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Sample records for estuary southern brazil

  1. HYDRODYNAMICS AND BIO-OPTICAL ASSESSMENT OF TWO PRISTINE SUBTROPICAL ESTUARIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Mauricio Almeida Noernberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring small-scale physical processes and how they affect the spatial patterns of sea water's optical constituents plays a key role in understanding the functioning of complex coastal ecosystems such as estuaries. The spatial variations of physical and bio-optical water properties were investigated during one spring tidal cycle in austral summer, on two transects across the channel of the Medeiros and Itaqui sub-estuaries. These sub-estuaries are a biosphere reserve, and part of the Paranaguá Estuarine System, located on the Southern Brazilian coast. Both sub-estuaries were classified as Type 1a, wellmixed with low stratification. The salinity variations are in phase with the water level, and the tidal propagation is well represented by a standing wave. The vertical velocity profiles showed little vertical shear, and the intensity of the u-component of the velocity varied semi-diurnally. The upper estuary salt transport was dominated by tidal diffusion in an unstable water column. The optical environment presented a mixed dominance of optically active substances, as indicated by the absorption coefficients of dissolved and particulate matter. The colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM showed overall conservative behavior and was dominant in light absorption below 550 nm in the Medeiros, while nonalgal particles play the most important role in light absorption in the Itaqui in the blue absorption band. The phytoplanktonic contribution is prominent in the red domain and increases as a function of saline intrusion. However, due to the influence of freshwater discharge and the re-suspension of bottom sediments induced by physical processes, the concentrations of the optical components in the water column do not generally have any simple relationships between them.

  2. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

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    Felipe Freitas-Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas.

  3. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

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    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  4. Abundance of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea: Delphinidae, inhabiting the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil: implications for conservation

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    Pedro F Fruet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new mark-recapture abundance estimate and a photographic census were carried out to investigate the possible decline in the abundance of the bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, in the Patos Lagoon estuary due to the high levels of bycatch mortality which occurred between 2002 and 2006 in oceanic coastal areas close to the estuary. Fourteen systematic boat surveys were conducted between August and early December 2005 to photo-identify the bottlenose dolphins. The estimated number of animals, with long-lasting marks, in the population obtained from Chapman's and Mth models were 51 (95% CI = 49-53 and 52 (95% CI = 51-60, respectively. Taking into account the proportion of dolphins with long-lasting marks in the population, the total estimated population size ranged between 84 (95% CI = 76-93 and 86 (95% CI = 78-95 individuals, respectively, which was very similar to the 84 individuals revealed by the population census. Our results did not differ from the abundance estimate carried out in 1998, prior to the high fishing-related mortality event, suggesting that the population is stable. Plausible argument to explain the stability of the population is that some carcasses found on the oceanic coastal beaches near Patos Lagoon estuary come from animals that do not belong to the estuary community. Future studies should investigate fine-scale habitat partition between estuarine and adjacent coastal dolphins. If the existence of different communities living in close proximity (estuarine and coastal areas near to the estuary is confirmed, a new abundance estimate is needed to access the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in this region.

  5. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

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    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  6. Region of Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  7. Sedimentary biomarkers along a contamination gradient in a human-impacted sub-estuary in Southern Brazil: a multi-parameter approach based on spatial and seasonal variability.

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    de Abreu-Mota, Michelle Alves; de Moura Barboza, Carlos Alberto; Bícego, Márcia C; Martins, César C

    2014-05-01

    The composition and seasonal variations of sedimentary organic matter were investigated along the Cotinga sub-estuary, located in Paranaguá Bay, a large South American estuary where urban activities and the primary Brazilian grain shipping port are sources of pollution. Steroids and hydrocarbons were analyzed in surface sediments collected during the austral winter (2008) and summer (2009) in three distinct sectors, along this sub-estuary in a presumed gradient of fecal contamination. Concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 7.33 μgg (-1) (in dry sample weight thereafter), contamination. The highest ΣPAHs concentrations were found during the summer in the middle sector of the sub-estuary but were below the threshold effect levels (TEL), suggesting the absence of contamination by PAHs. Selected PAH isomer ratios indicated pyrolytic sources, whereas fecal sterols indicated decreasing sewage contamination from sub-estuary to the open ocean. The absence of correlation between organic markers and grain-size parameters suggested no preferential deposition sites of organic matter in the study area. The Principal Components Analysis suggested spatial variation in the distribution of sterols and AHs; however, temporal variations were only evident in the distribution of PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

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    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil

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    Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

    2014-01-01

    The carbon dioxide flux through the air–water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO2 (water to air) of 55 ± 45 mmol·m−2·d−1. Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO2 was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO2 concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO2 that reached 8,638 μatm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO2. The range of pCO2 observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification – BSh) in which record low levels of pCO2 have been detected. PMID:25145418

  10. Bedforms and Evolution of Tropical Estuaries: Examples from Northeastern Brazil

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    Vital, H.; Soares, C.; Rocha, G.; Pereira, T.; Eichler, P.

    2012-12-01

    This paper intends to show the geomorphological and sedimentary responses of tropical estuaries to meteorological and oceanographic forcing. The study area is located on the coastal zone of Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil. This coast is under natural influence of waves and tides with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime and anthropogenic influence (urbanization, oil and salt industries, shrimp farms, and tourism). An operational methodology was developed using collection and analysis of an integrated dataset (comprising remote sensing, oceanographic, hy-droacoustic, and sedimentologic data). All data were integrated through a geographical infor-mation system database. The imaging of subaqueous features allowed the identification of differ-ent bedforms as well as submerged rocky outcrops. Four main groups of bedforms were identi-fied: 2D and 3D large dunes, ripples and flat bottom, and rocky outcrops as well. Rocky outcrops were correlated to Barreiras Formation and beachrocks. The estuarine channel is filled by Holocene sandy- to silt sediments, with sandy sediments in the main channel ranging from well-selected to selected grains, and silty sediments in the river margins. The integration and analysis of currents velocity and other physical parameters with bedforms characterization and different sedimentary textures in the study area allows a better knowledge of the active sedimentary processes, which are responsible for the formation of morphologic features of these estuaries. The evolution of estuary settings, led by the postglacial sea-level rise, is recorded in the subsurface an present-day riverbed. These results contribute to a better understanding of tropical estuaries.; Location of the study area

  11. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

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    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  12. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

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    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  13. Space use by Rhabdosargus holubi in a southern African estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one juvenile Cape stumpnose Rhabdosargus holubi (140–190 mm fork length) were tagged with internal acoustic transmitters in the lower, middle and upper reaches of the Kowie Estuary, South Africa. The movements of each fish were continually monitored from October 2014 to February 2015 using 22 stationary ...

  14. Characterisation of organic matter source and sediment distribution in Ashtamudi Estuary, southern India

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    Kumar, Prem; Ankit, Yadav; Mishra, Praveen K.; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Anoop, Ambili

    2017-04-01

    In the present study we have focussed on the surface sediments of Ashtamudi Estuary (southern India) to understand (i) the fate and sources of organic matter by investigating lipid biomarker (n-alkanes) distribution in modern sediments and vegetation samples and (ii) the processes controlling the sediment distribution into the lake basin using end-member modelling approach. The sediment n-alkanes from the Ashtamudi Estuary exhibit a pronounced odd over even predominance with maxima at C29 and C31 chain length indicative of a dominant terrestrial contribution. A number of n-alkane indices have been calculated to illustrate the variability in space by considering separately the river dominated northern reaches and tidal influenced southern part of Ashtamudi Estuary. The highest terrigenous organic contents were found in sediments from the river and upper bay sites, with smaller contributions to the lower parts of the estuary. The Paq and TAR (terrigenous/aquatic ratio) indices demonstrate maximum aquatic productivity (plankton growth and submerged macrophytes) in the tidal dominated region of the Ashtamudi Estuary. The carbon preference index (CPI) and average chain length (ACL) provide evidence for high petrogenic organic inputs in the tidal zone, whereas dominant biogenic contribution have been observed in the riverine zone. In addition, the end member modeling of the grain size distribution of the surface sediment samples enabled us to decipher significant sedimentological processes affecting the sediment distribution in the estuarine settings. The end-member distribution showing highest loading with the coarser fraction is maximum where estuary debouches into the sea. However, the samples near the mouth of the river shows finer fraction of the end-member.

  15. Distinct responses of bacterial communities to agricultural and urban impacts in temperate southern African estuaries

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    Matcher, G. F.; Froneman, P. W.; Meiklejohn, I.; Dorrington, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, estuaries are regarded as amongst the most ecologically threatened ecosystems and are increasingly being impacted by urban development, agricultural activities and reduced freshwater inflow. In this study, we examined the influence of different human activities on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in the water column and sediment in three distinct, temperate permanently open estuarine systems within the same geographic region of southern Africa. The Kariega system is freshwater-deprived and is considered to be relatively pristine; the Kowie estuary is marine-dominated and impacted by urban development, while the Sundays system is fresh-water dominated and impacted by agricultural activity in its catchment. The bacterial communities in all three systems comprise predominantly heterotrophic species belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla with little overlap between bacterioplankton and benthic bacterial communities at the species level. There was overlap between the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Kowie and Kariega, both marine-influenced estuaries. However, lower species richness in the Kowie, likely reflects the impact of human settlements along the estuary. The dominant OTUs in the Sundays River system were distinct from those of the Kariega and Kowie estuaries with an overall decrease in species richness and evenness. This study provides an important snapshot into the microbial population structures of permanently open temperate estuarine systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on bacterial diversity and community structure.

  16. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in an urbanized estuary located in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Arguelho, Maria de Lara Palmeira de Macedo; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Monteiro, Adnívia Santos Costa; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges

    2017-06-01

    The Sal River estuary, which is located in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, stands out as an urban estuary, anthropogenically impacted by untreated and treated wastewater discharge. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used for characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the estuarine water. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 19.0 mg L-1 and, in general, the highest values were recorded during dry season. For both seasons (dry and rainy), DOC presented an inverse linear relationship with salinity, which indicates a conservative dilution of organic matter coming into the estuary. During rainy season, anthropogenic organic constituents and humic substances from land-based sources predominated in DOM composition, carried by river flow. Whereas during the dry season, it has been observed a significant increase of products generated by microbial degradation of anthropogenic organic matter. The relationships between fluorescence intensity and salinity suggest a conservative behavior during rainy season and a non-conservative behavior during dry season, with addition of fluorescent organic matter into the intermediate zone of the estuary. Photodegradation by action of sunlight caused a decrease in fluorescence intensity of humic and tryptophan-like constituents and the release of photoproducts, resulting in an increase in fluorescence intensity of protein-like constituents.

  17. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  18. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS, and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  19. Detection of virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries in northeastern Brazil.

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    Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de; Neves, Soraya da Silva; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  20. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    de Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues; Neves, Soraya da Silva; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes. PMID:25229224

  1. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil.

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    Dantas-Neto, M P; Sabry, R C; Ferreira, L P; Romão, L S; Maggioni, R

    2015-11-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará), Camurupim (Piauí) and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão) (n= 150 specimens/site). The samples were submitted to Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%). The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide) to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2). The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable.

  2. Inventory of mollusks from the estuary of the Paraíba River in northeastern Brazil

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    Lima, Silvio Felipe Barbosa; Lucena,Rudá Amorim; Santos, Galdênia Menezes; Souza, José Weverton; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Guimarães,Carmen Regina; Oliveira, Geraldo Semer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Coastal ecosystems of northeastern Brazil have important biodiversity with regard to marine mollusks, which are insufficiently studied. Here we provide an inventory of mollusks from two sites in the estuary of the Paraíba River. Mollusks were collected in 2014 and 2016 on the coast and sandbanks located on the properties of Treze de Maio and Costinha de Santo Antônio. The malacofaunal survey identified 12 families, 20 genera and 21 species of bivalves, 17 families, 19 genera and 20 ...

  3. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  4. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  5. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

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    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  6. Reproductive biology of Sciades herzbergii (Siluriformes: Ariidae in a tropical estuary in Brazil

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    Fernando R. Queiroga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the reproductive biology of Sciades herzbergii in the Paraíba do Norte River Estuary, Brazil. We aimed to characterize the reproduction of the species with respect to sex ratio, spawning season, condition factor and length at first maturity. Specimens were captured between August 2009 and July 2010 in a stretch of the main channel of the estuary. In the laboratory, they were measured, weighed and macroscopically classified with regard to sex and gonad development stage, and their gonads were weighted. The monthly distribution of the sexes and their respective stages of maturation were determined. The gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K and the length at first maturity were calculated for males and females. The sex ratio was determined monthly and throughout the entire study period and the chi-square test was used to evaluate if the sex ratio differed from 1:1. The Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between GSI and K values. A total of 260 individuals were captured. It was impossible to determine the sex of 32 individuals, possibly due to their young age. The sex ratio did not differ throughout the overall study period, but significant differences were found in December and May, with a predominance of females, and in March, when males predominated. Spawning activities were concentrated between December and March, as determined by the greater incidence of mature females and higher GSI values. The spawning of the S. herzbergii population is characterized as staggered due to its long duration. For females, K values were not significantly correlated with the GSI, but the decrease in K values in the spawning period indicates that energy is being spent in reproduction. With regard to males, the distribution of developmental stages did not follow the same clear pattern as that seen with females. However, the GSI indicated a greater investment in gonads in October, with a decrease up

  7. Simulation of nitrogen attenuation in a subterranean estuary, representative of the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Carlson, Carl S.; Robinson, C.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to assess flow and chemical reaction associated with groundwater discharge through the subterranean estuary representative of coastal salt ponds of southern Cape Cod. The model simulated both the freshwater and saltwater flow systems and accounted for density-dependent flow, tidal fluctuation, and chemical reactivity among oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and ammonia. Not previously incorporated into one model, the interaction of these effects can now be simulated in the subterranean estuary context.

  8. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Michelle S.P.; Santiago,Idalina M.F.L.; Cortez,Creuza S.; Trindade,Priscila M.; Mourão,José S.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens gen...

  9. Effects of Tidal Range Variability and Local Morphology on Hydrodynamic Behavior and Salinity Structure in the Caeté River Estuary, North Brazil

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    Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal influence and local morphology on circulation and salt transport are investigated in the Caeté river estuary, a well-mixed estuary along the north coast of Brazil. Velocity, temperature, and salinity data were collected in three different locations along the estuary’s main channel, over three single, 13 h tidal cycles. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tidal distortion and salinity by using classical methods of comparison of three cross-channel circulation characteristics, as well as computation of salt flux and vertical mixing. Findings indicate a flood-ebb asymmetry in currents, due to the distinct funneling morphology of the estuary, with shallow marginal areas being dominant towards the estuary head, while both stratification and shear dominate near the estuary mouth. The tidal currents enhanced vertical diffusion in the mid- and lower reaches, explaining the prevailing weakly stratified conditions, while the dominant well-mixed conditions in the upper estuary are a result of a combination of stronger flood currents and negligible vertical saline gradient. The predominant downstream salt transport supports the conclusion that there is little accumulation of salt in the Caeté river estuary. In addition, findings indicate that tidal correlation and Stokes drift are important components in the upper estuary, while tidal correlation played an important role in the middle estuary, with fluvial discharge most important in the lower estuary.

  10. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato; Solange de Cássia Inforzato de Souza; Sidnei Pereira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD).The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979). For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (...

  11. Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Éverton F; Seyffert, Núbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348

  12. Some mean atmospheric characteristics for snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegui, Jéssica Melo; Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Boiaski, Nathalie Tissot; Nascimento, Ernani de Lima; Anabor, Vagner

    2018-01-01

    Snowfall is considered a natural disaster in southern Brazil, where a little infrastructure exists up to prevent against the damage it induces, making snowfall forecast a matter of great interest in this region. The present article aims to describe the mean behavior of low, mid, and high atmospheric levels during snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil. Sea-level pressure (SLP), 1000-500 hPa atmospheric thickness, geopotential height at 500 hPa, and wind speed at 200 hPa have been analyzed. One hundred and ninety-six snowfall records from the conventional surface meteorological stations have been selected for the period from 1979 to 2015. The surface synoptic pattern associated with snowfall occurrences has been obtained from ERA-Interim reanalysis data with horizontal spatial resolution of 0.75° × 0.75° and temporal resolution of 12 h. SLP fields show a high-pressure transient system displacement from the Pacific Ocean to northeastern Argentina. In addition, it is possible to relate snowfall with displacement of a low-pressure system on the coast of southern Brazil. Thickness fields indicate shallow cold air mass intrusions one day before snowfall. Such a cold air continues moving towards low latitudes during consecutive snowfall days and it may be responsible for frost events in climatologically warm regions. Finally, mid and high atmospheric levels show an eastward propagating wave amplified by the Andes.

  13. THE REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Tatiani Sobrinho Del Bianco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability indicators provide elements that facilitate the assessment of progress in the regions and also the fulfillment of the objectives / goals to produce human well-being both in line with a sustainable ecosystem. Thus, this paper analyzes the Sustainable Regional Development of the Southern region of Brazil, from the preparation of Sustainable Development Indicator (IDRS, which in addition to economic and social variables incorporates environmental variables. In 2010, there were 99.2% of the municipalities in transition and 0.67% in laggard stage. Thus, it is concluded that only 0:08% of the municipalities studied were classified as advanced stage in both years analyzed. The IDRS of southern Brazil was a result of the performance of the variable formal employment sector electricity consumption, residential energy consumption, expenditure on health, education, sports, leisure, welfare and assistance, properties and areas of natural and artificial forests, green area per inhabitant and risk of housing. The result of IDRS in southern Brazil showed that in 2000 there were 95.5% of the municipalities in transition and 4.45% in laggard stage. Thus, these data represent an optimized tool for the design of public policies and actions for sustainable development in regional, state and municipal.

  14. Response of the Apodi-Mossoró estuary-incised valley system (NE Brazil to sea-level fluctuations

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    Helenice Vital

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Quaternary sea level changes in the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and adjacent shelf, Northeastern Brazil, based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles, integrated with echosounder, SRTM and satellite image data. We use these data to develop a relative stratigraphy. An incised-valley extending from the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary onto the shelf dominates the investigated area. In very shallow waters (down to 10 m depth the channel lies mainly in a NW-SE direction, changing to NE-SW in waters below10 m, in the form of a J-shaped valley. The southern flank of the shallow channel presents an abrupt morphology, probably determined by a residual scarp due to neotectonic reactivation of a pre-existing fault. This incised-valley can be correlated with a former river valley formed during the late Pleistocene fall in sea-level. The base-level change related to this drop in sea level can be regionally expressed on seismic lines as a laterally-continuous stratigraphic surface named Horizon I, interpreted as representing the sub-aerial exposure of the continental shelf. Many incised valleys were excavated on this exposed shelf, including that of the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and its incised valley system. This incised valley has lain buried since the Holocene transgression. The Holocene sediments present sub-horizontal layers, or they have filled the incised valley with oblique features.Este estudo utiliza a integração de dados sísmicos de alta resolução, batimétricos, SRTM e imagens de satélite para desenvolvimento da estratigrafia relativa visando entender as variações do nível do mar durante o Quaternário no estuário do rio Apodi-Mossoró e plataforma adjacente, nordeste do Brasil. A principal feição identificada foi um canal submerso, na plataforma interna, parcialmente preenchido, provavelmente relacionado com o sistema de vales incisos formado durante o rebaixamento do nível do mar no Pleistoceno. O canal

  15. Seasonal chaetognath abundance and distribution in a tropical estuary (Southeastern, Brazil

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    Luiz Loureiro Fernandes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the seasonal variation of the chaetognath species in the Vitória Bay/Passage Channel estuarine system, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in terms of their abundance and distribution. Specimens of chaetognaths were collected between July 1997 and April 1998 at 10 sampling stations, with a cylindrical-conical plankton net of 200 µm mesh and 30 cm mouth, fitted with a mechanical flowmeter. Five chaetognath species were identified: Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens, Sagitta hispida, Sagitta friderici and Sagitta minima. Most of them were distributed in areas of high salinity (e.g. at the stations closest to the outer estuary. The dominant species, S. enflata and S. friderici, were more frequent in the outer estuary where salinities varied from 32 (wet season - summer to 28 (dry season - winter. S. friderici was the only species found right in the middle of the Passage Channel, at a station close to the main freshwater input into the estuary. Results showed that chaetognaths only enter the estuary due to the tidal effect, and that they are not typical residents of this system. This is to be expected because the group normally inhabits only truly marine regions.Este estudo abordou a abundância e distribuição sazonal das espécies de quetognatos, no sistema estuarino baía de Vitória/Canal da Passagem, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Os organismos foram coletados entre julho de 1997 e abril de 1998 em 10 estações amostrais, utilizando uma rede de plâncton cilíndrico-cônica de 200µm de malha e 30 cm de abertura de boca, dotada de um fluxômetro mecânico. Cinco espécies de quetognatos foram identificadas: Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens, Sagitta hispida, Sagitta friderici e Sagitta minima. A maioria destas espécies esteve distribuída em áreas com alta salinidade (e.g. estações próximas a saída do estuário. As espécies dominantes S. enflata e S. friderici foram mais freqüentes na parte externa do estuário onde as

  16. Pregnancy recurrence in adolescents in Southern Brazil

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    Mariza Zanchi

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the pregnancy recurrence among adolescents and young people in a city located in the extreme south of Brazil and to identify associated factors. Method: One hundred and twelve (112 women participated, having delivered their children in 2010, while adolescents. The sample was stratified in two stages, being the first a census of the whole population of the city and the second a convenience sample. For statistical analysis, Pearson Chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The recurrence rate was 53.6%, with an average of 28.6 months. At the time of delivery, in 2010, recurrence was significantly associated with level of education (p=0.044 as well as not being in school (p=0.036. In 2014, the factors associated were level of education (p<0.001, transcript of grades (p=0.030 and income (p=0.030. Conclusion: Recurrence of teenage pregnancy represents a lack of importance given to formal education, a fact that mitigates the opportunities and hinders insertion in the labor market, creating a cycle of social inequality. Multidisciplinary efforts involving schools, health services and the youth in educational activities are thus vital, aiming at critical thinking to transform reality.

  17. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  18. Phytoplankton nyctemeral variation at a tropical river estuary (Itamaracá - Pernambuco - Brazil

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    S. R. Lacerda

    Full Text Available The Botafogo estuary is of socio-economical importance for Pernambuco State. It is located at the north of Santa Cruz Channel, Itamaracá, Pernambuco, Brazil (07º42'50"S and 34º52'10"W. There is a critical need to understand its functioning because of the rate at which this area is being converted to land uses. The phytoplankton dynamics was studied to enhance the knowledge of and verify the possible changes which have occurred in this ecosystem. Sampling was carried out with a plankton net 65 micrometers mesh size for qualitative data, and a Van Dorn bottle for quantitative data. Concurrent hydrological and chlorophyll-a data were collected. Samplings were made in one fixed station in July 1996 (rainy season and December 1996 (dry season, at 3-hour intervals during 24 hours. Eighty-seven specific and infra-specific taxa were identified from net plankton samples. Diatoms were most frequent, mainly Coscinodiscus centralis and Odontella regia in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Phytoplankton density varied from 205,000 to 1,210,000 cell.L-1 in the dry season, and from 230,000 to 2,510,000 cell.L-1 in the rainy season, indicating eutrophic conditions. Most numerically abundant were the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cylindrotheca closterium and the phytoflagellates. The ecosystem is polluted, and deleterious effects are minimized by the marine influence which allows periodic water renewal.

  19. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  20. Using an integrated approach to assess the sediment quality of an estuary from the semi-arid coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ivanildo Surini; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Fonseca, Tainá Garcia; Camargo, Julia Beatriz Duarte Alves; Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Abessa, Denis M S

    2016-03-15

    The Jundiaí-Potengi Estuary (JPE) on the semi-arid coast of Brazil is influenced by multiple sources of pollution. Sediment quality at 10 JPE sites was evaluated through an integrated approach. Rainy and dry seasons were considered. Collected sediments were analyzed for texture, metal, nitrogen, phosphorus concentrations, and toxicity to invertebrates. Geochemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated using qualitative approaches and multivariate techniques. We observed decreased sediment quality in both seasons, particularly in the mid-estuary. In the dry season, the contamination-toxicity relationship was clearer, as hydrological conditions favor contaminant retention within the estuary. Rainy season conditions were found to be worse, since stormwater drainage from agricultural and urban areas carries the contamination into the estuary. Because of the contamination sources and dissolved and particle-bound metal transport, contamination and toxicity did not correlate as clearly in the rainy season. The results suggest that unmeasured contaminants are contributing to JPE sediment degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  2. Hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary - Brazil: pre jetty conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Siegle; SCHETTINI, Carlos A. F.; KLEIN, Antonio H. F.; Toldo Jr.,Elírio E.

    2009-01-01

    Estuarine hydrodynamics is a key factor in the definition of the filtering capacity of an estuary and results from the interaction of the processes that control the inlet morphodynamics and those that are acting in the mixing of the water in the estuary. The hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary were assessed by two field campaigns conducted in 1998 that covered both neap and spring tide conditions. The period measured represents the estuarine hydrodynamics an...

  3. Functional diversity of fish in tropical estuaries: A traits-based approach of communities in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, C. A. B.; Mérigot, B.; Lucena-Frédou, F.; Ferreira, B. P.; Coxey, M. S.; Rezende, S. M.; Frédou, T.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental changes and human activities may have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. While biodiversity is traditionally based on species richness and composition, there is a growing concern to take into account functional diversity to assess and manage species communities. In spite of their economic importance, functional diversity quantified by a traits-based approach is still poorly documented in tropical estuaries. In this study, the functional diversity of fishes was investigated within four estuaries in Pernambuco state, northeast of Brazil. These areas are subject to different levels of human impact (e.g. mangrove deforestation, shrimp farming, fishing etc.) and environmental conditions. Fishes were collected during 34 scientific surveys. A total of 122 species were identified and 12 functional traits were quantified describing two main functions: food acquisition and locomotion. Fish abundance and functional dissimilarities data were combined into a multivariate analysis, the Double Principal Coordinate Analysis, to identify the functional typology of fish assemblages according to the estuary. Results showed that Itapissuma, the largest estuary with a wider mangrove forest area, differs from the other three estuaries, showing higher mean values per samples of species richness S and quadratic entropy Q. Similarly, it presented a different functional typology (the first two axes of the DPCoA account for 68.7% of total inertia, while those of a traditional PCA based solely on species abundances provided only 17.4%). Conversely, Suape, Sirinhaém, and to a lower extent Rio Formoso, showed more similarity in their diversity. This result was attributed to their predominantly marine influenced hydrological features, and similar levels of species abundances and in morphological traits. Overall, this study, combining diversity indices and a recent multivariate analysis to access species contribution to functional typology, allows to deepen

  4. Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China

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    David Kaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters.

  5. Use intensity of social networks in southern Brazil

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    Rafaele Matte Wojahn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A social network implies in connect people. This article aims to identify the use intensity of social network in Southern Brazil. The research was characterized by quantitative approach, descriptive, cross-sectional and survey, with a sample of 372 respondents. To data analysis was used descriptive analysis to characterize the sample, verify the access frequency of social networks and the daily access time, and Pearson’s Correlation to identify the daily access time and the social networks. The results indicated the social network used in more intensity is the Facebook and then Whatsapp, and the access occurs at home. However, all the social networks promote interactions toward users.

  6. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (plactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key

  7. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

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    Cindy Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine. Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  8. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

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    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD.The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979. For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (1973 adapted by Jann (2008. It was confirmed the hypothesis that segmentation occurs in the female labor market in Southern Brazil because the income differential cannot be explained only by personal attributes (productive or not and by formal work. There are specificities in the sectors (sector effect determining the income differential of women´s income in the labor market, moreover the sector effect explained 33% of the wage differential observed in industry, also explained 29% in the commerce and 35% of the female income gaps when compared to the service sector, which is considered as in advantage.

  9. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

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    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  10. Species of marine Isopoda (Crustacea, Peracarida from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of marine Isopoda collected in southern Brazil mostly in shallow-water and amongst seaweeds are studied. Five species are discussed and illustrated. A diagnosis is given for each species. Idotea metallica and Synidotea marplatensis are new oc currences for the area, and both have had their geographical range extended to off Rio de Janeiro. The presence of Idotea balthica and Erichsonella filiformis in southern Brazil was definitely asserted. Illustrations of both sexes of Rocinela signata and details about its occurrence in the region surveyed were made.O presente trabalho relaciona algumas espécies de isopodes marinhos coletados na região centro-sul do Brasil, em águas razas, em algas, ou entre emaranhados de folhas e raizes. Cinco espécies são ilustradas e discutidas. Uma diagnose é dada para cada espécie. I. metallica e S. marplatensis, constituindo novas ocorrências para a região, tiveram sua distribuição geográfica consideravelmente ampliada ate o Rio de Janeiro. A presença de I. balthica e E. filiformes na região e seguramente confirmada. Finalmente, são figurados o macho e a fêmea da espécie R. signata, ao mesmo tempo em que são fornecidos detalhes sobre sua ocorrência.

  11. Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jerônimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-02-01

    Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management.

  12. Reproductive period of the swimming crab Callinectes danae at the Santa Cruz Channel, a highly productive tropical estuary in Brazil

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    Marina de Sá Leitão Câmara de Araújo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze reproductive aspects of Callinectes danae in one of the most productive estuarine systems in the Northeast Brazil, Santa Cruz Channel. A total of 1.573 individuals, being 756 females (23 ovigerous and 817 males were examined from January to December 2009. Mature males and females, as well as couples of C. danae, occurred in all months of the year. Ovigerous females occurred in nearly all months. The reproductive activity, based on the macroscopic observation of the gonads, occurs continuously, with distinguishable peaks in February, March and September. Ovigerous females were only recorded nearest to the sea, while couples were only in the inner estuary. Thus, a migration pattern is proposed, with couples mating inside the estuary, followed by a migration of females to the area of greater marine influence for egg laying and, probably, larval release. After this, probably the females of do not return to the estuary, characterizing habitat partitioning. The present study is the first contribution on the reproductive period of C. danae in an estuarine ecosystem of the Brazilian northeast coast, and elucidates some aspects of its reproductive behavior.

  13. Benthic macrofaunal structure and secondary production in tropical estuaries on the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bissoli, Lorena B.; Bernardino, Angelo F.

    2017-01-01

    Estuaries are highly productive and support diverse benthic assemblages, but few estimates of benthic production are available for most ecosystems. In tropical estuaries mangroves and tidal flats are typical habitats with high spatial heterogeneity of benthic macrofaunal assemblages. However, accessing differences and similarities of benthic assemblages within estuarine habitats and between regional ecosystems may provide scientific support to management of those ecosystems. Here we studied t...

  14. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate variability and planktonic communities: The effect of an extreme event (severe drought) in a southern European estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sónia Cotrim; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Martinho, Filipe; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2007-07-01

    As a consequence of climate change, flood and drought events are increasing in frequency throughout the world. Nevertheless, knowledge of the effects on zooplankton estuarine communities is still scarce. The present study aimed to examine zooplankton ecology over two contrasting environmental conditions: regular years and extreme dry years, in a shallow temperate southern European estuary, the Mondego Estuary (Portugal). Monthly samples were carried out during three consecutive years: 2003 characterized as a regular temperate year concerning precipitation and river flow, and an extremely dry period during 2004-2005. The spatial and temporal structure of the biological data was evaluated by a three-mode principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed us to distinguish three distinct ecological areas based on their biological composition and their relationship with hydrologic parameters. The severe drought in 2004-2005 was responsible for spatial shifts in the estuary regarding zooplankton community and interannual variability, with an increase in abundance and diversity during the period of low freshwater flow. This freshwater flow regime influenced the composition of the zooplankton community at the most upstream section of Mondego estuary (zone 3), with a replacement of the freshwater community by one predominantly dominated by estuarine organisms. The occurrence of such estuarine community contributed to the increase in zooplankton abundance which is ascribed to the estuarine species Acartia tonsa. The comparison with previous data obtained for this estuarine ecosystem, demonstrated the occurrence of a different scenario at times of high freshwater flow, being defined the existence of two sub-estuarine systems, the north and south arm, presenting the south one the highest values of abundance.

  16. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

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    Diniz Nilza Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1 and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Samples of 194 bee colonies were collected from ten localities between 30°-35° SL and 52°-59° WL. The mtDNA restriction patterns of these colonies were obtained through digestion of the mitochondrial genome by Eco RI, or by digestion by Bgl II and Xba I of the cytochrome B locus and the COI-COII intergenic region, respectively. The distribution limit of African bee colonies, i.e., those populations with only the African mtDNA haplotype and with a high proportion of African genes as shown by allozyme analysis, is located in northern Uruguay, with a hybridization zone located farther south in Uruguay. A gradual cline from north to south was observed, confirmed by mtDNA, racial admixture, and genetic distance analyses. No evidence of either gametic disequilibrium between nuclear markers or cytonuclear disequilibrium among the nuclear and mtDNA genotypes was detected, suggesting that the hybridization process has been completed.

  17. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

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    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  18. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV coinfection in southern Brazil

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    Dulce Stauffert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease reactivation has been a defining condition for acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Brazil for individuals coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV since 2004. Although the first coinfection case was reported in the 1980s, its prevalence has not been firmly established. In order to know coinfection prevalence, a cross-sectional study of 200 HIV patients was performed between January and July 2013 in the city of Pelotas, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, an endemic area for Chagas disease. Ten subjects were found positive for T. cruzi infection by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. The survey showed 5% coinfection prevalence among HIV patients (95% CI: 2.0–8.0, which was 3.8 times as high as that estimated by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Six individuals had a viral load higher than 100,000 copies per μL, a statistically significant difference for T. cruzi presence. These findings highlight the importance of screening HIV patients from Chagas disease endemic areas.

  19. Reproductive biology of Echinanthera cyanopleura (Serpentes: Dipsadidae in southern Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycles of snakes can be influenced by many factors, both biotic and abiotic, and information about these factors can contribute significantly to knowledge of the biology of many species. Here, we present data on the reproductive biology (body size, sexual dimorphism and female reproductive cycle of the forest-dwelling colubrid Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885, based on analyses of 128 specimens preserved in collections and originating from the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The snout-vent length of females was significantly greater than in males. The tail length of mature females was greater than in males, although this difference was not significant. Vitellogenesis occurs from August to December and eggs were found in greater frequency from October through December. Juveniles were found in larger numbers beginning in February, indicating that recruitment occurs from January to April. The reproductive cycle of this species is seasonal, which is usual for oviparous colubrids of temperate areas of Brazil.

  20. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Southern Brazil sheep flocks

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    Plínio Aguiar de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites represent an important cause of reduced productivity of sheep worldwide. As anthelmintic are still the main control tool for these parasites, this work evaluated the efficacy of commercially available active principles in 22 sheep flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each farm 10 sheep were randomly distributed in seven groups with the following treatments: abamectin; albendazole; closantel; levamisole; monepantel; trichlorphon and no anthelmintic (control. All flocks showed resistance to at least three anthelmintics and in 20 farms only two products demonstrated efficacy for parasitic control. In two farms, there was no susceptibility to the six active principles tested. The results of this study provide evidence that the common commercially available anthelmintic are not assuring effective chemical control of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in ovine flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Monepantel, the newest introduced drug in the Brazilian market was not effective in 18% of the flocks tested, confirming that the parasitic resistance can be established quickly after the introduction of new molecules mainly when alternative program of parasite control is not performed.

  1. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  2. Fluxes of zooplankton biomass between a tidal estuary and the sea in Northeastern Brazil

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    Mauro de Melo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify the zooplankton biomass transport between the Santa Cruz Channel (SCC at Catuama north inlet and the adjacent shelf located in Itamaracá estuarine ecosystem, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in August 2001 at spring and neap tides at three stations every 3-hour interval. Collections were made in three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 µm mesh size net. Current data were obtained with an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. In laboratory, samples were filtered for wet weigh determination. High biomass variation was recorded, with highest values at nocturnal flood and ebb during spring tide. The average instantaneous biomass transport was 139.48 ± 72.58 mg.m-2s-1, during spring tide and 36.63 ± 27.66 mg.m-2s-1, during neap tide. No significant difference was registered between importation and exportation flows (p > 0.05, showing that the estuary both exports and imports high biomass during the rainy season. It can be concluded that the outwelling at SCC is high, however, differently from other places, importation is also high, probably due to the presence of reefs and patches of seagrass (Halodule wrightii toward the shelf that create a distinct productive environment.Este trabalho objetivou quantificar o transporte da biomassa zooplanctônica entre o Canal de Santa Cruz (CSC, na Barra de Catuama, e a plataforma adjacente no sistema estuarino de Itamaracá, Nordeste do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas em agosto/2001 durante as marés de sizígia e quadratura em três estações a cada 3 horas. As coletas foram em três profundidades com auxílio de bomba acoplada à rede de plâncton com 300 µm de abertura de malha. Dados de corrente foram obtidos com perfilador acústico de corrente (ADCP. Em laboratório, as amostras foram pesadas para obter o peso úmido. Foram registradas grandes variações na biomassa com valores mais altos nas marés enchente e

  3. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Michelle S P; Santiago, Idalina M F L; Cortez, Creuza S; Trindade, Priscila M; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7), Callinectes exasperatus (0.73) and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46). The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation.

  4. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) andtrota, A. salmonicida and A. allosaccharophila) were identified among 41 isolates. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone, whereas 33 (80, 4%) strains were resistant to at least 2 of the 9 antibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Domestic Dog Invasion in an Agroforestry Mosaic in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frigeri, Enrico; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Pardini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    .... Drawing on a camera-trap dataset obtained in 39 sites in an agroforestry mosaic in southern Bahia, Brazil, we investigated whether the conversion of native forests into agroforests and management...

  6. A multibiomarker approach in rats to assess the impact of pollution on Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rechenmacher, C; Siebel, A M; Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Sartori, T; Rodrigues, M T; Rodrigues, M A S; Gehlen, G; Ardenghi, P G; Silva, L B

    2010-01-01

    ... response in the Sinos River, southern Brazil. Wistar rats were studied using three biomarkers combined with physical, chemical and microbiological analysis to assess the effects of pollution at four sampling sites...

  7. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orlando Fernández Aquino; Vânia Maria de Oliveira Vieira; Marilene Ribeiro Resende; Maria Célia Borges

    2016-01-01

    The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil...

  8. Population structure and juvenile habitat use of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus in southern Brazil

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    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of population dynamics including the identification of reproductive areas and their contribution to the maintenance of fish stocks is essential for population conservation. Dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, is a broadly distributed fish species, usually found in marine rocky bottoms. It is currently listed as “endangered” by the IUCN Red List. The available information on its population in southern Brazil suggests that the neritic habitat of Carpinteiro Bank - CB is the main growth and spawning ground in the region. We investigated if the dusky groupers caught in the rocky-jetties of Rio Grande city (a littoral artificial habitat with no spawning activity originated from the CB. We sampled 28 individuals from the littoral rocky-jetties aged between 2 and 12 years, and 44 individuals from the neritic CB aged between 2 and 40 years. Individuals from both areas had their otolith sections analyzed with LA-ICPMS (core-to-edge profiles for 86Sr:43Ca, 138Ba:43Ca ratios. The otolith core (natal origin and edge (time shortly before capture from individuals of the same age class showed no difference between the two sites. Individual profiles of 138Ba:43Ca ratios of fish from the littoral zone indicated, for the first time, that some juveniles of dusky grouper enter the Patos lagoon and remain within the estuarine environment between the first and second years of life. This interpretation of otolith chemical data is supported by the marked differences in salinity between the littoral and estuarine sites in these studies areas, and by the marked differences in otolith 138Ba:43Ca of other fish species analyzed along the salinity gradient in the Patos Lagoon estuary. The identification of differential juvenile habitat use patterns is crucial for the establishment and implementation of management and conservation strategies to safeguard this endangered species.

  9. Species of Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports species of Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera occurring on the continental shelf of southern Brazil. Five species are recorded. S. polaris Richardson, 1911 and S. laevis Richardson, 1911, new records from Brazil, are redescribed. S. uaperta sp. n., S. veaperta sp. n. and S. completa sp. n., are new to science. A full description of the female S. laevis is given for the first time. Furthermore, the nonidentity of this species with S. convexa Cunningham, 1871, is positively established. Family, generic and specific diagnosis are provided. Ecological and dis tributional notes, as well as a classification key based on adult specimens, are given for each species studied.Faz-se um primeiro levantamento das espécies do gênero Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera ocorrendo na plataforma continental - centro-sul do Brasil, a partir da Lat. 22º00'S. Cinco espécies são registradas. As espécies S. polaris Richardson, 1911 e S. laevis Richardson, 1911, são redescritas, e representam ocorrências novas para o Brasil. As espécies S. uaperta sp . n., S. veaperta sp. n. e S. completa sp.n., são novas para a ciência. A fêmea de S. laevis é descrita pela primeira vez. Confirma-se, também, a validez das espécies S. convexa Cunningham, 1871 e S. laevis como espécies distintas. Fornece-se diagnoses para a família, gênero e para cada espécie estudada, assim como uma chave de identificação elaborada à base de espécimens adultos. À descrição de cada espécie seguem-se observações ecológicas.

  10. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  11. Review of some time of concentration equations for southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, Daniel; Ferreira, Pedro; Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2017-04-01

    The time of concentration (tc) of an urban catchment is a fundamental parameter for the design of stormwater drainage systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimation, several equations were proposed; however, almost none of them were verified in Brazilian conditions, leading to great uncertainties. Hence, the present work aims to test several time of concentration equations frequently used in Brazil, such as those proposed by Kirpich, Mccuen, Dooge, Pilgrim and McDermott, Desbordes and Schaake. The verification was accomplished by comparison with measured data from the urban sub-basins of Prado Velho and Gregório, located in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, respectively. The results were presented in terms of average absolute percentage error, which regarding the application of the equations in the two sites it was observed that only two of them resulted errors lower than 100%, in relation to the observed tc, and the Schaake equation showed the best approximations, with an error of 52%. At the Gregório sub-basin the best estimative of the tc also was found using Schaake equation, presenting an error of 28%, while the second best estimate, Mccuen, presented a much higher error (174%). In the other hand, the equations tested showed better results in the Prado Velho sub-basin, where only one resulted in an error greater than 100%. In this basin, Mccuen showed the best approximations (13%) related to the measured tc, followed by Desbordes (50%). The considerable variations observed in this study enlighten the urge of a more detailed analysis in further studies to better assist the selection of tc values, especially for Brazilian's urban basins.

  12. Monitoring cropland evapotranspiration using MODIS products in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhoff, Anderson; Aparecida Moreira, Adriana; de Arruda Souza, Vanessa; Roberti, Debora Regina

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics. In this context, remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to estimate plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to the State of Rio Grande do Sul (in Southern Brazil) to analyse cropland and natural vegetation evapotranspiration and its impacts during drought events. We validated MOD16 estimations using eddy correlation measurements and water balance closure at monthly and annual time scales. We used observed discharge data from three large rivers in Southern Brazil (Jacuí, Taquari and Ibicuí), precipitation data from TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (3B43 version 7) and terrestrial water storage estimations from the Gravity Recovery and climate Experiment (GRACE). MOD16 algorithm detected evapotranspiration in different land use and land cover conditions. In cropland areas, the average evapotranspiration was 705 mm/y, while in pasture/grassland was 750 mm/y and in forest areas was 1099 mm/y. Compared to the annual water balance, evapotranspiration was underestimated, with mean relative errors between 8 and 30% and coefficients of correlation between 0.42 to 0.53. The water storage change (dS/dt) computed from the water balance closure at monthly time scales showed a significant correlation with the terrestrial water storage obtained from GRACE data, with a coefficient of correlation of 0

  13. Contributions to the history of ocular toxoplasmosis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Melamed

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of knowledge regarding ocular toxoplasmosis over the last 30 years is described based on studies and observations performed in Southern Brazil. The isolation ofToxoplasma gondii established the definitive diagnosis of the disease. It was proven that in most cases, the disease was acquired after birth, a concept supported by the description of numerous familial cases and observation of the disease many years after primary infection. Epidemiological studies showed important regional variations in the prevalence of the disease due to different factors, including the types of strains involved, of which type I predominates. The large number of patients also enabled detailed study of the different forms of clinical presentation of the disease and its complications. New parameters have been established for the use of steroids and the management of pregnant women with active lesions. Studies on the epidemiology of toxoplasmic infection in pregnant women and newborns showed a high prevalence of infection. The different factors of exposure to infection have also been studied. Gradually, preventive actions have been developed in the sphere of public health, although they have not been sufficiently effective. Trends for future research over the next few years are also outlined.

  14. Genotoxic potential and physicochemical parameters of Sinos River, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Madalena C S; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L; Rodrigues, Manoela T; Maluf, Sharbel W; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S; Silva, Luciano Basso da

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring.

  15. Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in sheep from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2013-09-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health.

  16. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  17. Fumonisins in corn (Zea mays L.) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Savi, Geovana D; Costas, Lea Luzia Freitas; Xavier, José Junior Mendonça; Manfio, Daniel; Bittencourt, Karoline O; Aguiar, Kin; Stein, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 232 samples of corn commercialised in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil (temperate zone climate), were evaluated from 2007 to 2012 for fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2). Before performing this study, a FBs method with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (ex. 335; em. 440 nm) was validated first. FBs were detected in 46.6% (108 samples), with values ranging from 66 to 7832 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and 110 to 1201 µg kg(-1) for FB2. The number of contaminated corn samples for FB1 and FB2 varied and often presented contamination of FB1 only. Per year of analysis, the numbers were: n = 22/8(FB1/FB2), 44/5(FB1/FB2), 25/12(FB1/FB2), 4(FB1), 6(FB1) and 7(FB1) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The contamination percentage was 42.3/15.4, 59.5/6.8, 43.8/21.1, 36.4, 35.3 and 33.3%, respectively, during these years. Consumers can be exposed to these mycotoxins and their health can be at risk through the consumption of contaminated corn.

  18. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  19. Contributions to the history of ocular toxoplasmosis in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, J

    2009-03-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding ocular toxoplasmosis over the last 30 years is described based on studies and observations performed in Southern Brazil. The isolation of Toxoplasma gondii established the definitive diagnosis of the disease. It was proven that in most cases, the disease was acquired after birth, a concept supported by the description of numerous familial cases and observation of the disease many years after primary infection. Epidemiological studies showed important regional variations in the prevalence of the disease due to different factors, including the types of strains involved, of which type I predominates. The large number of patients also enabled detailed study of the different forms of clinical presentation of the disease and its complications. New parameters have been established for the use of steroids and the management of pregnant women with active lesions. Studies on the epidemiology of toxoplasmic infection in pregnant women and newborns showed a high prevalence of infection. The different factors of exposure to infection have also been studied. Gradually, preventive actions have been developed in the sphere of public health, although they have not been sufficiently effective. Trends for future research over the next few years are also outlined.

  20. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  1. Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria in red mangrove forest at Mosquitos and Coqueiros estuaries, São Luís, State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    N. M. C. NOGUEIRA

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a taxonomic survey of the Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria in a frenge red mangrove forest in the estuaries of Estreito dos Mosquitos and Coqueiros, São Luís, State of Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 15 taxa were identified in 8 families, as follows: Synechoccaceae (2, Chroococcaceae (1, Hyellaceae (1, Xenococcaceae (1, Oscillatoriaceae (1, Scytonemataceae (2, Phormidiaceae (5 and Pseudanabaenaceae (2. The species listed in this paper are all new descriptions for Maranhão, and one of them is a new ocurrence for Brazil.

  2. Distribution and abundance of Cladocera (Branchiopoda in the Paraíba do Sul River estuary, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Mauro Sterza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the cladoceran community of the Paraíba do Sul River estuary, located in the district of São João da Barra, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, cladocerans were collected monthly in nine sampling stations from September 2002 until August 2003. Samples were obtained by subsurface tows using a plankton net with a 30 cm opening mouth and 70 micron mesh size, fitted with a mechanical flowmeter. Environmental parameters such as salinity and temperature were also obtained. Seventeen species of Cladocera were identified: Pseudoevadne tergestina, Penilia avirostris, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina micrura, Simocephalus kerhervei, Simocephalus vetalus, Simocephalus latirostris, Simocephalus serrulatus, Alona rectangula, Alona quadrangularis, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Camptocercus dadayi, Ceriodaphnia richardi, Diaphanosoma fluviatile, Kurzia latissima and Pleuroxus similis. The highest total abundance of Cladocera occurred in April in the marine zone of the estuary. The most abundant species during this period was Penilia avirostris. At the mixing and freshwater zones of the estuary, the most abundant species were Moina micrura, mainly in January; and Simocephalus vetalus and Bosmina longirostris during spring. From this scenario, it can be inferred that the cladoceran community of the Paraíba do Sul River estuary presents characteristics of marine, brackish and freshwater environments. Temperature and salinity seem to limit the occurrence and distribution of cladocerans in the estuary.O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a comunidade zooplanctônica de cladóceros no estuário do Rio Paraíba do Sul, localizado no município de São João da Barra, RJ. O zooplâncton foi coletado mensalmente de setembro/2002 a agosto/2003 em nove estações através de arrastos subsuperficiais com uma rede de plâncton com abertura de boca de 30 cm e malha de 70 mµ, dotada de fluxômetro mecânico. Foram medidas simultaneamente a

  3. Urban sediment particle size and pollutants in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (BR). Hydraulic Research Inst. (IPH); Bortoluzzi, Edson C. [Univ. of Passo Fundo - UPF, RS (Brazil); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Studies of particulate-associated pollutants, or PAPs, in urban areas have become necessary due to their potentially deleterious effects on the environment. However, it is not just the sediments themselves which are problematic but also their particle size composition, which has a great influence on their capacity to adsorb and transport pollutants. This paper presents the particle size distributions and concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of urban sediments collected from paved streets and gully pots from 20 cities in southern Brazil. The cities have different characteristics and hence sources of PAPs associated with differing geologies, soil types and type of urbanisation. Studies of this nature enable elucidation of the relationship between diffuse sources such as streets and gully pots and the likelihood of PAPs to subsequently pollute the urban aquatic environment. Materials and methods: Sediment samples were taken at random from paved streets and gully pots in 20 cities in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil by means of a portable vacuum cleaner to avoid loss of finer particles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured using a Cilas {sup registered} 1180 laser particle analyzer, and the concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by wet acid digestion (HCl-HF-HClO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on the <63-{mu}m fraction. Results: It was found that in comparison to sediments collected from the streets, gully pot sediments were more heterogeneous in terms of particle size and also that sediment samples from the gully pots were predominantly coarser than those originating on the streets. From the gully pot results, analysis of the modal particle diameter enabled the cities to be divided into three categories. The concentrations of metals in the street sediments were similar across all 20 cities, with all concentrations above

  4. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

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    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  5. Human coronavirus and severe acute respiratory infection in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-05-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.

  6. Annual cycle and composition of the phytoplankton in the Quempillen River Estuary, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, J. E.

    1985-10-01

    Phytoplankton species and abundance were studied in the Quempillen River Estuary, from August 1979 to July 1980 in addition to some important environmental factors: salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen. In order to determine the seasonal variations in cell density and biomass of the phytoplankton in this brackish aquatic environment, phytoplankton data obtained by the Uthermöhl (1958) technique were analysed. A total of 109 phytoplankton species were identified within the samples. Throughout the year there were two periods of population maxima, September and May, and one period of high biomass, February. The phytoflagellates were always present but only dominated the flora when diatoms were extremely reduced, especially during low tide periods.

  7. Hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary - Brazil: pre jetty conditions

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    Eduardo Siegle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine hydrodynamics is a key factor in the definition of the filtering capacity of an estuary and results from the interaction of the processes that control the inlet morphodynamics and those that are acting in the mixing of the water in the estuary. The hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary were assessed by two field campaigns conducted in 1998 that covered both neap and spring tide conditions. The period measured represents the estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport prior to the construction of the jetty in 2003 and provides important background information for the Camboriú estuary. Each field campaign covered two complete tidal cycles with hourly measurements of currents, salinity, suspended sediment concentration and water level. Results show that the Camboriú estuary is partially mixed with the vertical structure varying as a function of the tidal range and tidal phase. The dynamic estuarine structure can be balanced between the stabilizing effects generated by the vertical density gradient, which produces buoyancy and stratification flows, and the turbulent effects generated by the vertical velocity gradient that generates vertical mixing. The main sediment source for the water column are the bottom sediments, periodically resuspended by the tidal currents. The advective salt and suspended sediment transport was different between neap and spring tides, being more complex at spring tide. The river discharge term was important under both tidal conditions. The tidal correlation term was also important, being dominant in the suspended sediment transport during the spring tide. The gravitational circulation and Stokes drift played a secondary role in the estuarine transport processes.As trocas de água e materiais através das desembocaduras de estuários são de difícil quantificação e são de fundamental importância para o entendimento do funcionamento de estuários e da zona costeira. A

  8. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo R. Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth, airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000, terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE, and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes. As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul existem quatro fazendas produtoras de camarões (Litopenaeus vannamei marinhos nos municípios de São José do Norte e Rio Grande, e outras quatro fazendas já possuem licença prévia. Assim, o presente estudo propôs identificar e caracterizar as áreas destinadas a cultivos de camarões marinhos localizadas na porção sul do estuário da lagoa dos Patos (32º00'S 52º00'W, empregando análises de sensoriamento remoto orbital (ETM+/Landsat, Google Earth, aéreo (35mm/sistema ADAR 1000, terrestre (RICOH 500SE e de saídas de campo, integrando os dados num Sistema de Informação Geográfica (IDRISI Andes. Resultados apontaram que os empreendimentos foram construídos sobre

  9. Zooplankton community structure and biomass in a southern African temporarily open/closed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froneman, P. W.

    2004-05-01

    The zooplankton community structure and biomass in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the temporarily open/closed Kasouga estuary were investigated monthly over a period of one year. Multiple range tests performed after ANOVA indicated that there were no distinct spatial patterns in the physico-chemical and biological variables during the study ( P>0.05). Total chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentration and zooplankton biomass during the investigation ranged between 0.91 and 5.92 mg chl- a m -3 and between 19.51 and 103.50 mg Dwt m -3, respectively. The highest levels (>3 mg chl- a m -3; >45 mg Dwt m -3) were consistently recorded during summer and the lowest (larvae to the total zooplankton biomass. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three distinct zooplankton groupings during the study. These groupings corresponded to the summer and winter communities and a community associated with overtopping and breaching events. SIMPER analysis indicated that the differences between the summer and winter communities reflect changes in the relative contributions of the dominants as opposed to the presence/absence of species. The overtopping/breaching group was characterized by the presence of larvae of marine breeding invertebrates and fish. These data indicate that the zooplankton community structure and biomass in the temporarily open/closed Kasouga estuary are determined by the interactive effects of freshwater inflow, water temperature and mouth status.

  10. Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LO. Ceuta

    Full Text Available This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests.

  11. Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length) and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests.

  12. Reproductive biology of Plagioscion magdalenae (Teleostei: Sciaenidae (Steindachner, 1878 in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Barbosa Santos

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae (pacora is a commercially important benthopelagic sciaenid and widely distributed in the Amazon River basin. The present study describes the reproductive biology of this species in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil. The gonadal development stage, age and size at first sexual maturity (L50, sex ratio, and reproductive strategy were determined. The data were collected bi-monthly from December 2005 to October 2006. A total of 251 specimens were examined, with the total length (TL ranging between 220 and 590 mm. The weight-length relationship for females, males and grouped sexes was highly significant, showing a positive allometry. The L50 was of 279 mm for grouped sexes, with 305 mm and 269 mm TL for females and males respectively. The sex ratio for the total number of individuals favored the males (2.02 males: 1 female. Macroscopically, the gonads were classified as immature, maturing, mature and spent. Considering the macro and microscopic evaluation of the gonads, an extended spawning period, mainly in August to February, was observed.

  13. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  14. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  15. Psychiatry, Sex and Science: The Making of “Adolescent” Motherhood in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Behague, Dominique Pareja

    2017-01-01

    Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts’ long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epi...

  16. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906: First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

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    Lanés, L. E. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  17. Survival due to vitelline reserve of a finned neonate of Carcharias taurus in southern of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Luis Gustavo; Vooren, Carolus Maria; Haimovici, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A neonate of Carcharias taurus with mutilated fins was caught during commercial fishing with monofilament nylon bottom gillnets on the continental shelf of southern Brazil. The individual, a 100-cm long male, had the lobes of the first dorsal and two pectoral fins, probably cut clean with a knife and the wounds were healing process. The specimen probably was captured by the first time as a neonate and survival may only have happened due to the yolk reserve it was born with. In southern Brazil...

  18. Blueberry pollination in southern Brazil and their influence on fruit quality

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    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei is a relatively new crop in cultivation under Southern Brazil conditions. The first collection introduced in the area was formed by rabbiteye cultivars which need insect pollinators and also pollinizers. The aim of this work was to observe if there were differences between pollinizers on fruit quality of the commercial cultivar and also to observe the most effective and frequent insect pollinators, under natural conditions. It was concluded that pollen source has an effect on quality of blueberry fruits. Bumblebees are the most efficient pollinators; however the species found in southern Brazil are different from the ones mentioned in the U.S. literature.

  19. Foreign policy of the New Left: explaining Brazil's Southern partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Pickup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to consider the relationship between domestic change and foreign policy in Brazil, a country seeking to become Latin America's hegemon, and achieve greater global status. It focuses on Brazil's partnerships with other countries in the Global South. It argues that, due to the combination of institutions and interests behind foreign policy-making in Brazil, there is no coherent project of South-South engagement. As a result, South-South ties tend to contradict the Brazilian government's foreign policy objective of acting as a global equaliser. The study also examines the drivers of Brazil's foreign conduct, and argues that the politico-economic determinants of foreign policy differ from those of domestic policy.

  20. Ichthyofauna as bioindicator of environmental quality in an industrial district in the amazon estuary, Brazil

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    AP. Viana

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe the ecological status of ichthyofauna in an industrial district (Pará river, Amazon estuary, through the use of different environmental descriptors. To evaluate the impacts of the industrial area and cargo terminal, three areas were considered: Zone 1 (maximum impact, Zone 2 (median impact and Zone 3 (low impact. A total of 77 species were captured. Differences in the composition of the ichthyofauna were recorded between Zones and environments (main channel and tidal channel. The ecological indices revealed clear evidence of the impact of the industrial hub and cargo terminal on the fish communities. In Zone 1, there was a reduction in the number of feeding groups (in the main channel and larger fish and the Shannon diversity index and Margalef's richness were also significantly lower. The multivariate analysis separated the different Zones clearly into three groups, indicating marked differences in the levels of contamination in the different parts of the study area.

  1. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  2. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  3. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  4. Socioeconomic Status of Farmers and Economic Development in Two Communities of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario

    This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…

  5. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka Breganó, Regina; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Barbante Casella, Antônio Marcelo; Ruiz Lopes Mori, Fabiana Maria; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue,Inácio Teruo; REICHE, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was

  6. Three species of Crustacea Decapoda Macrura from Southern Brazil, including a new species of Upogebia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    In June 1954, during an ecological study of the mangroves near the Research Station of the São Paulo University Oceanographic Institute at Cananeia, about 200 km south of Santos, southern Brazil, Dr. S. Gerlach of the Zoological Institute and Museum of the University of Kiel, Germany, collected some

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  8. Monohedotrochus capitolii, a new genus and species of solitary azooxanthellate coral (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitahara, M.V.; Cairns, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of azooxanthellate solitary coral, Monohedotrochus capitolii, are described in the subfamily Caryophylliinae, based on 42 specimens, most collected off Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, southern Brazil. The new genus is characterized by being solitary and attached,

  9. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

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    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  10. Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae: conservation, notes, and rediscovery of an endangered butterfly from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Russo Siewert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae is an endemic and threatened butterfly from the Pampa biome in southern Brazil, and has not been recorded in its type locality in the last 56 years. Recently, a population was found in two sites from extreme south Brazil, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state. These records are an important find given the conservation status of S. pelotensis, since all the information gathered is new and involve the natural history of this species. The information obtained is useful for the management, monitoring and conservation priorities of this species and its associated habitats, since its known distribution is restricted to a narrow area in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain inside this threatened biome in southern Brazil.

  11. AGROCLIMATIC ZONING OF EUROPEAN AND ASIAN PEAR CULTIVARS WITH POTENTIAL FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTING IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    MARCOS SILVEIRA WREGE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pear is among the fruits of major commercial interest in the world and one of the most imported in Brazil. Brazilian production is very small and the fruit quality is low, due to production problems. The success of culture in the country, among other factors, may be linked to the choice of cultivars, pollinating and rootstocks better adapted to local conditions, and thus depend on the particulars of an agricultural zoning. The aim of this study was to identify, in southern Brazil, homogeneous climatic zones with potential for growing of European and Asian pears, through climate risk studies. The regions were defined by the seasonal availability of chilling hours (<7.2 °C accumulated during the period from May to September and the monthly risk of drought. The analysis allowed the recognition of four homogeneous areas for the production of pears in southern Brazil.

  12. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil

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    Michelle S.P. Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE, Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance. Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks, mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7, Callinectes exasperatus (0.73 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46. The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation.Nós analisamos a apropriação e o uso dos recursos pesqueiros pelas mulheres que moram no Estuário do Rio Mamanguape, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foi usada uma combinação de métodos qualitativos (entrevistas e observações diretas e quantitativos (valor de uso e concordância de uso principal corrigido. Foram entrevistadas 30 mulheres e registrado o uso de 41 espécies (peixes - 30, crustáceos - 08 e moluscos - 03, principalmente para consumo local e venda. As espécies com maior valor de uso foram Genidens genidens (0,7, Callinectes exasperatus (0,73 e Anomalocardia brasiliana (0,46. A diversidade de recursos explorados demonstra a importância do manguezal para as famílias do ERM, e os dados coletados podem servir de base para a formulação de políticas públicas que promovam a participação igualitária de mulheres na pesca, e na conservação ambiental.

  13. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

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    Lars Wolf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

  14. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

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    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  15. Population biology of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ucididae in an estuary from semiarid Northeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Miranda Leão Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is an important resource of estuarine regions along the Brazilian coast. U. cordatus is distributed from Florida, USA, to the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The species plays an important role in processing leaf litter in the mangroves, which optimizes the processes of energy transfer and nutrient cycling, and is considered a keystone species in the ecosystem. Population declines have been reported in different parts of the Brazilian coast. In the present study we evaluated aspects of the population structure, sex ratio and size at morphological sexual maturity. We analyzed 977 specimens collected monthly over 24 months (2010-2012, in a mangrove of the Jaguaribe River, in the municipality of Aracati on the East coast of Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil. The study area has a mild semiarid tropical climate, with mean temperatures between 26 and 28oC. The area is located within the eco-region of the semiarid Northeast coast, where mangroves occur in small areas and estuaries are affected by mesomareal regimes. The population structure was evaluated by the frequency distribution of size classes in each month, and the overall sex ratio was analyzed using the chi-square test. Size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated based on the allometry of the cheliped of the males and the abdomen width of the females, using the program REGRANS. The size-frequency distribution was unimodal in both sexes. The overall sex ratio (M: F (1:0.6 was significantly different from 1:1. Analysis of the sex ratio by size class showed that the proportion of males increased significantly from size class 55-60mm upward, and this pattern persisted in the larger size classes. In the smaller size classes the sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated at a carapace width (CW of 52mm and 45mm for males and females, respectively. Analysis of the population parameters indicated that the

  16. Population biology of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ucididae) in an estuary from semiarid northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marcos de Miranda Leão; Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Silva, José Roberto Feitosa

    2013-12-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is an important resource of estuarine regions along the Brazilian coast. U. cordatus is distributed from Florida, U.S.A., to the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The species plays an important role in processing leaf litter in the mangroves, which optimizes the processes of energy transfer and nutrient cycling, and is considered a keystone species in the ecosystem. Population declines have been reported in different parts of the Brazilian coast. In the present study we evaluated aspects of the population structure, sex ratio and size at morphological sexual maturity. We analyzed 977 specimens collected monthly over 24 months (2010-2012), in a mangrove of the Jaguaribe River, in the municipality of Aracati on the East coast of Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil. The study area has a mild semiarid tropical climate, with mean temperatures between 26 and 28 degrees C. The area is located within the eco-region of the semiarid Northeast coast, where mangroves occur in small areas and estuaries are affected by mesomareal regimes. The population structure was evaluated by the frequency distribution of size classes in each month, and the overall sex ratio was analyzed using the chi-square test. Size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated based on the allometry of the cheliped of the males and the abdomen width of the females, using the program REGRANS. The size-frequency distribution was unimodal in both sexes. The overall sex ratio (M:F) (1:0.6) was significantly different from 1:1. Analysis of the sex ratio by size class showed that the proportion of males increased significantly from size class 55-60 mm upward, and this pattern persisted in the larger size classes. In the smaller size classes the sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated at a carapace width (CW) of 52 mm and 45 mm for males and females, respectively. Analysis of the population parameters indicated that the

  17. Biomarkers responses in fish (Atherinella brasiliensis of paranaguá bay, southern Brazil, for assessment of pollutant effects

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    Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranaguá bay is a complex estuary located in southern Brazil containing three protected areas listed by UNESCO. Historically, the estuary has been affected by urban, industrial, agricultural and harbor activities, and occasional accidents. Specifically, the explosion of the Chilean ship Vicuña in December 2004 spilled methanol and crude and fuel oils which affected both protected and non-protected areas. The present study sought to investigate the pollution threat to aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the potential effects of pollutants. One hundred and twenty adult fish Atherinella brasiliensis were collected from different sites within Paranaguá estuary, including the harbor and open ocean, during summer, autumn and winter of 2005. Among the biomarkers, the somatic index, chemical analysis of bile, biochemical, genetic and morphological parameters were considered. Chemical analysis of bile showed a continuous bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs according to proximity to the harbor site. The histopathological findings have demonstrated aconsiderable incidence of severe pathologies in the liver and gills, corroborated by biochemical disturbances and genetic damage. These findings indicate that more studies are necessary to evaluate both water quality and fish health so as to permit a better analysis of the impact of pollution in Paranaguá estuary.A Baia de Paranaguá é um complexo estuarino localizado no sul do Brasil constituído de três áreas de proteção ambiental listadas pela UNESCO. Historicamente, o estuário tem sido afetado por atividade urbana, industrial, agricultura e portuária, e eventualmente por acidentes. Particularmente a explosão do navio Chileno Vicuña em dezembro de 2004 derramou metanol, óleo cru e combustível atingindo áreas protegidas e não protegidas. O presente estudo tem por objetivo investigar a poluição em organismos aquáticos. Cento e vinte indivíduos adultos do peixe

  18. Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita stock identification and incipient exploitation in southern Brazil

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    Felipe M Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita is an essential species in the pelagic ecosystem of the southwest Atlantic Ocean, and a potentially important fishery resource. Exploitation has recently started in southern Brazil, so it requires a better understanding of their structure and population dynamics. This work aims to update the information on the population identification of E. anchoita. Parameters such as age and size composition, length-at-age data and other parameters using sagittae otoliths were used to compare anchovy of the continental shelf between 20° and 32°S. The results indicate the existence of different populations in the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil: the bonaerense stock in southern Brazil is shared with Argentina and Uruguay and exhibits migratory behavior, while in the southeast there is a population confined to this region and shows different population characteristics. This has implications for the management of this species and should be taken into account by the institutions responsible for the assessment and management of fisheries in Brazil.

  19. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

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    Barbara Maichak De Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters (salinity, chlorophyll, pH and water temperature. Collections were conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, at 17 sites in the north-south axis of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. CTD profiling was carried out every month to measure the environmental parameters. At each month and sampling site, a paralel trawling 30 m long was carried out using a beach seine net 5 m long, 2 m high and 2.5 mm between opposite knots. After collection, fish were identified, measured for total length, weighed and the ages were estimated according von Bertalanffy. We caught 10024 individuals with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Our results evidenced that all age classes of A. brasiliensis are present in shallow areas. This species shows different habitat use between age classes, which is caused by changes in feeding habits and higher availability of favorable environments, besides specific characteristics.

  20. Interannual sea level variability in the Pearl River Estuary and its response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Qiang; Mao, Xian-zhong; Bi, Hongsheng; Yin, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The South China coast, especially the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) region, is prosperous and densely populated, but vulnerable to sea level changes. Sea level anomalies (SLA) during 1954-2012 from tide gauge station data and regional SLAs during 1993-2012 from satellite altimetry are analyzed and compare to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results show that sea level declines during El Niño events and rises during La Niña. Sea level in the PRE responds to ENSO with 3-month lag. The ENSO can cause sea level in the PRE to fluctuate from -8.70 to 8.11 cm. Sea level cycles of 3 and 5 years are related to ENSO. The ENSO mechanism affecting sea level in the PRE was analyzed by identifying dominant regional and local forces. Weak/strong SLAs in most El Niño/La Niña events may be attributed to less/more seawater transport driven by anomalously weak/strong north winds and local anomalously high/low sea level pressure. Wind-driven coastal current is the predominant factor. It generated coastal seawater volume transport along a 160 km wide cross section to decrease by 21.07% in a typical El Niño period (January 2010) and increase by 44.03% in a typical La Niña period (January 2011) as compared to an ENSO neutral situation (January 2013). Results of sea level rise and its potential mechanism provide insight for disaster protection during extreme El Niño/La Niña events.

  1. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  2. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  3. Functional diversity of zooplankton communities in two tropical estuaries (NE Brazil) with different degrees of human-induced disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Helena; Patrício, Joana; Gonçalves, Érica; Moura, Gustavo C; Barbosa, José Etham L; Gonçalves, Ana M M

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the functional diversity (FD) of copepod communities along the environmental gradient of two tropical estuaries with different intensities of human impact - the environmentally protected "Mamanguape" and the urbanised "Paraiba". Different trait-based approaches were used: functional groups identification and description, and FD indices estimation. The results showed similar functional groups and functional indices between the two estuaries with some variability attributed to seasonality. Copepods in each estuary seemed to perform similar functions. Overall, biomass was more evenly distributed among groups, and mean total biomass and FD indices were slightly higher in the Mamanguape. Nevertheless, both estuaries presented comparable FD, indicating that environmental filters may be the main driver of species coexistence within systems. Results also pointed towards anthropogenic disturbance, despite the protection status of the Mamanguape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between copepod community structure, rainfall regimes, and hydrological variables in a tropical mangrove estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalhães, André; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2015-01-01

    The influence of rainfall and hydrological variables on the abundance and diversity of the copepod community was investigated on a monthly basis over an annual cycle in the Taperaçu mangrove estuary...

  5. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  6. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline Ozorio

    2007-01-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg_1, which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils’ horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic vo...

  7. Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes, Adair S; Silva, Kelly S; Barbosa Filho, Valter C; Bezerra, Jorge; de Oliveira, Elusa S A; Nahas, Markus V

    2014-01-01

    ...), among students in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys that included 5 028 and 6 529 students in 2001 and 2011, respectively, aged 15-19 years...

  8. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 μg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples.

  9. FRAGMENT AGRICULTURAL PESTS OF SOME PARASITOIDS COLLECTED IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS AND SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different parasitoids of some insect pests in southern Goiás and southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported in this article. The egg parasitoids obtained Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae were specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, two specimens of Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, 41 specimens Gryon gallardoi (Brethes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae and six specimens of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae. The parasitoids obtained Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae were 03 specimens of Leptopilina boulardi Barbotin et al. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and 285 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae. The occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae were: 21 specimens of Bracon sp., (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and 13 specimens Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae. In Lonomia sp. were collected: 4 specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae and three specimens of Aprostocetus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae.

  10. Habits and customs of crab catchers in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Tenório, Gabrielle D; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2017-08-23

    Brazilian mangrove forests are widely distributed along the coast and exploited by groups of people with customs and habits as diverse as the biology of the mangrove ecosystems. This study identifies different methods of extracting crabs that inhabit the mangrove belts; some of these activities, such as catching individual crabs by hand, are aimed at maintaining natural stocks of this species in Mucuri (south Bahia), Brazil. In the studied community, illegal hunting activities that violate Brazilian legislation limiting the use of tangle-netting in mangrove ecosystem were observed. According to our observations, fishermen, to catch individual crabs, use the tangle-netting technique seeking to increase income and are from families that have no tradition of extraction. This analysis leads us to conclude that catchers from economically marginalised social groups enter mangroves for purposes of survival rather than for purposes of subsistence, because the catching by tangle-netting is a predatory technique. Tangle-netting  technique increase caught but also increases their mortality rate. We emphasise that traditional catching methods are unique to Brazil and that manual capturing of crab should be preserved through public policies aimed at maintaining the crab population.

  11. Pleistocene and holocene beaches and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.

    The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene beaches respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene beaches indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of beach/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene beaches are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel beaches, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. Beaches of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene beaches found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present beaches. Sangamonian beaches aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene beaches are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern beaches are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive beaches between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.

  12. Early migration and estuary stopover of introduced chinook salmon population in the Lapataia River Basin, southern Tierra del Fuego Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalde, T.; Fernández, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Established populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently been reported in South America, at both Atlantic and Pacific basins. Several studies have evaluated different aspects of their life histories; however, little is known about the use of the estuaries by the juveniles of these populations. We examined spawning time, seaward migration timing, growth rate, scale patterns, diet, and geometric morphometric, contrasting the early life history during freshwater and estuary residence of a chinook population established in Lapataia Basin. Fall run spawning took place in March-April and the parr emerged in September. Two distinct seaward migration patterns were identified from sein net fishing records: one population segment migrating earlier to the estuary in October and a second group migrating later in February. The growth rate of fish captured at the estuary was significantly higher than the fish captured in freshwater. In addition, higher scale intercirculi distances were observed in estuary fish showing differences in growth rate. The feeding habitat in fish captured in both environments changed through time from bottom feeding to surface feeding and from significant diet overlap to no overlap. The morphology of the fish captured at the estuary was associated with the elongation of the caudal peduncle and a decrease in the condition factor index, both changes related to smolt transformation. The earlier migration and the higher growth rate of juveniles in the estuary together with fish of 1 + yo captured in this environment reveal that the estuary of Lapataia Basin is not only a stopover for the chinook salmon, but also a key habitat to reside and feed previous to the final seaward migration.

  13. Characterization of Campylocarpon pseudofasciculare associated with black foot of grapevine in southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Feliciano dos SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of black foot has been recently increasing in nurseries and vineyards of southern Brazil. The goal of the present study was to characterize Campylocarpon isolates associated with black foot of grapevines (Vitis spp. using multi-gene DNA analysis (internal transcribed spacers [ITS rDNA], β-tubulin and histone H3 and morphological characteristics, and to test the pathogenicity of the isolates in grapevine (Vitis labrusca cv. Bordô. The three DNA regions analyzed indicated that all the isolates belonged to Campylocarpon pseudofasciculare. Their morphology was similar to descriptions published for the species. Isolates exhibited umber- to chestnut-coloured colonies and macroconidia (38.0 × 7.0 μm predominantly with three septa. All the isolates inoculated in V. labrusca cv. Bordô caused typical symptoms of black foot. This is the first report of Campylocarpon pseudofasciculare in southern Brazil.

  14. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  15. Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AD. Vecchia

    Full Text Available In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV, enterovirus (EV, genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV and Torque teno virus (TTV, in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil. A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment, and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage. Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4 to 4.4 × 10(7 MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10³ to 1.7 × 10(7 MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25% and GARV (28.6% viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%, EV (37.5%, and TTV (12.5% genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%, and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, southern Brazil.

  16. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

    2015-01-01

    This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% co...

  17. Domesticated Landscapes in Araucaria Forests, Southern Brazil: A Multispecies Local Conservation-by-Use System

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício S. Reis; Tiago Montagna; Andréa G. Mattos; Samantha Filippon; Ana H. Ladio; Anésio da Cunha Marques; Alex A. Zechini; Nivaldo Peroni; Adelar Mantovani

    2018-01-01

    Araucaria forest is a sub-tropical component of the Atlantic Forest Biome, occurring between 18 and 30° S latitude, and 500–1,800 m altitude in Southern and Southwestern Brazil and Northwestern Argentina. In recent history (Twentieth century), this forest has undergone non-sustainable exploitation and reduction in area dedicated to agricultural and forestry use. However, smallholders continue using several resources from this forest, even adapting management systems. The main system is geared...

  18. Population dynamics of TROPIDURUS TORQUATUS (WIED, 1820) (SQUAMATA, TROPIDURIDAE) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Renata Cardoso; Felappi, Jéssica Francine; Caruccio, Rodrigo; Verrastro Viñas, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus was studied between May 2008 and June 2009 in a rocky formation in Alegrete municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The study was carried out using the capture, marking and recapture method, the area being randomly searched from 08:00 am to 6:00 pm. Tropidurus torquatus presented variation in population structure throughout the study period, with maximum biomass observed in October 2008 and maximum density occurring in Nov...

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Birds at Eucalyptus and other flowers in Southern Brazil: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Edwin O. [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    In southern Brazil, I recorded 14 species of hummingbirds, one woodpecker, three Psittacidae, four Tyrannidae, one mockingbird, and 31 tanagers and relatives at eucalyptus flowers. Others have registered 3 different hummingbirds, another parrotlet, four more tyrannids, a peppershrike, a thrush, and 5 tanagers and related birds, for a total of 69 species. However, commercial plantations rarely flower, so use is local or undependable. Understory Phaethorninae are not recorded at eucalyptus, rar...

  1. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Moreno; Ricardo Ludwig Schmitt; Maria Gabriela Lang; Vanessa Gheno

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the w...

  2. Freshwater Fishes, Ilha de Santa Catarina, southern coastal drainage of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertaco, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ilha de Santa Catarina is situated in southern Brazil, Atlantic Forest, in the state of Santa Catarina,municipality of Florianópolis. Fish specimens were collected in 15 sampling points along the drainages of rio CórregoGrande, rio Palha, rio Ratones, rio Tavares, rio Vermelho, as well as in the channel of lagoa do Peri. Specimensbelonging to 16 species (one of them exotic were collected, distributed in 12 families and six orders.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenardie, Elizandra R; Scaini, Carlos J; Brod, Claudiomar S; Pepe, Michele S; Villela, Marcos M; McBride, Alan J A; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria E A

    2013-06-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxocara canis antibodies in children aged from 1 to 12 yr old was evaluated in Pelotas City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human toxocariasis or visceral larva migrans (VLM) was diagnosed with the use of an ELISA based on the T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens; Western blotting was used to confirm the ELISA-positive results. From 427 samples, 50.6% were positive for the presence of anti-TES antibodies. A confirmatory test (Western blot) was carried out on a sample of the ELISA-positive sera (n = 70), and all were positive. The Western blots had specific banding pattern characteristics, where the 30-kDa fraction demonstrated the highest reactivity. This fraction could be important for the specific diagnosis of toxocariasis.

  4. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O

    2007-09-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg(-1), which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl(2), demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times.

  5. Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Survey of Companies in Southern Brazil

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    Julio Cesar Ferro de Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Sustainable Competitive Advantage emerges as an important factor in the perception of value of goods and services, which should be considered as elements of competitive differentiation. This study aims at identifying the relationship between sustainable competitive advantage and organizational performance, as well as measuring the relationship of environmental sustainability and social responsibility as attributes of sustainable competitive advantage. In order to achieve that, a survey was carried out in 1496 different size companies and activity sectors in Brazil. For the data analysis and interpretation we used a structural equation modeling technique. The results indicate that the Sustainable Competitive Advantage construct is an important antecedent of organizational performance because it highlights fundamental attributes for organizations to achieve positive economic consequences. This research contributes to organizational management and to the scientific community with the provision of a framework that assists in the identification of relevant strategic resource features.

  6. Pythiosis in sheep from Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Fábio D. Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports pythiosis in a sheep from southwestern Paraná, Brazil, confirmed by indirect ELISA (Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and immunohistochemistry, as well as it describes the macro and microscopic injuries, in order to understand the pathogenicity. A 4-year-old ewe from a flock of 30 Santa Inês sheep, raised semi-extensively with access to a weir, showed cachexia, bilateral enlargement in nasal region, a serous and bloody secretion with a fetid odor from its nose and swollen submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Blood collection was performed trough jugular vein puncture in order to make complete blood cell count (CBC and to obtain serum for the subsequent serological examination. As the hematological counts were within the normal range for sheep, the animal was euthanized and submitted to necropsy. Indirect ELISA resulted positive for pythiosis. Necropsy revealed necrosis of the hard palate with a diameter of 3.5cm and extending up to the nasal cavity, forming a fistula. Submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous on section. Microscopic findings for submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes consisted in moderate infiltration of eosinophils mainly in the subcapsular sinus, characterizing reactive eosinophilic lymphadenitis. The nasal cavity revealed rhinitis and oral cavity stomatitis with necro-eosinophilic and pronounced multifocal granulomatous infiltration and presence of hyphae. Hyphae found in palate and nasal cavity were positive for Pythium insidiosum by Grocott's method and immunohistochemistry, the last one considered to be confirmatory for the pathogen diagnostic. This report has an important epidemiological aspect, as it is the first case of pythiosis in sheep confirmed by serology in South Brazil and an alert of possible infection by the pathogen in floodplains.

  7. Litomosoides silvai (Nematoda: Onchocercidae parasitizing Akodon montensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae in the southern region of Brazil

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    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, Litomosoides silvai parasitizing Akodon montensis in the southern region of Brazil is reported for the first time. New morphological information is provided for some structures of this nematode species, such as a flattened cephalic extremity, presence of two dorsal cephalic papillae, female tail with a constriction at its tip, “s” shaped vagina, spicules characteristic of the carinii species group and microfilaria tail constricted at the tip. This nematode was found parasitizing the thoracic cavity with a prevalence of 10% (2/20, mean intensity of 4 (6/2, mean abundance of 0.4 (8/20 and range of infection of 2-6 specimens per host, in southern Brazil. This occurrence of L. silvai in A. montensis is a new geographical record for southern Brazil, in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion of the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome.

  8. Benthic Foraminifera and Bacterial Activity as a Proxy for Environmental Characterization in Potengi Estuary, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Frederico S. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify possible zonation patterns and assess the environmental impact on the Potengi River Estuary, Rio Grande do Norte State, through the distribution of benthic foraminifera associated to bacterial activity and abiotic parameters. Six sediment samples were collected from locations that presented clear signs of pollution. The environment was predominantly anaerobic and fermentation occurred at all sites. Forty-two species of foraminifera were identified. The dominant species were Ammonia tepida and Arenoparrella mexicana, which are known to be opportunistic, and able to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. CCA analyses showed that salinity and organic matter, followed by bacterial carbon, were more strongly linked to organism distribution in the Potengi River Estuary. Dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and total organic matter were higher at the estuary mouth than at the other sites, creating favorable conditions for foraminiferal growth and allowing the faunistic succession on the upper estuary. As foraminifera assemblages when associated to environmental parameters can be used as efficient proxies for environmental diagnosis, these results suggest that the Potengi Estuary is under great stress from the surrounding urban development.

  9. The influence of an extreme drought event in the fish community of a southern Europe temperate estuary

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    Martinho, F.; Leitão, R.; Viegas, I.; Dolbeth, M.; Neto, J. M.; Cabral, H. N.; Pardal, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, a severe drought occurred throughout the Mondego River catchment's area, inducing lower freshwater flows into the estuary. As a consequence, both 2004 and 2005 were considered as extreme drought events. From June 2003 to June 2006, the fish assemblage of the Mondego Estuary was sampled monthly in five stations during the night, using a 2 m beam trawl. Fish abundance was standardized as the number of individuals per 1000 m 2 per season and the assemblage was analyzed based on ecological guilds: estuarine residents, marine juveniles, marine adventitious, freshwater, catadromous and marine species that use the estuary as a nursery area. A total of 42 species belonging to 23 families were identified, with estuarine residents and nursery species dominating the fish community. Variations in the fish community were assessed using non-metric MDS, being defined as three distinct periods: summer and autumn 2003, 2004/2005 and winter and summer 2006. The main drought-induced effects detected were the depletion of freshwater species and an increase in marine adventitious in 2004/2005, due to an extended intrusion of seawater inside the estuary and a significant reduction in abundance during the driest period of estuarine resident species. Nevertheless, from the management point of view, it could be stated that although some variations occurred due to environmental stress, the main core of the Mondego Estuary fish community remained relatively unchanged.

  10. Incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil: a prospective study.

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    Mozzatto, Liége; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2003-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the incidence of congenital infection by Toxoplasma gondii and to describe neonatal and maternal characteristics regarding newborn infants treated at a teaching hospital in the town of Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cord blood samples collected from 1,250 live newborns were analyzed. The laboratory diagnosis was established by the detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgM using an enzyme linked fluorescent assay. Gestational age, intrauterine growth, anthropometric measures, and prenatal characteristics were assessed. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis at birth was 8/10,000 (95%CI 0.2-44.5). Mean birthweight was 3,080 +/- 215.56 grams and mean gestational age was 38.43 +/- 1.88 weeks. With regard to prenatal care, 58% of the pregnant patients visited their doctors five times or more and 38.9% were serologically tested for toxoplasmosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was similar to that found in most studies conducted in our country and abroad. Our study sample is representative of the town of Passo Fundo and therefore it is possible to consider the frequency observed as the prevalence of the disease in this town during the study period.

  11. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0% were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentists, and information about their knowledge and attitudes regarding child abuse were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed, and associations were tested by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. From all dentists surveyed, 123 (71.9% reported providing treatment for children. Most dentists believed they could detect cases of child abuse (78.7%, but 85.7% had never suspected it. Among those who did suspect, 76.0% did not report the cases to authorities. No differences were observed between sexes, years of graduation, types of licenses, and the frequency at which children were treated. A higher proportion of dentists working at university had suspected child abuse. Even though dentists considered themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage reported those suspicions, indicating a lack of awareness by these professionals in the adoption of protective measures for victims of aggression. It is necessary that dental professionals receive interdisciplinary training to enhance their ability to care for and protect children.

  12. Maternal care influence on children's caries prevalence in southern Brazil.

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    Pinto, Gabriela Dos Santos; Hartwig, Andréia Drawanz; Elias, Raquel; Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Correa, Marcos Britto; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-05-31

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24-42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children's dental caries prevalence - dmfs > 0) was collected from clinical examinations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 538 mother/child dyads were evaluated and 15.1% of the children exhibited caries. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed children from mothers living without partners (p caries than those living with partners. Maternal perception of a child's oral health was associated to occurrence of caries, particularly when mothers classified their child as poor and these children had a higher level of caries. In addition, mothers accurately evaluated their child's teeth when associated with caries occurrence. Maternal oral health care practices were associated with children's caries prevalence. Our results demonstrated mothers accurately evaluated the oral health of their offspring.

  13. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  14. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil

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    LUÍS C.R. SILVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  15. How Will Climate Change Impact Water Consumption for Rice Irrigation in Southern Brazil?

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    dos Santos, T. V.; Twine, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, agricultural water use accounts for most of the water that is withdrawn from surface water and groundwater. Rice, one of the world's leading food crops, requires that fields be continuously flooded to obtain optimal yields. High air temperature and consecutive rainless days in rice-growing areas can significantly reduce rice yields, leading to food scarcity. Climate change is expected to affect water demand for rice via changes in rainfall regime, soil water balance, and evapotranspiration. Higher temperatures and increased variability of precipitation are predicted to increase water demand and could potentially require more irrigation in lowland rice-growing areas. In this study we present the first results from model simulations in which we integrated a rice model into the Agro-IBIS dynamic ecosystem model. We predict the impact of climate change on the water use requirement of rice production in southern Brazil and evaluate changes in irrigation needed to meet minimum water demand to sustain current yields. Brazil is the 9th top rice producer in the world, and southern Brazil accounts for about 80% of the national production. The Agro-IBIS model was driven with historic weather data provided by CRU (1961-90) and with two future climate scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for 2015-2100 - Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP45) and 8.5 (RCP85). On an hourly time step, Agro-IBIS accounts for gains (precipitation) and losses (evaporation, transpiration, infiltration and runoff) of water in each grid cell, and uses rules to irrigate in order to maintain a specific height of standing water on the field. Simulated historic and future amounts of irrigated water needed to maintain this water height will be evaluated to predict future water demand for rice production in southern Brazil.

  16. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

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    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary.

  17. Overweight and factors associated in civil servants from Southern Brazil

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    Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n3p277   This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and investigate its association with sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes in civil servants of a university in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The research was conducted with 339 civil servants aged above 18 years. Overweight was analyzed by self-reported body mass index. Physical activity level was evaluated using a questionnaire. Sociodemographic data (sex, age, economic status, educational level, marital status, and working hours and information on the chronic diseases of interest (hypercholesterolemia and diabetes were obtained from self-report. The association between overweight and the other variables was investigated using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 50.6%. The groups most susceptible to overweight were: male civil servants (OR: 2.04; CI: 1.30-3.22, those less than 12 years of education (OR: 2.46; CI: 1.43-4.23, who were insufficiently active (OR: 1.64; CI: 1.03-2.60, and those with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.28; CI: 1.32-3.96. This study concluded that more than a half of the sample was overweight and that this condition was associated with male sex, educational level below 12 years, insufficient physical activity, and hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Spatial and temporal changes in macrobenthic communities in the Amazon coastal zone (Guajará Estuary, Brazil caused by discharge of urban effluents

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    Daiane Aviz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal changes in the structure of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities caused by discharges of urban wastewater were studied in the Guajará Estuary, Amazon coastal zone, Brazil. Samples were taken during the dry and rainy seasons at five sites close to wastewater sources (impacted and two sites further away from effluent discharges (non-impacted. Samples were collected using a Petersen grab (20×20×20 cm and passed through a 0.3 mm mesh screen. At each site, several parameters were determined in order to characterize the water (pH, QOD and NH4 and sediment (mean grain size diameter, %OM and heavy metals. The benthic fauna was composed of 22 taxa dominated by polychaetes and oligochaetes. The data indicate that environmental contamination has not resulted in a highly polluted environment with a significant reduction in fauna. It would seem that the river flow and intense hydrodynamics dilute and minimize the effects of contaminants in the estuary. The main effect of the discharge effluents was a favorable organic enrichment. The fauna at the impacted sites was generally more diverse than at the non-impacted sites, dominated by Oligochaeta Tubificinae, and showed greater spatial heterogeneity.

  19. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

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    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  20. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  1. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody detection in blood donors in the Southern Brazil

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    A.B. Araújo

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' Disease, is a widely spread protozoa in America. Blood transfusion is the secondly most important way of acquiring the infection. In blood banks, tests are performed to eliminate potentially infected blood. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity for T. cruzi in blood samples of donor's candidates in Southern Brazil. The study was based on a sampling containing all blood donors of Hemopel - a Pelotas City Blood Center, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from 2004 to 2005. Serological study was performed using ELISA Chagatest. Sampling containing values ± 20% cut off were evaluated using ELISA Chagatek, ELISA Alka/Adaltis, IHA Chagatest and IIF Imunocruzi. TESA-Blot was used as a confirmatory procedure in situations where blood samples showed conflicting results. From 4,482 samples collected in 2004 and 2005, the reactivity for anti-T. cruzi was 0.96% (43. Among those, 21 cases (0.47% were confirmed as positive - most of them were female, with low school level and averaging 47.2% years old. Interestingly, the blood donors are not aware of being contaminated and this fact makes it difficult for controlling the disease. Chagas' Disease was one of the main reasons for discarding blood bags through serological control in Southern Brazil. Sampling reactivity showed variation among the different techniques used for anti-T. cruzi research. In order to obtaining more secure and conclusive results, more than one diagnostic technique must be used.

  2. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

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    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum.

  3. Human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil: A five-year retrospective study.

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    Jorge, Sérgio; Schuch, Rodrigo Andrade; de Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Gomes, Charles Klazer; Oliveira, Thais Larré; Rizzi, Caroline; Qadan, Aisha Farid; Pacce, Violetta Dias; Coelho Recuero, Ana Lúcia; Soares Brod, Claudiomar; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis attributed to multiple reservoirs. Climatic conditions influence the transmission of pathogenic leptospires, which require warm and humid conditions for survival. The influence of seasonality in human and animal leptospirosis in the subtropical region of Brazil remains poorly understood. We performed a retrospective study to describe the patterns of human and animal exposure to leptospirosis and their association with precipitation events in Southern Brazil. Rainfall data were obtained from satellite images. Serum samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT); samples with titer ≥ 100 were defined as seroreactive. Linear regression and Pearson's correlation were performed to assess whether there is a relationship between these variables. We found that precipitation events were not significantly associated with the exposure to leptospirosis in humans or animal species, except for dogs. The interspecies analysis revealed an association between canine and human exposure to leptospirosis. Leptospira kirschneri serovar Butembo (serogroup Autumnalis) presented the highest seroreactivity in humans. This study provides valuable insights in human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil. These insights will be essential to design intervention measures directed to reduce disease dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

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    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The diet of cubomedusae (cnidaria, cubozoa in southern Brazil

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    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of cubomedusae Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae was examined in specimens collected on the Southern Brazilian coast (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, between December 1998 and December 2004. This is the first study to analyze this biological aspect in cubomedusae from the South Atlantic. The gastrovascular cavities of most (55%; n = 29 specimens of T. haplonema were empty while the remainder had teleosteans parts such as scales, vertebrae and otoliths. In C. quadrumanus (n = 726, the most important items were the pelagic sergestid shrimp Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 and Brachyura larvae, mainly megalops. Small crabs, isopods, fish, fish eggs and nematodes were less common. A dietary shift was clearly observed during C. quadrumanus growth. Smaller individuals consumed a greater variety of prey, mostly Brachyura larvae, and they also had higher frequencies of empty stomachs. As their size increased, megalopas decreased and P. petrunkevitchi became the most important item in their diet.A dieta das cubomedusas Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae e Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae foi analisada em espécimes coletados no litoral do Paraná (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, sul do Brasil, entre dezembro de 1998 e dezembro de 2004, e é o primeiro estudo a abordar este aspecto da biologia de Cubozoa no Atlântico Sul. A cavidade gastrovascular da maioria (55% dos 29 exemplares de T. haplonema mostrou-se vazia, e dos demais continha partes corporais de peixes teleósteos, como escamas, vértebras e otólitos. Em 726 exemplares de C. quadrumanus os itens alimentares mais importantes foram o camarão sergestídeo Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 e larvas de Brachyura, principalmente megalopas. Pequenos caranguejos, isópodes, peixes, ovos de peixes e nematóides foram menos comuns. Mudanças na dieta evidenciaram

  6. Potentially inappropriate medications among older adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

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    Lutz, Bárbara Heather; Miranda, Vanessa Irribarem Avena; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-06-22

    To assess the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,451 older individuals aged 60 years or more in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. We have investigated the use of medications in the last 15 days. Using the Beers criteria (2012), we have verified the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relationship with socioeconomic and demographic variables, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease. Among the 5,700 medications used, 5,651 could be assessed as to being inappropriate. Of these, 937 were potentially inappropriate for the older adults according to the 2012 Beers criteria (16.6%). Approximately 42.4% of the older adults studied used at least one medication considered as potentially inappropriate. The group of medications for the nervous system accounted for 48.9% of the total of the potentially inappropriate medications. In the adjusted analysis, the variables female, advanced age, white race, low educational level, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease were associated with the use of potentially inappropriate medications. It is important to known the possible consequences of the use of medication among older adults. Special attention should be given to the older adults who use polypharmacy. Specific lists should be created with more appropriate medications for the older population in the National Essential Medicine List. Avaliar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inadequados entre idosos. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.451 idosos com 60 anos ou mais em Pelotas, RS, em 2014. Investigou-se o uso de medicamentos nos últimos 15 dias. Utilizando os critérios de Beers (2012), verificou-se a potencial inadequação dos medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, polifarmácia, automedicação e carga de doença. Dentre os 5.700 medicamentos utilizados, 5

  7. The conservation status of the tuco-tucos, genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae, in southern Brazil

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    FA. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The goal of conservation biology should be related to the preservation of species and also to the evolutionary and ecological processes that were responsible to form them and that are still acting. We review the conservation status of the species of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys torquatus, C. lami, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni from southern Brazil, and relate these data to the geological history of a particular area in that region, the Coastal Plain of the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The implications of the data on these species from the Southeastern Brazil are also discussed in relation to the evolution and risk of extinction of these subterranean rodents.

  8. Psychiatry, Sex, and Science: The Making of "Adolescent" Motherhood in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2017-04-28

    Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts' long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epistemic struggles, remedial interventions, and ontological politics. In showing how this co-production became interwoven with incremental changes in young women's emotions, sexualities, relationships, and bodies, I describe how one particular "kind" of teen motherhood emerged and became entangled with both psychiatric knowledge-production and the angst of working-class political agency. In giving women a contested psychiatric language with which to rework their social-moral worlds, I argue that science did more than conceptualize teen childbearing in pathological terms; it contributed to its troubled transformation.

  9. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

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    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  10. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

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    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection.

  12. Jellyfish (Chrysaora lactea, Cnidaria, Semaeostomeae aggregations in southern Brazil and consequences of stings in humans

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    Antonio C Marques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of jellyfish blooms is generating a world-wide discussion about medusae population explosions, mainly those associated with stings. We report over 20,000 envenomations caused by Chrysaora lactea (Scyphozoa in the State of Paraná (southern Brazil during the austral summer of 2011 -2012. Envenomations were considered mild, but almost 600 cases were treated in emergency services, with either toxic and allergic reactions, some with systemic manifestations. We proposed non-exclusive hypotheses to explain this large number of cases.

  13. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

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    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  14. Distribution of Trematodes Cryptokotyle (Trematoda, Heterophyidae, in Fish of the Family Gobiidae in the Estuary Waters and the Black Sea in Southern Ukraine

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    Goncharov S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes occurrence and distribution of Cryptocotyle trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Region. Study was conducted in 2015-2016. Two trematode species were found in natural waters of these regions: Cryptocotyle cancavum Crepli, 1825 and Cryptocotyle jejuna Nicoll, 1907. Th e latter species has not been previously registered in this region in southern Ukraine. Varying intensity of infection with Cryptocotyle metacercariae was observed in fish of Gobiidae family: Mesogobius batrachocephalus Pallas, 1814, Neogobius melanostomum Pallas, 1814, N. fluviatialis Pallas, 1814. Th e most affected species was N. melanostomum, with the prevalence of infection 59.2 %. Less infected were N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalus, with the prevalence of infection 30.4 % and 17 % respectively. The intensity of infection was the highest in N. melanostomum - 211 metacercariae per fish, followed by N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalu - 124 and 89 metacercariae respectively. Cryptocotyle was the most prevalent in the Dnipro-Buh estuary (cape Adzhigol, Mykolaiv Region and much less prevalent in the waters of the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Regions. Mean prevalence of infection was 31.4 %.

  15. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  16. Spatial changes of estuary in Ernakulam district, Southern India for last seven decades, using multi-temporal satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipson, P T; Chithra, S V; Amarnath, A; Smitha, S V; Harindranathan Nair, M V; Shahin, Adhem

    2015-01-15

    The study area, located in the western side of Kerala State, South India, is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetlands - the largest estuary in India's western coastal wetland system and one of the Ramsar Sites of Kerala. Major portion of this estuary comes under the Ernakulam district which includes the Cochin City - the business and Industrial hub of Kerala, which has seen fast urbanization since independence (1947). Recently, this region is subjected to a characteristic fast urban sprawl, whereas, the estuarine zone is subjected to tremendous land use/land cover changes (LULC). Periodic monitoring of the estuary is essential for the formulation of viable management options for the sustainable utilization of this vital environmental resource. Remote sensing coupled with GIS applications has proved to be a useful tool in monitoring wetland changes. In the present study, the changes this estuarine region have undergone from 1944 to 2009 have been monitored with the help of multi-temporal satellite data. Estuarine areas were mapped with the help of Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat ETM (1990) and IRS LISS-III (1998 and 2009) using visual interpretation and digitization techniques in ArcGIS 9.3 Environment. The study shows a progressive decrease in the estuarine area, the reasons of which are identified chronologically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estuaries 1

    OpenAIRE

    Battey, B.

    2016-01-01

    'Estuaries 1' can be viewed at https://vimeo.com/202629040 'Estuaries 1' is the first of the Estuaries series of audiovisual compositions, which explore the expressive potentials of the author's Variable-Coupled Map Networks and OptiNelder methods for generative music and image. It evokes an 'unstable stasis' through processes that are always on the edge of destabilisation.

  18. Estuaries 2

    OpenAIRE

    Battey, B.

    2017-01-01

    'Estuaries 2' is the second of the author's Estuaries series of audiovisual compositions, which explore the expressive potential of the authors Variable-Coupled Map Networks and OptiNelder methods for generative music and images. 'Estuaries 2' focuses on dialog between grid-based logic and all-over textures with random distributions,

  19. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

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    Mario V. Condini

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.

  20. Characterisation of complete high- and low-risk human papillomavirus genomes isolated from cervical specimens in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele R; Siqueira, Juliana D; Finger-Jardim, Fabiana; Vieira, Valdimara C; Silva, Ronald L; Gonçalves, Carla V; Soares, Esmeralda A; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral; Soares, Marcelo A

    2017-01-01

    The classification of human papillomavirus (HPV) intratypic lineages by complete genome sequencing is a determinant in understanding biological differences in association with this disease. In this work, we have characterised complete HPV genomes from southern Brazil. Fifteen cervicovaginal Pap smear negative samples previously categorised as HPV-positive were sequenced using ultradeep sequencing, and 18 complete genomes from 13 different HPV types were assembled. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses were performed to classify the HPV genomes into lineages and sublineages. This is the first report describing the distribution of HPV intratype lineages of high and low oncogenic risk in asymptomatic women from southern Brazil. PMID:28954002

  1. Tax Incentives Culture: An Analysis of Corporate Disclosures in Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Gomes dos Reis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of tax incentives Culture is essential for external users to make full analysis of the benefits generated by them. In this sense, the aim of this study was to verify the consistency and form of disclosure of the information disclosed by the Corporation Publicly Traded in southern Brazil, from the perspective of reducing the tax burden and the amount allocated to the Culture. The sample consisted of 27 Corporate Capital Open in southern Brazil and analyzed its financial statements, accompanying notes and supplementary reports through pre-established keywords, characterizing the research as descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The results showed the importance of the Notes, the Management Report and additional reports as Social and Sustainability Report. These reports had relevant information and helpful research. However, many of them did not have clear information about the tax incentives for culture. Some companies released the tax incentive culture along with other incentives, such as the Workers Food Program - PAT, which did not allow detailed analysis of the data. We found cases of disagreement between the Ministry of Culture and information disclosed statements. In some cases, were observed lack of information about the tax incentives in the statements and supplementary reports. It was concluded that the disclosure is lower than necessary, because only four out of a total of twenty seven companies analyzed, reported consistent, complete and appropriate on tax incentives for culture.

  2. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  3. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

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    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  4. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value=0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  6. Epidemiological profile of patients with cutaneous melanoma in a region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  7. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

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    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  8. southern Brazil

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    João A.N. Batista

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran Cyrtopodium klenii y C. brandoniamum subsp. lageanum (Orchidaceae, Cymbidieae, Cyrtopodiinae de la región sur de Brasil. C klenii se asemeja a un grupo de especies caracterizado por los pseudobulbos pequeños, enterrados en el suelo, y por las flores pequeñas; pero se distingue por el color de las flores, los lóbulos laterales del labelo poco o nada falcados, aproximadamente tan largos como anchos, por el lóbulo mediano del labelo con base poco o nada constricta y por la distribución geográfica. C. brandoniamum subsp. lageanum es similar a la variedad tipo en cuanto al patrón general de coloración, pero se distingue por florecer más tempranamente, por las hojas poco desarrolladas en la antesis, y por la forma y coloración del labelo. Ambos son taxones poco frecuentes, sólo conocidos para el sur de Brasil.

  9. The African cynodont Aleodon (Cynodontia, Probainognathia in the Triassic of southern Brazil and its biostratigraphic significance.

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    Agustín G Martinelli

    Full Text Available In this contribution we report the first occurrence of the enigmatic African probainognathian genus Aleodon in the Middle-early Late Triassic of several localities from the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Aleodon is unusual among early probainognathians in having transversely-expanded postcanine teeth, similar to those of gomphodont cynognathians. This genus was previously known from the Manda Beds of Tanzania and the upper Omingonde Formation of Namibia. The Brazilian record of this genus is based upon multiple specimens representing different ontogenetic stages, including three that were previously referred to the sectorial-toothed probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus. We propose a new species of Aleodon (A. cromptoni sp. nov. based on the specimens from Brazil. Additionally, we tentatively refer one specimen from the upper Omingonde Formation of Namibia to this new taxon, strengthening biostratigraphic correlations between these strata. Inclusion of A. cromptoni in a phylogenetic analysis of eucynodonts recovers it as the sister-taxon of A. brachyrhamphus within the family Chiniquodontidae. The discovery of numerous specimens of Aleodon among the supposedly monospecific Chiniquodon samples of Brazil raises concerns about chiniquodontid alpha taxonomy, particularly given the extremely broad geographic distribution of Chiniquodon. The discovery of Brazilian Aleodon and new records of the traversodontid Luangwa supports the hypothesis that at least two subzones can be recognized in the Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone.

  10. The African cynodont Aleodon (Cynodontia, Probainognathia) in the Triassic of southern Brazil and its biostratigraphic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Agustín G; Kammerer, Christian F; Melo, Tomaz P; Paes Neto, Voltaire D; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Da-Rosa, Átila A S; Schultz, Cesar L; Soares, Marina Bento

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we report the first occurrence of the enigmatic African probainognathian genus Aleodon in the Middle-early Late Triassic of several localities from the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Aleodon is unusual among early probainognathians in having transversely-expanded postcanine teeth, similar to those of gomphodont cynognathians. This genus was previously known from the Manda Beds of Tanzania and the upper Omingonde Formation of Namibia. The Brazilian record of this genus is based upon multiple specimens representing different ontogenetic stages, including three that were previously referred to the sectorial-toothed probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus. We propose a new species of Aleodon (A. cromptoni sp. nov.) based on the specimens from Brazil. Additionally, we tentatively refer one specimen from the upper Omingonde Formation of Namibia to this new taxon, strengthening biostratigraphic correlations between these strata. Inclusion of A. cromptoni in a phylogenetic analysis of eucynodonts recovers it as the sister-taxon of A. brachyrhamphus within the family Chiniquodontidae. The discovery of numerous specimens of Aleodon among the supposedly monospecific Chiniquodon samples of Brazil raises concerns about chiniquodontid alpha taxonomy, particularly given the extremely broad geographic distribution of Chiniquodon. The discovery of Brazilian Aleodon and new records of the traversodontid Luangwa supports the hypothesis that at least two subzones can be recognized in the Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

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    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  12. Foraminifera, Thecamoebians and Palynomorphs as Hydrodynamic Indicators in Araguari Estuary, Amazonian Coast, Amapá State – Brazil

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    Odete Fátima Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araguari estuarine dynamics is singular among traditional models of estuaries under tidal regime due to influence of macrotidal and tidal bore. In order to establish estuarine zones in Araguari according foraminifera, thecamoebians, paliynomorphs and physical-chemistry parameters, sixteen sample stations were established along the estuary. Turbidity and temperature were the environmental parameters which allowed determination of the estuarine gradient. Eighteen species of foraminifera, ten of thecamoebians and fourteen of particulate organic matter types were identified. Cluster analysis in R-mode showed three microorganism assemblages and four palynomorph ones. The CCA analyze shows turbidity and total organic matter with the most influence over foraminiferal and thecamoebians distribution at Araguari. Clustering analysis in Q-mode using all data formed four groups suggesting three estuarine zones in Araguari: Zone I composed of thecamoebian species and continental palynomorphs; Zone II - composed by mangrove foraminifera, thecamoebians and all palynomorph assemblages; and Zone III – composed by mangrove and estuarine foraminifera and all palynomorph assemblages.

  13. Cytogenotoxicity biomarkers in fat snook Centropomus parallelus from Cananéia and São Vicente estuaries, SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic environment receives many contaminants that can induce damages at the molecular, biochemical, cellular and physiological levels. Centropomus parallelus, an important food resource for local populations, is a predator fish that feeds on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, thus being vulnerable to the bioconcentration and biomagnification processes. This study aimed to evaluate cytogenotoxic responses in erythrocytes from C. parallelus juveniles collected in the Cananéia and São Vicente estuaries, both in winter and in summer. After anesthesia, blood samples were collected by caudal puncture. Blood smears were prepared on glass slides and stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa dye. Two thousand cells were analyzed per slide (1000x), and nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronuclei (MN) were scored. The São Vicente sample showed MN and NA frequencies (%/1000 cells) of 0.325 and 3.575, in winter, and of 0.125 and 2.935 in summer respectively; the Cananéia sample showed frequencies of 0.0325 and 0.03, in winter, and of 0.065 and 0.355 in summer, respectively. The rates found in São Vicente were significantly higher than those found in Cananéia, evidencing that the levels of pollution in that estuary were high enough to induce genetic damages. PMID:21637661

  14. Cytogenotoxicity biomarkers in fat snook Centropomus parallelus from Cananéia and São Vicente estuaries, SP, Brazil

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    Aline A. Kirschbaum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment receives many contaminants that can induce damages at the molecular, biochemical, cellular and physiological levels. Centropomus parallelus , an important food resource for local populations, is a predator fish that feeds on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, thus being vulnerable to the bioconcentration and biomagnification processes. This study aimed to evaluate cytogenotoxic responses in erythrocytes from C. parallelus juveniles collected in the Cananéia and São Vicente estuaries, both in winter and in summer. After anesthesia, blood samples were collected by caudal puncture. Blood smears were prepared on glass slides and stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa dye. Two thousand cells were analyzed per slide (1000x, and nuclear abnormalities (NA and micronuclei (MN were scored. The São Vicente sample showed MN and NA frequencies (%/1000 cells of 0.325 and 3.575, in winter, and of 0.125 and 2.935 in summer respectively; the Cananéia sample showed frequencies of 0.0325 and 0.03, in winter, and of 0.065 and 0.355 in summer, respectively. The rates found in São Vicente were significantly higher than those found in Cananéia, evidencing that the levels of pollution in that estuary were high enough to induce genetic damages.

  15. Population dynamics, distribution and secondary production of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (L. in a southern European estuary. Latitudinal variations

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    Iván Viegas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The population structure, growth, distribution and secondary production of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (L. 1758 were examined between June 2003 and August 2005 at five stations in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, using a 2-m beam trawl. Occurrence of immature shrimps suggested almost continuous reproduction with two main recruitment periods in November and March/April; this recruitment pattern is unique and represents a latitudinal transition in the species’ life cycle. Severe drought in winter 2004 caused spatial shifts along the north arm of the estuary regarding post-larval settlement in spring 2005. Mean growth of all cohorts was 0.06 mm TL day-1, much lower than rates calculated elsewhere. Secondary production (P of C. crangon was estimated at 4.6 mg AFDW m-2 y-1 (P/B– ratio of 8.7 in 2003/2004 and at 2.4 mg AFDW m-2 y-1 (P/B– ratio of 10.9 in 2004/2005. High abundances of individuals, predominantly juveniles, were observed in spring/summer with peaks in June 2003, April 2004 and July 2005. This study shows that this species dynamics must be analysed in a latitudinal context, meaning that the contribution of each component of the systems can vary according to environmental and climate variables.

  16. Multi-cereal molecular surveys suggest host preference among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex from southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) associated with cereals grown in southern Brazil between 2009 and 2012. The total collection comprised 1,127 isolates, which were divided into four collections obtained from: 1) disea...

  17. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  18. Two new species of Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of deciduous forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Silvana Vargas Do; Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria

    2016-09-29

    Two new species of Geoplaninae from southern Brazil are described herein. The new species, belonging to the genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990, can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by colour pattern and characteristics of the copulatory apparatus, especially regarding the female organs and prostatic vesicle. Both new species seem to be endemic to areas covered by deciduous forest.

  19. Climate Change Implications to Irrigated Rice Production in Southern Brazil: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thiago

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. When cultivated under irrigated conditions (i.e. lowland rice), rice is one of the most intensive water consumer crops globally. Therefore, representation of rice growth should be integrated into the latest land surface models to allow studies on food security and to ensure that accurate simulations of the bidirectional feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere take place. In this study, I present a new process-based model for rice fields that includes rice growth and rice irrigation as modules within the Agro-IBIS dynamic agro-ecosystem model. The model includes a series of equations, agricultural management parameters and an irrigation scheme that are specifically tailored for rice crops. The model was evaluated against leaf area index and biomass observations, obtained for one growing season in Rio Grande do Sul state (southern Brazil), and in Los Banos, Philippines. The model accurately captured the temporal dynamics of leaf area index in both the Brazilian and the Philippine sites, and predicted end-of-season biomass with an error of between -9.5% and 11.3% depending on the location and the plant organ. Rice phenology is predicted by the model based on experimentally-derived growth rates, and was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed durations of the four growth phases considered by the model. Agro-IBIS showed a tendency to overestimate the duration of the growth stages between 3% and 16%, but underestimated by 8% the duration of the panicle formation phase in one growing season. The new irrigation model is based on the water balance at the surface and applies irrigation in order to keep the water layer at the paddy field always in the optimum level. A set of climate projections from global climate models under two emission scenarios, and excluding and considering CO2 fertilizations effects, was used to drive the updated Agro-IBIS to estimate the effects of climate

  20. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

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    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  1. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

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    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  2. Nematodes as indicators of shrimp farm impact on an amazonian estuary (Curuçá, Pará, Brazil

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    Virag Venekey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp farming reduces demand on wild fishery stocks and avoids environmental damage resulting from fishing practices, however, it has the potential to affect the water quality if not properly managed. In this study the impacts of a shrimp farm in an Amazonian estuary were evaluated, focusing on changes in nematodes regarding taxonomic composition, richness, density and diversity. Sampling was conducted in August 2004 (dry season and January 2005 (rainy season in the river at stations situated upstream and downstream at different distances from the main source of farm effluent discharge. Thirty-eight genera were recorded with Terschellingia dominating in the dry season and Terschellingia, Daptonema, Ptycholaimellus and Gomphionema in the rainy season. Abundances were within the range recorded in other estuaries and together with genera richness and diversity showed a strong temporal pattern with significantly higher values in the rainy season. No clear patterns of changes were observed at the stations. Some signs of organic enrichment were detected but they were not yet intense, probably a consequence of the strong local hydrodynamics and the age of the shrimp farm, which was just starting its operation. We recommend that in future studies on farming impacts a combination of factors, beyond the physical and chemical parameters of the water and sediments or taxonomic refinement, should be taken into account - such as the duration of the operation of the farm, the area occupied by ponds and the farm's production. Furthermore, we also believe that nematodes are a useful tool for evaluating aquaculture impacts due to the ease of sampling and because they are organisms at the base of marine food chain.

  3. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive features of the swimming crab Callinectes danae(Crustacea, Portunoidea) on the subtropical coast of Brazil: a sampling outside the estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L S; Antunes, M; Lima, P A; Furlan, M; Frameschi, I F; Fransozo, A

    2015-08-01

    The life cycle of the crab Callinectes danae is estuarine-dependent, and studies on aspects of their biology should also cover marine areas. The present study investigated the sexual maturity, as well as habitat preference by adults in different gonadal stages, and the crabs' reproductive periodicity outside the estuary. Three bays on the subtropical southeastern coast of Brazil were sampled monthly for two years. For each bay, six transects were established, four of them parallel to the beach line (5, 10, 15 and 20 m depth), as well as one transect in an exposed area, and another sheltered from the action of waves. The results showed that the pattern of spatio-temporal distribution of adults C. danae was similar in three bays, although the highest abundance was found in Ubatumirim. Females with developed gonads/ovigerous females were found in greater abundance than females with rudimentary/developing gonads, mainly in deeper transects. Although the areas sampled have different environmental characteristics, the reproductive pattern of the species did not change, showing continuous reproduction throughout, with more abundance of reproductive females on spring and summer. Males reached maturity at larger sizes than females in all three bays.

  5. Reproductive features of the swimming crab Callinectes danae(Crustacea, Portunoidea on the subtropical coast of Brazil: a sampling outside the estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Andrade

    Full Text Available AbstractThe life cycle of the crab Callinectes danae is estuarine-dependent, and studies on aspects of their biology should also cover marine areas. The present study investigated the sexual maturity, as well as habitat preference by adults in different gonadal stages, and the crabs’ reproductive periodicity outside the estuary. Three bays on the subtropical southeastern coast of Brazil were sampled monthly for two years. For each bay, six transects were established, four of them parallel to the beach line (5, 10, 15 and 20 m depth, as well as one transect in an exposed area, and another sheltered from the action of waves. The results showed that the pattern of spatio-temporal distribution of adults C. danae was similar in three bays, although the highest abundance was found in Ubatumirim. Females with developed gonads/ovigerous females were found in greater abundance than females with rudimentary/developing gonads, mainly in deeper transects. Although the areas sampled have different environmental characteristics, the reproductive pattern of the species did not change, showing continuous reproduction throughout, with more abundance of reproductive females on spring and summer. Males reached maturity at larger sizes than females in all three bays.

  6. ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS OF AMAZON SHRIMP - Macrobrachium amazonicum (HELLER 1862 (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE - IN AN AMAZON ESTUARY - NORTH COAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae abundance in monthly collections in the Amazon estuary and on Mosqueiro Island (State of Pará, Brazil between April 2006 and August 2007, we verified that the site mentioned is favorable to the development of the species, since there is a significant number of young and adults specimens throughout the year, whose abundance is significantly higher in the dry season. Icoaraci was the site of great contribution in the total of specimens caught, relating this productivity to the large amount of organic matter in suspension. In this study, we found the largest M. amazonicum specimen ever collected, comparing to those mentioned by available scientific literature. The individual was a female caught on Combu Island with 44.72 mm carapace length or 18.45 cm total length. Relations of body mass (g vs. carapace length (mm for males, females and sexes together had negative allometry, which can be associated to the gonadal maturation cycle of the species. All other morphometric relationships showed positive allometry. Keywords. carapace; bio-ecology; population dynamics.

  7. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ13C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg-1, while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg-1. CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ13C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Trends in burnout syndrome and emotional factors: an assessment of anesthesiologists in Southern Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana

    2016-01-28

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

  9. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernández Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of research and publication on the investigative field of Didactics and on the dimension of its foundation, but very little on the disciplinary and professional fields and on the conditions and ways of teaching. It is noteworthy that only a transformative practice can help change the reality of the school, the quality of teacher formation, of learning and mental development of the students.

  10. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  11. Diel variation in fish assemblages in tidal creeks in southern Brazil

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    JF. Oliveira-Neto

    Full Text Available Tidal creeks are strongly influenced by tides and are therefore exposed to large differences in salinity and depth daily. Here we compare fish assemblages in tidal creeks between day and night in two tidal creeks in southern Brazil. Monthly day and night, simultaneous collections were carried out in both creeks using fyke nets. Clupeiformes tended to be caught more during the day. Cathorops spixii, Genidens genidens and Rypticus randalli tended to be caught at night. Sciaenidae also tended to be caught more during the night. In general, pelagic species were diurnal, while deep water species were nocturnal. These trends are probably due to a variety of causes, such as phylogeny, predation and net avoidance.

  12. A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: a case study in southern Brazil

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    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76 and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species.

  13. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

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    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  14. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Wilson Werner; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Corrêa, Elaine Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33%) was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter) and October-December (spring).

  15. Environmental Management as a Strategic Capability: a Study on the Furniture Manufacturing Cluster of Southern Brazil

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    Janielen Pissolatto Deliberal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of company programs aimed at sustainability strategies contributes to a balance between economic growth and the use of natural resources. This issue is not exclusive for companies from developed markets. Companies from emerging markets also need to find a way to achieve sustainable practices and organizational performance at the same time. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze whether environmental management can be considered as a strategic capability, contributing positively to the performance of the manufacturing companies belonging to the Furniture Manufacturing Cluster of Southern Brazil (FMCSB. In order to achieve our objective, we performed a quantitative study through a survey. The sample collected data from 162 companies. Based on univariate and multivariate analysis the results suggest that environmental management can be considered as a strategic capability for the FMCSB since environmental practices are significantly related to organizational performance.

  16. Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil

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    Ana Julia Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9% were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9% presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system.

  17. Owenia caissara sp. n. (Annelida, Oweniidae from Southern Brazil: addressing an identity crisis

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    Luiz Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We re-assess the taxonomic status of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1841 from Southern Brazil based on estuarine specimens from Paranaguá Bay (Paraná and Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, and literature records. Owenia caissara sp. n. is diagnosed by a branchial crown with five pairs of tentacles, branched close to the base of the crown, rectilinear collar with a pronounced lateral slit, two ventrolateral ocelli partially covered by the collar, up to 23 hooks on a single row in the first abdominal segment, regularly curved nuchal shape, regularly moderate teeth curvature, and long and thin scales with oval transition. The description of Owenia caissara sp. n. reinforces the idea that Owenia fusiformis sensu lato is a complex of closely related species that can be distinguished on the basis of both macro- and micro- morphological traits.

  18. A multibiomarker approach in rats to assess the impact of pollution on Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenmacher, C; Siebel, A M; Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Sartori, T; Rodrigues, M T; Rodrigues, M A S; Gehlen, G; Ardenghi, P G; Silva, L B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of combining water quality analysis with different biomarkers to characterise the relationship between anthropogenic contamination and biotic response in the Sinos River, southern Brazil. Wistar rats were studied using three biomarkers combined with physical, chemical and microbiological analysis to assess the effects of pollution at four sampling sites. The induction of oxidative stress was quantified by MDA levels in peripheral blood, lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the comet assay, and histopathological changes were analysed in the liver. After sampling, animals were allowed to drink the river water during a 48 hours period. No increase in oxidative stress and DNA damage was observed. However, liver damage was observed in the animals exposed to water samples, indicating that the Sinos River is contaminated with hepatotoxic substances. Water analyses confirmed that water quality decreased downriver.

  19. A multibiomarker approach in rats to assess the impact of pollution on Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    C. Rechenmacher

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of combining water quality analysis with different biomarkers to characterise the relationship between anthropogenic contamination and biotic response in the Sinos River, southern Brazil. Wistar rats were studied using three biomarkers combined with physical, chemical and microbiological analysis to assess the effects of pollution at four sampling sites. The induction of oxidative stress was quantified by MDA levels in peripheral blood, lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the comet assay, and histopathological changes were analysed in the liver. After sampling, animals were allowed to drink the river water during a 48 hours period. No increase in oxidative stress and DNA damage was observed. However, liver damage was observed in the animals exposed to water samples, indicating that the Sinos River is contaminated with hepatotoxic substances. Water analyses confirmed that water quality decreased downriver.

  20. Distribution patterns and feeding success of anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae off southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Cunha Vasconcellos

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding success and changes in horizontal patchiness relative to size were studied for anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae caught with a Bongo net off southern Brazil. Results show higher feeding success rates during winter, when the combined effect of enrichment, stability and retention mechanisms seems to create optimal conditions for larval feeding. Under optimal feeding conditions larvae of more than 10 mm have higher feeding success rates than smaller size classes. With a simple body structure and low swimming capabilities, larvae of up to 10 mm show a low level of patchiness, low evasion rate of the sampling gear and feeding on small food particles only. Results corroborate the hypothesis of a critical period between two important ontogenic phases: the beginning of exogenous feeding and the onset of active swimming, gas gland buoyancy and school forming behavior.

  1. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

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    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  2. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil

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    E. Bianchini

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23°27’S and 51°15’W, Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  3. Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil

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    Srivastava Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context. Methods We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H. Results The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442. Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16 and MDM2 (SNP309 genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility.

  4. Consumption of foods with voluntary fortification of micronutrients in southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors.

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    Cirino, Ana Carolina Lima; de Vargas Zanini, Roberta; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the consumption of foods with voluntary fortification of vitamins and minerals (FVFVM) according to demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics. A cross-sectional population-based study. The investigated food groups were selected in two stages according to availability of food in the local market and prevalence of food consumption in a recent national survey. The research instruments included a questionnaire and a photographic catalogue. The FVFVM consumption covered a period of one week prior to the interview date. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 12·0 statistical software package, considering the design effect and a hierarchical model. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate the prevalence ratios. All tests were two-tailed, with a 5·0 % significance level. Adults (≥20 years old) living in a southern city of Brazil. Between February and June 2012, 2925 individuals were interviewed. Losses and refusals corresponded to 13·4 % of the sample. The overall prevalence of FVFVM consumption was 73·3 (95 % CI 71·7, 75·9) %. The total number of FVFVM reported exhibited a distribution with a median of two and a maximum of fifteen, inflated by the FVFVM categorized in the 'juice' group. The micronutrients most consumed were vitamin C, followed by Fe and thiamin. Young adults, females, those of higher socio-economic status and those who perceived their health positively were more likely to consume FVFVM. Prevalence of FVFVM consumption in southern Brazil, occurring concurrently with the decline in consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods, and the way voluntary fortification is being employed trigger a warning sign to primary prevention.

  5. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

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    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28° 16′30″S, 49° 56′09″W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  6. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

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    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  7. Apolipoprotein CIII polymorphism and triglyceride levels of a Japanese population living in Southern Brazil

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    L. Parzianello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein CIII (apo-CIII participates in the regulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Several polymorphic sites have been detected within and around the apo-CIII gene. Here, we examined the relationship between apo-CIII SstI polymorphism (CC, CG, GG genotypes and plasma triglyceride (TG levels in a group of 159 Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil. The sample was divided into a group of Japanese descendants (N = 51 with high TG (HTG; >200 mg/dL and a group of Japanese descendants (N = 108 with normal TG (NTG; <200 mg/dL. TG and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by an enzymatic method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and high- and low-density lipoproteins by a direct method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and DiaSys Diagnostic System International kit, respectively. A 428-bp sequence of apo-CIII gene was amplified using oligonucleotide primers 5' GGT GAC CGA TGG CTT CAG TTC CCT GA 3' and 5' CAG AAG GTG GAT AGA GCG CTG GCC T 3'. The PCR products were digested with a restriction endonuclease SstI. Rare G allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.416 compared to Caucasians (0.00-0.11. G allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group compared to the NTG group (P < 0.001. The genotype distribution was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant association between rare G allele and HTG in Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil as indicated by one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05.

  8. Assembly rules in muscid fly assemblages in the grasslands biome of Southern Brazil.

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    Krüger, Rodrigo F; de Carvalho, Claudio J B; Ribeiro, Paulo B

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of muscid species (Diptera) in grasslands fragments of southern Brazil was assessed using null models according to three assembly rules: (a) negatively-associated distributions; (b) guild proportionality; and (c) constant body-size ratios. We built presence/absence matrices and calculated the C-score index to test negatively-associated distributions and guild proportionality based on the following algorithms: total number of fixed lines (F L), total number of fi xed columns (F C), and the effect of the average size of the populations along lines (W) for 5000 randomizations. We used null models to generate random communities that were not structured by competition and evaluated the patterns generated using three models: general, trophic guilds, and taxonomic guilds. All three assembly rules were tested in each model. The null hypothesis was corroborated in all F L X F C co-occurrence analyses. In addition, 11 analyses of the models using the W algorithm showed the same pattern observed previously. Three analyses using the W algorithm indicated that species co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance. According to analyses of co-occurrence and guild proportionality, the coexistence of muscid species is not regulated by constant body size ratios. In fl ies of the grasslands, no rule was identified. Yet, a consensus did emerge from our analyses: species co-occur more frequently than expected by chance, indicating that aggregation is a recurring phenomenon among flies with saprophagous adults and predatory larvae. Therefore, competition does not seem to play an important role in the determination of muscid assemblages in the grasslands in Southern Brazil.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for stroke in a population of Southern Brazil

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    Leslie Copstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death in many countries of Latin America. Population studies are necessary in this region. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of stroke and its risk factors in a population of vulnerable communities of southern Brazil. Methods: Population-based crosssectional study with systematic sampling. Individuals aged 20 and over were included (n=3,391. Individuals with previous diagnosis of stroke or identified by a validate stroke questionnaire were compared with those without stroke in many variables. Results: 285 individuals (8.4% had previous stroke. The group without stroke showed greater average of years of study than the group with stroke (p≪0.001. Multivariable analysis identified as risk factors for stroke (p≪0.05: age from 40 to 59, age from 60 to 79, widowhood, present smoking, previous smoking, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Conclusion: The findings in this population indicate the need of preventive cost-effective public health policies in Brazil.

  10. New records and a new species of Serolis (Crustacea, Isopoda, Flabellifera from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The following species of the isopod genus Serolis are recorded from the continental shelf of southern Brazil: S. exigua Nordenstam, 1933, S. polaris Richardson, 1911, S. foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970 and S. inermis sp. n. S. exigua is for the first time recorded from off Brazil. Both S. polaris and S. foresti are recorded from new localities. S. inermis sp. n., a new species, is detailed described. Remarks are made on the importance and variations of some morphological features. The limit of distribution of both S. exigua and S. foresti is slightly extended northernwards.São assinaladas na plataforma continental centro-sul do Brasil as seguintes espécies de isópodes do gênero Serolis: S. exigua Nordenstam, 1933, S. polaris Richards on, 1911, S. foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970 e S. inermis sp, n. S. exigua é assinalada pela primeira vez ao longo do Brasil. Os registros de S. polaris e S. foresti representam novas localidades de ocorrência, S. inermis sp. n., espécie nova para a ciência, é detalhadamente descrita. São fornecidas informações adicionais sobre as espécies, assim como discute-se a variação e a importância de algumas características morfológicas. O limite Norte de ocorrência das espécies S. exígua e S. foresti é ampliado ligeiramente.

  11. An outbreak of orthopoxvirus-associated disease in horses in southern Brazil.

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    Brum, Mário C S; Anjos, Bruno Leite Dos; Nogueira, Carlos E W; Amaral, Lorena A; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of severe cutaneous disease associated with an orthopoxvirus in horses in southern Brazil is described. Fourteen Crioulo mares and foals from a husbandry farm developed papules, and vesicles progressing to proliferative and exudative lesions on the muzzle, external nares, and external and internal lips. The vesicles eroded, and the proliferative lesions eventually bled and progressed to moist crusts and scars. The clinical signs lasted approximately 6-12 days, after which the animals progressively recovered. Direct electron microscopy of skin biopsies revealed brick-shaped, 250-300-nm virus particles with orthopoxvirus morphology. Histological examination of the lesions revealed vacuolar degeneration of the cells of the stratum spinosum and the presence of large intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of poxvirus A-type inclusion body gene confirmed the presence of orthopoxvirus DNA in horse tissues. Inoculation of tissue homogenates into the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryonated eggs and intraperitoneally in mice resulted in pock-like lesions with the microscopic appearance of poxvirus-induced histopathology. Taken together, these results demonstrate the association of an orthopoxvirus with the outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses. The origin of the agent causing the outbreak is uncertain because no similar condition has been reported in Brazil.

  12. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

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    Eveline D. Stolz

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil; we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50% of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil, being pain relief an important property.

  13. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Luciane Mie KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  14. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Renato Eleotério de Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great lack of information from soil surveys in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The use of tools such as geostatistics may improve environmental planning, use and management. In this study, we aimed to use scaled semivariograms in sample design of soil physical properties of some environments in Amazonas. We selected five areas located in the south of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, with varied soil uses, such as forest, archaeological dark earth (ADE, pasture, sugarcane cropping, and agroforestry. Regular mesh grids were set up in these areas with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m from each other. At these points, we determined the particle size composition, soil resistance to penetration, moisture, soil bulk density and particle density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, and aggregate stability in water at a depth of 0.00-0.20 m. Descriptive and geostatistical analyses were performed. The sample density requirements were lower in the pasture area but higher in the forest. We concluded that managed-environments had differences in their soil physical properties compared to the natural forest; notably, the soil in the ADE environment is physically improved in relation to the others. The physical properties evaluated showed a structure of spatial dependence with a slight variability of the forest compared to the others. The use of the range parameter of the semivariogram analysis proved to be effective in determining an ideal sample density.

  15. Particularities of Syrah wines from different growing regions of Southern Brazil: grapevine phenology and bioactive compounds.

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    Sartor, Saionara; Malinovski, Luciane Isabel; Caliari, Vinícius; da Silva, Aparecido Lima; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the phenological parameters of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) of Syrah variety recently introduced in the region of Marari, Água Doce, Campos Novos and São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, and to characterize the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wines produced from this variety of the vintages 2010 and 2011. The adaptation of the grapevine to climate conditions of these grape growing regions of Southern Brazil for this variety has also been assessed. The climate variations occurring between the phenological cycles of grapevine of Syrah for each growing region influenced the phenological extension and heat accumulation of the grapevine. The wines showed significant levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity, while catechin, a potent antioxidant, was the main phenolic compound quantified in wines. Positive correlations between the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were observed. The principal component analysis confirmed the influence of the growing region and vintages on the phenolic composition of wines, indicating the importance of climate conditions. This study identified possible phenolic markers indicative of climatic influence.

  16. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

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    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  17. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

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    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  18. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

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    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  19. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil.

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    Ferron, Mariana Maleronka; Lima, André Klafke de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  20. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

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    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  1. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

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    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  2. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

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    Lucia Mariano da Rocha Silla

    Full Text Available This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years and women (14 to 30 years tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  3. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  4. [Evaluation of patients' learning about the ABCD rule: A randomized study in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karen Reetz; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Crestani, Thayse Antoniolli; Chiaradia, Gisele; Rey, Maria Carolina Widholzer

    2009-01-01

    the ABCD rule is used to guide physicians, health care professionals and patients to recognize the main characteristics of suspicious skin lesions for melanoma. In Brazil there are no studies to validate the use of the ABCD rule by patients after instructions given by dermatologists. to evaluate the learning of the ABCD rule by patients at a dermatology center of reference in the Southern region of Brazil. a randomized study, with 80 outpatients. The following were evaluated: sex, age, level of schooling, monthly income and access to means of communication. The intervention group received instructions regarding the use of the ABCD rule and the control group did not. Both groups were evaluated at three points in time (baseline; outside the office; and in the doctor's office, 15 days later) regarding their answers about a panel of photographs. The level of significance used was p ABCD rule can be used to train patients, above the age of 17 years, to identify changes that suggest melanoma. This learning is independent of sex, level of schooling, monthly income and access to means of communication, except the radio.

  5. Determinants of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in Southern Brazil

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    Martínez Ana M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtypes may have distinct biological, immunological and pathogenic properties. Efficiency of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT may be among those properties, but few and controversial results have been described so far. In this study, 102 children born from HIV-1-infected mothers between 1998 and 2004 in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil were analyzed for potential risk factors associated with MTCT. That geographic region is characterized by a high proportion of subtype C-infected subjects, and it allowed comparison between subtypes B and C and their influence on MTCT. The analysis also included clinical, obstetric and immunological parameters. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the parameters on MTCT, and prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI95 were also calculated. A surprisingly high prevalence of subtype C of over 70% was found. Only the HIV viral load and the use of ACTG 076 protocol were predictive of MTCT. HIV subtype and CD4 T-cell counts were not associated with increased risk of transmission. Although a clear expansion of subtype C is evident in southern Brazil, it does not seem to correlate with increased risk of vertical transmission.

  6. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

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    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  7. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%). CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  8. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

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    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  9. Polymorphism of leukocyte and erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease patients in southern Brazil.

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    Roger Haruki Yamakawa

    Full Text Available We investigated the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigens (HLA and Duffy erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients in southern Brazil. One hundred and eighty-three CKD patients, over 18 years old, on hemodialysis, were included. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 typing was performed using the LABType®SSO (One Lambda, Inc.. Duffy phenotypes were determined by gel column agglutination using anti-Fy(a and anti-Fy(b monoclonal anti-sera. The patients' predominant ages ranged between 51 and 70 years (43% and the predominant gender, ethnic group and dialysis period were, respectively, male (62%, white (62% and 1-3 years (40%. The highest and lowest frequencies of Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+ and Fy(a-b-, respectively. Nineteen HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 allele groups were identified. The most frequent HLA allele groups were HLA-A*01, -A*02, -A*03, -A*11, -A*24; HLA-B*07, -B*15, -B*35, -B*44, -B*51; HLA-DRB1*03, -DRB1*04, -DRB1*07, -DRB1*11 and -DRB1*13. Statistically significant differences were observed in the Duffy and HLA polymorphisms compared between CKD patients and healthy subjects. The Fy(a+b- phenotype (p<0.0001, OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.60-4.07 was the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05, and the Fy(a+b+ phenotype (p = 0.0039, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.18-2.51 was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Paraná state (p<0.05. Regarding HLA, the HLA-B*42, -B*45, -B*51 and -DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05, and the HLA-B*44 allele group was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil (p<0.05. The polymorphism of these two markers among CKD patients in southern Brazil and healthy subjects of other studies, suggests that these markers might be involved with CKD development. Further studies should be undertaken to analyze the markers' influence on CKD and the long-term results from kidney transplantation.

  10. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with PTSD, anxiety and depression symptoms in Haitian migrants in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnet, Alice E; Bolaséll, Laura T; Weber, João LA; Kristensen, Christian H

    2018-02-01

    Prevalence rates of mental health disorders in migrants are controversial. The socio-historical and economic background of the host country may play an important role in the mental health status of migrants. As studies are mostly conducted in developed countries, researching migration in developing countries may add important information to scientific literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression symptoms in Haitian migrants in southern Brazil. The sample comprises 66 participants selected from four different sites in three cities of a Brazilian southern state. Participants fulfilled a sociodemographic questionnaire, as well as instruments investigate traumatic events; post-migration difficulties and symptoms of PTSD, anxiety and depression. Linear regression models were utilized to investigate factors associated with PTSD, anxiety and depression symptoms. PTSD prevalence in the sample was 9.1%. Depression and anxiety symptoms were in the clinical range of 10.6%-13.6% of participants, respectively. A number of traumatic events, acculturation difficulties, discrimination and low social support were associated with the investigated mental health disorders. The results point to the importance of public policies in promoting better social and mental health support for migrants. Providing information to the Brazilian population about migration may improve receptiveness in the host society.

  12. Intertidal to subtidal distribution of benthic macrofauna in an estuarine beach of Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto Pagliosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the spatial variation of a macrofaunal community along the intertidalsubtidal gradient of an estuarine beach located at the mouth of Babitonga Bay, in Southern Brazil. The fauna and sediment were sampled at 0, 5, 10, and 20 m depths in three transects. Differences in benthic assemblages among the depths were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of sediment changes. The analysis of taxa composition showed an impoverished community subject to wave action and erosionaccretion dynamics at landward stations (0 and 5 m depths. Seaward macrofauna (10 and 20 m depths inhabiting sediments with higher organic content and poorly-sorted sands were more diverse and numerically dominated by ophiuroids and by cirratulid (Tharyx sp. and maldanid (Clymenella brasiliensis polychaetes. A breakdown in the zonation patterns of environment and community was detected where sediments produced by a creek outlet enabled increasing stability and higher densities of the soft bottom anthozoa Edwardsia sp. and the polychaete Lumbrineris atlantica. Additionally, the sediments with an excessive amount of fine particles were densely colonized (mean of 22,400 individuals.m-2 by C. brasiliensis. The local sediment characteristics were related to maldanid sediment-reworking. The macrofaunal species compositions along the sandy beaches at the mouths of the southern Brazilian estuarine systems were compared.

  13. The zooplankton of Mgazana, a mangrove estuary in Transkei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The zooplankton of Mgazana, a mangrove estuary in Transkei, Southern Africa. T Wooldridge. Abstract. Mgazana, a mangrove estuary inTranskei, was investigated from May 1972 to March 1973 at six-week intervals. Salinities were consistently above 25 parts per thousand in the middle and lower estuary. In the upper ...

  14. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemesio, A

    2013-01-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed...

  15. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping of Shigella responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in southern Brazil

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    Cheila Minéia Daniel de Paula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information about Shigella responsible for foodborne shigellosis is available in Brazil. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping patterns of Shigella isolates responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Southern Brazil in the period between 2003 and 2007. Shigella strains (n=152 were isolated from foods and fecal samples of victims of shigellosis outbreaks investigated by the Surveillance Service. Identification of the strains at specie level indicated that 71.1% of them were S. flexneri, 21.5% S. sonnei, and 0.7% S. dysenteriae. Ten strains (6.7% were identified only as Shigella spp. An increasing occurrence of S. sonnei was observed after 2004. Most of the strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.6%, followed by ampicillin (84.6%, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.5 %. Resistant strains belonged to 73 patterns, and pattern A (resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and intermediate resistance to kanamycin grouped the largest number of isolates (n=36. PCR-ribotyping identified three banding patterns (SH1, SH2, and SH3. SH1 grouped all S. flexneri and SH2 grouped all S. sonnei. The S. dysenteriae strain belonged to group SH3. According to the results, several Shigella isolates shared the same PCR-rybotyping banding pattern and the same resistance profile, suggesting that closely related strains were responsible for the outbreaks. However, other molecular typing methods need to be applied to confirm the clonal relationship of these isolates.

  17. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  18. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

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    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  19. [Factors associated with drug use among adolescent students in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Beatriz Franck; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Lima, Maurício Silva de

    2004-12-01

    To assess factors associated with drug use among adolescent students from schools providing secondary education. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1998. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was answered by a proportional sample of 10-19-year-old students, enrolled in primary (5th grade and further) and secondary classes in all public and private schools of the urban area which providing secondary education. Schools were visited up to three times in order to reach absent students. Results were expressed as prevalence ratios (PR). 2,410 students were interviewed, losses amounting to 8%. The prevalence of drug use (except alcohol and tobacco) in the last year was 17.1%. After confounder control, associations remained between drug use and parents' divorce (PR=1.46; 95% CI: 1.18-1.80), poor relationship with father (PR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.17-2.38), poor relationship with mother (PR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.64-4.48), open-minded father (PR=1.36; 95% CI: 1.08-1.72), drug user in household (PR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.17-2.18), abuse (PR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.27-2.07), having been mugged or robbed in the previous year (PR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.09-1.76) and absence of religious practice (PR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.07-1.59). The study suggests associations between several family characteristics and drug use by adolescents, providing useful information for a complete understanding of this problem in Brazil.

  20. Factors associated with caries: a survey of students from southern Brazil

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    Tássia Silvana Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the factors associated with dental caries among students from Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 623 students of both genders, aged 10-17 years old. Tooth decay was performed using the index of the World Health Organization (1997, DMFT (permanent dentition that expresses the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth per person. The maternal educational level was rated using criteria of the Brazilian Association of Market Research Companies. The remaining variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Poisson regression analysis was used to test the association between variables using robust models and a subsequently adjusted model. Data were expressed as prevalence ratio (PR. Results: Multivariate analysis identified the following factors related to the experience of dental caries: residence in rural municipalities (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 1.0-1.3, attending a city school (PR: 3.30; 95%CI: 1.1-9.4 or a state school (PR: 3.40; 95%CI: 1.1-9.6; and having an illiterate mother or a mother that only attended up to the 4th year of school (PR: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.1-2.4 or high school (PR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.1-2.2. Conclusions: The presence of caries in students in southern Brazil was associated with residence in rural areas, mother with little education and attendance to a public school.

  1. Labile copper and zinc fractions under different salinity conditions in a shipyard area in the patos lagoon estuary, south of Brazil

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    Luiza Dy Fonseca Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are common elements in paint residues and can be toxic to estuarine organisms. This study aims to determine the labile dissolved and labile particulate fractions (LPFs of copper and zinc in the estuarine waters of a shipyard in southern Brazil under different salinity levels and in different seasons. The labile dissolved fraction was determined using the diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT technique. The variations in DGT-Cu (0.22-1.05 µg L-1, DGT-Zn (0.54-18.39 µg L-1, LPF-Cu (1.22-3.77 µg g-1, and LPF-Zn (4.29-19.12 µg g-1 concentration were related to changes in their physico-chemical parameters and as a result of boat maintenance activities.

  2. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

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    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  3. Chemical characterization and antibacterial action of brown propolis extract from Southern Brazil

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    Tony Picoli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Picoli T., Peter C.M., Hoffmann J.F., Latosinski G.S., Zani J.L., D’Ávila Vargas G., Hüber S. de O. & Fischer G. [Chemical characterization and antibacterial action of brown propolis extract from Southern Brazil.] Caracterização química e ação antibacteriana de extrato de própolis marrom da região sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:365-371, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Veterinária, Laboratório de Virologia e Imunologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitário Capão do Leão s/n, Capão do Leão, RS 96900-010, Brasil. E-mail: picolivet@gmail.com The aim of this study was to characterize chemically a sample of brown propolis and determine the time of action needed for eliminating microorganisms causing bovine mastitis. It was prepared hydroalcoholic extract of brown propolis (25 mg/mL and this was evaluated for content of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp. It was found 34.39% and 13.46% of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, respectively, among which stand out ferulic acid (0.09 mg/g, caffeic acid (0.17 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (3.39 mg/g.In the first 15 minutes incubation, all counts differed from the initial counts (p<0.01. With 15 minutes of exposure to the extract, Escherichia coli was inhibited by 38.72% and differed from the other bacterial genus (p<0.01, n=6. Staphylococcus spp. has had inhibition of 46.03% and Streptotococcus spp. of 50.8%. After 2 hours incubation, the genus Streptococcus was totally eliminated, Staphylococcus spp. after 3 hours and E. coli after 4 hours. Clearly, E. coli was more resistant bacteria than S. aureus. The other species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus did not show large differences between

  4. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Juliana; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the

  5. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

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    Tulio Machado Fumian

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20 has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85% non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9; GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4; GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4; GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2; GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1; GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1; GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1; and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1. On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009 no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains

  6. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae in southern Brazil

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    JF Oliveira-Neto

    Full Text Available The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2. The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  7. On the fossil Remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil

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    José D. Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.

  8. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

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    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  9. Occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains exposed to fungicides on fusarium head blight control in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leandro N; Pizzutti, Ionara R; Balardin, Ricardo S; Dos Santos, Ingrid D; Dias, Jonatan V; Stefanello, Marlon T; Serafini, Pablo T

    2017-04-03

    Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON). Two cultivars showed high DON concentration above the tolerance limits (>3000 μg kg(-1)). Many other mycotoxins monitored presented concentrations below method detection limit. Satisfactory levels of fungicide effectiveness were achieved against F. graminearum. Some fungicides promoted a satisfactory decrease on DON accumulation in grains. The best results were obtained when prothioconazole was present. SDHI (Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors) + QoI (Quinone outside inhibitors) fungicides showed benefic effects at FHB control at field, but it did not promote satisfactory reduction on DON contamination. Fungicides can be used satisfactory for FHB control and reduce DON contamination in grains in southern Brazil. The presence of prothioconazole should be recommended. Some genotypes showed high DON concentration and it was not directly related with FHB severity at field.

  10. Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

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    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05 significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049, the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023, and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001. Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2. The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.

  12. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-19

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.

  13. Non-volant mammals recorded in environmental evaluation studies in southern Brazil

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    Jorge J. Cherem

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies to evaluate environmental impacts have become both a need and a requirement of environmental agencies due to great alteration of the native environments provoked by man. Many of these studies are short-termed, but reporting the acquired data is very important in order to increase knowledge about specific biotic groups. Thus, this paper presents the results of the non-volant mammal surveys arising from seven environmental studies in southern Brazil. The following methodologies were employed: (1 interviews with local residents; (2 visual observations and recording; (3 identification of vestiges; and (4 capture with live traps. A total of 46 mammal species were recorded (5 marsupials, 4 xenarthrans, 2 primates, 13 carnivores, 2 artiodactylans, 2 lagomorphs and 18 rodents. Some species, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca, giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis, Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, are possibly extinct or seriously threatened. The records obtained and the possibilities of the occurrence of other species are discussed.

  14. Aquatic vascular plants as handicraft: a case study in southern Brazil

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    Mabel R. Báez-Lizarazo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate knowledge about and the usage and importance of aquatic vascular plants (AVPs in the production of handicrafts by communities on the north coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The snowball technique was employed to locate people who use and have knowledge regarding the use of AVPs for handicrafts. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and guided tours with 35 interviewees who were involved in artisanal activity at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using the importance value (IV index and the consensus value for the forms of use (CMU. The Spearman correlation test (rs was employed to determine the correlations of each social variable with the knowledge variables, and Mann-Whitney U tests to verify whether men and women exhibited differences in knowledge. The interviewees cited 16 AVPs that were employed in 17 types of handicrafts, among which the four main species were Schoenoplectus californicus, Typha domingensis, T. latifolia and Androtrichum giganteum. Interviewee age, residence time on site and time working with handicrafts were the main social parameters that described the level of knowledge and use of AVPs. These AVPs reflect cultural knowledge and complement family incomes.

  15. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

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    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  16. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

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    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  17. Evaluation of the TLC quantification method and occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Denise Felippin de Lima; Oliveira, Melissa Dos Santos; Furlong, Eliana Badiale; Junges, Alexander; Paroul, Natalia; Valduga, Eunice; Backes, Geciane Toniazzo; Zeni, Jamile; Cansian, Rogério Luis

    2017-12-01

    The study evaluated a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction method for use with a TLC quantification procedure for deoxynivalenol (DON). It also surveyed DON occurrence in wheat flour from the southern region of Brazil. Forty-eight wheat flour samples were analysed, divided into 2 different harvest lots, each consisting of 24 different brands. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 30 and 100 ng of DON on the TLC plate. The various concentrations of DON presented high linearity (R 2  = 0.99). A negative matrix effect (-28%) of the wheat flour was verified, with suppression of the chromatographic signal of DON, and 80.2-105.4% recovery. The TLC method was reliable for DON evaluation, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10%. High-performance liquid chromatography of lot 2 samples confirmed the presence of DON in all samples identified DON-positive by the TLC technique. Of the 48 wheat flour samples in lots 1 and 2 analysed by TLC, 33.3 and 45.8% of the samples respectively were above the Brazilian legislation limit. Correlations were observed between the water activity and DON content, and between the fungal count and moisture content of the wheat flours.

  18. [Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth's age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health.

  19. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil

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    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents.METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23, adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11 and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81.CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength.

  20. [Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demonstrate low levels of lumbar strength. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen Transfer from Cover Crop Residues to Onion Grown under Minimum Tillage in Southern Brazil

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    Leoncio de Paula Koucher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen derived from cover crop residues may contribute to the nutrition of onion grown under minimum tillage (MT and cultivated in rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the N transferred from different cover crop residues to the onion crop cultivated under MT in southern Brazil. In June 2014, oilseed radish, black oat, and oilseed radish + black oat residues labeled with 15N were deposited on the soil surface before transplanting onions. During the growth season and at harvest, young expanded onion leaves, complete plants, and samples from different soil layers were collected and analyzed for recovery of 15N-labeled residue. Oilseed radish decomposed faster than other residues and 4 % of residue N was recovered in leaves and bulbs at harvest, but in general, N in plant organs was derived from sources other than the cover crop residues. In addition, leaf N was in the proper range for all treatments and was adequately mobilized to the bases for bulbing. The N derived from decomposing residues contributed little to onion development and the use of these plants should be chosen based on their advantages for physical and biological soil quality.

  2. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP dates complex granulite from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

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    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex polymetamorphic granulites have been dated in the Santa Catarina granulite complex of southern Brazil through SHRIMP study of zircon. This complex is dominated by intermediate-acid plutonic rocks and contains small volumes of mafic and ultramafic rocks, and minor quartzite and banded iron formation. Porphyroblasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase in mafic and acid rocks are interpreted as magmatic remnants in a volumetrically dominant granoblastic aggregate (M1 of the same minerals and hornblende. Hornblende formed during a later M2 metamorphic event constitutes rims around pyroxene, but the hornblende is also rimmed by granoblastic simplectites of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase in a second granulite facies event (M3. Chlorite and epidote occur in shear zones (M4. This granulite terrain is part of a Neoproterozoic craton, because it was little affected by the Brasiliano Cycle. The two granulite-facies events (M1 and M3 are dated by U/Pb zircon SHRIMP at about 2.68 and 2.17 Ga, while the magmatic protoliths formed at about 2.72 Ga. The amphibolite facies event (M2 probably occurred close to the 2.17 Ga granulitic metamorphism.

  4. Conventional serological performance in diagnosis of Chagas' disease in southern Brazil.

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    Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2013-01-01

    Results of Chagas' disease diagnosis show disagreement. The aim of this study was to compare commercial tests for Chagas' disease serodiagnosis in southern Brazil. A total of 161 samples were evaluated. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one indirect hemagglutination and one indirect immunofluorescence were assessed. Trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had more false-positive results (lower specificity), indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sensitivity), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity), while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity). Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Conventional serological performance in diagnosis of Chagas' disease in southern Brazil

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    Anelise Bergmann Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of Chagas' disease diagnosis show disagreement. The aim of this study was to compare commercial tests for Chagas' disease serodiagnosis in southern Brazil. A total of 161 samples were evaluated. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one indirect hemagglutination and one indirect immunofluorescence were assessed. Trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had more false-positive results (lower specificity, indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sen sitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity, while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity. Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection.

  6. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

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    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  7. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

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    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  8. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  9. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  10. European apple canker: morphophysiological variability and pathogenicity in isolates of Neonectria ditissima in southern Brazil

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    Jonatas da Silva Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: European apple canker (EC is caused by Neonectria ditissima, a pathogen officially registered as a quarantine pest in 2012. Thirty-five isolates of N. ditissima of different geographical regions of southern Brazil from apple branches showing symptoms of EC were identified by the specific pair primers Ch1 and Ch2 and analyzed concerning the virulence on Gala apple cultivar and morphophysiological characteristics. The disease symptoms were characterized and the isolates compared based on average mycelium growth (AMG, mycelium growth index (MGI, colony color, conidia type, dimensions and growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA, malt agar (AM, and synthetic SNAY (SN culture media. Nineteen isolates showed the greatest AMG on PDA, forming three growth groups of 35.56 (GI, 52.71 (GII, and 62.67mm (GIII. Seven isolates showed MGI greater than 4.0mm diameter on PDA compared with that on AM and SN. The highest conidia production was on SN, and the predominant colony color in all media was white to beige with central pigmentation of brown and borders colored in shades of beige. There were significant differences among the average dimensions of micro- and macroconidia on PDA, AM, and SN. The pathogenicity was confirmed for all isolates despite of different morphophysiological characteristics. There was no correlation among isolates morphophysiological variability, virulence, and geographical origin.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers concerning tobacco agriculture in a municipality in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Marcelo Moreno Dos; Oliveira, Ana Paula Natividade de; Turci, Silvana Rubano Barretto; Dantas, Renato Maciel; Silva, Valéria Dos Santos Pinto da; Gross, Cátia; Jensen, Teresinha; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-09-21

    The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers working in tobacco production concerning the social, environmental, and health impacts of this economic activity. Focus groups were used in this qualitative study, and themes were explored until reaching saturation. The study was conducted in a municipality (county) in southern Brazil in 2013 and included 64 women farmers. The discussions revealed participants' familiarity with health problems associated with workloads in tobacco production: green tobacco sickness, pesticide poisoning, musculoskeletal disorders, and others. The discussions also revealed a concern with the negative impacts of tobacco agriculture on the environment. They also revealed apprehension concerning decisions on switching to alternatives for sustainable agricultural production, emphasizing that on-going and systematic government support would be necessary for such a transition. Women farmers identified various factors that contribute to the persistence of tobacco farming: small holdings for cultivation, lack of guarantees for marketing crops, and indebtedness to tobacco companies. The study showed that an integrated approach is needed to deal with tobacco farmers' problems, considering a balance between farmers' beliefs and government decisions. This approach, in keeping with the recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, may help strengthen policies and measures to promote health and sustainable local development.

  12. Factors associated with recurrence of alcohol-related traffic violations in southern Brazil

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    Aurinez R. Schmitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze variables associated with recurrence of blood alcohol content (BAC-related traffic violations among drivers in southern Brazil. Method: This cross-sectional study included 12,204 driving-under-the-influence (DUI offenders according to data provided by the Rio Grande do Sul state Transportation Department. Sociodemographic characteristics, license duration, license category, and psychological assessment results were analyzed. Drivers convicted of DUI more than once in 2009/2010 were considered recidivists. Variables were evaluated using descriptive statistical analysis and Poisson regression, adjusted by sex, age, and education level. Results: A total of 538 (4.41% drivers were considered recidivists. The following variables showed the strongest associations with recidivism: being aged 41-50 years (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.41, being licensed for ≥ 12 years (PR = 1.86, being licensed for motorcycles, cars and trucks (PR = 1.36, having a license with psychological restrictions (PR = 1.33, and driving a truck or a similar vehicle at the moment of notification (PR = 1.08. Conclusions: In the age group with the highest risk for recurrence, drivers showed a higher probability of having a diagnosis of alcohol dependence and other psychiatric comorbidities that hinder the control of alcohol use. Psychological assessments seem to be important in predicting repeat offenses, especially when limited aptitudes are suspected, and should therefore be better investigated.

  13. Genetic variation of the bronze locus (MC1R in turkeys from Southern Brazil

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    Josmael Corso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Domestic turkeys present several color phenotypes controlled by at least five genetic loci, but only one of these has been identified precisely: the bronze locus, which turned out to be the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R gene. MC1R variation is important for breeders interested in maintaining or developing different color varieties. In this study, we sequenced most of the MC1R gene from 16 White Holland (the main commercial turkey variety and 19 pigmented turkeys from southern Brazil with two purposes. The first was to describe the MC1R diversity in White Holland turkeys, which may serve as reservoirs of genetic diversity at this locus. The second was to test whether the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders is related to previously known MC1R alleles. White Holland turkeys had four different haplotypes corresponding to the bronze (b+ and black-winged bronze (b1 alleles. Pigmented turkeys also had four haplotypes corresponding to the b+ and b1 alleles, but different haplotypes represent the most common b+ allele in these two groups. The black (B allele was absent from our samples. Overall, our results suggest that white and pigmented individuals form two different populations, and that the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders cannot accurately predict the genotypes at the bronze locus.

  14. Genetic variation of the bronze locus (MC1R) in turkeys from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Josmael; Hepp, Diego; Ledur, Mônica C; Peixoto, Jane O; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2017-01-01

    Domestic turkeys present several color phenotypes controlled by at least five genetic loci, but only one of these has been identified precisely: the bronze locus, which turned out to be the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. MC1R variation is important for breeders interested in maintaining or developing different color varieties. In this study, we sequenced most of the MC1R gene from 16 White Holland (the main commercial turkey variety) and 19 pigmented turkeys from southern Brazil with two purposes. The first was to describe the MC1R diversity in White Holland turkeys, which may serve as reservoirs of genetic diversity at this locus. The second was to test whether the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders is related to previously known MC1R alleles. White Holland turkeys had four different haplotypes corresponding to the bronze (b+) and black-winged bronze (b1) alleles. Pigmented turkeys also had four haplotypes corresponding to the b+ and b1 alleles, but different haplotypes represent the most common b+ allele in these two groups. The black (B) allele was absent from our samples. Overall, our results suggest that white and pigmented individuals form two different populations, and that the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders cannot accurately predict the genotypes at the bronze locus.

  15. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from crepuscular period in an Atlantic Forest area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandin, E; Santos, E B; Piovesan, M; Favretto, M A; Schneeberger, A H; Souza, V O; Muller, G A; Wagner, G

    2017-03-01

    Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.

  16. Haematological and parasitological assessment of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen farmed in Southern Brazil

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    Aline Brum Figueredo

    Full Text Available This study evaluated for two years the haematological parameters and the occurrence of gill parasites in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen, farmed in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Between March 2010 and January 2012, a total of 137 fish were caught in a fish farm to compare the haematological and parasitological analysis, during hot and cold seasons. Simultaneously, water quality parameters were measured in the pond to analyze the relationship between environmental conditions and haematology and parasitism. During the hot season, there was an increase in water temperature, electrical conductivity and ammonia followed by a decrease in dissolved oxygen, pH, transparency and alkalinity. Two species of Monogenea were observed in the gills, Aphanoblastella mastigatus (Dactylogyridae and Scleroductus sp. (Gyrodactylidae. Additionally, during this season, there was a significant increase (p<0.05 in the mean intensity of infection by Monogenea, as well as total leukocytes number, thrombocytes and lymphocytes, and a reduction in monocytes. The changes might be caused by parasitism and/or environmental variations between seasons.

  17. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

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    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  18. Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers in no-till wheat and maize in southern Brazil

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    Fernando Viero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface of no-till systems can intensify ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers applied to cereal crops. This study assessed the magnitude of N losses through ammonia volatilization from urea applied to no-till winter (wheat and summer crops (maize on a Typic Hapludox in the south-central region of Paraná, southern Brazil. In addition, the potential of alternative N sources (urea with urease inhibitor, liquid fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate and different urea managements (fertilizer applied in the morning or afternoon were evaluated. Two experiments with maize and wheat were carried out for two years, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Nitrogen volatilization losses were assessed with a semi-open static collector until 21 days after fertilization. In winter, the losses were low (<5.5 % of applied N for all N sources, which were not distinguishable, due to the low temperatures. In the summer, volatilization rates from urea were higher than in the winter, but did not exceed 15 % of applied N. The main factor decreasing N losses in the summer was the occurrence of rainfall in the first five days after fertilization. Urea with urease inhibitor, nitrate and ammonium sulfate were efficient to decrease ammonia volatilization in maize, whereas the application time (morning or afternoon had no influence.

  19. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  20. Ontogenetic variations and feeding habits of a Neotropical annual fish from southern Brazil

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    Tatiana S. Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.

  1. Conventional serological performance in diagnosis of Chagas' disease in southern Brazil

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    Anelise Bergmann Araújo

    Full Text Available Results of Chagas' disease diagnosis show disagreement. The aim of this study was to compare commercial tests for Chagas' disease serodiagnosis in southern Brazil. A total of 161 samples were evaluated. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one indirect hemagglutination and one indirect immunofluorescence were assessed. Trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had more false-positive results (lower specificity, indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sen sitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity, while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity. Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection.

  2. Relationships between heat stress and metabolic and milk parameters in dairy cows in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alejandra Barrera; Angeli, Natalia; Machado, Letícia; de Cardoso, Felipe Cardoso; Gonzalez, Félix

    2015-06-01

    This study approached the relationships between heat stress and metabolic and milk parameters in a commercial herd of Holstein cows located in southern Brazil. A total of 50 multiparous cows at different lactations and lactation stages were selected in order to obtain 450 samples during two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The animals were fed a partial mixed ration along with ryegrass pasture in a semi-confinement system. Blood, milk, and urine samples were taken during the summer and winter for a total of eight samples. Three intervals of temperature-humidity index (THI) were established during the summer months (January and February) as follows: low group (LOW), THI between 75 and 81 (N = 100); moderate group (MOD), THI between 81 and 82 (N = 150); and severe group (SEV), THI between 83 and 90 (N = 150). The group of cows sampled during winter (July) constituted the control group (CON; THI = 59, N = 50). Increased total protein, albumin, glucose, and cholesterol occurred in heat-stressed cows. Increased AST activity was also observed in heat-stressed cows, but triglycerides and beta-OH-butyrate did not show any difference among groups. Lower lactate and higher pO2 were seen in cows with heat stress than CON. Cows in SEV had a 21 % milk yield decrease, while lactose and protein decreased with fat not being affected. Heat stress had strong effects on metabolic, clinical, and performance parameters in Holstein cows.

  3. [Factors associated with non-participation in screening for cervical cancer in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Horta, Bernardo L; Gomes, Gildo; Houlthausen, Ricardo S; Willrich, Roselane M; Kaercher, Alessandra; Iastrenski, Francisco M

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of cervical cancer substantially increases the probability of cure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening among women 15 to 49 years of age in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. A representative survey was carried out using a systematic sample based on a census tract. Trained interviewers used standard, individualized, household questionnaires to interview the women. Data analysis used logistic regression according to a previously determined hierarchical framework. Among 1,302 women interviewed, 57% had never had a Pap smear. The risk factors most closely associated with non-participation in screening were black or brown skin color, young age, low family income, low schooling, living alone, and first childbirth after 25 years of age. Coverage for early detection of cervical cancer was very low. In addition, women at high risk of developing cervical cancer were shown to have a significantly higher risk of non-participation in this type of screening.

  4. On a new stereospondylomorph temnospondyl from the Middle-Late Permian of Southern Brazil

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    Adriana Strapasson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new temnospondyl is described from the Middle–Upper Permian sequence of the Paraná Basin (Rio do Rasto Formation in southern Brazil. The material consists of disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements, preserved in association. The cranial elements include part of the orbital region of the skull roof, the basicranium, a number of endocranial elements, stapes and a right hemimandible. The postcranial elements include vertebrae, ribs, pectoral girdle elements, a right femur and a cluster of scales. The new species displays a rhinesuchid pattern, which is similar to the South African rhinesuchids from the Upper Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin, but differs from them by the presence of a robust and elongated epipterygoid with a blade-like anterior process in addition to elongated and deeper muscular pockets on the parasphenoid, which allow the assignment of this specimen to a new species. However, the phylogenetic analysis grouped the material described herein and Australerpeton cosgriffi inside Stereospondylomorpha, in a transitional position between the Laurasian assemblages and South African temnospondyls. This result supports a connection between the Brazilian and Eastern European Permian fauna and provides important data for future biostratigraphic studies.

  5. STRATEGIC RESOURCES AND HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY IN A UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Roberto Birch Gonçalves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition among higher education institutions (HEIs, the evolution in learning methods and information technologies drive HEIs and lead them to increasingly intense challenges. In this context, the development of lucid and competent strategies promotes the differentiation, creating sustainable competitive advantages. The challenge of developing and implementing appropriate strategies involves the understanding of the potential of a HEI and how its capabilities and resources were formed and shaped. In this sense, this study presents a research based on a framework to identify and analyze over time changes in the strategic resources resulting from the development process of a HEI located in Serra Gaucha (southern Brazil, aiming to contribute to the understanding of the factors underlying the competitiveness in the light of the Resource Based View (RBV theory. The analysis of the different models and contemporary theories, along with the results achieved in the empirical research show that, in the studied HEI, strategic resources have been changed and changed its characteristics during the development process. The changes were promoted by historical decisions and by new knowledge development. Therefore, for the HEI’s success, its strategic resources must be worked in two ways. First, by learning, supported by the absorptive capacity and second, by understanding the historical events, which can reinforce or withdraw the strategic nature of the resources.

  6. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts.

  7. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

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    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  8. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

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    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  9. Alteration in eating habits among shift workers of a poultry processing plant in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elisângela da Silva; Canuto, Raquel; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Busnello, Fernanda Michelin; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between shift work and the eatinghabits of workers was investigated in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,206 workers of both sexes between 18 and 50 years of age. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather demographic, socioeconomic, work shift and eating habit information. The shift of work was categorized into daytime and nighttime, based on the starting and ending times of the shift. The eating habits of workers were evaluated as follows: number and type of meals eaten during the 24 hours of a normal day, the inappropriateness of the hoursof these meals and the dietaryrisk score. This was built on the risk score of the weekly consumption of 13 food items. After adjusting for potential confounders, non-Caucasian and younger male workers were more likely to manifest eating risk habits. Nighttimeshift workers consumed ahigher number of meals/day with greater inappropriateness of meal times than daytimeshift workers. The night shift can negatively influence the eating habits of workers of that shift.

  10. Population biology of the hermit crab Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Southern Brazil

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    Alexander Turra

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide information on the biology of a subtropical population ofthe hermit crab Petrochirus diogenes focusing size structure, sex ratio, reproductive period and morphometric relationships. Monthly samples were done between January and December 1995 at Armação of Itapocoroy, Penha, southern Brazil, using two over-trawls in depths from 6.0 to 10.0 m. A total of 126 individuais were collected. Overall sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. When the sex ratio was analyzed for each size class, it was skewed for females in the smallest size classes while males outnumbered females in the largest ones. The mean size (cephalothoracic length of P. diogenes was 30.61 ± 12.52 mm and the size structure of this population was skewed to the right. Males were on average larger and heavier than both ovigerous and non-ovigerous females, which, in turn, showed similar sizes and weights. The ovigerous females represented 61% ofall females and occurred from January to April and in September and December. The relationship of cephalothoracic length and both cephalothoracic width and crab weight were isometric. Both crab size and weight showed a negative allometry with shell weight, indicating that larger/heavier crabs use proportionally lighter shells than small-sized ones.

  11. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  12. Human papillomavirus among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in southern Brazil.

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    Paesi, Suelen; Correa, Leonardo; Tregnago, Márcia Caldart; Mandelli, Jovana; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a population in southern Brazil. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the prevalence of ASCUS was determined among women aged 20-60 years who were referred to a private medical center in Caxias do Sul by a gynecologist for assessment of a cervical condition between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2011. Histologic and cytologic samples were tested for HPV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to genotype any HPV DNA identified. Among the 250 included women, 25 (10.0%) had ASCUS. HPV DNA was found in 15 (60.0%) women with ASCUS and 115 (51.1%) of the 225 without ASCUS. Viral typing showed that 7 (46.7%) HPV-positive women with ASCUS had multiple infections with up to five different genotypes. Both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes were found in ASCUS samples; the most prevalent genotypes were HPV6/HPV11 (affecting 10 [66.7%] women), HPV51 (6 [40.0%]), and HPV16 (6 [40.0%]). ASCUS is not an indication of HPV infection. HPV screening and genotyping would benefit women with ASCUS, because treatment can be planned according to risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between dietary patterns and mental disorders in pregnant women in Southern Brazil

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    Jéssica T.A. Paskulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and mental disorders among pregnant women in southern Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 712 pregnant women recruited from the Study of Food Intake and Eating Behaviors in Pregnancy (ECCAGe. Food intake assessment was performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD was used to evaluate participants’ mental health. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios (PR. Results: In the adjusted models, there was a high prevalence of major depressive disorder among women with low fruit intake (43%, PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.04-1.95 and high sweets and sugars intake (91%, PR 1.91, 95%CI 1.19-3.07. Women with a common-Brazilian dietary pattern had higher prevalence of major depressive disorder compared to those with a varied consumption pattern (PR 1.43, 95%CI 1.01-2.02. Low intake of beans was significantly associated with generalized anxiety disorder (PR 1.40, 95%CI 1.01-1.93. Conclusions: Low consumption of fruits and beans and intake of the common-Brazilian dietary pattern during pregnancy were associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders. These results reinforce the importance of an adequate dietary intake to ensure better mental health in pregnancy.

  14. Low diet quality in older adults: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

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    Gomes, Ana Paula; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with low diet quality in older adults from the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on food consumption was collected using a reduced food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed by the Elderly Diet Quality Index DQI-E ("Índice de Qualidade da Dieta de Idosos - IQD-I"), devised by the authors. Points were attributed to each food evaluated according to frequency of consumption. Higher consumption frequency of healthy foods received higher scores whilst unhealthy foods received lower scores. Scores were divided into tertiles classified as: low quality, intermediate quality, and good quality. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between diet quality and the independent variables. The factors associated with low diet quality were: male gender, age < 80 years, low education, problems affording food, underweight, mouth or teeth problems, and having less than four meals a day. Important barriers to the consumption of a good quality diet were observed, highlighting the importance of considering these aspects in the promotion of healthy eating among older adults.

  15. Parental bonding and suicidality in pregnant teenagers: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

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    Coelho, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; de Matos, Mariana Bonati; Castelli, Rochele Dias; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares

    2014-08-01

    To assess the associations of the perceived quality of parental bonding with suicidality in a sample of pregnant adolescents. A cross-sectional study with a sample size of 828 pregnant teenagers receiving prenatal medical assistance in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was employed to measure the perceived quality of parental bonding. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, obstetric and other psychosocial data. Forty-three (4.94 %) teenagers from a consecutive sample of 871 refused to participate, resulting in 828 participants. Prevalence of suicidality was 13.3 %, lifetime suicide attempts were 7.4 % with 1.3 % reporting attempting suicide within the last month. Significant associations of suicidality with the 18-19-year-old subgroup, low education, prior abortion, physical abuse within the last 12 months were present, and most psychiatric disorders were associated with a higher suicidality prevalence. Additionally, after adjustment in the multivariate analysis, the style of parental bonding was independently associated with suicidality in the pregnant adolescent, with a PR of 2.53 (95 % CI 1.14-5.59) for the maternal 'affectionless control' and a PR of 2.91 (95 % CI 1.10-7.70) for the paternal 'neglectful parenting.' We found that maternal 'affectionless control' and paternal 'neglectful parenting' were independent predictors of suicidality in this sample of pregnant teenagers.

  16. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

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    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  17. [Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

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    Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (+/- 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy.

  18. Soil water balance in different densities of Pinus taeda in Southern Brazil

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    Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.

  19. Prevalence of hearing problems and associated factors in an agricultural company in southern Brazil

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    Rafael Haeffner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and to analyze the factors associated with hearing problems in an agricultural company.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and the participants consisted entirely of employees of an agricultural company in southern Brazil. The workforce of the company was composed of several different occupations. The research instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered by interview.RESULTS: Of the 326 workers of the company, there were 273 (83.8% respondents, and the prevalence of hearing problems was n = 42 (15.4% among the participants of the study. The hearing problems were associated with lower schooling, with the operating occupational group, the technical assistance group and the general services group. The self-reported health conditions associated with hearing problems were depression and nervousness or irritation. The occupational exposures associated with hearing problems were noise, dust, vibration, oils and solvents, and toxic gases.CONCLUSION: There was an intermediate prevalence of hearing problems in relation to other studies. It was possible to observe the need to implement strategies aiming at the prevention of hearing problems that primarily contemplate modifiable aspects, such as the use of personal protective equipment, as well as improvements in the conditions, organization and work environment.

  20. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease and associated factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Southern Brazil

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    Rafael Kmiliauskis Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and associated factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A cross-sectional study using the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria in order to select patients seen at primary or secondary health care units in Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, in 2014. The presence of ischemic heart disease was defined as an acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery that has occurred after diagnosis. Fischer's exact test, Wald's linear trend test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the associations. Results: Among 296 patients (83.1% female with a mean age of 56.6 years and a mean rheumatoid arthritis duration of 11.3 years, 13 reported having acute myocardial infarction requiring a percutaneous or surgical reperfusion procedure, a prevalence of 4.4% (95% CI 2.0-6.7. Diabetes Mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 4.9 [95% CI 1.6-13.8] and disease duration >10 years (OR 8.2 [95% CI 1.8-39.7] were the only factors associated with an ischemic disease that remained in the final model, after the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction was similar to that observed in other studies. Among the traditional risk factors, Diabetes Mellitus, and among the factors related to rheumatoid arthritis, disease duration, were the variables associated with comorbidity.

  1. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease and associated factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rafael Kmiliauskis Santos; Albers, Ana Carolina; Salussoglia, Ana Isadora Pianowski; Bazzan, Ana Maria; Schreiner, Luana Cristina; Vieira, Mateus Oliveira; Silva, Patrícia Giovana da; Machado, Patrícia Helena; Silva, Cynthia Mara da; Mattos, Mauro Marcelo; Nobre, Moacyr Roberto Cuce

    2016-12-21

    To estimate the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and associated factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A cross-sectional study using the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria in order to select patients seen at primary or secondary health care units in Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, in 2014. The presence of ischemic heart disease was defined as an acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery that has occurred after diagnosis. Fischer's exact test, Wald's linear trend test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the associations. Among 296 patients (83.1% female) with a mean age of 56.6 years and a mean rheumatoid arthritis duration of 11.3 years, 13 reported having acute myocardial infarction requiring a percutaneous or surgical reperfusion procedure, a prevalence of 4.4% (95% CI 2.0-6.7). Diabetes Mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 4.9 (95% CI 1.6-13.8) and disease duration >10 years (OR 8.2 [95% CI 1.8-39.7]) were the only factors associated with an ischemic disease that remained in the final model, after the multivariate analysis. The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction was similar to that observed in other studies. Among the traditional risk factors, Diabetes Mellitus, and among the factors related to rheumatoid arthritis, disease duration, were the variables associated with comorbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

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    Béhague, Dominique P

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among "shantytown" youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an "anti-biologizing" explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven "biopsychiatrization" so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to "resist" pharmaceuticalization. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Energetic potential of bamboo culms for industrial and domestic use in Southern Brazil

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    Ailton Leonel Balduino Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the energetic quality of the Bambusa vulgaris culms for combustion (in natura and as a charcoal. Five individuals (culms of Bambusa vulgaris of 3 years of age were analyzed, gathered in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. In the in natura culms it was determined the moisture content freshly gathered (39%; basic density (0.624gcm-3; the chemical composition (total extractive content (16.26% and lignin content (25.76%; the proximate chemical composition (volatiles content (82.25%; fixed carbon content (15.26% and ash (2.49% and gross calorific value (4571kcalkg-1. In the charcoal, produced in the laboratory, the determined properties were the gravimetric yield (36.40%;the apparent density (0.372gcm-3; volatiles content (27.55%; fixed carbon content (67.32%; ash (5.12% and gross calorific value (7431kcalkg-1. The Bambusa vulgaris species has potential for use in the energy generation either in natura, as chips for burning in boilers or in the charcoal form for domestic use, it can be used to broaden the base of biomass for energy generation and to replace the timber species of Pinus and Eucalyptus gender used for this purpose in the Southern region of Brazil.

  4. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

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    Loretti Alexandre Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.

  5. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil

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    MARIA HELENA L.R. RECHE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  6. Prevalence of hearing problems and associated factors in an agricultural company in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Rafael; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Heck, Rita Maria; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and to analyze the factors associated with hearing problems in an agricultural company. This was a cross-sectional study, and the participants consisted entirely of employees of an agricultural company in southern Brazil. The workforce of the company was composed of several different occupations. The research instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered by interview. Of the 326 workers of the company, there were 273 (83.8%) respondents, and the prevalence of hearing problems was n = 42 (15.4%) among the participants of the study. The hearing problems were associated with lower schooling, with the operating occupational group, the technical assistance group and the general services group. The self-reported health conditions associated with hearing problems were depression and nervousness or irritation. The occupational exposures associated with hearing problems were noise, dust, vibration, oils and solvents, and toxic gases. There was an intermediate prevalence of hearing problems in relation to other studies. It was possible to observe the need to implement strategies aiming at the prevention of hearing problems that primarily contemplate modifiable aspects, such as the use of personal protective equipment, as well as improvements in the conditions, organization and work environment.

  7. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

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    Ana Kelly Marinoski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%. The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses.

  8. Economic selection indexes for Hereford and Braford cattle raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R F; Teixeira, B B M; Yokoo, M J; Cardoso, F F

    2017-07-01

    Economic selection indexes (EI) are considered the best way to select the most profitable animals for specific production systems. Nevertheless, in Brazil, few genetic evaluation programs deliver such indexes to their breeders. The aims of this study were to determine the breeding goals (BG) and economic values (EV, in US$) for typical beef cattle production systems in southern Brazil, to propose EI aimed to maximize profitability, and to compare the proposed EI with the currently used empirical index. Bioeconomic models were developed to characterize 3 typical production systems, identifying traits of economic impact and their respective EV. The first was called the calf-crop system and included the birth rate (BR), direct weaning weight (WWd), and mature cow weight (MCW) as selection goals. The second system was called the full-cycle system, and its breeding goals were BR, WWd, MCW, and carcass weight (CW). Finally, the third was called the stocking and finishing system, which had WWd and CW as breeding goals. To generate the EI, we adopted the selection criteria currently measured and used in the empirical index of PampaPlus, which is the genetic evaluation program of the Brazilian Hereford and Braford Association. The comparison between the EI and the current PampaPlus index was made by the aggregated genetic-economic gain per generation (Δ). Therefore, for each production system an index was developed using the derived economic weights, and it was compared with the current empirical index. The relative importance (RI) for BR, WWd, and MCW for the calf-crop system was 68.03%, 19.35%, and 12.62%, respectively. For the full-cycle system, the RI for BR, WWd, MCW, and CW were 69.63%, 7.31%, 5.01%, and 18.06%, respectively. For the stocking and finishing production system, the RI for WWd and CW was 34.20% and 65.80%, respectively. The Δ for the calf-crop system were US$6.12 and US$4.36, using the proposed economic and empirical indexes, respectively. Respective

  9. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil.

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    Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil.The study included 916 students (14-19 years old enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet, demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour and economic variables (school shift and economic level were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression.The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57-5.85 and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21; simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05-2.12. Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89; simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.87 and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82.Adolescents had a high prevalence of simultaneous risk factors for NCDs

  10. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

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    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  11. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14–19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. Results The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57–5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05–2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38–0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43–0.82). Conclusion Adolescents had a high prevalence

  12. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

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    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  13. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

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    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  14. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Daniele Lazzarotto; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Dibi, Raquel Papandreus; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Vanin, Carla Maria De Martini

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Women (n = 155) of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  15. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study

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    Daniele Lazzarotto Harter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Women (n = 155 of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  16. Outbreaks of canid herpesvirus 1 disease in puppies in southern Brazil

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    Juliana F. Cargnelutti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1 is a widespread pathogen of dogs and produces infertility, abortions and severe systemic disease in young puppies. Clinical data indicate the circulation of CHV-1 among Brazilian dogs yet definitive diagnosis has rarely been accomplished. This article describes the clinicopathological findings of four independent cases/outbreaks of neonatal disease by CHV-1 in Bulldog puppies followed by virus identification and genetic characterization. Three events occurred in a kennel holding dogs of different breeds at reproductive age (March 2013, October 2013 and April 2014. Puppies from three French or English Bulldog litters, aging 9 to 30 days were affected, presenting dyspnea, agonic breathing, pale mucous, abdominal pain and tension, evolving to death within about 24 hours. At necropsy, the puppies presented necrohemorrhagic hepatitis, multifocal and moderate necrohemorrhagic nephritis and fibrinonecrotic interstitial pneumonia. Virus isolation was positive in clinical specimens from one litter and CHV-1 DNA was detected by PCR in tissues from all four cases. Virus-neutralizing assays with samples of the affected kennel revealed 9/12 adult animals with high antibody titers to CHV-1. Nucleotide sequencing of glycoprotein B, C and D genes revealed 99-100% of identity among the viruses and with CHV-1 sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of gC sequences showed a segregation of the samples, even among three isolates from the same kennel. These findings support CHV-1 infection as the cause of disease and death in these dog litters, reinforcing the need for correct etiologic diagnosis, prevention and immunization against CHV-1 in dogs from Southern Brazil.

  17. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

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    Isabela G Domiciano

    Full Text Available Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1% of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7% animals and most (30 or 65.2% were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30 and trauma (2/30. The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16, emaciation (3/16, septicemia (1/16, neonatal pathology (1/16 and choking via food obstruction (1/16. Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.

  18. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.

  19. The reproductive biology of the plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei: Carangidae, in southern Brazil

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    Valéria M. Lemos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Cuvier, 1832, is an endemic carangid of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, occurring from Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay. This study describes the reproductive period, spawning type, the size at first gonadal maturation and the length-weight relationship of individuals sampled from landings of the artisanal and commercial fishing fleets in Rio Grande that operate along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (~ 32ºS to the Uruguayan border (~ 34ºS. Monthly collections from September 2008 through January 2010 yielded 274 individuals ranging from 142 to 444 mm in total length (TL. The gonadal development stages were defined according to the histological examination of the ovaries and the testes. The relationship between TL (mm and total weight TW (g was statistically different between males (TW = 0.000463*TL2.7655 and females (TW = 0.000361*TL2.8131, showing negative allometric growth for both sexes. The sizes at first maturity were 187.2 mm and 254.9 mm for females and males, respectively. The presence of two modal groups of oocyte diameters suggested that total spawning occurred. The interpretation of the monthly variations of the condition factor and gonadosomatic index, which are associated with higher frequencies of the more advanced stages of gonadal development, identified the spring and summer months as the reproductive period, with a peak in the reproductive activity during November and January. These results suggested that the species has an opportunistic reproductive strategy.

  20. Seasonal variation of macromedusae (Cnidaria at North Bay, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

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    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W, from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the cubozoans Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 and Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859, and the scyphozoans Aurelia sp., Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 and Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880. Capture rates were low, up to 38 indiv. ha-1, and only ~47% of the samples were positive for jellyfish, comprising 206 individuals. Medusae abundance and species richness clearly changed from one season to another, but did not vary between the sites. Higher species richness (7 out of 8 and greater abundances were recorded during the fall (~60% and 72% of all medusae individuals and biomass respectively. Specific frequency of capture varied from 1.5 to 29% and C. lactea was the only species found in more than 25% of the samples. The three most common species dominated in different periods of the year: C. lactea during fall (78% of individuals and 60% of biomass, R. atlantica during winter (90% of individuals and 17% of biomass, and O. sambaquiensis in spring (78% of individuals and 40% of biomass. Only two individuals were caught during summer, one C. lactea and one R. atlantica. The results offer a general picture of the distribution of the macromedusae in the North Bay, but a continuous monitoring is desirable for a more detailed knowledge on the jellyfish dynamics in the Brazilian coastal waters.

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    Full Text Available This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2% of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0% were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500 g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%, jaundice (13.8%, and microcephaly (6.9%. During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein ≥ 200 mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p = 0.0325. Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases, developmental delay (31.0%, motor deficit (13.8%, convulsion (27.5%, and attention deficit (10.3%. All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  2. Chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength among older adults from Southern Brazil

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    Júlia PESSINI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between various chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength in community dwelling older adults in Southern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out with 477 older adults (60 years and older who resided in Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state. Subjects aged 60-79 years were selected by probability sampling (n=343 and all subjects aged 80 years or older (n=134 were evaluated. Chronic diseases were identified by self-report. A mechanical dynamometer verified handgrip strength (i.e., the outcome. Adjustments variables were age, literacy, living arrangement, smoking, body mass index, cognitive function, and comorbid chronic diseases. Sex-stratified analyses were conducted with simple and multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 270 women (73.2±8.8 years and 207 men (73.3±9.0 years were assessed. In the adjustment analysis, cancer (β=-3.69; 95%CI=-6.97 to -0.41 and depression (β=-1.65; 95%CI=-3.20 to -0.10 were associated with lower handgrip strength in women. For men, diabetes (β=-5.30; 95%CI=-9.64 to -0.95, chronic lung disease (β=-4.74; 95%CI=-7.98 to -1.50, and coronary heart disease (β=-3.07; 95%CI=-5.98 to -0.16 were associated with lower handgrip strength values. There was an inverse trend between number of diseases and handgrip strength for men only. Conclusion: The results showed an independent association between chronic diseases and handgrip strength. As such, handgrip strength is a valid measure to use for prevention or intervention in chronic disease and multimorbidity.

  3. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

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    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  4. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2% of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0% were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500 g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%, jaundice (13.8%, and microcephaly (6.9%. During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein ≥ 200 mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p = 0.0325. Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases, developmental delay (31.0%, motor deficit (13.8%, convulsion (27.5%, and attention deficit (10.3%. All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  5. Suicidal behavior in pregnant teenagers in southern Brazil: social, obstetric and psychiatric correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; da Cunha Coelho, Fábio Monteiro; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Castelli, Rochele Dias; de Matos, Mariana Bonati; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares

    2012-02-01

    Suicidal behavior and its correlates remain relatively understudied in pregnant teenagers. A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of pregnant teenagers recipient of prenatal medical assistance by the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Sample size was estimated in 871 participants. Suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify physical or sexual abuse; social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Social Support Scale; a self-report questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, obstetric and other psychosocial data. Forty three (4.94%) teenagers refused to participate, resulting in 828 participants. Prevalence of suicidal behavior was 13.3%; lifetime suicide attempts were referred by 7.4%, with 1.3% reporting attempting suicide within the last month. After adjustment, we found significant associations of suicidal behavior with the 18-19 years old subgroup, low education, prior abortion, previous major depression, and physical abuse within the last 12 months. Pregnant teenagers with high social support showed prevalence ratios (PR) 67% lower (PR: 0.33; 95%CI: 0.19-0.56) than those with low social support. Furthermore, a wide range of psychiatric disorders, most notably major depressive disorder (PR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.34-5.63) and panic disorder (PR: 6.36; 95%CI: 1.61-25.10), remained associated with suicidal behavior after adjustment. The cross-sectional design precludes causal inferences. We found that suicidal behavior is a relatively common feature in pregnant teenagers, frequently associated with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil.

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    Vivian Francielle França

    Full Text Available To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil.This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013-2014 conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day; fish (< 1 serving/week; and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no. Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender.The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009. After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women's mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001.Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging.

  7. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Vivian Francielle; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; D'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013-2014) conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women) over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day); fish (< 1 serving/week); and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no). Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender. The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009). After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day) was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women's mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001). Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging.

  8. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years. Body mass index (BMI served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2. The sum score (0-5 obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time and standing balance (four static measurements assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51; overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35; overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03. The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Conclusion: nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  9. [Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil].

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    Faria, Neice Müller Xavier; Rosa, José Antônio Rodrigues da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2009-04-01

    To describe the occupational exposure to acute poisoning by pesticides, especially organophosphates, and its incidence. A descriptive study was carried out on 290 family fruit farmers in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil, conducted in two stages in 2006. Two hundred and forty-one of these workers completed the two stages, which corresponded to periods of low use and intense use of pesticides. Data on the property, occupational exposure to pesticides, sociodemographic data and frequency of health problems were gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Poisoning was characterized by reports of episodes, symptoms relating to pesticides and plasma cholinesterase examinations. Cases were classified according to the matrix proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). On average, each property used 12 different types of pesticides, consisting mainly of glyphosate and organophosphates. Most of the workers used tractors for pesticide application (87%), set aside the containers for selective garbage collection (86%) and used protective equipment during activities involving pesticides (> or = 94%). Among these family farmers, 4% reported occurrences of poisoning by pesticides over the 12 months preceding the investigation, and 19% at some time during their lives. According to the criterion proposed by WHO, 11% were classified as probable cases of acute poisoning. Among the workers who had used organophosphates over the ten-day period preceding the examination, 2.9% presented two or more symptoms relating to pesticides and a 20% reduction in cholinesterase. The poisoning occurrences according to the workers' perceptions were within what was expected, but the estimate based on the WHO classification picked up a larger proportion of the cases. A fall in the harvest reduced the use of insecticides and may explain the low occurrence of abnormalities in the laboratory results. The criteria for defining pesticide poisoning, as well as the official

  10. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  11. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

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    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  13. Socio-economic life course and obesity among adults in Florianopolis, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz; Navarro, Albert; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2017-03-29

    To estimate the association between socio-economic life course and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and general and abdominal obesity in adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1,222 adults (aged 22-63) from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The socio-economic life course was analysed using the educational level of participants and their parents. Height, weight and WC were measured by specially trained staff. Linear and logistic regressions were used with adjustment for confounding factors, and data were stratified according to sex. Mean BMI and WC were about 2kg/m2 (95% CI: -3.3 to -0.7) and 6cm (95% CI: -9.7 to -2.9) lower in women with a high socio-economic position, while the association was reversed in men with a high socio-economic position, with WC being about 4cm higher (95% CI: 0.1 to 7.5). In addition, women who had always been in a high socio-economic position were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.76) while no such association was found in men. Socio-economic life course influences BMI, WC and obesity, with differences between males and females, thereby indicating that public policies that contemplate a socio-economic life course approach can be effective for controlling obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Julia; David, Simone Maria Martini de; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; Valim, Andreia Rosane de Moura; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9%) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9%) presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system. RESUMO Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, com isolados de M. tuberculosis de pacientes de um presídio regional no sul do Brasil, caracterizado através de epidemiologia clássica e molecular. Entre janeiro de 2011 e agosto de 2014, 379 detentos foram submetidos a baciloscopia e cultura, sendo 53 (13,9%) diagnosticados com tuberculose ativa. Desses, 8 (22,9%) apresentavam tuberculose resistente a isoniazida. A genotipagem das cepas foi realizada por 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat analysis; 68,6% dos pacientes estavam distribuídos em cinco clusters, e 87,5% dos casos resistentes estavam em um mesmo cluster. Verificou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de resistência e alta taxa de transmissão recente. Estes dados sugerem a necessidade da implantação de um programa efetivo de controle da tuberculose no sistema prisional.

  15. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil.

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    Danielewicz, Ana Lúcia; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years). Body mass index (BMI) served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2). The sum score (0-5) obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time) and standing balance (four static measurements) assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models) were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51); overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35); overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03). The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  16. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia da manjuba, Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911, no estuário de São Vicente, SP (Osteichthyes, Engraulidae Biology of the "manjuba" Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911 from the São Vicente estuary, São Paulo, Brazil (Odeichthyes, Engraulidae

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    Alfredo Martins Paiva Filho

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available As many as 3408 specimens from 16 samples were collected in São Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from June 1979 to July 1980. The occurrence, growth, length-weight relationship and condition factor of the species are analysed. This estuarine region is one of the areas where the species grows, moving from it when the maturation process begins.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii genotypes isolated from pregnant women with follow-up of infected children in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Lourenço T; Garcia, João L; Su, Chunlei; Rossini, Rita C; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii populations that perpetuate in South America's natural ecosystems display broad genetic diversity, but the impact of this diversity on humans is generally unknown. In this short communication, we depict the genotypic traits of four isolates related to congenital parasitism as it emerges in Southern Brazil. Using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3. Three of the four strains (TgCTBral, TgCTBrv, and TgCTBrac) were identified as ToxoDB genotype #166. Three children displayed normal cognitive/psychomotor development, and one child displayed Sabin's tetrad (TgCTBral). Vertical transmission of the two genotypes was observed and contributes to knowledge of T. gondii strains isolated from humans in Brazil.

  18. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

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    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  19. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influx and sediment contamination in an urbanized estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marina R; Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo R; Caramão, Elina B

    2010-09-01

    Sediments from the Patos Lagoon Estuary in Southern Brazil and sludge from incoming effluents were assessed for the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shallow sediments adjoining the City of Rio Grande were found to be contaminated by PAHs mainly near urban effluent discharge, as well as in the port area. Effluents clustered into four groups according to their sources (sewage, industrial, runoff, and mixed), with each demonstrating different contributions of PAHs to the estuary. There was a predominance of runoff and mixed sources. Navigation activity was the second most important source of PAHs to sediments. The PAHs ratio identified the origin of these contaminants as essentially pyrolytic. The impact of PAHs as a result of uncontrolled disposal or accidental discharge of PAH-rich residues was suggested for several points. These points were primarily near gas stations and motor workshops. In about 30% of sampled sediments, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene surpassed the Threshold Effects Level adopted for marine environments.

  20. Prohexadione calcium reduces vegetative growth and increases fruit set of ‘Smith’ pear trees, in Southern Brazil

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    Bruno Carra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Prohexadione calcium (P-Ca has been reported to effectively control shoot growth in several pear cultivars, but with a few reports about its efficiency under the climatic conditions of southern Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate vegetative growth, production, and fruit quality of ‘Smith’ pear trees in response to the use of different rates of P-Ca in the climatic conditions of southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons, in a 6-year-old ‘Smith’ pear orchard, trained to a central-leader system, with spacing of 1.5 × 4.8 m, grafted onto Pyrus calleryana Decne. Different P-Ca rates were applied (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg∙L–1 in different stages: first, in early spring for all treatments, and the others when shoot growth resumed (GR, but only for some treatments. Variables for vegetative growth, yield components and fruit quality at harvest and post-harvest were evaluated. The use of P-Ca was effective to control vegetative growth in both seasons, at different rates. Yield components were not affected by P-Ca applications in 2013/2014, except return bloom and return yield. In 2014/2015 season, P-Ca applications positively affected yield components, except average fruit weight and return bloom. P-Ca applications did not alter the qualitative attributes of the fruits of ‘Smith’ pear trees at harvest and after a period of cold storage. These results implicate P-Ca as a potential tool to manage vigor of ‘Smith’ pear trees in climatic conditions of southern Brazil.

  1. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.

  2. Modeling monthly meteorological and agronomic frost days, based on minimum air temperature, in Center-Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Sentelhas, Paulo César; Stape, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Although Brazil is predominantly a tropical country, frosts are observed with relative high frequency in the Center-Southern states of the country, affecting mainly agriculture, forestry, and human activities. Therefore, information about the frost climatology is of high importance for planning of these activities. Based on that, the aims of the present study were to develop monthly meteorological (F MET) and agronomic (F AGR) frost day models, based on minimum shelter air temperature (T MN), in order to characterize the temporal and spatial frost days variability in Center-Southern Brazil. Daily minimum air temperature data from 244 weather stations distributed across the study area were used, being 195 for developing the models and 49 for validating them. Multivariate regression models were obtained to estimate the monthly T MN, once the frost day models were based on this variable. All T MN regression models were statistically significant (p < 0.001), presenting adjusted R 2 between 0.69 and 0.90. Center-Southern Brazil is mainly hit by frosts from mid-fall (April) to mid-spring (October). The period from November to March is considered as frost-free, being very rare a frost day within that period. Monthly F MET and F AGR presented significant sigmoidal relationships with T MN (p < 0.0001), with adjusted R 2 above of 0.82. The residuals of the frost day models were random, which means that the sigmoidal models performed quite well for interpreting the frost day variability throughout the study area. The highlands of Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais had in average more than 25 and 13 frosts per year, respectively, for F MET and F AGR. The F MET and F AGR maps developed in this study for Center-Southern Brazil is a useful tool for farmers, foresters, and researchers, since they contribute to reduce frost spatial and temporal uncertainty, helping in planning project for strategic purposes. Furthermore, the monthly F MET and F AGR maps

  3. “Buying a Pig in a Poke”: The Problem of Elasmobranch Meat Consumption in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Bornatowski; Raul Rennó Braga; Carolina Kalinowski; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, the demand for sustainably certified seafood is increasing and retailers have promised to source all seafood from sustainable sources by 2015. In the southern portion of the country, elasmobranch meat is sold as cação, and consumers are often unaware that cação refers to any type of elasmobranch. The present study used questionnaires to investigate the lay public’s knowledge of elasmobranch meat sold in a Brazilian city. Shoppers were surveyed at supermarkets in Curitiba, the large...

  4. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

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    Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p143 The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes, were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence time. Abundance and survival were found to be negatively correlated with temperature. The sex ratio was not biased in any of the species.

  5. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

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    Maurício Eduardo Graipel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes, were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence time. Abundance and survival were found to be negatively correlated with temperature. The sex ratio was not biased in any of the species.

  6. Swartkops estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baird, D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swartkops estuary has been an object of study for many years and research results obtained during the past 30 years were considered at a symposium in 1987. This report documents the proceedings of this symposium as well as conclusions...

  7. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  8. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

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    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  9. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

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    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  10. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

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    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %. The mean EF for urine was 0.25 % of applied N, much higher than that for dung (0.06 %. We found that N2O-N emissions for the 90-day winter pasture period were 0.54 kg ha-1 for low grazing intensity and 0.62 kg ha-1 for moderate grazing intensity. Comparison of the two forms of excreta show that urine was the main contributor to N2O-N emissions (mean of 36 %, whereas dung was responsible for less than 0.1 % of total soil N2O-N emissions.

  11. Soil organic carbon distribution in an agricultural catchment in Southern Brazil: from hillslope to catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution a few decades after conversion to cropland and plantations in a hilly catchment in southern Brazil is challenging due to scale-dependent controlling factors. Firstly, SOC, bulk density (BD) and texture were measured by depth intervals along 18 soil profiles located in three topographical positions (sloping plateau, central back slope and concave foot slope) in cropland and forest with contrasting slopes. SOC stocks in concave footslope position were not significantly different between fields on steep (11.1 kg C m-2) and gentle slopes (12.8 kg C m-2). However, in eroding profiles, SOC stocks are twice as high in fields on gentle slopes (17.6/12.6 kg C m-2) compared to steep slopes (8.3/7.1 kg C m-2). SOC stocks on steep slope on cropland (8.8 kg C m-2) are three times lower than SOC stocks on steep slope under undisturbed forest (23.7 kg C m-2). On gentle slopes, the effect of deforestation on SOC stocks was not so drastic (14.3 and 14.4 kg C m-2). Therefore, contrasting topography generates different patterns of SOC redistribution in the catchment. The effect of conversion to cropland is probably due to soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion aggravated by the steep terrain. Secondly, in order to assess the heterogeneity of SOC distribution at catchment scale, samples were collected at 10-20; 40-50 and 75-85 cm in 167 soil profiles sampled with an auger. SOC concentrations (gC kg-1 ) in numerous bulk soil samples (n = 378) were predicted by VIS-NIR spectroscopy and partial least-square regression models. SOC stocks were assessed by a mass preserving spline tool by interpolating SOC mass at the three non-contiguous depth intervals. Samples of calibration-validation dataset (n = 95) were used for physical SOC fractionation allowing the measurement of carbon associated with regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the influence of several covariates on SOC stocks, SOC

  12. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

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    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very

  13. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

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    Gislaine Cristina Vagetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n4p472   Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  14. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

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    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  15. Relative growth of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Panopeidae at Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

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    SF Frigotto

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth of the crab Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae was performed with allometric techniques. The species is associated with lanterns used for oyster farming at Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. Crabs were obtained from five lanterns from March through December 2009. The following morphological characteristics were measured: the carapace width (CW, the height and length of the major cheliped propodus (LPH and LPL, the width of the female abdomen at the base of the 4th somite (AW and the length of the male gonopod (GL. A total of 1,004 individuals of A. schmitti were measured, of which 451 were males, 323 non-ovigerous females and 230 ovigerous females. The CW of the males varied from 1.87 to 11.86 mm, that of non-ovigerous females from 1.44 to 8.77 mm and that of ovigerous females from 4.09 to 11.12 mm. The plot of LPH against CW showed a mean inflection point at 3.67 mm CW for the males. This result indicated that male crabs are juvenile below this value and adult above it. For the females, the corresponding inflection point occurred at 3.36 mm CW in the plot of AW against CW. These results, CW x LPH and CW x AW, highlight the importance of chelae enlargement at the onset of maturation in males. Similarly, the widening of the abdomen in females is required to accommodate egg clutches during the reproductive period. Heterochely was recorded in both sexes. Right-handed crabs were more frequent than left-handed ones, with percentages of 75.8% in males and 82.7% in females. The population of A. schmitti from Guaratuba Bay becomes sexually mature at an earlier age than A. schmitti from the coast of São Paulo state. The lanterns used in oyster farming furnish a safe habitat in which these crabs can spend their entire benthic life.

  16. Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

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    Jair Weschenfelder

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG. Around 400 km of 3.5 kHz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are common in several areas of the lagoon. The gas accumulations in the Patos Lagoon are controlled by the spatial distribution of the sedimentary facies. Either in 'curtains' or in 'acoustic turbid zones', the main gas accumulations occur in areas with paleotopographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys developed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain during regressive/transgressive events of the Quaternary.Um levantamento sísmico de alta resolução foi realizado na Lagoa dos Patos, sul do Brasil, a bordo da Lancha Oceanográfica Larus da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG. Foram levantados aproximadamente 400 km de perfis de 3,5 kHz, os quais apresentaram uma resposta acústica de boa penetração e resolução. Anomalias sísmicas, incluindo turbidez acústica e bolsões de gás, revelam que sedimentos carregados de gás são comuns em diversas áreas do corpo lagunar. As acumulações de gás na Lagoa dos Patos são controladas pela distribuição espacial das fácies sedimentares. Tanto as acumulações de gás na forma de 'cortinas', como as 'zonas acusticamente turvas', ocorrem em área de baixios paleotopográficos, vinculados a vales e canais fluviais que se desenvolveram na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul durante os eventos regressivos/transgressivos do Quaternário.

  17. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

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    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  18. Social inequalities in the prevalence of common mental disorders in adults: a population-based study in Southern Brazil

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    Ramona Sant’Ana Maggi de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with Common Mental Disorders (CMD in adults in a capital city in Southern Brazil. Methods: Population-based survey conducted on 1,720 adults aged 20 - 59 years from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The CMD were investigated through the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. The independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, health-related behaviors, health conditions and use of health services. Multivariable Poisson regression was used for the estimation of prevalence ratios (PR and 95%CI. Results: The prevalence of CMD was 14.7%. Adjusted analyses showed that the prevalence was higher among women, those self-reported as blacks, with lower educational level, poor, divorced/separated/widowed, inactive in leisure time, heavy smokers, people with chronic diseases, those who reported negative health self-rating, those who had medical appointments and who were hospitalized before the interview. Conclusion: CMD is relatively high among population subgroups most vulnerable to social inequalities and with worse conditions related to health indicators.

  19. Longitudinal clinical and serological survey of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Guaporé, southern Brazil, from 1995 to 1999

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    Graeff-Teixeira Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with an intra-vascular location in the mesentery. Our objective was to address several aspects of the natural history of this parasitosis, in a longitudinal clinical and seroepidemiological study. A total of 179 individuals living in a rural area with active transmission in southern Brazil were followed for five years (1995-1999 resulting in yearly prevalence of 28.2%, 4.2%, 10%, 20.2% and 2.8% and incidences of 0%, 5.9%, 8% and 1.5%, respectively. Both men and woman were affected with higher frequencies at age 30-49 years. In 32 individuals serum samples were collected at all time points and IgG antibody reactivity detected by ELISA was variable and usually persisting not longer than one year. Some individual antibody patterns were suggestive of re-infection. There was no association with occurrence of abdominal pain or of other enteroparasites and there was no individual with a confirmed (histopathologic diagnosis. Mollusks were found with infective third-stage larvae in some houses with an overall prevalence of 16% and a low parasitic burden. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongyliasis in southern Brazil may be a frequent infection with low morbidity and a gradually decreasing serological reactivity.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Santa Catarina State confirms increases of subtype C in Southern Brazil.

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    Locateli, Dayse; Stoco, Patrícia H; de Queiroz, Artur T L; Alcântara, Luiz C J; Ferreira, Luiz G E; Zanetti, Carlos R; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Grisard, Edmundo C; Pinto, Aguinaldo R

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C in southern Brazil. Although Santa Catarina State (SC) is located in this area and presents one of the country's highest incidences of HIV/AIDS, knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in such State is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the HIV-1 molecular diversity and epidemiological profile of HIV-1-infected patients from SC. DNA samples were PCR amplified and HIV-1 subtypes were determined using both env and gag genes by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 48% were subtype C and 23% were subtype B. Possible recombinant forms were observed for both B/C (23%) and B/F (6%) subtypes. Our results, for the first time, identifies HIV-1 subtype C as a major clade circulating in SC and contributes to the understanding of HIV epidemics in the country by confirming the epidemic spread of the HIV-1 subtype C in southern Brazil. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Human papillomavirus type distribution and HPV16 intratype diversity in southern Brazil in women with and without cervical lesions

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    Gisele R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV intratype variants (specific lineages and sublineages are associated with pathogenesis and progression from HPV infection to persistence and the development of cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to verify the prevalence of HPV infection and distribution of HPV types and HPV16 variants in southern Brazil in women with normal cytology or intraepithelial lesions. METHODS HPV typing was determined by L1 gene sequencing. To identify HPV16 variants, the LCR and E6 regions were sequenced, and characteristic single nucleotide variants were identified. FINDINGS A total of 445 samples were studied, with 355 from cervical scrapes and 90 from cervical biopsies. HPV was detected in 24% and 91% of these samples, respectively. The most prevalent HPV types observed were 16 (cervical, 24%; biopsies, 57% and 58 (cervical, 12%; biopsies, 12%. Seventy-five percent of the HPV16-positive samples were classified into lineages, with 88% defined as lineage A, 10% as lineage D, and 2% as lineage B. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study identified a high frequency of European and North American HPV16 lineages, consistent with the genetic background of the human population in southern Brazil.

  2. Demography of the endangered tree species Ocotea porosa (Lauraceae along a gradient of forest disturbance in southern Brazil

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    Cibele Amato Munhoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa (Ness Barroso (Lauraceae, a typical tree of the southern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, was heavily exploited for timber in the last century. With the aim of examining the status of the remaining populations, we surveyed five forest fragments in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, and evaluated whether disturbances caused by selective logging and fragmentation were related to population structure of O. porosa. We assessed demographic aspects related to tree density, size hierarchy and individual allometry, correlating those parameters with fragment structure variables (fragment size, isolation and logging level. We found that, although all populations occurred in low densities (60-440 individuals ha−¹, the number of adults was significantly lower in the smaller and most disturbed fragments (13 and 35 individuals ha−¹, respectively. We did not detect changes in allometric relationships among individuals in the five populations studied. However, we found that populations in more heavily disturbed areas presented lower size hierarchy (i.e., less dominance of larger trees than did those in undisturbed areas, suggesting that selective logging affects the population structure of O. porosa, possibly affecting the rates of reproduction and fecundity, which may ultimately increase the probability of local extinction.

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms of the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy and Diego systems of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

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    Daiane Cobianchi Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Red blood cell genes are highly polymorphic with the distribution of alleles varying between different populations and ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to investigate gene polymorphisms of blood groups in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-three unrelated blood donors and 31 transfusion-dependent patients were evaluated to investigate polymorphisms of the Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems in a population from the state of Santa Catarina. The subjects, from seven regions that comprise the blood-banking network of the state, were assessed between August 2011 and March 2014. The genotypes of the Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego systems were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques. RESULTS: The genotype frequencies in this study were significantly different when populations from different regions of Santa Catarina were compared. Furthermore, there were also significant differences in the genetic frequencies compared to other Brazilian states. The genotype frequencies of the Kell and Kidd blood groups are similar to European populations from Naples, Italy and Zurich, Switzerland. CONCLUSION: This article reports for the first time the frequency of polymorphisms of blood group systems in blood donors from Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

  4. Prevalence of infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains among children and adolescents in southern Brazil.

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    Oliveira, Juliana Ghisleni de; Ferreira, Cristina Helena Targa; Camerin, Anna Carolina Saraiva; Rota, Cláudia Augustin; Meurer, Luíse; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection, virulence factors, and clinical presentation vary widely according to the studied population. In Brazil, a continental country composed of several ethnicities and cultural habits, the behavior of infection also appears to vary, as many other studies have shown. Describe the prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains in a group of children and adolescents who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Fifty-four gastric biopsy specimens of children and adolescents with H. pylori infection demonstrated by histology, urease test and molecular analysis were tested for the presence of cagA positive H. pylori strains by the polymerase chain reaction method. The prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori was 29.6% (95% confidence interval, 18 to 43.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the endoscopic and histological features of patients infected with cagA-positive strains as compared with those infected by cagA-negative strains. he study showed a low prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains among children and adolescents who underwent EGD in southern Brazil, in comparison to studies conducted with children from other regions of Brazil. There was no association between the presence of cagA-positive strains and more severe clinical presentations in the studied sample.

  5. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH CAGA-POSITIVE HELICOBACTER PYLORI STRAINS AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Juliana Ghisleni de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Context Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection, virulence factors, and clinical presentation vary widely according to the studied population. In Brazil, a continental country composed of several ethnicities and cultural habits, the behavior of infection also appears to vary, as many other studies have shown. Objectives Describe the prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains in a group of children and adolescents who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Methods Fifty-four gastric biopsy specimens of children and adolescents with H. pylori infection demonstrated by histology, urease test and molecular analysis were tested for the presence of cagA positive H. pylori strains by the polymerase chain reaction method. Results he prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori was 29.6% (95% confidence interval, 18 to 43.6%. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the endoscopic and histological features of patients infected with cagA-positive strains as compared with those infected by cagA-negative strains. Conclusions he study showed a low prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains among children and adolescents who underwent EGD in southern Brazil, in comparison to studies conducted with children from other regions of Brazil. There was no association between the presence of cagA-positive strains and more severe clinical presentations in the studied sample.

  6. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Population dynamics of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) in mesohaline and oligohaline habitats: Invasion success in a Southern Europe estuary

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    Franco, J.N.; Ceia, F.R.; Patricio, J.; Thompson, John; Marques, J.C.; Neto, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to its range expansion and potential ecological effects, Corbicula fluminea is considered one of the most important non-indigenous species (NIS) in aquatic ecosystems. Its presence since 2003 in the upstream area of Mondego estuary (oligohaline and mesohaline sectors) was studied during thirteen months, from December 2007 to December 2008. Monthly mean abundance and biomass ranged from 542 to 11142 individuals m-2 and 13.1–20.4 g Ash Free Dry Weight m-2, respectively. Populations of C.fluminea were composed mostly of juveniles, always present in extremely high densities compared to other estuarine ecosystems (e.g. Minho estuary) suggesting a continuous recruitment pattern. The hydraulic regime of the River Mondego favours the downstream colonization of the upper Mondego estuary by recruits produced upstream. However, salinity in these sectors of the estuary apparently neither favours growth nor the establishment of structured populations of this species. Other factors like contaminants and predation, which were not studied, could also contribute to the community structure observed.

  8. Population dynamics of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) in mesohaline and oligohaline habitats: Invasion success in a Southern Europe estuary

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    Franco, J. N.; Ceia, F. R.; Patrício, J.; Modesto, V.; Thompson, J.; Marques, J. C.; Neto, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    Due to its range expansion and potential ecological effects, Corbicula fluminea is considered one of the most important non-indigenous species (NIS) in aquatic ecosystems. Its presence since 2003 in the upstream area of Mondego estuary (oligohaline and mesohaline sectors) was studied during thirteen months, from December 2007 to December 2008. Monthly mean abundance and biomass ranged from 542 to 11142 individuals m-2 and 13.1-20.4 g Ash Free Dry Weight m-2, respectively. Populations of C. fluminea were composed mostly of juveniles, always present in extremely high densities compared to other estuarine ecosystems (e.g. Minho estuary) suggesting a continuous recruitment pattern. The hydraulic regime of the River Mondego favours the downstream colonization of the upper Mondego estuary by recruits produced upstream. However, salinity in these sectors of the estuary apparently neither favours growth nor the establishment of structured populations of this species. Other factors like contaminants and predation, which were not studied, could also contribute to the community structure observed.

  9. Evolution of Tourism in the Rural Area of the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Eurico de Oliveira Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural property owners open their doors to tourism for several reasons. In part it is due to the failure in achieving agricultural profits. Thus, receiving tourists can increase income, add value to the property, and diversify economic activity. On the other hand, agritourism and rural tourism create new opportunity which does not depend exclusively on agricultural production. Furthermore, this reflects a new agrarian reality, a transition from an ‘agricultural’ to a ‘rural’ economy.  The goal of this study is to identify the potential of rural properties in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to develop agritourism and rural tourism as an economic alternative. More specifically, we propose to identify the characteristics of tourism activities at several properties and evaluate the economic viability, employment opportunities and salary growth between 1997 and 2006. There has been ongoing research in this area since 2006 and new studies are being carried out, especially regarding rural tourism property turnover, although they are not the object of the current study. The results of this study infer that the southern of the state presented unfavorable outcomes regarding income and job creation on the farms that practiced agritourism and rural tourism. Current trends emphatically focus on these kinds of tourism as alternatives for developing the services sector in the Southern Half rural areas and, while there is visible potential, it is necessary to develop projects and procure the participation of the government and private sector in order to make tourism in rural areas more effective. There are many activities that can be carried out, such as promoting events and attempting to change the mentality related to living in the rural areas as well as the good use of the properties in order to create a new framework. Evolução do Turismo na Área Rural do Sul do Rio Grande do Sul - Os proprietários rurais abrem suas portas ao

  10. [Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method].

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    Filho, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

    2014-12-01

    To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age-and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10(th), 50(th) and 90(th) percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90(th) percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the Lagoa do Peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Rolon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1 Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2 Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil.

  12. Population structure of Rudgea parquioides (Rubiaceae, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil

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    Fernanda C.G. Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1 a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2 biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m² area in the municipality of Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha-1 were recorded in the area. The firstexpectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1. On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope β Foram testadas duas hipóteses relativas a espécies florestaistolerantes à sombra em uma população de Rudgea parquioides, um arbusto característico do sul do Brasil: 1 espécies tolerantes à sombra possuem uma estrutura populacional composta por um grande número de indivíduos pequenos e 2 a alocação de biomassa para o crescimento em diâmetro é maior que para o crescimento em altura. Foram descritas as estruturas de tamanho (altura e diâmetro do tronco e relações alométricas através da contagem e medição de todos os indivíduos de R. parquioides em uma área de 725m² no município de Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. Um total de 916 indivíduos(12.634 ind.ha-1 foi medido nesta área. A primeira hipótese foi aceita, uma vez que a distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou um predomínio de indivíduos pequenos (coeficiente de assimetria > 1. Por outro lado, a regressão entre altura e diâmetro na base do caule mostrou inclinação β < 1, o que indica que o crescimento em altura é maior que em diâmetro, não suportando a segunda hipótese. Esses resultados mostram que as estratégias de crescimento em esp

  13. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  14. Molecular and morphological evidence reveals a new species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae from the Atlantic Forest of the highlands of southern Brazil.

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    Daniel P Bruschi

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the highland species of the clade. Chromosomal morphology is conservative, supporting the inference of homologies among the karyotypes of the species of this genus. Phyllomedusa rustica is apparently restricted to its type-locality, and we discuss the potential impact on the strategies applied to the conservation of the natural grassland formations found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. We suggest that conservation strategies should be modified to guarantee the preservation of this species.

  15. New and additional records of Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 (Decapoda, Caridea, Alpheidae from Brazil, with a key to the southern Atlantic species

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    Arthur Anker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, are reported from shallow waters of São Sebastião (SP, southeastern Brazil. Salmoneus depressus Anker, 2011 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic; this species was previously known only from the Caribbean region. Salmoneus ortmanni (Rankin, 1898 is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil (23°S, being previously known in Brazilian waters from a single confirmed record from Atol das Rocas (03°S, with older records referring to Salmoneus carvachoi Anker, 2007. A hitherto unknown morphological variation in S. depressus is discussed and illustrated. Both species are shown in colour to facilitate their identification in the field. A key to the southern Atlantic species of Salmoneus is also provided.

  16. The zooplankton of Mgazana, a mangrove estuary in Transkei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Mgazana is a mangrove estuary located a short distance south of Port St Johns, Transkei, at latitude 310 42 ' S. These mangroves form one of the most extensive forests (40ha) on the south-east coast and are amongst the most southern in distribution on the African continent. The estuary is in an excellent ...

  17. Extension of a qualitative model on nutrient cycling and transformation to include microtidal estuaries on wave-dominated coasts: Southern hemisphere perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available flushing times) in the lower reaches probably prevents this nutrient source from being utilised effectively by water column primary producers (e.g. phytoplankton), and it is largely submerged macrophytes and intertidal communities (e.g. salt marsh... diffusa), even increasing biological uptake rates in the marsh (Taylor, 1992). 16 During this state, tidal exchange can influence nutrient exchange across the intertidal-open water boundary within the estuary, depending on factors such as the size...

  18. Integrated sediment quality assessment in Paranaguá Estuarine System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Torres, R J; Abessa, D M S; Morais, R D; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2009-10-01

    Sediment quality from Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES), a highly important port and ecological zone, was evaluated by assessing three lines of evidence: (1) sediment physical-chemical characteristics; (2) sediment toxicity (elutriates, sediment-water interface, and whole sediment); and (3) benthic community structure. Results revealed a gradient of increasing degradation of sediments (i.e. higher concentrations of trace metals, higher toxicity, and impoverishment of benthic community structure) towards inner PES. Data integration by principal component analysis (PCA) showed positive correlation between some contaminants (mainly As, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and toxicity in samples collected from stations located in upper estuary and one station placed away from contamination sources. Benthic community structure seems to be affected by both pollution and natural fine characteristics of the sediments, which reinforces the importance of a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate sediments of PES.

  19. Baseline levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in species from a subtropical estuarine system (Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Adriana E; Renaud, Paul E; da Cunha Lana, Paulo; Camus, Lionel

    2016-12-15

    Offshore petroleum exploration has increased the risks of oil spills in coastal tropical and subtropical habitats. Monitoring tools are needed to assess and protect environmental health. We determined baseline values of antioxidant biomarkers (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA) for five ecologically relevant species in a subtropical system in southern Brazil. Regional baseline levels are compared with literature data as a basis to eventually test their efficacy as post-spill monitoring tools. Differences in the antioxidant response among species, contamination, and seasons were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The bivalves Anomalocardia flexuosa and Crassostrea rhizophorae and the catfish Genidens genidens emerge as suitable sentinel species. Seasonality is the main factor accounting for biomarkers variability, and not background contamination level. However, interactions between season and contamination level are also significant, indicating that biomarkers respond to complex environmental settings, a fact that needs to be fully understood for designing proper monitoring programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances.

  1. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Bornschein

    Full Text Available Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances.

  2. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil

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    Susane Müller Klug Passos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years, low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.

  3. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  4. Diversity of culturable Gram-negative bacteria isolated from irrigation water of two rice crop regions in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Maria Helena Lima Ribeiro; Reali, Catiusca; Pittol, Michele; de Athayde Saul, Danilo; Macedo, Vera Regina Mussoi; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Machado, Vilmar; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the diversity of Gram-negative bacteria found in water used for irrigation of rice crops in two growing areas of southern Brazil. Samples were collected from the main irrigation channel and field drain area. Twenty-two bacterial species were found in Cachoeirinha and 28 in Camaquã. In both areas, the most frequent bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae. Differences in microbial diversity were observed in both study areas. Thirty-five Gram-negative species were identified; however, only 15 were common in both locations. In addition, there were found pathogenic and drug-resistant species, such as Acinetobacter sp., Brucella spp., and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. This study demonstrates the existence of a number of pathogenic species in aquatic ecosystems analyzed in three consecutive crop years, especially water used for rice production.

  5. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of two Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

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    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee faunas of the ‘Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil’ (8,500 ha and ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ (6,000 ha, two Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were surveyed. Seventeen chemical compounds were used as scent baits to attract orchid-bee males. Seven hundred and twelve males belonging to 20 species were actively collected with insect nets during 80 hours in February and April, 2009. Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive orchid-bee species of the Atlantic Forest, was recorded at both preserves, though in low abundance. ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ is the smallest forest patch where Euglossa marianae has ever been recorded.

  6. Coricladus quiteriensis gen. et sp. nov., a new conifer in Southern-Brazil Gondwana (Lower Permian, Paraná Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper André

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new taxon of conifers (Coricladus quiteriensis is described based on megafloristic remains from the roofshale level at the Quitéria Outcrop (Rio Bonito Formation - Lower Permian - Southern Paraná Basin - Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. This megafloristic community is included in the Botrychiopsis Zone - Botrychiopsis valida Sub-Zone (Kungurian/Roadian. The assemblage, preserved as impressions, do not present remains of epidermic characters, and is composed mainly of isolated vegetative branches with spirally disposed acicular leaves, presenting a conspicuous central vein and also isolated fertile branches with sparse and irregular leaves and terminal cones. Leafless principal branches, organically connected with sterile and fertile branches, are rare. Reproductive feminine scales, disposed in a plane, are organized in lax terminal cones on branches, composed by 4 (four distal ovuliferous scales, and 8 (eight elliptical-elongated anatropous seeds. Paleoecological data pointed out to a mesophylous to higrophylous habitat in swampy environments.

  7. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  8. HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisol, Cláudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was simultaneous video translation of questions to Brazilian Sign Language.) A branched decision-tree structure was used to determine level of sexual experience and hearing status. Deaf participants scored lower on HIV/AIDS knowledge, demonstrating a need to improve school-based instruction and develop campaigns tailored to this group's requirements. Though the hearing students reported more sexual activity than the deaf students, no other significant differences were found in health-related attitudes and behaviors. Two findings of concern are the high rate of sexual abuse reported by deaf participants and the large number of deaf adolescents reporting having a friend with AIDS.

  9. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos, Oxysarcodexia riograndensis (Lopes, Peckia (Euboettcheria australis (Townsend, Peckia(Euboettcheria florencioi (Prado and Fonseca, Peckia (Pattonella intermutans (Walker, Peckia(Pattonella resona (Lopes, Peckia (Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, and Sarcophaga(Bercaea africa (Wiedemann. These species are distinguished mainly by genital characters as tergite 6 divided or undivided, presence of tergite 8, spermatheca morphology and vaginal plate shape.

  10. Lead poisoning mortality in wild passeriformes and its detection in free-range chicken eggs in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    NRS Martins

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of passerines native of Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, in August 2006 and the examination of sentinel free-range chicken eggs in August 2007 in an area surrounding a car battery lead smelter plant is described. The high levels of lead, as detected in the passerines (4.80-12.74 mg/kg at the onset of mortality and at the follow-up sampling of the free-range chicken eggs (25.02-35.21 mg/kg in shells, 0.41-1.36 mg/kg in yolks and 0.40-0.75 mg/kg in the albumins, used as environmental sentinels, indicated the continuing lead pollution.

  11. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  12. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  13. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  14. The role of Asterina stellifera (Echinodermata: Asteroidea as a predator in a rocky intertidal community in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Calil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Asterina stellifera Möbius, 1859 are declining in southern Brazil and today the species is on the Brazilian list of endangered species. Here we experimentally investigate the ecological role played by A. stellifera as a predator on the rocky substrate community by increasing densities of this species. Starfish taken from other, nearby, locations were added to three replicate plots and their density was maintained every 15 days. None of the total of 32 species that were identified in the encrusting community appeared to be influenced by the experiment. Two species, the barnacle Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry, 1916 and the algae Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson, showed small apparent responses to predation. We found that A. stellifera only exerts weak predation pressure on the community, even at high densities. This result is strikingly different from that observed for similar species in the northern hemisphere and in Australia.

  15. Description of three new species of Eumida Malmgren, 1865 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from southern and southeastern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, Verônica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (Ørsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two...

  16. Reproductive characteristics and obesity in middle-aged women seen at an outpatient clinic in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Mendes, Karina Giane; Liane, Ruth Henn; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between reproductive events and abdominal obesity (waist circumference, ≥ 88 cm) and general obesity (body mass index, ≥ 30.0 kg/m) in a sample of women between the ages of 40 and 65 years treated at an outpatient clinic in southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of 617 women from southern Brazil. Menopause status was classified as premenopausal, women who had regular menstrual cycles; perimenopausal, women who had irregular menstrual cycles whether in periodicity or flow; or postmenopausal, women whose last menstrual period occurred more than 12 months before the time of interview. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% CIs. The prevalence rates of abdominal and general obesity were 66.6% (95% CI, 62.8%-70.3%) and 45.5% (95% CI, 41.5%-9.4%), respectively. After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, early menarche (≤ 11 y) and parity were strong predictors of abdominal and general obesity, presenting a dose-response relationship. Women with a history of three or more pregnancies and menarche at age 11 years or earlier had a 25% higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (95% CI, 1.07-1.46) and a 75% increase in obesity (95% CI, 1.37-2.24) compared with nulliparous or primiparous women with menarche at 14 years or older. Women with a postmenopause status showed an increase of 52% in general obesity, compared with those with a premenopause status. Characteristics of reproductive life may have a strong influence on body fat buildup in women during the menopausal transition.

  17. HIV behind bars: human immunodeficiency virus cluster analysis and drug resistance in a reference correctional unit from southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Prellwitz

    Full Text Available People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667. Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24% of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV, low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.

  18. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  19. Changes in television viewing and computers/videogames use among high school students in Southern Brazil between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly Samara; da Silva Lopes, Adair; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Bezerra, Jorge; Nahas, Markus Vinicius

    2014-02-01

    To compare the prevalence of television (TV) watching and of computer/videogame use among high school students (15-19 years) from Southern Brazil between 2001 and 2011 and to identify associated socio-demographic factors. Panel studies were conducted with high school students in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2001 (n = 5,028) and 2011 (n = 6,529). TV watching and computer/videogame use were collected using questionnaires. Prevalence of ≥2 h/day of TV watching dropped from 76.8 to 61.5 % and ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use increased from 37.9 to 60.6 %. In both surveys, those aged 15-16 and those who did not work had higher likelihoods of being exposed to ≥2 h/day of TV watching. Boys, those with higher family income, and those who were living in urban areas had higher likelihoods of ≥2 h/day of computer/videogame use. Older age, studying at night and not working were protective factors to these behaviors. After a decade, there was a decrease in the prevalence of TV viewing and an increase in computer/videogame use. Socio-demographic factors were differently associated with these behaviors.

  20. Molecular survey of infectious agents associated with bovine respiratory disease in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn A; Okano, Werner; Balbo, Luciana C; Marcasso, Rogério A; Oliveira, Thalita E; Alfieri, Alice F; Negri Filho, Luiz C; Michelazzo, Mariana Z; Rodrigues, Silvio C; Baptista, Anderson L; Saut, João Paulo E; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the occurrence of infectious pathogens during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil that has a high risk of developing BRD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were randomly collected from steers ( n = 23) and assessed for the presence of infectious agents of BRD by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. These included: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3). Pulmonary sections of one steer that died with clinical BRD were submitted for pathology and molecular testing. The frequencies of the pathogens identified from the nasopharyngeal swabs were: H. somni 39% (9 of 23), BRSV 35% (8 of 23), BCoV 22% (5 of 23), and M. haemolytica 13% (3 of 23). PCR or RT-PCR assays did not identify P. multocida, M. bovis, BoHV-1, BVDV, or BPIV-3 from the nasopharyngeal swabs. Single and concomitant associations of infectious agents of BRD were identified. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia was diagnosed in one steer that died; samples were positive for H. somni and M. haemolytica by PCR. H. somni, BRSV, and BCoV are important disease pathogens of BRD in feedlot cattle in Brazil, but H. somni and BCoV are probably under-reported.

  1. Spread of a Major Clone of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in Poultry and in Salmonellosis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Tondo, Eduardo César; Streck, André Felipe; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; de Souza Moraes, Hamilton Luiz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are among the most important agents of foodborne diseases all over the world. Human Salmonella outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of poultry products (meat and eggs), and one of the most prevalent serotypes associated with these products is Salmonella Enteritidis. Brazil is one of the most important poultry exporters in the world. In southern Brazil, three closely related clones of Salmonella Enteritidis have been responsible for the majority of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks over the past decade. However, until now, there has been little information regarding the clonal relationship among the Brazilian Salmonella strains of avian origin and those involved in foodborne outbreaks. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to complete the molecular characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry and food sources involved in Salmonella outbreaks. PCR ribotyping was performed to discriminate the strains into different ribotype profiles according to the banding pattern amplification. This technique was able to differentiate the Salmonella Enteritidis strains into two banding patterns: R2 and R4. R2 accounted for 98.7% of the strains. DNA sequencing of the 600-bp fragment, present in all ribotypes, was applied to confirm this result. The sequences generated showed high levels of similarity, ranging from 99.7 to 100%, and were grouped into a single cluster. These results suggest that there is a clonal relationship among the Salmonella Enteritidis strains responsible for several salmonellosis outbreaks and the strains collected from poultry sources.

  2. Anthropometric and cycloergometric assessment of the nutritional status of the children of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Desai, M I; Romero, L S; Vichi, F L; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1981-09-01

    In our survey of the food habits and nutritional status of "Boia-Fria" agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil, a special project was undertaken to assess the influence of socioeconomic and dietary deprivation on the physical growth and development and physical performance of their children. Four hundred fifty-five children in Boia-Fria families from Vila Recreio, a periurban slum of Ribeirao Preto located in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, were examined for body weight, standing height, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, and head circumference. For comparison, 475 children from "Vita et Pax", a private school attended primarily by children of well-to-do families from the city of Ribeirao Preto, were also examined using similar anthropometric procedures. A small group of selected Boia-Fria children and their well-to-do counterparts were subjected to ergometric-cum-electrocardiographic testing for submaximal physical work performance. The overall results of this comparative study indicate that the physical growth and development and the physical performance of the Boia-Fria children are significantly lower than their well-to-do counterparts. It is suggested that the poor anthropometric and ergometric status of the Boia-Fria children is a reflection of poor dietary habits and socioeconomic deprivation prevalent among the agricultural migrant workers and poor periurban populations of Brazil.

  3. Observations of a nest of the Plumbeous Kite, Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788 (Falconiformes: Accipitridae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio André Facco Jacomassa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Between August and December 2005 and September and December 2006, 80h of observations were observed on a nest of Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea, located on the edge of a fragment in the town of Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil. During this period data were obtained on the behavior of copulation, parental care, nest maintenance and feeding. In early August 2005 and October 2006, copulations were observed that lasted on average 9.5s. The parents took turns incubating. In early November, the presence of nestlings was confirmed (one in each breeding season, and this time the parents fed the chicks with small insects (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and carried out the maintenance of the nest. The nestlings that were developing into young birds were fed with larger insects (Odonata, Lepidoptera – Myelobia smerintha and Orthoptera – Tropidacris collaris. The parents inhibited the approach of potential predators. Besides the food items supplied to the pups, they consumed fruits of Batinga Eugenia rostrifolia and a Piaya cayana carcass. The incubation period observed in this study agrees with that period already described in the literature for other regions. Finally, the data obtained allow inference of the reproductive season of this species in southern Brazil and also expand the knowledge about their diet to fruits and animal carcasses.

  4. A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence of Southern Brazil

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    MARINA B. SOARES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence, collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T which includes the left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a more derived taxon than tritylodontids, being the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium plus Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, closely related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse.

  5. An assessment of maternal quality of life in the postpartum period in southern Brazil: a comparson of two questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zubaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess maternal quality of life (QoL during the postpartum period and to compare the performance of two QoL questionnaires across a sample of 101 women in southern Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures maternal quality of life during the postpartum period in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about postpartum maternal quality of life in Brazil. The are no Portuguese versions of instruments specifically designed to measure quality of life during the postpartum period. METHODS: Research participants completed the Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF and Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI questionnaires. The correlations between the MQLI and the discrete areas of WHOQOL-BREF were examined using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. RESULTS: We report a significant correlation between the global MQLI and the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scores (p < 0.01. An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean scores in the Psychological and Environment domains according to different socio-economic strata: F (3, 97 = 3.81, p = 0.012 and F (3, 97 = 4.03, p = 0.01, respectively. DISCUSSION: The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire may be more sensitive than the MQLI in detecting the impact of socioeconomic status on the QoL of postpartum women. CONCLUSION: The sample of postpartum women evaluated in this study presented favorable QoL scores according to both the MQLI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Our results also indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF and the MQLI questionnaires have a significant correlation in terms of their assessments of postpartum mothers.

  6. Salt marsh vegetation: examples from the Tijuana estuary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zedler, J.B

    Using the Tijuana Estuary in southern California as an example, this booklet describes salt marsh vegetation and explains how marsh plants are able to tolerate the stresses of their variable environment...

  7. SOIL-PLANT NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN TWO MANGROVE AREAS AT SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lang Martins Madi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMangrove forests have a simple architecture. They shelter a few number of arboreal species that grow in a saline environment subject to tidal activity. The research objective was to evaluate possible interactions between physical-chemical soil attributes and plant-leaf nutrient concentrations of different mangrove species. Different mangrove species growing in the same soil, and the same mangrove species growing in two different soil classes were evaluated as to their leaf nutrient concentration patterns. The study was carried out in mangrove areas of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in two distinct soil classes: HISTOSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic and GLEYSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic; and three different species: Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. Two subareas were delimited within each area from which soil and leaf samples were collected. Samplings from five individuals of each dominant mangrove species were taken from the soil (0-10 cm deep under each tree crown projection. The data was submitted to statistical analysis using a set of simple and multivariate analysis in order to determine possible differences among mangrove species leaf nutrient concentrations, and whether these differences might be correlated with the soil attributes or not. The results exposed that the nutritional state of the mangrove species is different and independent form the soil attributes in which they grow. Few correlations were found among leaf nutrient concentrations and soil attributes, suggesting differential selective nutrient uptake among species.RESUMENLos manglares son bosques de arquitectura simple que albergan pocas especies arbóreas, creciendo en un ambiente salino sometido a la influencia de las mareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las posibles interacciones entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del suelo y la concentración de nutrientes en hojas de diferentes especies de mangle. Se investigó si

  8. Gastric adenocarcinoma trends in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil: what has changed in 25 years?

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    Alexandre Rampazzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Its incidence varies greatly by geographic region. The highest rate is in Eastern Asia, mainly in Japan and China. In Brazil, gastric cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the fifth most common cancer in females. Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, has similar figures. The main histological type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends of this cancer over 25 years in a reference center in central Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: We reviewed the records of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, RS, between 1986 and 2010. We evaluated the incidence, age and gender distribution, anatomical subsite and histological subtype of gastric cancer throughout this 25-year period. RESULTS: We identified histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma in 335 (1.6% of the 20,521 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period. The mean age of patients was 62.4 (± 13.0 years, and 67.8% were male (a male: female ratio of 2.0:1. Cardia cancer accounted for 14.3% of the cases, and non-cardia cancer accounted for 85.7%. According to Lauren's classification, 48.1% were intestinal subtype and 40.9% were diffuse subtype. There were no differences in mean age or gender distribution by anatomical location or histological subtype. There was also no difference in the proportions of histological subtypes by anatomical location. Over the 25-year period, there was no change in the anatomical distribution of tumors, but there was a significant decrease in the intestinal subtype and a steady increase in the diffuse subtype (P = 0.02. The subset of 39 patients (11.6% who presented at < 45 years of age was more likely to be female and to have tumors of the diffuse subtype than was the total series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over this 25-year period, there were no

  9. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kaingang native americans in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos,Heloisa Nakai Kwabara dos; Toledo,Max Jean de Ornelas; Mota,Lúcio Tadeu; Previdelli,Isolde Terezinha Santos; Anjos,Adriano Félix dos; Saruhashi,Tiago Ribeiro; Carrara,Márcia Aparecida; Batista,Márcia Regina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a Brazilian indigenous population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among Kaingang native Americans from the central region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. Height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. After fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement...

  11. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Narjara; Machado Lays; da Silva Lisboa Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture i...

  12. Maternal care influence on children’s caries prevalence in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Gabriela dos Santos; HARTWIG, Andréia Drawanz; ELIAS, Raquel; AZEVEDO, Marina Sousa; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão; CORREA, Marcos Britto; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24–42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children’s dental caries prevalence – dmfs > 0) was collected from clinical examinations. Bi...

  13. Maternal care influence on children’s caries prevalence in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO,Gabriela dos Santos; HARTWIG,Andréia Drawanz; ELIAS,Raquel; AZEVEDO,Marina Sousa; GOETTEMS,Marília Leão; CORREA,Marcos Britto; DEMARCO,Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24–42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children’s dental caries prevalence – dmfs > 0) was collected from clinica...

  14. Distribution and ecotoxicology of bioavailable metals and As in surface sediments of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Taís de S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Rios, Mariana C; Filho, Wilton A C S; de Almeida, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gilson Correia

    2015-10-15

    Surface sediments collected in the intertidal zone of Paraguaçu estuary in July, 2013, were analyzed for organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, grain size fractions and partial concentrations of 16 metals. The USEPA 3051A method and ICP-OES and CV-AAS techniques were chosen to metal analysis. Pollution indices (EF, Igeo and PIN) and a comparison with sediment quality guidelines (UET, ERL, ERM, TEL and PEL of NOAA) were conducted in order to evaluate the potential metal impacts over the area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation results showed the importance of organic matter content and the fine-grained fraction of sediments on the control of the bioavailable metals distribution. The Paraguaçu estuary already has anthropogenic enrichment relative to the background level, especially for Mn, whose values exceeded almost 30 times the background at one site (Mn: 1197.30 mg kg(-1)). However, metal levels are still below the reference values with the exception of Hg at one site (Hg: 0.25 mg kg(-1), exceeded TEL and ERL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interface Between Family Farming and School Feeding: barriers and coping mechanisms from the perspective of different social actors in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pozzagnol Mossmann

    Full Text Available Abstract: Family farming came to school as a public policy in Brazil, linked to National School Feeding Program (PNAE - Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, in Portuguese. In order to discuss the interface between family farming and school feeding, regarding barriers and coping mechanisms, 35 social actors were interviewed in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. The barriers were cost of goods, bureaucracy, insufficient technical assistance, resistance to changes, weaknesses in the organization of farmers and public managers. The conclusion is that studied interface has being built in facing those obstacles with dialogue mechanisms, intersectionality, investment, training activities and organization.

  16. Chemical composition of volatiles from male and female specimens of Baccharis trimera collected in two distant regions of southern brazil: a comparative study using chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available GC/MS/FID analyses of volatile compounds from cladodes and inflorescences from male and female specimens of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. collected in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil, showed that carquejyl acetate was the primary volatile component (38% to 73%, while carquejol and ledol were identified in lower concentrations. Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which confirmed that the chemical compositions of all samples were similar. The results presented here highlight the occurrence of the same chemotype of B. trimera in three southern states of Brazil.

  17. Rhyacian A-type tholeiitic granites in southern Brazil: Geochemistry, U-Pb zircon ages and Nd model ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Maria José; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Nardi, Lauro Stoll; Picanço, Jefferson; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Pimenta, Vanessa de Almeida

    2017-04-01

    In the southern South American platform, 2.5 to 2.0 Ga terranes, probably related to the Atlantica supercontinent, occur mainly as minor reworked inliers within Neoproterozoic, Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic belts, as the Ribeira Belt in southern Brazil. The dispersion of such fragments has generated uncertainties about their geotectonic reconstruction, and their study has been supported mainly by elemental and isotope geochemistry. The southern Ribeira Belt lies between the Paranapanema and Luiz Alves cratons and contains reworked Neoarquean and Paleoproterozoic terranes which outcrop as basement nuclei in supracrustal sequences, as the Setuva Complex. The Água Comprida Suite, situated in the northern part of the Setuva Complex, consists of Amphibole-Biotite Syenogranite (ABS), Porphyritic Biotite Syenogranite (PBS), and Equigranular Biotite Syenogranite (EBS). All granites are foliated and intensively deformed. The oldest foliation (Sn) is marked by augen feldspars set in a recrystallized matrix, followed by a crenulation cleavage (Sn+1) which evolves to discrete shear zones. ABS is a metaluminous, reduced A-type granite with FeOt / (FeOt + MgO) > 0.9, with high HFSE and REE contents, corresponding to magmas related to continental medium to high-K tholeiitic series. PBS and specially EBS are highly differentiated, metaluminous to peraluminous (EBS), oxidized granites. The increase of Al2O3 and Rb, and decrease of HFS and RE elements relative to ABS indicate their evolution from tholeiitic magmas. The Água Comprida Suite granites are cogenetic rocks evolved from a within-plate mantle source, marked by high Nb, Ta, and Y. The influence of previously metasomatised mantle sources is evidenced by negative Nb, Ti, and P anomalies. The age of ABS is 2187 ± 26 Ma, and that of PBS is between 2180 ± 13 to 2186 ± 22 Ma. The Nd model age of 2.4 Ga, and ɛNd(2.18 Ga) between - 0.23 and - 0.27 support the interpretation of ABS being formed from juvenile material with a

  18. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

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    Garcia Marinês

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  19. Seasonal effect on nutrient intake in adults living in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, Sinara Laurini; Olinto,Maria Teresa Anselmo; Henn,Ruth Liane; Anjos,Luiz Antonio dos; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Wahrlich,Vivian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of seasonality on nutrient intake in healthy adults from the southernmost metropolitan area of Brazil. The dietary intake (24-hour dietary recall on six different days) in a sample of 162 adults (114 women), aged 20 to 69, was obtained during the year 2007. The nutrient intake was averaged for each season and adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. The effect of season on energy, macro and micro-nutrient intake was invest...

  20. Cytogenetics of two sympatric Corydoras species (pisces, siluriformes, challichtyidae of Southern Brazil

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    R. F. Artoni

    Full Text Available Karyotypic data are presented for two sympatric Corydoras species of the Lagoa Dourada, namely, C. ehrhadti and C. paleatus, which are found in the upper Tibagi river basin (Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil. The same diploid number and karyotypic formula were observed in both species/populations. A great similarity in the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and in the activity of nucleolar organizer regions was also found. The use of in situ hybridization with a fluorescent 18S rDNA probe allowed for the identification of the species/populations through the location of ribosomal sites.

  1. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2010-03-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The partitioning of food resources between two rodents in the subtropical region of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINELLI, FÁBIO P.; FABIANO CORRÊA; Colares,Elton P.; Colares, Ioni G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) are herbivorous semi-aquatic rodents. Although these rodents occur in sympatry in southern South America, little is known about how the two species interact in relationship to food resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the food resource overlap, the feeding strategy and the diversity of the diet of capybaras and nutria. A micro-histological analysis of feces was used to study the diets. ...

  3. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of Southern Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Tourinho, Paula da Silva; Sul, Juliana Assunção Ivar do; Fillmann,Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle’s size or weight. M...

  4. Evidence of contamination by oil and oil products in the Santos-São Vicente estuary, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Souza Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different components of the mixed function oxidase (MFO system and the levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile (FACs were measured in Cathorops spixii in order to assess the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Fish were sampled in an estuary (Santos/São Vicente with a history of contamination by PAHs, mainly due to the presence of the industrial complex of Cubatão city and of another of low anthropogenic influence (Cananéia on the Brazilian coast. FACs were higher in fish from the polluted site, and the PAH 5 and 6-ring metabolites were the most frequent - with 14% and 15%, respectively. Levels of the different components of the MFO system showed the same variation profile as the FACs for both estuaries. Therefore, the values found for somatic indexes and biomarkers with data of bile PAH metabolites indicate the presence of organic contaminants, especially in the area subject to the influence of the industrial complex on the Santos/São Vicente estuary.Diferentes componentes do sistema oxidase de função mista (MFO e os níveis de compostos aromáticos fluorescentes em bile (FACS foram determinados em Cathorops spixii a fim de avaliar o impacto de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (PAHs. Os peixes foram coletados em um estuário com histórico de contaminação por PAHs (Santos/São Vicente, devido principalmente a presença do complexo industrial na cidade de Cubatão e em outro com baixa influência antropogênica (Cananéia na costa brasileira. FACs foram maiores nos peixes oriundos da área contaminada, sendo os metabolitos de HPAs com 5 e 6 anéis, os mais representativos com 14% e 15%, respectivamente. Os níveis dos diferentes componentes do sistema MFO mostraram o mesmo perfil de variação que os FACs em ambos os estuários. Portanto, os valores encontrados para os índices somáticos e os biomarcadores considerados, em associação com os dados de metabólitos biliares de PAHs, indicam a presença de

  5. Prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Southern Brazil.

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    Lopes, Montalverne Hb; Rösing, Cassiano K; Colussi, Paulo Roberto G; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mg; Linden, Maria Ss

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Passo Fundo, Brazil. Additionally, we studied adolescents' concern with their own breath and whether anyone had ever told them that they had halitosis. A crosssectional observational survey was conducted on 15to 19year old high school students from public and private schools in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil. The random sample consisted of 736 adolescents from 20 schools. An interview with a structured questionnaire was administered. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors was analyzed by either the chisquare test or Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis was 39.67%. The mother's level of education was associated with the outcome. Gender and behavioral habits were not associated with selfreported halitosis. Halitosis reported by others presented a prevalence of 10.73% and was associated to male gender and oral hygiene habits. Individuals with less toothbrushing frequency and no use of dental floss were associated to halitosis reported by others. It was observed that 88.58% of the participants are concerned with halitosis. It is concluded that there is high prevalence of selfreported halitosis, which is associated with a socioeconomic pattern. Most adolescents report concern with their own breath. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  6. Antibiotic resistance and enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus sp. isolates from polluted water in Southern Brazil

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    ANA P. BASSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS. Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48% and S. haemolyticus (21.95%. Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18% showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.

  7. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  8. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer.

  9. Nonuse of dental service by schoolchildren in Southern Brazil: impact of socioeconomics, behavioral and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Goettems, Marília Leão; de Oliveira, Luísa Jardim Corrêa; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Torriani, Dione Dias; Correa, Marcos Britto; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To assess clinical, behavioral and socioeconomic factors associated with nonuse of dental services by schoolchildren. A cross-sectional school-based study with 1211 children aged 8-12 years was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome (never having had a dental appointment) and independent variables were collected through interview with parents and children, including sex, age, parent's schooling, family income, self-perception about oral health, and dental fear. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination performed at schools. 291 (24.3 %; 95 % CI 22.0-26.9) of the children had never visited a dentist. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that the outcome was associated with children from mothers with little education (≤0.001), from public schools (≤0.001), from crowded households (≤0.001), who had no caries (≤0.001), who had dental fear (≤0.001), and who started oral hygiene later (0.04). Despite the extensive increase in oral health coverage, especially in the public system in the last years in Brazil, there is still an unassisted portion of the population of schoolchildren. It was observed that socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical factors influenced the nonuse of dental services.

  10. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

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    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  11. Effects of an experimental in situ diesel oil spill on the benthic community of unvegetated tidal flats in a subtropical estuary (Paranaguá Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egres, Aline Gonzalez; Martins, César C; Oliveira, Verônica Maria de; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2012-12-01

    The effects of diesel oil on benthic associations from unvegetated tidal flats in a subtropical estuary were experimentally evaluated using a Multivariate Before and After/Control and Impact Model (M-BACI). Impacted treatments were contrasted with controls in 14 successive periods before and after the oil spill. An acute effect was recorded just after the impact, but the recovery to pre-disturbance population levels was extremely fast. The increase in the total density of the benthic community after the disturbance was the result of an increase in the densities of Heleobia australis, oligochaetes, and ostracods, observed in both impacted and control treatments, as a reflection of background variability and not the presence of the contaminant. The experimental spill had little influence on the biological descriptors of the benthic associations, which were resilient or tolerant to oil disturbance at the temporal (147 days) and spatial (cm²) scales used in the experiment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a group of normal and Down Syndrome children in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

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    Ferreira Cristina Targa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May, 1999, to April, 2000, at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R$ 500/ month by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test. In the DS group (n=63, the mean age was 4.4 ± 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%. In the control group (n=64, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%. DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005. In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5% anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month. In the control group, 3 cases (4.7% were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family. These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a group of normal and Down Syndrome children in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

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    Cristina Targa Ferreira

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May, 1999, to April, 2000, at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R$ 500/ month by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test. In the DS group (n=63, the mean age was 4.4 ± 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%. In the control group (n=64, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%. DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005. In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5% anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month. In the control group, 3 cases (4.7% were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family. These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  14. The prevalence of trichomoniasis and associated factors among women treated at a university hospital in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world; however, it remains a neglected parasitic disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its associated epidemiological factors among women treated at a hospital in southern Brazil. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of this infection in women treated at Hospital Universitário (HU) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between January 2012 and January 2015. This study consisted a self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic, clinical, and behavioural data and a molecular diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the TVK3/7 primer set, which was confirmed with sequence analysis. Of the 345 women surveyed, the overall prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) was 4.1% (14/345). The prevalence rates were 5.9% among pregnant women, 8.5% among HIV-positive women, and 10.1% among HIV-positive pregnant women. The rates for groups with other significant demographic and clinical features were as follows: 6.6% among women with white skin, 12.3% among women with an income below the minimum monthly wage, 7.4% among women with a vaginal pH greater than or equal to 4.6, and 7.9% among women with a comorbid STD. The multivariate analysis confirmed that pregnant women who were HIV-positive (p = 0.001) and had low incomes (p = 0.026) were the most likely to have this infection. Conclusions A multivariate analysis confirmed that HIV-positive pregnant women with low incomes were the participants most likely to have trichomoniasis. These results are important because this Brazilian region presents a high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C, which is associated with greater transmissibility. Additionally, low family income reveals a socioeconomic fragility that might favour the transmission of this STD. PMID:28346531

  15. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) developed in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca; Felício, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira; Miranda, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues; Pires, Tassia Cavalcante; Bispo, Eliete da Silva; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2017-11-21

    Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes 'witch's broom disease', research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease; however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, such as Aspergillus, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of aflatoxin (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa clones developed in Brazil. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination were determined in 130 samples from 13 cocoa clones grown in the south of Bahia by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The method was evaluated for limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.90 μg kg-1), limit of quantification (0.10-2.50 μg kg-1) and recovery (RSD) (89.40-95.80%) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 38% of the samples in the range of

  16. Climate Ready Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on climate change impacts to different estuary regions, tools and resources to monitor changes, and information to help managers develop adaptation plans for risk management of estuaries and coastal communities.

  17. Gestational age at birth and morbidity, mortality, and growth in the first 4 years of life: findings from three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil

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    Barros Fernando C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed anthropometric status, breastfeeding duration, morbidity, and mortality outcomes during the first four years of life according to gestational age, in three population-based birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Methods Total breastfeeding duration, neonatal mortality, infant morbidity and mortality, and anthropometric measures taken at 12 and 48 months were evaluated in children of different gestational ages born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Results Babies born Conclusion The increased risks of morbidity and mortality among preterm (41 weeks are well known. In our population babies born at 37 also present increased risk. As the proportion of preterm and early term babies has increased markedly in recent years, this is a cause for great concern.

  18. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

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    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de

  19. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Lucas de Souza; Peroni, Nivaldo; dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2013-07-04

    People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape

  20. Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

    2006-01-01

    The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT

  1. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  2. Long-term vegetation, climate and ocean dynamics inferred from a 73,500 years old marine sediment core (GeoB2107-3) off southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fang; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Arz, Helge W.; Pätzold, Jürgen; Behling, Hermann

    2017-09-01

    Long-term changes in vegetation and climate of southern Brazil, as well as ocean dynamics of the adjacent South Atlantic, were studied by analyses of pollen, spores and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) in marine sediment core GeoB2107-3 collected offshore southern Brazil covering the last 73.5 cal kyr BP. The pollen record indicates that grasslands were much more frequent in the landscapes of southern Brazil during the last glacial period if compared to the late Holocene, reflecting relatively colder and/or less humid climatic conditions. Patches of forest occurred in the lowlands and probably also on the exposed continental shelf that was mainly covered by salt marshes. Interestingly, drought-susceptible Araucaria trees were frequent in the highlands (with a similar abundance as during the late Holocene) until 65 cal kyr BP, but were rare during the following glacial period. Atlantic rainforest was present in the northern lowlands of southern Brazil during the recorded last glacial period, but was strongly reduced from 38.5 until 13.0 cal kyr BP. The reduction was probably controlled by colder and/or less humid climatic conditions. Atlantic rainforest expanded to the south since the Lateglacial period, while Araucaria forests advanced in the highlands only during the late Holocene. Dinocysts data indicate that the Brazil Current (BC) with its warm, salty and nutrient-poor waters influenced the study area throughout the investigated period. However, variations in the proportion of dinocyst taxa indicating an eutrophic environment reflect the input of nutrients transported mainly by the Brazilian Coastal Current (BCC) and partly discharged by the Rio Itajaí (the major river closest to the core site). This was strongly related to changes in sea level. A stronger influence of the BCC with nutrient rich waters occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 and in particular during the late MIS 3 and MIS 2 under low sea level. Evidence of Nothofagus pollen

  3. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavetti,Alexandre; Oliveira,Haydee Torres de; Lins, Alene da Silva; Santos,Pablo Santana

    2010-01-01

    p. 699-711 Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese) officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the...

  4. A LPUE (LANDING PER UNIT EFFORT) ANALYSIS OF THE TRAWL FISHERY FOR THE COASTAL SHRIMPS Artemesia longinaris AND Pleoticus muelleri OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Baptista Metri; José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2014-01-01

    The Argentine stiletto shrimp (Artemesia longinaris) and the Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) currently sustain an important fishery in terms of tonnage and revenues in southern Brazil. This study analyzed the factors affecting the abundance of both species through the application of Generalized Linear Models to landing-per-unit-of-effort (LPUE) data of the trawl fleet operating on the main fishing grounds between 1998 and 2005. The main patterns of LPUE variability of both species w...

  5. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  6. Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Cabral; Michael Wiedenbeck; N. Koglin; B. Lehmann; F. R. de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hemati...

  7. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Oliveira; Jacobs, Fernando; Ritter,Rafael; Dias, Rafael Antunes

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented with photographs and consisted mostly of lone individuals observed in riparian forests inserted in a matrix of grasslands and rice fields. The Rufous Casiornis apparently occurs in very low densities...

  8. Land-use and land-cover dynamics monitored by NDVI multitemporal analysis in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil) for the last three decades

    OpenAIRE

    Borini Alves, D.; Pérez-Cabello, F.; Rodrigues Mimbrero, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the dynamics of land-use and land-cover (LULC) in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil), monitoring and distinguishing trajectories in NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) variations for the last three decades. The area, with a total of 17336 km², has been subject to significant LULC changes associated with deforestation progress and use of fire. Considering available Landsat time series, it was selected an image per year from 1984 to 2013 (p...

  9. Ontogenetic and seasonal shifts in the diet of the pemecou sea catfish Sciades herzbergii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), from a macrotidal mangrove creek in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    The feeding ecology of pemecou sea catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was studied bimonthly from September 2003 to July 2004 in a macrotidal mangrove creek at Curuçá estuary, Brazil. Feeding activity and relative importance of prey groups were assessed in 528 and 226 specimens (6.2 to 36.0 cm total length), respectively, using stomach contents. A total of 1 820 specimens were caught. The fish left the creek with an average of 2.2% of their body weight in prey. Feeding activity was lower in the dry season (September and November 2003) than in the rainy season (January to May 2004). The diet was dominated by Ocypodidae and Grapsidae. Feeding strategies of the pemecou sea catfish indicated a slight variation between the diets of adults and juveniles; however; the main factor leading to diversification in the diet were the seasons. Opportunistic feeding behavior was observed in the dry season, shifting to more specialized feeding in the wet season. This temporal diet shift may be explained by the environmental seasonal variations (e.g., transparency of the water, high water level) in the intertidal mangrove creek habitat.

  10. Implication of Tityus apiacas (Lourenco, 2002 in scorpion envenomations in the Southern Amazon border, Brazil

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    Bruna Andressa Jung da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein, four cases of scorpion stings caused by Tityus apiacas recorded from the municipality of Apuí, in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, are described. Patients showed systemic clinical manifestations, described as unusual, involuntary, and generalized tingling and numbness, reported by patients as an electric shock sensation, lasting up to 24 hours after the sting. All patients described local pain and sensation, along with other clinical symptoms including local edema and erythema. Systemic manifestations were not life threatening. Antivenom therapy was administered to all patients, who were discharged without complaints.

  11. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

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    Lisia Maria Gobbo dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: “Mate” or “Yerba Mate” (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South American plant, commonly consumed in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant. Theses metals are also part of yerba mate’s mineral composition, due to soil and water contamination by pesticides and fertilizers, coal and oil combustion, vehicle emissions, mining, smelting, refining and the incineration of urban and industrial waste. Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare arsenic, cadmium, lead concentrations in 104 samples of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis marketed, and consumed in three southern Brazilian States, namely Paraná (PR, Santa Catarina (SC and Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Each element was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, on a Nexion 300D equipment (Perkin Elmer. As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0.015 to 0.15mg kg-1, 0.18 to 1.25mg kg-1 and 0.1 to 1.20mg kg-1, respectively. Regarding Cd, 84% of the samples from RS, 63% from PR and 75% from SC showed higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of 0.4mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, while 7% of the samples from RS and 5% from PR were unsatisfactory for Pb. Concentrations were below the established ANVISA limit of 0.6mg kg-1 for all samples.

  12. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  13. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species to Ara chloroptera (a large one. Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits, the annual floods (fleshy fruits, and the dry season (flowers. While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  14. Evaluation of waterborne exposure to oil spill 5 years after an accident in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Katsumiti, A; Araújo, M L P; Zandoná, E M; Costa Silva, G P; Maschio, J; Roche, H; Silva de Assis, H C

    2009-02-01

    Fish (Astyanax sp.) were exposed to water samples from the Arroio Saldanha, locality of an oil spill, and the Barigui River (upstream and downstream of the confluence of the river and Arroio Saldanha), Brazil. Histopathological and biochemical biomarkers, as acetylcholinesterase (AchE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and amounts of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon residues (PAHs) in bile were evaluated. PAHs, metals, and surfactants were investigated in the water samples. CAT and GST activities increased in the Arroio Saldanha sample, whereas CAT activity and LPO levels were increased in the upstream and downstream sites. The results suggested a toxic action of the free radicals and disturbance of the antioxidant defense mechanisms. However, the EROD and AchE activities were not affected. Histopathology studies showed severe lesions. The oil is still bioavailable to biota, moreover, other pollution sources continue to affect the water in the Barigui River.

  15. Community structure of helminth parasites of the "Cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-03-01

    Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.

  16. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

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    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  17. Avian pox virus infection in a common barn owl (Tyto alba in southern Brazil

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    Gilberto D. Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A young common barn owl (Tyto alba was referred to the Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre (Nurfs, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, after been found in a barn of a brick factory in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The bird was apathic, weak and with crusty lesions in the featherless areas (eyes, beak, legs, and died soon after arrival at Nurfs. Necropsy and histopathological examination of the lesions were carried out. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cutaneous lesions, several eosinophilic intracyto-plasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies, as well as particles characteristic of poxvirus, observed by electronic microscopy, confirmed the infection by avian poxvirus, what highlights the importance of Tyto alba as carrier of the virus in the wild.

  18. Assessment of inorganic contaminants in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ederson R.; Soares, Bruno M.; Duarte, Fabio A., E-mail: fabioand@gmail.com [Escola de Quimica e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Vieira, Joao P.; Mai, Ana C.G. [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Picoloto, Rochele S.; Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Major and trace element content was determined in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) collected in the Sao Goncalo Channel (Rio Grande City, Brazil). A microwave-assisted digestion procedure in closed vessels was applied to mussel decomposition and subsequent determination of elements by spectrometric techniques. Results showed that the mussel tissue contains Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, S, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, while the same elements (except Ag and Hg) were quantified in its shell, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker. In this sense, these results can be used to establish an initial view and to contribute to further studies related to element contamination in the area under study (author)

  19. Diet of Iheringichthys labrosus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae in the Ibicuí River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila K. Fagundes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the benthic-feeding fish Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874 was analyzed. Samples were taken bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002, in three sites of the Ibicuí River, a tributary of Uruguay River basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each sampling point the specimens were collected in lentic and lotic environments. Gillnets and trammel nets were examined every 6 hours (6h, 12h, 18h and 24h. Diet description was based on the frequency of occurrence and the volume of each food item to obtain the Alimentary Index (IAi. The average stomach fullness was adopted to detect variations in the feeding activity according to the season, the circadian rhythm and the environment. Chironomids were the most important food item, followed by mollusks, and feeding activity was highest in summer, during daylight (6h and 12h, and in the lotic environment of the second sampling point.

  20. Description of three new species of Eumida Malmgren, 1865 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from Southern and Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Verônica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha

    2015-05-18

    We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (Örsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two species differ in the size of the prostomium, the distribution of micropapillae on the proboscis, and the shape of the dorsal cirri. Eumida macrophthalma sp. nov. has much larger eyes than the other two species described herein. The dorsal cirri on anterior median segments are rounded and on median and posterior segments they are asymmetrical and cordiform, longer than the dorsal cirri in Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The lanceolate median dorsal cirri in Eumida delicata sp. nov. are only shared with E. ockelmanni Eibye-Jacobsen, 1987. It is also possible to diagnose the three species by their dorsal whitish pigmentation patterns on the first segments of living or well conserved animals.

  1. Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil

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    Luine Rosele Renaud Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8% samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83% samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%, of these 6 (10% herpes simplex virus, 1 (2% Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3% human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2% mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent