the evaluation of intelligence, this study aimed at verifying the convergent validity between the R1-Forma B and the G36 tests. 78 students of both gender (34,6% female and 65,4% male, aged from 15 to 64 years old (mean = 36,84; SD = 10,10 and attending to the high school Telecurso were studied. The results indicated a high correlation between tests (r = 0.80, what allowed for the statement that they measure similar constructs. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that G36 would be more correlated with Factor 2 of R-1 could not be confirmed. This information suggests that the G36 is not unidimensional and is more related to crystallized intelligence than the g factor.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Scott, C.D.


    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.


    Snell, A.H.


    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigation of anaerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactors

    M. Fuentes


    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs. The bioreactors are modeled as dynamic three-phase systems. Biochemical transformations are assumed to occur only in the fluidized bed zone. The biofilm process model is coupled to the system hydrodynamic model through the biofilm detachment rate; which is assumed to be a first-order function of the energy dissipation parameter and a second order function of biofilm thickness. Non-active biomass is considered to be particulate material subject to hydrolysis. The model includes the anaerobic conversion for complex substrate degradation and kinetic parameters selected from the literature. The experimental set-up consisted of two mesophilic (36±1ºC lab-scale AFBRs (R1 and R2 loaded with sand as inert support for biofilm development. The reactor start-up policy was based on gradual increments in the organic loading rate (OLR, over a four month period. Step-type disturbances were applied on the inlet (glucose and acetic acid substrate concentration (chemical oxygen demand (COD from 0.85 to 2.66 g L-1 and on the feed flow rate (from 3.2 up to 6.0 L d-1 considering the maximum efficiency as the reactor loading rate switching. The predicted and measured responses of the total and soluble COD, volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations, biogas production rate and pH were investigated. Regarding hydrodynamic and fluidization aspects, variations of the bed expansion due to disturbances in the inlet flow rate and the biofilm growth were measured. As rate coefficients for the biofilm detachment model, empirical values of 3.73⋅10(4 and 0.75⋅10(4 s² kg-1 m-1 for R1 and R2, respectively, were estimated.

  20. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  1. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan


    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  2. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Choi, Hang Bok


    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  3. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Choi, Hang Bok


    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  4. Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes are determinants of vitamin D status in Danes

    Nissen, Ioanna

    ), after 6 months intake of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk (paper II) and in 92 participants in the VitDgen study after artificial UVB irradiation during winter (paper III). Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes were found to be important determinants of vitamin D status in three out...... by genetic variation in vitamin D modulating genes. Twin and family-based studies indicate that genetic variation may have an appreciable influence on vitamin D status. Moreover, several candidate gene studies including two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) in CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10orf88, DHCR7/NADSYN1, GC and VDR genes to be associated with vitamin D status. The main hypothesis of this work was that genetically determined variation in vitamin D metabolism would influence the effect of vitamin D sources (vitamin D...

  5. Comparative molecular field analysis of quinoline derivatives as selective and noncompetitive mGluR1 antagonists.

    Sekhar, Y Nataraja; Nayana, M Ravi Shashi; Ravikumar, Muttineni; Mahmood, S K


    A 3D- QSAR model os Comparative Molecular Field Analysib (CoMFA) of 45 quinoline derivatives as metaborropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) inhibitors wew investigated. The CoMFA analysis provided a model with q(2) value of 0.827 and r(2) value of 0.990, in which q(2) value of 0.827 and an r(2) value of 0.990, in which the good correlation between the inhibitory activities and the steric and electrostatic molecular field around the analoques was observed. The predictive ability of the models was validated using the set of 12 compounds that were not included in the training set of 33 compounds. These results provided further understanding of the relationship between the structural features of quinolone derivatives and its activities, which should be applicable to design and find new potential mGluR1 inhibitors.

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q8(R1) Pharmaceutical Development; addition of annex; availability. Notice.


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q8(R1) Pharmaceutical Development." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH Q8(R1) guidance includes the previously published parent guidance entitled "Q8 Pharmaceutical Development" (Q8 parent guidance) (71 FR 29344; May 22, 2006) and a newly added annex. The annex provides further clarification of key concepts outlined in the Q8 parent guidance and describes the principles of quality by design (QbD). The annex is intended to show how concepts and tools (e.g., design space) outlined in the Q8 parent guidance could be put into practice by the applicant for all dosage forms.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in fluidized bed reactor by microbial consortia in different support materials.

    de Oliveira, Lorena Lima; Costa, Rachel Biancalana; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Vich, Daniele Vital; Duarte, Iolanda Cristina Silveira; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio


    Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors filled with activated carbon (R1), expanded clay (R2), glass beads (R3) and sand (R4) were tested for anaerobic degradation of LAS. All reactors were inoculated with sludge from a UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and were fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with approximately 20 mg l(-1) of LAS, on average. To 560 mg l(-1) COD influent, the maximum COD and LAS removal efficiencies were mean values of 97+/-2% and 99+/-2%, respectively, to all reactors demonstrating the potential applicability of this reactor configuration for treating LAS. The reactors were kept at 30 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h. The use of glass beads and sand appear attractive because they favor the development of biofilms capable of supporting LAS degradation. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from reactors R3 and R4 revealed that these reactors gave rise to broad microbial diversity, with microorganisms belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, indicating the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS.

  8. Identificación de Genes R1 y R2 que confieren resistencia a Phytophthora infestans en genotipos colombianos de papa Identification of R1 and R2 Genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Colombian potato genotypes

    Núñez Víctor M.


    Full Text Available En Colombia, actualmente existen genotipos de papa con excelente calidad industrial pero muy susceptibles a P. infestans. La mejor manera de combatir este problema es mediante resistencia genética, puesto que la inversión para controlar esta enfermedad por medios químicos es muy costosa, sin olvidar la contaminación ambiental que producen. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de genes R1 y R2 en los diferenciales de papa respectivos (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum mediante evaluación de resistencia a P. infestans y la detección molecular por medio de PCR (alelo R1 y AFLP (alelo R2. Para la detección del alelo R1 fueron empleados los primers GP179, GP21, 76-2SF2/76-2SR, SPUD237 y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R. Los primers GP179, GP21 y SPUD237 fueron inespecíficos para Rl, ya que se generó un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2, así como también en Solanum phureja. Los primers 76-2SF2/76-2SR, y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R generaron un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2; por el contrario, el fragmento estuvo ausente en el material susceptible. Para la detección del alelo R2, fueron implementados cinco marca­dores AFLP, de los cuales sólo dos fueron reconocidos visualmente en el diferencial 2. Los resultados mostra­ron una evidente correspondencia fenotípica y genotípica con respecto a la presencia de los genes Rl y R2. La identificación molecular de genes de resistencia a P. infestans permitirá desarrollar programas de mejoramiento genético que beneficien directamente los rendimientos de los cultivos de papa, sobre todo los de mayor interés industrial para nuestro país.Excellent industrial quality potato genotypes are currently available in Colombia; however, they are very sus­ceptible to P. infestans. The best way of fighting this problem is by genetic resistance, given that the expense of controlling this disease through chemicals is high, plus the environmental

  9. Galanin Protects from Caspase-8/12-initiated Neuronal Apoptosis in the Ischemic Mouse Brain via GalR1

    Li, Yun; Mei, Zhu; Liu, Shuiqiao; Wang, Tong; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Song; Yang, Yutao; Li, Junfa; Xu, Zhi-Qing David


    Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL’s effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0.001). The RT-qPCR results also demonstrated significant increases of GAL mRNA during 24-48 h R (p<0.001), and GAL receptors GalR1-2 (but not 3) mRNA levels in the P region at 24 h R of MCAO mice (p<0.001). Furthermore, the significant decrease of infarct volume (p<0.05) and improved neurological outcome (p<0.001-0.05) were observed in MCAO mice following 1 h pre- or 6 h post-treatment of GAL during 1-7 d reperfusion. GalR1 was confirmed as the receptor responsible for GAL-induced neuroprotection by using GalR2/3 agonist AR-M1896 and Lentivirus-based RNAi knockdown of GalR1. GAL treatment inhibited Caspase-3 activation through the upstream initiators Capsases-8/-12 (not Caspase-9) in both P region and OGD-treated cortical neurons. Meanwhile, GAL’s neuroprotective effect was not observed in cortical neurons from conventional protein kinase C (cPKC) γ knockout mice. These results suggested that exogenous GAL protects the brain from ischemic injury by inhibiting Capsase-8/12-initiated apoptosis, possibly mediated by GalR1 via the cPKCγ signaling pathway. PMID:28203483

  10. General expressions for R1ρ relaxation for N-site chemical exchange and the special case of linear chains

    Koss, Hans; Rance, Mark; Palmer, Arthur G.


    Exploration of dynamic processes in proteins and nucleic acids by spin-locking NMR experiments has been facilitated by the development of theoretical expressions for the R1ρ relaxation rate constant covering a variety of kinetic situations. Herein, we present a generalized approximation to the chemical exchange, Rex, component of R1ρ for arbitrary kinetic schemes, assuming the presence of a dominant major site population, derived from the negative reciprocal trace of the inverse Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. This approximation is equivalent to first-order truncation of the characteristic polynomial derived from the Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. For three- and four-site chemical exchange, the first-order approximations are sufficient to distinguish different kinetic schemes. We also introduce an approach to calculate R1ρ for linear N-site schemes, using the matrix determinant lemma to reduce the corresponding 3N × 3N Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix to a 3 × 3 matrix. The first- and second order-expansions of the determinant of this 3 × 3 matrix are closely related to previously derived equations for two-site exchange. The second-order approximations for linear N-site schemes can be used to obtain more accurate approximations for non-linear N-site schemes, such as triangular three-site or star four-site topologies. The expressions presented herein provide powerful means for the estimation of Rex contributions for both low (CEST-limit) and high (R1ρ-limit) radiofrequency field strengths, provided that the population of one state is dominant. The general nature of the new expressions allows for consideration of complex kinetic situations in the analysis of NMR spin relaxation data.

  11. Circulating miR-1 as a potential biomarker of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients

    Oliveira-Carvalho Vagner, Rigaud; Ferreira, Ludmila R.P; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M; Ávila, Mônica S; Brandão, Sara M.G; Cruz, Fátima D; Santos, Marília H.H; Cruz, Cecilia B.B.V; Alves, Marco S.L; Issa, Victor S; Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bocchi, Edimar A


    Cardiotoxicity is associated with the chronic use of doxorubicin leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Identification of cardiotoxicity-specific miRNA biomarkers could provide clinicians with a valuable prognostic tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating levels of miRNAs in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin treatment and to correlate with cardiac function. This is an ancillary study from “Carvedilol Effect on Chemotherapy-induced Cardiotoxicity” (CECCY trial), which included 56 female patients (49.9±3.3 years of age) from the placebo arm. Enrolled patients were treated with doxorubicin followed by taxanes. cTnI, LVEF, and miRNAs were measured periodically. Circulating levels of miR-1, -133b, -146a, and -423-5p increased during the treatment whereas miR-208a and -208b were undetectable. cTnI increased from 6.6±0.3 to 46.7±5.5 pg/mL (p<0.001), while overall LVEF tended to decrease from 65.3±0.5 to 63.8±0.9 (p=0.053) over 12 months. Ten patients (17.9%) developed cardiotoxicity showing a decrease in LVEF from 67.2±1.0 to 58.8±2.7 (p=0.005). miR-1 was associated with changes in LVEF (r=-0.531, p<0.001). In a ROC curve analysis miR-1 showed an AUC greater than cTnI to discriminate between patients who did and did not develop cardiotoxicity (AUC = 0.851 and 0.544, p= 0.0016). Our data suggest that circulating miR-1 might be a potential new biomarker of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. PMID:28052002

  12. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Chern, S.


    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  13. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard


    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  14. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.


    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor.

  15. Studies on a membrane reactor

    Mohan, K.; Govind, R.


    Simulation is used to evaluate the performance of a catalytic reactor with permeable wall (membrane reactor) in shifting the equilibrium of three reversible reactions (cyclohexane dehydrogenation, hydrogen iodide decomposition, and propylene disproportionation). It is found that the preferred choice of cocurrernt or countercurrent operation is dependent on the physical properties and operating conditions. Methods of enhancing conversion are suggested and temperature effects are discussed.

  16. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard


    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  17. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    MacIlwain, C


    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  18. Can the new RCP R0/R1 classification predict the clinical outcome in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head?

    Janot, M S; Kersting, S; Belyaev, O; Matuschek, A; Chromik, A M; Suelberg, D; Uhl, W; Tannapfel, A; Bergmann, U


    According to the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), R1 is defined as the microscopic presence of tumor cells at the surface of the resection margin (RM). In contrast, the Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) suggested to declare R1 already when tumor cells are found within 1 mm of the RM. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of the RM concerning the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From 2007 to 2009, 62 patients underwent a curative operation for PDAC of the pancreatic head. The relevance of R status on cumulative overall survival (OS) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis for both the classic R classification (UICC) and the suggestion of the RCP. Following the UICC criteria, a positive RM was detected in 8 %. Along with grading and lymph node ratio, R status revealed a significant impact on OS on univariate and multivariate analysis. Applying the suggestion of the RCP, R1 rate rose to 26 % resulting in no significant impact on OS in univariate analysis. Our study has shown that the RCP suggestion for R status has no impact on the prognosis of PDAC. In contrast, our data confirmed the UICC R classification of RM as well as N category, grading, and lymph node ratio as significant prognostic factors.

  19. Synapse-specific mGluR1-dependent long-term potentiation in interneurones regulates mouse hippocampal inhibition

    Lapointe, Valérie; Morin, France; Ratté, Stéphanie; Croce, Ariane; Conquet, François; Lacaille, Jean-Claude


    Hippocampal CA1 inhibitory interneurones control the excitability and synchronization of pyramidal cells, and participate in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Pairing theta-burst stimulation (TBS) with postsynaptic depolarization, we induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of putative single-fibre excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in stratum oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurones of mouse hippocampal slices. LTP induction was absent in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) knockout mice, was correlated with the postsynaptic presence of mGluR1a, and required a postsynaptic Ca2+ rise. Changes in paired-pulse facilitation and coefficient of variation indicated that LTP expression involved presynaptic mechanisms. LTP was synapse specific, occurring selectively at synapses modulated by presynaptic group II, but not group III, mGluRs. Furthermore, the TBS protocol applied in O/A induced a long-term increase of polysynaptic inhibitory responses in CA1 pyramidal cells, that was absent in mGluR1 knockout mice. These results uncover the mechanisms of a novel form of interneurone synaptic plasticity that can adaptively regulate inhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells. PMID:14673190

  20. Bacterial mitosis: ParM of plasmid R1 moves plasmid DNA by an actin-like insertional polymerization mechanism.

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette; Jensen, Rasmus B; Roepstorff, Peter; Gerdes, Kenn


    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating in eukaryotic cells. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that plasmid pairing is required for ParM polymerization.

  1. Inhibition of mGluR1 and IP3Rs impairs long-term memory formation in young chicks.

    Baker, K D; Edwards, T M; Rickard, N S


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is involved in a myriad of cellular functions in the brain including synaptic plasticity. However, the role of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in memory processing remains poorly defined. The current study explored a role for glutamate-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) release in memory processing via blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) and inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs). Using a single-trial discrimination avoidance task developed for the young chick, administration of the specific and potent mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 (500nM, immediately post-training, ic), or the IP(3)R antagonist Xestospongin C (5microM, immediately post-training, ic), impaired retention from 90min post-training. These findings are consistent with mGluR1 activating IP(3)Rs to release intracellular Ca(2+) required for long-term memory formation and have been interpreted within an LTP2 model. The consequences of different patterns of retention loss following ryanodine receptor (RyR) and IP(3)R inhibition are discussed.

  2. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.


    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  3. A model of reactor kinetics

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.


    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  4. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Vivek V Ranade


    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  5. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Matros, Yu.Sh.


    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  6. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B


    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  7. Vitamin D Insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians Positively Associates with Polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 Genes

    Elkum, Naser; Alkayal, Fadi; Noronha, Fiona; Ali, Maisa M.; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Arouj, Monira; Bennakhi, Abdullah; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama; Abubaker, Jehad


    Background A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1) and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH) D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OH)D levels in Arabs populations. Methods Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait) were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850) were found to be associated with 25(OH)D serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563) were found to be significantly associated with 25(OH)D serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OH)D levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels in people from South East Asia. Conclusion Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041), CYP2R1 (rs10741657) SNPs and 25(OH)D levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one GC SNP (rs1155563) were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population. PMID:25405862

  8. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    Sun, Y; Conner, J


    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction.

  9. BubR1 Acts as a Promoter in Cellular Motility of Human Oral Squamous Cancer Cells through Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Chou-Kit Chou


    Full Text Available BubR1 is a critical component of spindle assembly checkpoint, ensuring proper chromatin segregation during mitosis. Recent studies showed that BubR1 was overexpressed in many cancer cells, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. However, the effect of BubR1 on metastasis of OSCC remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the role of BubR1 in the progression of OSCC and confirm the expression of BubR1 in a panel of malignant OSCC cell lines with different invasive abilities. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level of BubR1 was markedly increased in four OSCC cell lines, Ca9-22, HSC3, SCC9 and Cal-27 cells, compared to two normal cells, normal human oral keratinocytes (HOK and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF. Moreover, the expression of BubR1 in these four OSCC cell lines was positively correlated with their motility. Immunofluorescence revealed that BubR1 was mostly localized in the cytosol of human gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells. BubR1 knockdown significantly decreased cellular invasion but slightly affect cellular proliferation on both Ca9-22 and Cal-27 cells. Consistently, the activities of metastasis-associated metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were attenuated in BubR1 knockdown Ca9-22 cells, suggesting the role of BubR1 in promotion of OSCC migration. Our present study defines an alternative pathway in promoting metastasis of OSCC cells, and the expression of BubR1 could be a prognostic index in OSCC patients.

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors


    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  11. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit


    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  12. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  13. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.


    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  14. The C5a/C5aR1 axis controls the development of experimental allergic asthma independent of LysM-expressing pulmonary immune cells.

    Wiese, Anna V; Ender, Fanny; Quell, Katharina M; Antoniou, Konstantina; Vollbrandt, Tillman; König, Peter; Köhl, Jörg; Laumonnier, Yves


    C5a regulates the development of maladaptive immune responses in allergic asthma mainly through the activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). Yet, the cell types and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are ill-defined. Recently, we described increased C5aR1 expression in lung tissue eosinophils but decreased expression in airway and pulmonary macrophages as well as in pulmonary CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) during the allergic effector phase using a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-C5aR1 knock-in mouse. Here, we determined the role of C5aR1 signaling in neutrophils, moDCs and macrophages for the pulmonary recruitment of such cells and the importance of C5aR1-mediated activation of LysM-expressing cells for the development of allergic asthma. We used LysM-C5aR1 KO mice with a specific deletion of C5aR1 in LysMCre-expressing cells and confirmed the specific deletion of C5aR1 in neutrophils, macrophages and moDCs in the airways and/or the lung tissue. We found that alveolar macrophage numbers were significantly increased in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Induction of ovalbumin (OVA)-driven experimental allergic asthma in GFP-C5aR1fl/fl and LysM-C5aR1 KO mice resulted in strong but similar airway resistance, mucus production and Th2/Th17 cytokine production. In contrast, the number of airway but not of pulmonary neutrophils was lower in LysM-C5aR1 KO as compared with GFP-C5aR1fl/fl mice. The recruitment of macrophages, cDCs, moDCs, T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells was not altered in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Our findings demonstrate that C5aR1 is critical for steady state control of alveolar macrophage numbers and the transition of neutrophils from the lung into the airways in OVA-driven allergic asthma. However, C5aR1 activation of LysM-expressing cells plays a surprisingly minor role in the recruitment and activation of such cells and the development of the allergic phenotype in OVA-driven experimental allergic asthma.

  15. Muscle-specific MicroRNA1 (miR1) Targets Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) during Dexamethasone-mediated Atrophy*

    Kukreti, Himani; Amuthavalli, Kottaiswamy; Harikumar, Arigela; Sathiyamoorthy, Sushmitha; Feng, Peng Zhao; Anantharaj, Rengaraj; Tan, Suan Liang Kelvin; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Bonala, Sabeera; Sriram, Sandhya; McFarlane, Craig; Kambadur, Ravi; Sharma, Mridula


    High doses of dexamethasone (Dex) or myostatin (Mstn) induce severe atrophy of skeletal muscle. Here we show a novel microRNA1 (miR1)-mediated mechanism through which Dex promotes skeletal muscle atrophy. Using both C2C12 myotubes and mouse models of Dex-induced atrophy we show that Dex induces miR1 expression through glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We further show that Mstn treatment facilitates GR nuclear translocation and thereby induces miR1 expression. Inhibition of miR1 in C2C12 myotubes attenuated the Dex-induced increase in atrophy-related proteins confirming a role for miR1 in atrophy. Analysis of miR1 targets revealed that HSP70 is regulated by miR1 during atrophy. Our results demonstrate that increased miR1 during atrophy reduced HSP70 levels, which resulted in decreased phosphorylation of AKT, as HSP70 binds to and protects phosphorylation of AKT. We further show that loss of pAKT leads to decreased phosphorylation, and thus, enhanced activation of FOXO3, up-regulation of MuRF1 and Atrogin-1, and progression of skeletal muscle atrophy. Based on these results, we propose a model whereby Dex- and Mstn-mediated atrophic signals are integrated through miR1, which then either directly or indirectly, inhibits the proteins involved in providing protection against atrophy. PMID:23297411

  16. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L


    advance to anaphase before every chromosome is properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. The architecture of the KNL1-BubR1 complex reveals important features of the molecular recognition between SAC components and the kinetochore. The interaction is important for a functional SAC...... as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may...

  17. Reactor service life extension program

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  18. Reactor service life extension program

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  19. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))


    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  20. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    Slugen, Vladimir


    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  1. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    Williams, M M R


    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  2. Reactor neutrons in nuclear astrophysics

    Reifarth, René; Glorius, Jan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Jentschel, Michael; Jurado, Beatriz; Käppeler, Franz; Köster, Ulli; Langer, Christoph; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Weigand, Mario


    The huge neutron fluxes offer the possibility to use research reactors to produce isotopes of interest, which can be investigated afterwards. An example is the half-lives of long-lived isotopes like 129I. A direct usage of reactor neutrons in the astrophysical energy regime is only possible, if the corresponding ions are not at rest in the laboratory frame. The combination of an ion storage ring with a reactor and a neutron guide could open the path to direct measurements of neutron-induced cross sections on short-lived radioactive isotopes in the astrophysically interesting energy regime.

  3. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  4. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)


    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  5. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  6. Development of a nuclear reactor control system simulator using virtual instruments

    Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Lameiras, Fernando Soares, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The International Atomic Energy Agency recommends the use of safety and friendly interfaces for monitoring and controlling the operational parameters of the nuclear reactors. This article describes a digital system being developed to simulate the behavior of the operating parameters using virtual instruments. The control objective is to bring the reactor power from its source level (mW) to a full power (kW). It is intended for education of basic reactor neutronic and thermohydraulic principles such as the multiplication factor, criticality, reactivity, period, delayed neutron, control by rods, fuel and coolant temperatures, power, etc. The 250 kW IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor at Nuclear Technology Development Centre - CDTN was used as reference. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world. The simulator system is being developed using the LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench) software, considering the modern concept of virtual instruments (VI's) using electronic processor and visual interface in video monitor. The main purpose of the system is to provide training tools for instructors and students, allowing navigating by user-friendly operator interface and monitoring tendencies of the operational variables. It will be an interactive tool for training and teaching and could be used to predict the reactor behavior. Some scenarios are presented to demonstrate that it is possible to know the behavior of some variables from knowledge of input parameters. The TRIGA simulator system will allow the study of parameters, which affect the reactor operation, without the necessity of using the facility. (author)

  7. Identification and characterization of EctR1, a new transcriptional regulator of the ectoine biosynthesis genes in the halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Glukhov, Anatoly S; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A


    Genes encoding key enzymes of the ectoine biosynthesis pathway in the halotolerant obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z have been shown to be organized into an ectABC-ask operon. Transcription of the ect operon is initiated from two promoters, ectAp(1) and ectAp(2) (ectAp(1)p(2)), similar to the sigma(70)-dependent promoters of Escherichia coli. Upstream of the gene cluster, an open reading frame (ectR1) encoding a MarR-like transcriptional regulator was identified. Investigation of the influence of EctR1 on the activity of the ectAp(1)p(2) promoters in wild-type M. alcaliphilum 20Z and ectR1 mutant strains suggested that EctR1 is a negative regulator of the ectABC-ask operon. Purified recombinant EctR1-His(6) specifically binds as a homodimer to the putative -10 motif of the ectAp(1) promoter. The EctR1 binding site contains a pseudopalindromic sequence (TATTTAGT-GT-ACTATATA) composed of 8-bp half-sites separated by 2 bp. Transcription of the ectR1 gene is initiated from a single sigma(70)-like promoter. The location of the EctR1 binding site between the transcriptional and translational start sites of the ectR1 gene suggests that EctR1 may regulate its own expression. The data presented suggest that in Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, EctR1-mediated control of the transcription of the ect genes is not the single mechanism for the regulation of ectoine biosynthesis.

  8. Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) by WINERED: CN Red-system Band Emission

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Fukue, Kei; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko; Mizumoto, Misaki; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya


    Although high-resolution spectra of the CN red-system band are considered useful in cometary sciences, e.g., in the study of isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in cometary volatiles, there have been few reports to date due to the lack of high-resolution (R ≡ λ/Δλ > 20,000) spectrographs in the near-infrared region around ˜1 μm. Here, we present the high-resolution emission spectrum of the CN red-system band in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), acquired by the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph WINERED mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope at the Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto, Japan. We applied our fluorescence excitation models for CN, based on modern spectroscopic studies, to the observed spectrum of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) to search for CN isotopologues (13C14N and 12C15N). We used a CN fluorescence excitation model involving both a “pure” fluorescence excitation model for the outer coma and a “fully collisional” fluorescence excitation model for the inner coma region. Our emission model could reproduce the observed 12C14N red-system band of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). The derived mixing ratio between the two excitation models was 0.94(+0.02/-0.03):0.06(+0.03/-0.02), corresponding to the radius of the collision-dominant region of ˜800-1600 km from the nucleus. No isotopologues were detected. The observed spectrum is consistent, within error, with previous estimates in comets of 12C/13C (˜90) and 14N/15N (˜150).

  9. High-dispersion spectroscopic observations of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) with the Subaru Telescope on 2013 November 15

    Shinnaka, Y.; Kawakita, H.; Nagashima, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Decock, A.; Jehin, E.


    Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) probably originates from the Oort Cloud. Comet Lovejoy provided us with great opportunities to investigate the chemical composition of the comet thanks to its brightness and elongation angle from October 2013 to March 2014. We observed comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) on 2013 November 15 UT using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 1.066 and 0.412 au, respectively. The obtained spectra cover the wavelength region from 360 to 830 nm with the resolving power of R = λ/Δλ = 72,000 for the slit size of 0''.5 × 9''.0 (360-520 nm) and 0''.5 × 9''.0 (550-830 nm) on the sky. Exposure time was 130 minutes in total (100 minutes for shorter and 30 minutes for longer wavelength regions). We could identify many species such as the radicals (CN, CH, C_{3}, C_{2}, NH_{2}, etc.), ions (CH^{+}, H_{2}O^{+}), and atoms ([OI] and NaI) in the spectra and many unidentified lines were also detected. Here we discuss the chemical reaction in cometary coma and the origin of icy materials of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), based on the high-dispersion spectra in the optical wavelength regions. We present (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia inferred from the high-dispersion spectra of H_{2}O^{+} and NH_{2}, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the nitrogen and the carbon isotopic ratios of CN, and (4) spatial distributions of radicals, atoms, and dust continuum in the inner coma.

  10. Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.

    Ueberberg, B; Unger, N; Sheu, S Y; Walz, M K; Schmid, K W; Saeger, W; Mann, K; Petersenn, S


    Ghrelin is a newly characterized, widely distributed peptide thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite. Significant effects on the release of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH have been demonstrated. This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy. Tissue was obtained from 13 pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), 15 cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), 12 aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), and 16 nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs) following laparoscopic surgery. Expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was investigated on RNA levels by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and on protein levels by using immunohistochemistry. In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach. Ghrelin protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland. Ghrelin protein was detected in 0% of PHEOs, 55% of APAs, 87% of CPAs, and 54% of NFAs. GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent. In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs. GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors. Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function. The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.

  11. A systematic study of gene mutations in urothelial carcinoma; inactivating mutations in TSC2 and PIK3R1.

    Gottfrid Sjödahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by frequent gene mutations of which activating mutations in FGFR3 are the most frequent. Several downstream targets of FGFR3 are also mutated in UC, e.g., PIK3CA, AKT1, and RAS. Most mutation studies of UCs have been focused on single or a few genes at the time or been performed on small sample series. This has limited the possibility to investigate co-occurrence of mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed mutation analyses of 16 genes, FGFR3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1 PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, ARAF, RAF1, TSC1, TSC2, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53, in 145 cases of UC. We show that FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations are positively associated. In addition, we identified PIK3R1 as a target for mutations. We demonstrate a negative association at borderline significance between FGFR3 and RAS mutations, and show that these mutations are not strictly mutually exclusive. We show that mutations in BRAF, ARAF, RAF1 rarely occurs in UC. Our data emphasize the possible importance of APC signaling as 6% of the investigated tumors either showed inactivating APC or activating CTNNB1 mutations. TSC1, as well as TSC2, that constitute the mTOR regulatory tuberous sclerosis complex were found to be mutated at a combined frequency of 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a significant association between FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations in UC. Moreover, the identification of mutations in PIK3R1 further emphasizes the importance of the PI3-kinase pathway in UC. The presence of TSC2 mutations, in addition to TSC1 mutations, underlines the involvement of mTOR signaling in UC.

  12. Partial recessive IFN-γR1 deficiency: genetic, immunological and clinical features of 14 patients from 11 kindreds

    Sologuren, Ithaisa; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Pestano, Jose; Vincent, Quentin Benoit; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Chapgier, Ariane; Cárdenes, María; Feinberg, Jacqueline; García-Laorden, M. Isabel; Picard, Capucine; Santiago, Esther; Kong, Xiaofei; Jannière, Lucile; Colino, Elena; Herrera-Ramos, Estefanía; Francés, Adela; Navarrete, Carmen; Blanche, Stéphane; Faria, Emilia; Remiszewski, Paweł; Cordeiro, Ana; Freeman, Alexandra; Holland, Steven; Abarca, Katia; Valerón-Lemaur, Mónica; Gonçalo-Marques, José; Silveira, Luisa; García-Castellano, José Manuel; Caminero, José; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Bustamante, Jacinta; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos


    We report a series of 14 patients from 11 kindreds with recessive partial (RP)-interferon (IFN)-γR1 deficiency. The I87T mutation was found in nine homozygous patients from Chile, Portugal and Poland, and the V63G mutation was found in five homozygous patients from the Canary Islands. Founder effects accounted for the recurrence of both mutations. The most recent common ancestors of the patients with the I87T and V63G mutations probably lived 1600 (875–2950) and 500 (200–1275) years ago, respectively. The two alleles confer phenotypes that are similar but differ in terms of IFN-γR1 levels and residual response to IFN-γ. The patients suffered from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-osis (n= 6), environmental mycobacteriosis (n= 6) or tuberculosis (n= 1). One patient did not suffer from mycobacterial infections but had disseminated salmonellosis, which was also present in two other patients. Age at onset of the first environmental mycobacterial disease differed widely between patients, with a mean value of 11.25 ± 9.13 years. Thirteen patients survived until the age of 14.82 ± 11.2 years, and one patient died at the age of 7 years, 9 days after the diagnosis of long-term Mycobacterium avium infection and the initiation of antimycobacterial treatment. Up to 10 patients are currently free of infection with no prophylaxis. The clinical heterogeneity of the 14 patients was not clearly related to either IFNGR1 genotype or the resulting cellular phenotype. RP-IFN-γR1 deficiency is, thus, more common than initially thought and should be considered in both children and adults with mild or severe mycobacterial diseases. PMID:21266457

  13. 三七皂苷 R1壳聚糖纳米粒的制备及其工艺优化%Preparation and process optimization of notoginsenoside R1 chitosan nanoparticles

    虞璐; 魏宇峰


    目的:制备三七皂苷 R1壳聚糖纳米粒,为该药物的临床应用提供新的给药方式。方法制备三七皂苷 R1壳聚糖纳米粒,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)检测纳米粒中三七皂苷 R1的含量,采用正交试验优化纳米粒的制备工艺,并验证优化的纳米粒的制备工艺。结果HPLC 标准曲线方程为 A =911.49C-1803.4(r =0.9999),线性范围为25~900μg/mL。日内精密度分别为1.520%、0.884%、0.969%(n =6);日间精密度分别为1.591%、1.447%、1.269%(n =6)。低、中、高浓度的回收率分别为(98.11±1.16)%、(101.27±0.59)%、(100.97±0.82)%。正交试验的4个因素:壳聚糖浓度、药物与载体的质量比、温度、转速,每个因素分别选择3个水平。选择平均粒径、包封率、载药量为控制指标,使用综合加权评分法确定试验结果,按照 L9(34)正交表设计正交试验。优化的工艺为:壳聚糖浓度2.0%,药物与载体的重量比例20%,温度35℃,转速600 r/min。按照优化的工艺制备纳米粒,平均粒径为(123.40±7.68)nm,包封率为(58.41±1.59)%,载药量为(10.46±0.53)%。结论优化的三七皂苷 R1壳聚糖纳米粒的制备工艺简单易操作,包封率和载药量较高,作为一种新剂型有良好的临床应用前景。%Objective To prepare optimization of notoginsenoside R1 chitosan nanoparticles,to provide a theoretical basis for clinical application of the drug.Methods Notoginsenoside R1 chitosan nanoparticles were prepared,HPLC method was used to detect the content of notoginsenoside R1 chitosan nanoparticles,preparation technology of nanoparticles were optimized by orthogonal experiment,and the optimized preparation technology of nanoparticles was verified.Results HPLC standard curve equation was A =911.49C -1803.4(r =0.999 9),linear range was from 25 to 900 g

  14. Attenuated Pik3r1 Expression Prevents Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Macrophage Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    McCurdy, Carrie E.; Schenk, Simon; Holliday, Michael J.; Philp, Andrew; Houck, Julie A.; Patsouris, David; MacLean, Paul S.; Majka, Susan M.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Friedman, Jacob E. (Jed)


    Obese white adipose tissue (AT) is characterized by large-scale infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages, in parallel with systemic insulin resistance; however, the cellular stimulus that initiates this signaling cascade and chemokine release is still unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunits on AT macrophage (ATM) infiltration in obesity. Here, we find that the Pik3r1 regulatory subunits (i.e., p85α/p55α/p50α...

  15. Distribution of mGluR1alpha and SMI 311 immunoreactive Lugaro cells in the kitten cerebellum.

    Víg, Julianna; Takács, József; Vastagh, Csaba; Baldauf, Zsolt; Veisenberger, Eleonóra; Hámori, József


    The Lugaro cell is a feedback interneuron of the cerebellar cortex, recognizable by its characteristic morphology. Postnatal neuronal migration to the cortex has been described for several cerebellar interneurons. Since in our previous studies we observed Lugaro-like cells (LCs) in the white matter (WM) and internal granular layer (IGL) of the cerebellum of young cats, we assumed that a proportion of these cells migrate also postnatally to their destination. In the present study using and immunostaining for the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1alpha and neurofilament protein SMI 311 the number and spatial distribution of LCs at different postnatal days were investigated. We found that the number and distribution of both mGluR1a-immunoreactive (ir) and of SMI 311-ir LCs changed with age in the developing cerebellar cortex of kittens: developing LCs express mGluR1alpha already in the newborn, while expression of SMI 311-ir in LCs appears only about a week later. At postnatal day 1 (P1) relatively few mGluR1-ir LCs were detected in the WM and at the border of WM and IGL. Later, their number increased sharply until P15 (6-7 fold) and decreased continuously between P15 and P135. SMI 311-ir LCs were not present at P1 and even at P8 only a few were observed in the WM or in infraganglionic positions. Their number increased gradually (12-14 fold) until adulthood when their number was stabilized at 8.000-10.000/cerebellum. At the same time the number of probably ectopic SMI 311-ir LCs decreased with age: at P22 about one third of them was found in "ectopic" position, whereas in the adult cat only about 10-12% of LCs's was either in the WM or scattered in the whole depth of the granular layer. These results suggest that: (1) most LCs appear in the cerebellar cortex postnatally; and (2) postnatal migration and incorporation of LCs to the cortex is a much longer process than previously expected, occurring even after the cytoarchitectonic built-up (about P65-P70 in cat) of

  16. First description of food-borne Salmonella enterica resistance regions R1 and R3 associated with IS26 elements

    Eduarda Gomes-Neves; Vera Manageiro; Eugénia Ferreira; José M Correia da Costa; Manuela Caniça


    In this study, we assessed the presence of IS26 in food-borne ASSuT-type Salmonella enterica isolates. A new genetic region (R3) wasdescribed, that included a C14 caspase gene between IS26 elements. R3 was present in two Salmonella Rissen isolates from a swine carcass anda meat handler, collected at the same abattoir. Furthermore, a new rearrangement of resistance region R1, harboring the blaTEM-1 gene flanked byIS26 elements, was identified in Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],12:i...

  17. First description of food-borne Salmonella enterica resistance regions R1 and R3 associated with IS26 elements

    Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; José M Correia da Costa; Caniça, Manuela


    In this study, we assessed the presence of IS26 in food-borne ASSuT-type Salmonella enterica isolates. A new genetic region (R3) was described, that included a C14 caspase gene between IS26 elements. R3 was present in two Salmonella Rissen isolates from a swine carcass and a meat handler, collected at the same abattoir. Furthermore, a new rearrangement of resistance region R1, harboring the blaTEM-1 gene flanked by IS26 elements, was identified in Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],1...

  18. CYP287A1 is a carotenoid 2-β-hydroxylase required for deinoxanthin biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Shiyou; Chen, Ming; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Molnár, István; Xu, Yuquan


    The carotenoid deinoxanthin is a crucial resistance factor against various stresses in the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Disruption of the gene dr2473 encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP287A1 led to the accumulation of 2-deoxydeinoxanthin in D. radiodurans, demonstrating that CYP287A1 is a novel β-carotene 2-hydroxylase. The dr2473 knockout mutant was shown to be more sensitive to UV radiation and oxidative stress than the wild-type strain D. radiodurans R1, indicating that the C2 alcohol of deinoxanthin is important for antioxidant activity.

  19. ERK-GluR1 phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neurons is involved in pain associated with dry tongue

    Nakaya, Yuka; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kubo, Asako; Chen, Jui Yen; Noma, Noboru; Batbold, Dulguun; Imamura, Yoshiki; Sessle, Barry J


    Background Dry mouth is known to cause severe pain in the intraoral structures, and many dry mouth patients have been suffering from intraoral pain. In development of an appropriate treatment, it is crucial to study the mechanisms underlying intraoral pain associated with dry mouth, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying pain related to dry mouth, the dry-tongue rat model was developed. Hence, the mechanical or heat nocifensive reflex, the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated GluR1-IR immunohistochemistries, and the single neuronal activity were examined in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis of dry-tongue rats. Results The head-withdrawal reflex threshold to mechanical, but not heat, stimulation of the tongue was significantly decreased on day 7 after tongue drying. The mechanical, but not heat, responses of trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive neurons were significantly enhanced in dry-tongue rats compared to sham rats on day 7. The number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-immunoreactive cells was also significantly increased in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis following noxious stimulation of the tongue in dry-tongue rats compared to sham rats on day 7. The decrement of the mechanical head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWT) was reversed during intracisternal administration of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibitor, PD98059. The trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neuronal activities and the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-immunoreactive cells following noxious mechanical stimulation of dried tongue were also significantly decreased following intracisternal administration of PD98059 compared to vehicle-administrated rats. Increased number of the phosphorylated GluR1-IR cells was observed in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis of dry-tongue rats, and the number of

  20. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    Nissen, Ioanna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte


    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed....... We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88...

  1. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  2. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  3. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.


    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  4. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  5. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.


    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski


    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  7. Nuclear research reactors activities in INVAP

    Ordonez, Juan Pablo [INVAP, Bariloche (Argentina)


    This presentation describes the different activities in the research reactor field that are being carried out by INVAP. INVAP is presently involved in the design of three new research reactors in three different countries. The RA-10 is a multipurpose reactor, in Argentina, planned as a replacement for the RA-3 reactor. INVAP was contracted by CNEA for carrying out the preliminary engineering for this reactor, and has recently been contracted by CNEA for the detailed engineering. CNEA groups are strongly involved in the design of this reactor. The RMB is a multipurpose reactor, planned by CNEN from Brazil. CNEN, through REDETEC, has contracted INVAP to carry out the preliminary engineering for this reactor. As the user requirements for RA-10 and RMB are very similar, an agreement was signed between Argentina and Brasil governments to cooperate in these two projects. The agreement included that both reactors would use the OPAL reactor in Australia, design and built by INVAP, as a reference reactor. INVAP has also designed the LPRR reactor for KACST in Saudi Arabia. The LPRR is a 30 kw reactor for educational purposes. KACST initially contracted INVAP for the engineering for this reactor and has recently signed the contract with INVAP for building the reactor. General details of these three reactors will be presented.

  8. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  9. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor


    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  10. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  11. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    Herndon, J M


    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  12. Reactor containment research and development

    Weil, N. A.


    An outline is given of containment concepts, sources and release rates of energy, responses of containment structures, effects of projectiles, and leakage rates of radioisotopes, with particular regard to major reactor accidents. (T.F.H.)

  13. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.


    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  14. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Reinaldo M. Machado


    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  15. Unique features of space reactors

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  16. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P


    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  17. The role of ptsP, orfT, and sss recombinase in root colonization by Pseudomonas flurescens Q8r1-96.

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 produces 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a polyketide antibiotic that suppresses a wide variety of soilborne fungal pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, which causes take-all disease of wheat. Strain Q8r1-96 is representative of the D-geno...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus R1-1 Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    Lu, You; Samac, Deborah A; Glazebrook, Jane; Ishimaru, Carol A


    We report here the complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus R1-1, isolated in Minnesota, USA. The R1-1 genome, generated by a de novo assembly of PacBio sequencing data, is the first complete genome sequence available for this subspecies. Copyright © 2015 Lu et al.

  19. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Mays, G.T.


    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  20. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Balantekin, A. B.


    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  1. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.


    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  2. The resonance absorption controlled reactor

    Caro, R.


    In this report a new method of reactor control based on tho isotopic moderator composition variation is studied, taking as a reference a D{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O system. With this method an spectacular increment in the burn-up degree and a sensible reduction of the conventional control system is obtained. An important part of this work has been the detailed analysis of the parameters affecting the neutron spectrum in a heterogeneous reactor. (Author) 50 refs.

  3. Synaptic function for the Nogo-66 receptor NgR1: regulation of dendritic spine morphology and activity-dependent synaptic strength.

    Lee, Hakjoo; Raiker, Stephen J; Venkatesh, Karthik; Geary, Rebecca; Robak, Laurie A; Zhang, Yu; Yeh, Hermes H; Shrager, Peter; Giger, Roman J


    In the mature nervous system, changes in synaptic strength correlate with changes in neuronal structure. Members of the Nogo-66 receptor family have been implicated in regulating neuronal morphology. Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) supports binding of the myelin inhibitors Nogo-A, MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein), and OMgp (oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein), and is important for growth cone collapse in response to acutely presented inhibitors in vitro. After injury to the corticospinal tract, NgR1 limits axon collateral sprouting but is not important for blocking long-distance regenerative growth in vivo. Here, we report on a novel interaction between NgR1 and select members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF1 and FGF2 bind directly and with high affinity to NgR1 but not to NgR2 or NgR3. In primary cortical neurons, ectopic NgR1 inhibits FGF2-elicited axonal branching. Loss of NgR1 results in altered spine morphologies along apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons in vivo. Analysis of synaptosomal fractions revealed that NgR1 is enriched synaptically in the hippocampus. Physiological studies at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses uncovered a synaptic function for NgR1. Loss of NgR1 leads to FGF2-dependent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) without altering basal synaptic transmission or short-term plasticity. NgR1 and FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) are colocalized to synapses, and mechanistic studies revealed that FGFR kinase activity is necessary for FGF2-elicited enhancement of hippocampal LTP in NgR1 mutants. In addition, loss of NgR1 attenuates long-term depression of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Together, our findings establish that physiological NgR1 signaling regulates activity-dependent synaptic strength and uncover neuronal NgR1 as a regulator of synaptic plasticity.

  4. République et républicanisme chez Milton

    Christophe TOURNU


    Full Text Available Simone Goyard-Fabre, dans son article sur la république, relève la connotation “plurielle”, mais aussi “flottante” du terme. En effet, dans un sens premier, la république désigne un régime politique, la politeia platonicienne, paradigme idéel de la Cité, ou la res populi cicéronienne, gouvernement mixte participant de l’ordre immanent de la nature. Elle en vient à s’appliquer, dans une deuxième acception, à la forme ou à l’essence de la politique lorsqu’elle se confond avec la souveraineté au...

  5. Fiction, existence et référence

    Amie L. Thomasson


    Full Text Available L’article publié ici se propose d’emprunter une voie qui n’avait pas été empruntée dans les explorations précédentes de l’auteur. En effet, on verra qu’il s’agit ici de surmonter les difficultés auxquelles sont confrontées les théories réalistes de la fiction et en particulier la théorie artefactuelle dont Amie Thomasson est l’auteur.La question principale s’édicte en ces termes : s’il y a des personnages de fiction, comment se fait-il qu’il nous soit naturel de dire que tel ou tel personnage n’existe pas ?  Comment rendre compte des affirmations de non-existence des personnages de fiction, en particulier lorsqu’on est un réaliste de la fiction ?L’auteur confronte trois manières de traiter ces affirmations : l’approche par la quantification restreinte et l’approche linguistique et enfin l’approche des conditions d’application, point de vue auquel l’auteur se rallie. La première approche consiste à faire des restrictions spatiales ou catégorielles afin de cerner le champ de la référence. La seconde approche, qui est celle que les théoriciens de la référence directe emploient majoritairement, consiste à passer par le métalangage, c’est-à-dire de passer à un niveau sémantique supérieur. La dernière approche, celle par les conditions d’application, est construite sur les vertus des deux premières approches. Enfin, l’auteur élargira l’apport de cette dernière approche aux débats métaphysiques.The Amie Thomasson’s paper continues to explore the thesis she developed in Fiction and Metaphysics about the problems of reference. More precisely, the issues are about the problems that a realistic view of abstract objects can encounter. Here, the question has to be written in a particular way: if there are fictional characters, why do we quite naturally say that such or such character doesn’t exist? How can a realist overthrow such difficulties explaining the claims of non-existence can be true when we are for such a view?  The author presents three approaches of these claims: the restricted quantification approach, the metalinguistic approach and finally the application conditions approach. The first approach is about spatial and categorical restrictions in order to outline the field the reference is applied. The second approach is the way the direct reference theorists choose. The strategy consists in using the metalanguage that is to say to pass by a higher semantic level. The last approach which is the condition application approach is constructed with the virtues of the previous approaches. Finally, the author will show how the last view can be used for the metaphysics discussions.

  6. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H


    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  7. Bioactive Benzofuran Derivatives from Cortex Mori Radicis, and Their Neuroprotective and Analgesic Activities Mediated by mGluR1

    Ya-Nan Wang


    Full Text Available Four new benzofuran-type stilbene glycosides and 14 known compounds including 8 benzofuran-type stilbenes and 6 flavonoids were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Mori Radicis. The new compounds were identified as (9R-moracin P 3′-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1, (9R-moracin P 9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, (9R-moracin P 3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, and (9R-moracin O 10-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4 based on the spectroscopic interpretation and chemical analysis. Three benzofuran-type stilbenes, moracin O (5, R (7, and P (8 showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in SK-N-SH cells. In addition, moracin O (5 and P (8 also demonstrated a remarkable inhibition of the acetic acid-induced pain. The molecular docking with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1 results indicated that these neuroprotective benzofuran-type stilbenes might be the active analgesic components of the genus Morus, and acted by mediating the mGluR1 pathway.

  8. Structural insights into Ca(2+)-activated long-range allosteric channel gating of RyR1.

    Wei, Risheng; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Xinrui; Jing, Shan; Liu, Congcong; Li, Shuang; Wang, Guangyu; Xu, Yaofang; Zhu, Sujie; Williams, Alan J; Sun, Fei; Yin, Chang-Cheng


    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a class of giant ion channels with molecular mass over 2.2 mega-Daltons. These channels mediate calcium signaling in a variety of cells. Since more than 80% of the RyR protein is folded into the cytoplasmic assembly and the remaining residues form the transmembrane domain, it has been hypothesized that the activation and regulation of RyR channels occur through an as yet uncharacterized long-range allosteric mechanism. Here we report the characterization of a Ca(2+)-activated open-state RyR1 structure by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure has an overall resolution of 4.9 Å and a resolution of 4.2 Å for the core region. In comparison with the previously determined apo/closed-state structure, we observed long-range allosteric gating of the channel upon Ca(2+) activation. In-depth structural analyses elucidated a novel channel-gating mechanism and a novel ion selectivity mechanism of RyR1. Our work not only provides structural insights into the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and regulation of RyRs, but also sheds light on structural basis for channel-gating and ion selectivity mechanisms for the six-transmembrane-helix cation channel family.

  9. Structure and magnetism in S r1 -xAxTc O3 perovskites: Importance of the A -site cation

    Reynolds, Emily; Avdeev, Maxim; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Kimpton, Justin A.; Yu, Michelle; Kayser, Paula; Kennedy, Brendan J.


    The S r1 -xB axTc O3 (x =0 , 0.1, 0.2) oxides were prepared and their solid-state and magnetic structure studied as a function of temperature by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction. The refined Tc moments at room temperature and Néel temperatures for B a0.1S r0.9Tc O3 and B a0.2S r0.8Tc O3 were 2.32 (14 ) μβ and 2.11 (13 ) μβ and 714 ∘C and 702 ∘C , respectively. In contrast to expectations, the Néel temperature in the series S r1 -xAxTc O3 decreases with increasing Ba content. This observation is consistent with previous experimental measurements for the two series A M O3 (M =Ru , Mn; A =Ca , Sr, Ba) where the maximum magnetic ordering temperature was observed for A =Sr . Taken with these previous results the current work demonstrates the critical role of the A -site cation in the broadening of the π* bandwidth and ultimately the magnetic ordering temperature.

  10. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 loop is a zinc metalloprotease activated by self-proteolysis.

    Stéphanie Berzigotti

    Full Text Available In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis.

  11. IL18 and IL18R1 polymorphisms, lung CT and fibrosis: a longitudinal study in coal miners

    Nadif, R.; Mintz, M.; Marzec, J.; Jedlicka, A.; Kauffmann, F.; Kleeberger, S.R. [INSERM, U780, Villejuif (France)


    It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-18 plays a role in the development of inflammatory and fibrosing lung diseases. Associations of polymorphisms in the genes coding for IL-18 (108 /G-656T, C-607A, G-137C, T113G, C127T) and its receptor (IL8R1/C-69T) with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were studied in 200 miners who were examined in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Coal-dust exposure was assessed according to job history and ambient measures. The main health outcome was lung computed tomography (CT) score in 1990. Internal coherence was assessed by studying CT score in 1994, 4-yr change in CT score and CWP incidence and prevalence. CT score in 1990 was a good predictor of radiographic grade in 1999 and, therefore, an appropriate subclinical quantitative trait. The IL18 -137C allele was associated with lower CT score in 1990 and 1994 (11.24 versus 1.69 and 1.57 versus 2.46, respectively), slower progression of CT score between 1990 and 1994 and lower pneumoconiosis prevalence in 1999 relative to the G allele (0.33 versus 0.77 and 8.2 versus 19.6%, respectively). Smoking- or dust-adjustment, and stratification on IL18R1 genotype and adjustment for haplotype effects did not change the conclusions. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest a role for IL18 in reducing the development of this fibrosing lung disease.

  12. LMFBR type reactor

    Iwashige, Kengo


    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  13. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Stuart Nemser, PhD


    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  15. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Galloway, T.R.


    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  16. mGluR1-mediated excitation of cerebellar GABAergic interneurons requires both G protein-dependent and Src-ERK1/2-dependent signaling pathways.

    Hideo Kubota

    Full Text Available Stimulation of type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5 in several neuronal types induces slow excitatory responses through activation of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels. GABAergic cerebellar molecular layer interneurons (MLIs modulate firing patterns of Purkinje cells (PCs, which play a key role in cerebellar information processing. MLIs express mGluR1, and activation of mGluR1 induces an inward current, but its precise intracellular signaling pathways are unknown. We found that mGluR1 activation facilitated spontaneous firing of mouse cerebellar MLIs through an inward current mediated by TRPC1 channels. This mGluR1-mediated inward current depends on both G protein-dependent and -independent pathways. The nonselective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and AG490 as well as the selective extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and SL327 suppressed the mGluR1-mediated current responses. Following G protein blockade, the residual mGluR1-mediated inward current was significantly reduced by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. In contrast to cerebellar PCs, GABAB receptor activation in MLIs did not alter the mGluR1-mediated inward current, suggesting that there is no cross-talk between mGluR1 and GABAB receptors in MLIs. Thus, activation of mGluR1 facilitates firing of MLIs through the TRPC1-mediated inward current, which depends on not only G protein-dependent but also Src-ERK1/2-dependent signaling pathways, and consequently depresses the excitability of cerebellar PCs.

  17. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan


    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  18. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena


    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti.

  19. Comparison of four enhancement strategies for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors.

    Gao, Dawen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong; Wu, Wei-Min


    Aerobic granules were developed in four identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with synthetic wastewater to compare different strategies for the enhancement of granulation. The SBRs were operated by (a) increasing organic loading rate in R1; (b) reducing settling time in R2; (c) extending starvation period in R3; and (d) increasing shear force in R4. The results showed that four operational strategies were able to enhance aerobic granulation successfully in SBR, but that also showed different effect on the granulation process and characteristics of mature aerobic granules. The rapidest granulation was observed by using short settling time (R2) and the granules had higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) than other reactors. Extended starvation period (R3) and high shear force (R4) resulted in longer granulation period and the granules with higher integrity and smaller size. Higher organic loading rate (R1) resulted in the granules with larger size and higher K value. The maximum specific COD removal rates (q(max)) of the granules in all SBRs were at a similar level (0.13-0.16 g COD/h-g VSS) but the granules in R1 and R2 had higher apparent half rate constant (K) of 18 and 16 mg/L, than those in R3 and R4 (2.8 and 3.3 mg/L).

  20. Comparison of four enhancement strategies for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors

    Gao Dawen, E-mail: [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu Lin; Liang Hong [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wu Weimin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States)


    Aerobic granules were developed in four identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with synthetic wastewater to compare different strategies for the enhancement of granulation. The SBRs were operated by (a) increasing organic loading rate in R1; (b) reducing settling time in R2; (c) extending starvation period in R3; and (d) increasing shear force in R4. The results showed that four operational strategies were able to enhance aerobic granulation successfully in SBR, but that also showed different effect on the granulation process and characteristics of mature aerobic granules. The rapidest granulation was observed by using short settling time (R2) and the granules had higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) than other reactors. Extended starvation period (R3) and high shear force (R4) resulted in longer granulation period and the granules with higher integrity and smaller size. Higher organic loading rate (R1) resulted in the granules with larger size and higher K value. The maximum specific COD removal rates (q{sub max}) of the granules in all SBRs were at a similar level (0.13-0.16 g COD/h-g VSS) but the granules in R1 and R2 had higher apparent half rate constant (K) of 18 and 16 mg/L, than those in R3 and R4 (2.8 and 3.3 mg/L).

  1. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.


    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)


    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  3. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  4. A divergent asymmetric approach to aza-spiropyran derivative and (1S,8aR-1-hydroxyindolizidine

    Huang Pei-Qiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spiroketals and the corresponding aza-spiroketals are the structural features found in a number of bioactive natural products, and in compounds possessing photochromic properties for use in the area of photochemical erasable memory, self-development photography, actinometry, displays, filters, lenses of variable optical density, and photomechanical biomaterials etc. And (1R,8aS-1-hydroxyindolizidine (3 has been postulated to be a biosynthetic precursor of hydroxylated indolizidines such as (+-lentiginosine 1, (--2-epilentiginosine 2 and (--swainsonine, which are potentially useful antimetastasis drugs for the treatment of cancer. In continuation of a project aimed at the development of enantiomeric malimide-based synthetic methodology, we now report a divergent, concise and highly diastereoselective approach for the asymmetric syntheses of an aza-spiropyran derivative 7 and (1S,8aR-1-hydroxyindolizidine (ent-3. Results The synthesis of aza-spiropyran 7 started from the Grignard addition of malimide 4. Treatment of the THP-protected 4-hydroxybutyl magnesium bromide with malimide 4 at -20°C afforded N,O-acetal 5a as an epimeric mixture in a combined yield of 89%. Subjection of the diastereomeric mixture of N,O-acetal 5a to acidic conditions for 0.5 h resulted in the formation of the desired functionalized aza-spiropyran 7 as a single diastereomer in quantitative yield. The stereochemistry of the aza-spiropyran 7 was determined by NOESY experiment. For the synthesis of ent-3, aza-spiropyran 7, or more conveniently, N,O-acetal 5a, was converted to lactam 6a under standard reductive dehydroxylation conditions in 78% or 77% yield. Reduction of lactam 6a with borane-dimethylsulfide provided pyrrolidine 8 in 95% yield. Compound 8 was then converted to 1-hydroxyindolizidine ent-3 via a four-step procedure, namely, N-debenzylation/O-mesylation/Boc-cleavage/cyclization, and O-debenzylation. Alternatively, amino alcohol 8 was mesylated

  5. Spin and orbital disordering by hole doping in P r1 -xC axV O3

    Reehuis, M.; Ulrich, C.; Abdala, P. M.; Pattison, P.; Khaliullin, G.; Fujioka, J.; Miyasaka, S.; Tokura, Y.; Keimer, B.


    High-resolution powder x-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction were used to investigate the crystal structure and magnetic ordering of the compound P r1 -xC axV O3 (0 ≤x ≤0.3 ), which undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition for x ˜0.23 . Since the ionic radii of P r3 + and C a2 + are almost identical and structural disorder is minimal, P r1 -xC axV O3 is a good model system for the influence of hole doping on the spin and orbital correlations in transition metal oxides. The end member PrV O3 is a Mott-Hubbard insulator, which exhibits a structural phase transition at TS=180 K from an orthorhombic to a monoclinic structure with space groups Pbnm and P 21/b , respectively. This transition is associated with the onset of orbital ordering and strong Jahn-Teller distortions of the V O6 octahedra. Antiferromagnetic C -type order with vanadium moments oriented in the a b plane is observed below TN=140 K . Upon cooling, the vanadium moments induce a progressive magnetic polarization of the praseodymium sublattice, resulting in a ferrimagnetic structure with coexisting modes (Cx, Fy) and (Fx, Cy). In the insulating range of the P r1 -xC axV O3 phase diagram, Ca doping reduces both the orbital and magnetic transition temperatures so that TS=108 K and TN=95 K for x =0.20 . The Jahn-Teller distortions and ordered vanadium moments also decrease upon doping. In a metallic sample with x =0.30 , Jahn-Teller distortions and long-range orbital ordering are no longer observable, and the average crystal structure remains orthorhombic down to low temperature. However, broadening of some lattice Bragg reflections indicate a significant increase in lattice strain. Antiferromagnetic short-range order with a weak ordered moment of 0.14(3) μB per vanadium atom could still be observed on the vanadium site below T ˜60 K . We discuss these observations in terms of doping-induced spin-orbital polaron formation.

  6. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  7. Importance of the operating pH in maintaining the stability of anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    Jaroszynski, L W; Cicek, N; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A


    Two bench-scale parallel moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) were operated to assess pH-associated anammox activity changes during long term treatment of anaerobically digested sludge centrate pre-treated in a suspended growth partial nitrification reactor. The pH was maintained at 6.5 in reactor R1, while it was allowed to vary naturally between 7.5 and 8.1 in reactor R2. At high nitrogen loads reactor R2 had a 61% lower volumetric specific nitrogen removal rate than reactor R1. The low pH and the associated low free ammonia (FA) concentrations were found to be critical to stable anammox activity in the MBBR. Nitrite enhanced the nitrogen removal rate in the conditions of low pH, all the way up to the investigated level of 50mg NO(2)-N/L. At low FA levels nitrite concentrations up to 250 mg NO(2)-N/L did not cause inactivation of anammox consortia over a 2-days exposure time.

  8. TRAIL receptor gene editing unveils TRAIL-R1 as a master player of apoptosis induced by TRAIL and ER stress.

    Dufour, Florent; Rattier, Thibault; Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Zischler, Luciana; Morlé, Aymeric; Ben Mabrouk, Hazem; Humblin, Etienne; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Szegezdi, Eva; Delacote, Fabien; Marrakchi, Naziha; Guichard, Gilles; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Garrido, Carmen; Micheau, Olivier


    TRAIL induces selective tumor cell death through TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Despite the fact that these receptors share high structural homologies, induction of apoptosis upon ER stress, cell autonomous motility and invasion have solely been described to occur through TRAIL-R2. Using the TALEN gene-editing approach, we show that TRAIL-R1 can also induce apoptosis during unresolved unfolded protein response (UPR). Likewise, TRAIL-R1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with FADD and caspase-8 during ER stress. Its deficiency conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by thaspigargin, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. Our data also demonstrate that tumor cell motility and invasion-induced by TRAIL-R2 is not cell autonomous but induced in a TRAIL-dependant manner. TRAIL-R1, on the other hand, is unable to trigger cell migration owing to its inability to induce an increase in calcium flux. Importantly, all the isogenic cell lines generated in this study revealed that apoptosis induced TRAIL is preferentially induced by TRAIL-R1. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the physiological functions of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 and suggest that targeting TRAIL-R1 for anticancer therapy is likely to be more appropriate owing to its lack of pro-motile signaling capability.

  9. The impact of R1and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight of the potato breeding clones

    Zoteyeva Nadezhda


    Full Text Available Potato breeding clones were evaluated for resistance to late blight (agent Phytophthora infestans using tuber inoculation tests and for presence of the resistance alleles of R1 and R3a genes in polymerase chain reaction tests. Among clones tested those expressing high, moderate and low resistance were identified. The data were analysed for the impact of R1 and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight in tested plant material. In previous evaluations performed on smaller amount of clones the tuber resistance levels significantly depended on presence/absence of the resistance allele of R3a gene and did not depend on presence of R1 gene allele. In the current study the statistical analyses did not prove the significant difference in resistance levels depending on presence of the resistance alleles, neither of R1 gene, nor of R3a gene. Tuber resistant clones bearing R3a gene resistance alleles still noticeably prevailed over the clones bearing the alleles of R1 gene as well as over the clones bearing the no resistance alleles of both genes. In several cases the resistance of clones with detected resistance allele of R1 gene was higher compared to those derived from the same crosses and showing amplification of the allele of R3a gene or those with no resistance alleles. Clones accumulating the resistance alleles of both (R1 and R3a genes expressed high tuber resistance accompanied by necrotic reaction.

  10. Decoy Receptor DcR1 Is Induced in a p50/Bcl3-Dependent Manner and Attenuates the Efficacy of Temozolomide.

    Mansour, Nassir M; Bernal, Giovanna M; Wu, Longtao; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Voce, David J; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Zhang, Wei; Spretz, Ruben; Nunez, Luis; Larsen, Gustavo F; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar


    Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-κB1. A conserved NF-κB-binding sequence (κB-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IκB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53(+/+) glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy.

  11. The heat-shock DnaK protein is required for plasmid R1 replication and it is dispensable for plasmid ColE1 replication.

    Giraldo-Suárez, R; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Díaz-Orejas, R; Malki, A; Kohiyama, M


    Plasmid R1 replication in vitro is inactive in extracts prepared from a dnaK756 strain but is restored to normal levels upon addition of purified DnaK protein. Replication of R1 in extracts of a dnaKwt strain can be specifically inhibited with polyclonal antibodies against DnaK. RepA-dependent replication of R1 in dnaK756 extracts supplemented with DnaKwt protein at maximum concentration is partially inhibited by rifampicin and it is severely inhibited at sub-optimal concentrations of DnaK protein. The copy number of a run-away R1 vector is reduced in a dnaK756 background at 30 degrees C and at 42 degrees C the amplification of the run-away R1 vector is prevented. However a runaway R1 vector containing dnaK gene allows the amplification of the plasmid at high temperature. These data indicate that DnaK is required for both in vitro and in vivo replication of plasmid R1 and show a partial compensation for the low level of DnaK by RNA polymerase. In contrast ColE1 replication is not affected by DnaK as indicated by the fact that ColE1 replicates with the same efficiency in extracts from dnaKwt and dnaK756 strains. Images PMID:8265367

  12. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  13. Crystal structure of 2-{(R-[1-(4-bromophenylethyl]iminomethyl}-4-(phenyldiazenylphenol, a chiral photochromic Schiff base

    Ryoji Moriwaki


    Full Text Available The title chiral photochromic Schiff base compound, C21H18BrN3O, was synthesized from (R-(+-1-(4-bromophenylethylamine and the salicylaldehyde of an azobenzene derivative. The molecule corresponds to the phenol–imine tautomer, the C=N and N—C bond distances being 1.285 (3 and 1.470 (3 Å, respectively. The diazenyl group adopts a trans form, with an N=N distance of 1.256 (3 Å. The hydroxy group is involved in intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonding. In the crystal, C—H...π interactions consolidate the crystal packing of one-dimensional chains, which exhibits short intermolecular Br...C contacts of 3.400 (3 Å.

  14. Roles of the canonical myomiRs mi R-1,-133 and-206 in cell development and disease

    Keith; Richard; Mitchelson; Wen-Yan; Qin


    Micro RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that participate in different biological processes, providing subtle combinational regulation of cellular pathways, often by regulating components of signalling pathways. Aberrant expression of mi RNAs is an important factor in the development and progression of disease. The canonical myomi Rs(mi R-1,-133 and-206) are central to the development and health of mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscles, but new findings show they have regulatory roles in the development of other mammalian non-muscle tissues, including nerve, brain structures, adipose and some specialised immunological cells. Moreover, the deregulation of myomi R expression is associated with a variety of different cancers, where typically they have tumor suppressor functions, although examples of an oncogenic role illustrate their diverse function in different cell environments. This review examines the involvement of the related myomi Rs at the crossroads between cell development/tissue regeneration/tissue inflammation responses, and cancer development.

  15. Invisible watermarking optical camera communication and compatibility issues of IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification

    Le, Nam-Tuan


    Copyright protection and information security are two most considered issues of digital data following the development of internet and computer network. As an important solution for protection, watermarking technology has become one of the challenged roles in industry and academic research. The watermarking technology can be classified by two categories: visible watermarking and invisible watermarking. With invisible technique, there is an advantage on user interaction because of the visibility. By applying watermarking for communication, it will be a challenge and a new direction for communication technology. In this paper we will propose one new research on communication technology using optical camera communications (OCC) based invisible watermarking. Beside the analysis on performance of proposed system, we also suggest the frame structure of PHY and MAC layer for IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification which is a revision of visible light communication (VLC) standardization.

  16. A simple approach to solving the kinematics of the 4-UPS/PS (3R1T) parallel manipulator

    Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime; Gracio-Murillo, Mario A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya (Mexico); Islam, Md. Nazrul [Universiti Malasya Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia); Abedinnasab, Mohammad H. [Rowan University, New Jersey (United States)


    This work reports on the position, velocity and acceleration analyses of a four-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator, 4-DoF-PM for brevity, which generates Three-rotation-one-translation (3R1T) motion. Nearly closed-form solutions to solve the forward displacement analysis are easily obtained based on closure equations formulated upon linear combinations of the coordinates of three non-collinear points embedded in the moving platform. Then, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration of the robot manipulator are systematically established by resorting to the theory of screws. To this end, the Klein form of the Lie algebra se(3) of the Euclidean group SE(3) is systematically applied to the velocity and reduced acceleration state in screw form of the moving platform cancelling the passive joint rates of the parallel manipulator. Numerical examples, which are confirmed by means of commercially available software, are provided to show the application of the method.

  17. Phase gap in pseudoternary R1-yRy'Mn2X2-xXx' compounds

    Wang, J. L.; Kennedy, S. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Hofmann, M.; Dou, S. X.


    Our neutron diffraction investigation of PrMn2Ge2-xSix reveals a clear separation into two magnetic phases, canted ferromagnetic (Fmc) and antiferromagnetic (AFmc), between x = 1.0 and 1.2 and a commensurate phase gap in the lattice, due to magnetostrictive distortion. This remarkable magnetoelastic phenomenon is driven by a nonuniform atomic distribution on the X site which in turn produces subtle variations in the local lattice and abrupt changes in the Mn-Mn magnetic exchange interaction. Our results show that coexistence of Fmc and AFmc phases depends on lattice parameter, chemical pressure from the rare-earth and metalloid sites, and local lattice strain distributions. We demonstrate that these magnetostructural correlations act across the entire family of R1-yRy'Mn2X2-xXx' compounds.

  18. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Kostić Ljiljana 1


    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  19. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome


    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  20. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M


    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  1. Effects of PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 Polymorphism on Feedback-related Brain Potentials across the Life Span

    Dorothea eHämmerer


    Full Text Available Maximizing gains during probabilistic reinforcement learning requires the updating of choice–outcome expectations at the time when the feedback about a specific choice or action is given. Extant theories and evidence suggest that dopaminergic modulation plays a crucial role in reinforcement learning and the updating of choice–outcome expectations. Furthermore, recently a positive component of the event-related potential (ERP about 200 msec (P2 after feedback has been suggested to reflect such updating. The efficacy of dopaminergic modulation changes across the life span. However, to date investigations of age-related differences in feedback-related P2 during reinforcement learning are still scarce. The present study thus aims to investigate whether individual differences in the feedback-related P2 would be associated with polymorphic variations in a dopamine relevant gene PPP1R1B (also known as DARPP-32 and whether the genetic effect may differ between age groups. We observed larger P2 amplitudes in individuals carrying the genotype associated with higher dopamine receptor efficacy, i.e., A allele homozygotes of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs907094 of the PPP1R1B gene. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced in children and older adults in comparison to adolescents and younger adults. Together, our findings indicate that polymorphic variations in a dopamine relevant gene are associated with individual differences in brain-evoked potentials of outcome updating and hint at the possibility that genotype effects on neurocognitive phenotypes may vary as a function of brain maturation and aging.

  2. Novel pili-like surface structures of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1 are crucial for surface adhesion

    Gerald eLosensky


    Full Text Available It was recently shown that haloarchaeal strains of different genera are able to adhere to surfaces and form surface-attached biofilms. However the surface structures mediating the adhesion were still unknown. We have identified a novel surface structure with Halobacterium salinarum strain R1, crucial for surface adhesion. Electron microscopic studies of surface-attached cells frequently showed pili-like surface structures of two different diameters that were irregularly distributed on the surface. The thinner filaments, 7 - 8 nm in diameter, represented a so far unobserved novel pili-like structure. Examination of the Hbt. salinarum R1 genome identified two putative gene loci (pil-1 and pil-2 encoding type IV pilus biogenesis complexes besides the archaellum encoding fla gene locus. Both pil-1 and pil-2 were expressed as transcriptional units, and the transcriptional start of pil-1 was identified. In silico analyses revealed that the pil-1 locus is present with other euryarchaeal genomes whereas the pil-2 is restricted to haloarchaea. Comparative real time qRT-PCR studies indicated that the general transcriptional activity was reduced in adherent versus planktonic cells. In contrast, the transcription of pilB1 and pilB2, encoding putative type IV pilus assembly ATPases, was induced in comparison to the archaella assembly/motor ATPase (flaI and the ferredoxin gene. Mutant strains were constructed that incurred a flaI deletion or flaI/pilB1 gene deletions. The absence of flaI caused the loss of the archaella while the additional absence of pilB1 led to loss of the novel pili-like surface structures. The ΔflaI/ΔpilB1 double mutants showed a 10-fold reduction in surface adhesion compared to the parental strain. Since surface adhesion was not reduced with the non-archaellated ΔflaI mutants, the pil-1 filaments have a distinct function in the adhesion process.

  3. NMDA and mGluR1 receptor subtypes as major players affecting depotentiation in the hippocampal CA1-region

    Amira Latif-Hernandez


    Full Text Available Neurons have the ability to modify their structure and function which ultimately serves for learning (Abraham and Bear, 1996. Dendritic events provide a major contribution to such modifications. For example, natural and artificial patterns of afferent activation have been shown to induce persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD at distinct dendritic synapses. LTP and LTD are both assumed to occur during the physiological processes of learning and memory formation and to sustain the latter (Abraham, 2008. In recent years, there has been a burgeoning interest in the understanding of metaplasticity, which refers to the plasticity of synaptic plasticity (Abraham and Bear, 1996. In particular, depotentiation (DP is the mechanism by which synapses that have recently undergone LTP can reverse their synaptic strengthening in response to low frequency stimulation (LFS; Abraham, 2008. Typically, DP is thought to prevent the saturation of synaptic potentiation by resetting synapses into a more efficient state to store new information. The detailed mechanisms that underlie DP still remain unclear. Bortolotto et al. (1994 first identified metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs as being involved in DP. Experimental evidence indicates that both subtypes of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5 have distinct functions in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region (Gladding et al., 2008. However, their role in DP was not addressed yet in detail and appear to be distinct from those involved in NMDAR-dependent DP (Zho et al., 2002. Therefore, we investigated the precise mechanisms responsible for NMDAR and mGluR-dependent DP by combining electrophysiological recordings in vitro and pharmacological approach. Transverse hippocampal slices (400 µm thick were prepared from the right hippocampus with a tissue chopper and placed into a submerged-type chamber, where they were continuously perfused

  4. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    Bolonkin, Alexander


    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  5. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    S. E. Bays


    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  6. Entropy Production in Chemical Reactors

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián C.


    We have analyzed entropy production in chemically reacting systems and extended previous results to the two limiting cases of ideal reactors, namely continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR). We have found upper and lower bounds for the entropy production in isothermal systems and given expressions for non-isothermal operation and analyzed the influence of pressure and temperature in entropy generation minimization in reactors with a fixed volume and production. We also give a graphical picture of entropy production in chemical reactions subject to constant volume, which allows us to easily assess different options. We show that by dividing a reactor into two smaller ones, operating at different temperatures, the entropy production is lowered, going as near as 48 % less in the case of a CSTR and PFR in series, and reaching 58 % with two CSTR. Finally, we study the optimal pressure and temperature for a single isothermal PFR, taking into account the irreversibility introduced by a compressor and a heat exchanger, decreasing the entropy generation by as much as 30 %.

  7. Simplifying Microbial Electrosynthesis Reactor Design

    Cloelle G.S. Giddings


    Full Text Available Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata, which reduces carbon dioxide to acetate. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a poteniostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  8. RNA-Sequencing Reveals the Progression of Phage-Host Interactions between φR1-37 and Yersinia enterocolitica

    Katarzyna Leskinen; Blasdel, Bob G.; Rob Lavigne; Mikael Skurnik


    Despite the expanding interest in bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), insights into the intracellular development of bacteriophage and its impact on bacterial physiology are still scarce. Here we investigate during lytic infection the whole-genome transcription of the giant phage vB_YecM_φR1-37 (φR1-37) and its host, the gastroenteritis causing bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica. RNA sequencing reveals that the gene expression of φR1-37 does not follow a pattern typical observed in other lytic...

  9. High-density Association Mapping and Interaction Analysis of PLA2R1 and HLA Regions with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy in Japanese

    Thiri, Myo; Honda, Kenjiro; Kashiwase, Koichi; Mabuchi, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hodaka; WATANABE, KIMIO; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Kent; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Noiri, Eisei


    Although recent studies showed anti-PLA2R antibody plays a crucial role in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), detailed HLA mapping and interaction between the HLA genes and PLA2R1 have not been investigated in IMN. We genotyped across the PLA2R1 gene and the HLA region, using 183 IMN patients and 811 healthy controls. Five SNPs around the PLA2R1 gene were significantly associated with IMN. In addition to the two SNPs previously reported to be strongly associated with IMN, rs3749119 and ...

  10. Optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea-containing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) antagonists: Reducing hERG-associated liabilities.

    Berglund, Susanne; Egner, Bryan J; Gradén, Henrik; Gradén, Joakim; Morgan, David G A; Inghardt, Tord; Giordanetto, Fabrizio


    The discovery and optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea derivatives as MCH-R1 antagonists is herein described. Previous work around the piperidin-4-yl-amides led to the discovery of potent MCH-R1 antagonists. However, high affinity towards the hERG potassium channel proved to be an issue. Different strategies to increase hERG selectivity were implemented and resulted in the identification of piperidin-4-yl-urea compounds as potent MCH-R1 antagonists with minimized hERG inhibition.

  11. An Exploratory Pilot Study of Genetic Marker for IgE-Mediated Allergic Diseases with Expressions of FcεR1α and Cε

    En-Chih Liao


    Full Text Available The high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE receptor-FcεR1 is mainly expressed on the surface of effector cells. Cross-linking of IgE Abs bound to FcεR1 by multi-valent antigens can induce the activation of these cells and the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Since FcεR1 plays a central role in the induction and maintenance of allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the association of FcεR1 with the allergic phenotype of Cε expression and cytokine and histamine release from peripheral leukocytes. Peripheral leukocytes from 67 allergic and 50 non-allergic subjects were used for genotyping analysis. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs were used for Cε expression and ELISpot analysis, while polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs were used for histamine release. The association between genotype polymorphism of the FcεR1α promoter region (rs2427827 and rs2251746 and allergic features of Cε expression and histamine were analyzed, and their effects on leukocytes function were compared with wild type. The genotype polymorphisms of FcεR1α promoter region with CT and TT in rs2427827 and TC in rs2251746 were significantly higher in allergic patients than in non-allergic controls. Patients with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of FcεR1α promoter region had high levels of total IgE, mite-specific Der p 2 (Group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-specific IgE and IgE secretion B cells. The mRNA expression of FcεR1α was significantly increased after Der p2 stimulation in PBMCs with SNPs of the FcεR1α promoter region. Despite the increased Cε mRNA expression in PBMCs and histamine release from PMNs and the up-regulated mRNA expression of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 secretions after Der p2 stimulation, there was no statistically significant difference between SNPs of the FcεR1α promoter region and the wild type. SNPs of FcεR1α promoter region were associated with IgE expression, IgE producing B cells, and increased Der p2

  12. Birch pollen-related food allergy to legumes: identification and characterization of the Bet v 1 homologue in mungbean (Vigna radiata), Vig r 1.

    Mittag, D; Vieths, S; Vogel, L; Wagner-Loew, D; Starke, A; Hunziker, P; Becker, W-M; Ballmer-Weber, B K


    Recently allergic reactions to legumes mediated by Bet v 1-homologous food allergens were described for soy and peanut. In this study we assessed allergic reactions to another legume, to mungbean seedlings, and identified its Bet v 1-homologous allergen Vig r 1. Ten patients were selected who had a history of allergic reactions to mungbean seedlings and a respiratory allergy to birch pollen. The Bet v 1 homologue in mungbean seedlings, Vig r 1, was cloned by a PCR strategy, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by preparative SDS-PAGE. In all sera, specific IgE against birch pollen, Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Vig r 1, and the Bet v 1 homologues in soy (Gly m 4) and cherry (Pru av 1) was determined by CAP-FEIA. Cross-reactivity of specific IgE with Vig r 1, Bet v 1, Gly m 4, and Pru av 1 was assessed by immunoblot inhibition. Expression of Vig r 1 during development of mungbean seedlings and under wounding stress was analysed by immunoblotting. The Vig r 1 double band was analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All patients were sensitized to birch pollen and Bet v 1, 20% to Bet v 2, and 90% to Gly m 4. Seventy percent of the patients showed IgE binding to a double band at 15 kDa in mungbean extract that was inhibited after pre-incubation of sera with rBet v 1. PCR cloning revealed that the mungbean homologue of Bet v 1 had a molecular weight of 16.2 kDa, a calculated pI of 4.6% and 42.8% amino acid sequence identity with Bet v 1. MS analysis confirmed similarity of the double band with the deduced Vig r 1 sequence, but also indicated the existence of other Vig r 1 isoforms. ImmunoCAP analysis detected IgE against Vig r 1 in 80% of the sera. IgE binding to Vig r 1 was inhibited with Gly m 4 in six of six and with rPru av 1 in four of six patients. Vig r 1 expression occurred during development of seedlings and was increased by wounding stress. Food allergy to mungbean

  13. Hanford reactor and separations facility advantages


    This document describes the advantages and limitations of Hanford production facilities. In addition to summarizing the technical parameters of the reactors and separations plants and their mechanical features, the unique aspects of these facilities to the production of special materials in which the Commission may be interested have been discussed. As the primary difference between the B-C-D-DR-F-H reactors and the K reactors and the K reactors is in the number and length of process channels. This report is addressed primarily to the 2000-tube reactors. K reactor characteristics are within the range of lattice and flexibility parameters described.

  14. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Haruo Miyadera


    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  15. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    Judd, A M


    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  16. Effects of idle time on biological phosphorus removal by sequencing batch reactors.

    Gao, Dawen; Yin, Hang; Liu, Lin; Li, Xing; Liang, Hong


    Three identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effects of various idle times on the biological phosphorus (P) removal. The idle times were set to 3 hr (R1), 10 hr (R2) and 17 hr (R3). The results showed that the idle time of a SBR had potential impact on biological phosphorus removal, especially when the influent phosphorus concentration increased. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of the R2 and R3 systems declined dramatically compared with the stable R1 system, and the P-release and P-uptake rates of the R3 system in particular decreased dramatically. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that uncultured Pseudomonas sp. (GQ183242.1) and beta-Proteobacteria (AY823971) were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R1 and R2 systems, while uncultured gamma-Proteobacteria were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R3 system. Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), such as uncultured Sphingomonas sp. (AM889077), were found in the R2 and R3 systems. Overall, the R1 system was the most stable and exhibited the best phosphorus removal efficiency. It was found that although the idle time can be prolonged to allow the formation of intracellular polymers when the phosphorus concentration of the influent is low, systems with a long idle time can become unstable when the influent phosphorus concentration is increased.

  17. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui


    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  18. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia


    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  19. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.


    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  20. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation


    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.