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Sample records for estuary factors influencing

  1. Nitrification in the Schelde estuary: methodological aspects and factors influencing its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bie, M.J.M.; Starink, Mathieu; Boschker, H.T.S.; Peene, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a 15-month dataset on nitrification measurements in the Schelde estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands). Nitrification was estimated using the N-serve sensitive dark 14C-bicarbonate incorporation technique. A peak of nitrification activity was observed in the freshwater part of the estuary.

  2. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitall, D.; Hively, W.D.; Leight, A.K.; Hapeman, C.J.; McConnell, L.L.; Fisher, T.; Rice, C.P.; Codling, E.; McCarty, G.W.; Sadeghi, A.M.; Gustafson, A.; Bialek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used

  3. Nitrification in the Schelde estuary: methodological aspects and factors influencing its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, M.J.M. de; Starink, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Peene, J.J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a 15-month dataset on nitrification measurements in the Schelde estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands). Nitrification was estimated using the N-serve sensitive dark 14C-bicarbonate incorporation technique. A peak of nitrification activity was observed in the freshwater part of the

  4. Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth, and mortality in lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana using 20 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Geaghan, James; Decossas, Gary A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater inflow characteristics define estuarine functioning by delivering nutrients, sediments, and freshwater, which affect biological resources and ultimately system production. Using 20 years of water quality, weather, and oyster growth and mortality data from Breton Sound Estuary (BSE), Louisiana, we examined the relationship of riverine, weather, and tidal influence on estuarine salinity, and the relationship of salinity to oyster growth and mortality. Mississippi River discharge was found to be the most important factor determining salinity patterns over oyster grounds within lower portions of BSE, with increased river flow associated with lowered salinities, while easterly winds associated with increased salinity were less influential. These patterns were consistent throughout the year. Salinity and temperature (season) were found to critically control oyster growth and mortality, suggesting that seasonal changes to river discharge affecting water quality over the oyster grounds have profound impacts on oyster populations. The management of oyster reefs in estuaries (such as BSE) requires an understanding of how estuarine hydrodynamics and salinity are influenced by forcing factors such as winds, river flow, and by the volume, timing, and location of controlled releases of riverine water.

  5. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine parts. In addition, the economic

  6. Major factors influencing the elemental composition of surface estuarine sediments: the case of 15 estuaries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, M; Vale, C; Raimundo, J; Pereira, P; Brito, P; Caetano, M

    2014-07-15

    Upper sediments (0-5 cm) were sampled in 94 sites of water bodies of the fifteen Portuguese estuaries characterized by distinct settings of climate, topography and lithology, and marked by diverse anthropogenic pressures. Confined areas recognized as highly anthropogenic impacted, as well as areas dominated by erosion or frequently dredged were not sampled. Grain size, organic carbon (Corg), Al and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. Normalisation of trace element concentrations to Al and Corg, correlations between elements and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed identifying elemental associations and the relevance of grain-size, lithology and anthropogenic inputs on sediment chemical composition. Whereas grain-size is the dominant effect for the majority of the studied estuaries, the southern estuaries Mira, Arade and Guadiana are dominated by specific lithologies of their river basins, and anthropogenic effects are identified in Ave, Leça, Tagus and Sado. This study emphasizes how baseline values of trace elements in sediments may vary within and among estuarine systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estuary-type circulation as a factor sustaining horizontal nutrient gradients in freshwater-influenced coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Richard; Flöser, Götz; Schartau, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Estuary-type circulation is a residual circulation in coastal systems with horizontal density gradients. It drives the accumulation of suspended particulate matter in coastal embayments where density gradients are sustained by some freshwater inflow from rivers. Ebenhöh et al. (Ecol Model 174(3):241-252, 2004) found that shallow water depth can explain nutrient gradients becoming established towards the coast even in the absence of river inflow. The present study follows their concept and investigates the characteristic transport of organic matter towards the coast based on idealised scenarios whereby an estuary-type circulation is maintained by surface freshwater fluxes and pronounced shoaling towards the coast. A coupled hydrodynamical and biogeochemical model is used to simulate the dynamics of nutrient gradients and to derive budgets of organic matter flux for a coastal transect. Horizontal nutrient gradients are considered only in terms of tidal asymmetries of suspended matter transport. The results show that the accumulation of organic matter near the coast is not only highly sensitive to variations in the sinking velocity of suspended matter but is also noticeably enhanced by an increase in precipitation. This scenario is comparable with North Sea conditions. By contrast, horizontal nutrient gradients would be reversed in the case of evaporation-dominated inverse estuaries (cf. reverse gradients of nutrient and organic matter concentrations). Credible coastal nutrient budget calculations are required for resolving trends in eutrophication. For tidal systems, the present results suggest that these calculations require an explicit consideration of freshwater flux and asymmetries in tidal mixing. In the present case, the nutrient budget for the vertically mixed zone also indicates carbon pumping from the shelf sea towards the coast from as far offshore as 25 km.

  8. Tidal fluctuations influence E. coli concentrations in urban estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dusan; Coleman, Rhys; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T

    2017-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of water level and velocity on Escherichia coli levels over multiple tidal cycles in an urban microtidal estuary in Melbourne, Australia. Over 3,500 E. coli samples and high resolution water level and velocity measurements from two locations within the estuary were used for the analysis. E. coli negatively correlated with water level in the upper estuary which was proposed to be linked to increased resuspension of estuarine sediments during low tide. No relationship was found in the lower estuary, likely due to wet weather inputs dwarfing subtler tidal-related processes. Removal of wet weather data enabled significant relationships to emerge in the lower estuary: 1) positive with water level (when a 9-h shift applied corresponding to the phase shift between water levels and velocities) and; 2) positive with velocity (no shift applied). This supports a link between increased E. coli levels and tidal-related resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of temporal and spatial factors on abundance and richness of fish early stages in shallow tropical estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arévalo-Frías, W.; Mendoza-Carranza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determination of abundance and richness of fish early stages in estuarine zones is critical to support management and protection plans; it is therefore necessary to consider all influential factors. Habitat diversity, seasonality, moon phase and diel variations, and their interactions are

  10. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  11. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  12. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that

  13. Factors influencing the recruitment of juvenile fishes into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the recruitment of juvenile fishes into the Mblanga estuary. A. K. Whitfield. Zoology Department, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. The migration of juvenile fishes (<5 cm) into the temporarily open Mhlanga estuary was monitored to determine the effects of different opening periods on immigration.

  14. Suspended sediment diffusion mechanisms in the Yangtze Estuary influenced by wind fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Yunxuan; Shen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) distribution and diffusion has been widely recognized because it is influenced by sediment supply and various hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Sediment suspended by waves and transported by currents are the dominant sediment transport mechanisms in estuarine and coastal areas. However, it is unclear to what extent the SSC distribution is impacted by each hydrodynamic factor. Research on the quantitative influence of wind fields on the SSC diffusion range will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of sediment transport change and sedimentary geomorphic evolution. This study determined SSC from three Envisat Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer acquisitions, covering the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent water area under the same season and tidal conditions but with varying wind conditions. SSC was examined based on the Semi-Empirical Radiative Transfer model, which has been well validated with the observation data. Integrating the corresponding wind field information from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts further facilitated the discussion of wind fields affecting SSC, and in turn the influence of water and suspended sediment transportation and diffusion in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal area. The results demonstrated that the SSC present much more distinctive fluvial features in the inner estuary and wind fields are one of the major factors controlling the range of turbid water diffusion.

  15. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    Phytoplankton productivity, standing stock, and related environmental factors were studied during 1964-66 in the Duwamish River estuary, at Seattle, Wash., to ascertain the factors that affect phytoplankton growth in the estuary; a knowledge of these factors in turn permits the detection and evaluation of the influence that effluent nutrients have on phytoplankton production. The factors that control the concentration of dissolved oxygen were also evaluated because of the importance of dissolved oxygen to the salmonid populations that migrate through the estuary. Phytoplankton blooms, primarily of diatoms, occurred in the lower estuary during August 1965 and 1966. No bloom occurred during 1964, but the presence of oxygen-supersaturated surface water in August 1963 indicates that a bloom did occur then. Nutrients probably were not the primary factor controlling the timing of phytoplankton blooms. Ammonia ,and phosphate concentrations increased significantly downstream from the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle's Renton Treatment Plant outfall after the plant began operation in June 1965, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were relatively high before operation of the Renton Treatment Plant and during nonbloom periods. The consistent coincidence of blooms with minimum fresh-water discharge and tidal exchange during August throughout the study period indicates that bloom timing probably was controlled mostly by hydrographic factors that determine retention time and stability of the surface-water layer. This control was demonstrated in part by a highly significant correlation of gross productivity with retention time (as indicated by fresh-water discharge) and vertical stability (as indicated by the difference between mean surface and mean bottom temperatures). The failure of a bloom to develop in 1964 is related to a minimum fresh-water discharge that was much greater than normal during that summer. Hydrographic factors are apparently important because

  16. Ecosystem services transcend boundaries: estuaries provide resource subsidies and influence functional diversity in coastal benthic communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Savage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the 'outwelling hypothesis'. However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (δ(13C, δ(15N demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi, indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp. had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities. These findings highlight the

  17. Ecosystem services transcend boundaries: estuaries provide resource subsidies and influence functional diversity in coastal benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F; Lohrer, Andrew M; Hewitt, Judi E

    2012-01-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the 'outwelling hypothesis'). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of integrative ecosystem-based management that maintains the

  18. Comparative assessment of two agriculturally-influenced estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available . With the Gamtoos Estuary experiencing regular high flow conditions, a key difference between the two systems is the propensity for natural flushing events to occur; a mechanism largely eliminated from the highly-regulated Sundays Catchment. Phytoplankton blooms...

  19. Comparative assessment of two agriculturally-influenced estuaries: Similar pressure, different response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Daniel A; Adams, Janine B; Taljaard, Susan

    2017-04-15

    This study compared the spatio-temporal dynamics in two agriculturally-influenced South African estuaries - Gamtoos and Sundays - to investigate how contrasting hydrological alterations influence physical, chemical and biological responses. With the Gamtoos Estuary experiencing regular high flow conditions, a key difference between the two systems is the propensity for natural flushing events to occur; a mechanism largely eliminated from the highly-regulated Sundays Catchment. Phytoplankton blooms (>20Chl-aμgl-1) were persistent and seasonal in the Sundays, inducing summer bottom-water hypoxia (550μgl-1) and recurrent nature of two harmful algal bloom (HAB) species. This study provides the first account of HAB persistence and seasonal hypoxia in a South African estuary, demonstrating the possible consequences of shifting an ecosystem into a new stable state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental factors structuring fish composition and assemblages in a small macrotidal estuary (eastern English Channel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid

    2008-09-01

    The fish assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient of a small macrotidal estuary (the Canche, France). Fishes were collected every two months between May 2006 and July 2007 from 12 sampling stations using a 1.5-m beam trawl with a 5 mm mesh size in the cod end. To complement this information, sampling was also performed using 15-m fyke nets (8 mm mesh size in the cod end). For each sample, abiotic (temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen, turbidity, river flow, wind speed and depth) and biotic (macro crustacean species abundances) were recorded. Throughout the study, 28 fish species belonging to 20 families were collected. Fish catches were dominated by juveniles, especially Young-Of-the-Year (YOY) for the majority of the species. According to the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), common goby Pomatoschistus microps, flounder Platichtys flesus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax and plaice Pleuronectes platessa were the most abundant species, together accounting for 99.2% of the total IRI. Estuarine residents (ER = 66.2%) and marine juvenile migrants species (MJ = 31.4%) were the most important ecological guilds. The structure of the fish assemblage and its relationship to environmental variables was examined using multivariate techniques. Cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis defined six distinct groups in the Canche estuary, which are discriminated by specific species (SIMPER). Spatio-temporal variations in fish assemblage structure reflect the density peaks of the most abundant species. Spearman rank correlations and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that among the ten environmental variables examined, temperature, salinity and Crangon crangon (a potential predator for YOY fish or prey for older ones) are the three most important factors influencing fish species richness and abundances. Our observations reinforce the idea that certain fish species may have different life history styles in

  1. Some factors governing the water quality of microtidal estuaries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of coastal geomorphology and Man-made alterations, including reduced river flow through dam construction, determines, at least in part, the water quality of South African microtidal estuaries. To offer increased understanding of the manner in which these features may modify water quality, a short description of the ...

  2. Tidal Influence on Behaviour of a Coastal Aquifer Adjacent to a Low-Relief Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Enot, P.; Barry, D. A.; Li, L.; Binley, A.

    2004-12-01

    Tide-induced groundwater flow will influence the degree of salt-water intrusion and contaminant transport in an unconfined coastal aquifer. However, the magnitude of such influence is uncertain, especially for a mildly sloping beach. Here a costal aquifer adjacent to a low-relief estuary at Ardeer (Scotland) is investigated both with field monitoring and numerical modelling, in order to ascertain the tidal influence on the groundwater dynamics, salt water intrusion, and chemical migration to the estuary. A field survey and aquifer monitoring were carried out to acquire data on the aquifer geology, water table fluctuations and salinity distributions. The observed groundwater fluctuations were asymmetric and skewed in time. Analysis revealed that the semi-diurnal fluctuations were not efficiently filtered out in the area near the beach, although their magnitude decreased greatly further inland. The measured salinity distributions indicated that salt-water intrusion occurred both in the bottom part of the estuary and near the beach surface. A numerical model (SEAWAT) was used to simulate flow processes in the cross-section perpendicular to the estuary. Results show that the simulated groundwater table fluctuation was in good agreement with the collected data. The case with a vertical beach (an extreme condition opposite to a low-relief beach) was also simulated for the purpose of comparison. It was found that tidal fluctuations affected significantly the hydrodynamics in the aquifer. Especially for the mildly sloping beach, a circulation cell was formed below the beach when the groundwater was retreating to the estuary, a feature that did not appear in the vertical beach case. Within the aquifer, the asymmetry in water table fluctuations was captured by the simulation with the mildly sloping beach, but was less obvious in the vertical beach simulation. Comparison of the predicted salinity distributions in the aquifers shows that the mild beach slope enhanced salt

  3. A review of sediment dynamics in the Severn Estuary: influence of flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A J; Langston, W J; Jonas, P J C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of the distributions and characteristics of non-cohesive and cohesive sediments within the Severn Estuary, with particular reference to floc properties. The estuary is hyper-tidal and, consequently, highly turbid along most of its length and it generally has two turbidity maxima. In the upper reaches of the estuary, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations can be in excess of 10 g l(-1) for river flows up to 50 m(3)s(-1), rising to over 50 g l(-1) during periods of lower river flow. The lower estuary turbidity maximum originates in the vicinity of Bridgwater Bay where SPM concentrations may vary between 0.1-200 g l(-1). The formation of fluid mud is coupled to the spring-neap cycle and strong vertical gradients in SPM concentrations produce turbulence damping and drag reduction effects, and hence impair the ability of the flow to transport sediments. Flocculation is an important mechanism for controlling the behaviour of fine sediments and mean settling velocities of flocs vary between 0.8-6 mm s(-1). A secondary consequence of flocculation is the formation of mud:sand mixtures in turbid suspensions. Improved understanding of the significance of flocculation processes is crucial as they may exert an influence on the mechanism by which adsorbed contaminants are transported in the system. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Southwest monsoon influences the water quality and waste assimilative capacity in the Mandovi estuary (Goa state, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishnuRadhan, R.; Sagayadoss, J.; Seelan, E.; Vethamony, P.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zainudin, Z.; Shirodkar, S.

    The monsoon-dominated Mandovi estuary is located in Goa state – a global tourist destination along the centralwest coast of India. In addition to factor analyses of water quality data, the water quality index (WQI), trophic state index (TSI...

  5. Tidal Influence on Nutrients Status and Phytoplankton Population of Okpoka Creek, Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okpoka Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta is a tidal creek receiving organic anthropogenic effluents from its environs. The study investigated the influence of tides (low and high on the species composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton. The surface water and phytoplankton samples were collected monthly from May 2004 to April 2006 at both tides from ten stations according to standard methods. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Data analyses were done using analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range, and descriptive statistics. Phosphate and ammonia exceeded international acceptable levels of 0.10 mg/L for natural water bodies indicating high nutrient status, organic matter, and potential pollutants. A total of 158 species of phytoplankton were identified. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton (62.9%. Diversity indices of diatoms were 1.5±0.03 (Margalef and 0.8±0.01 (Shannon. Pollution-indicator species such as Navicula microcephala, Nitzschia sigma, Synedra ulna (diatoms, Cladophora glomerata (green alga, Euglena acus (euglenoid, Anabeana spiroides (blue-green alga, and Ceratium furca (dinoflagellate were recorded at either only low, high or both tides. Concerted environmental surveillance on Upper Bonny Estuary is advocated to reduce the inflow of pollutants from the Bonny Estuary into this Creek caused by tidal influence.

  6. Environmental factors affecting larval fish community in the salt marsh area of Guadiana estuary (Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh areas in the Guadiana estuary are important nursery sites for many fish species of commercial and recreational value. More effective protection measures should be adopted as the area is highly affected by anthropogenic and natural threats. Studying larval fish communities in these impacted nursery areas will be relevant to the management of local ecosystems and to larval fish ecology in general. Spatial and seasonal distribution and the effect of environmental factors on the larval fish community of this ecosystem were studied for one year (April 2010 to March 2011. Larvae were sampled monthly in parallel with phytoplankton and zooplankton. Hydrological data and physical parameters were monitored. A decision tree model was used to assess the influence of environmental factors on the larval fish community. A total of 130 larvae and 1171 eggs were caught. Diplodus sargus, Sardina pilchardus, and Pomatoschistus microps were the most abundant larval fish species. The peaks of fish larvae abundance occurred in March and April. The output of the model demonstrates that the abundance of larval fish is determined by the abundance of eggs, zooplanktonic food, and water flood and flow. This study shows the importance of the Guadiana salt marsh as an area for fish nursery and highlights the need for conservation of this area.

  7. Influence of allochthonous input on autotrophiceheterotrophic switch-over in shallow waters of a tropical estuary (Cochin Estuary), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Madhu, N.V.; Nair, S.

    Bacterial productivity (BP) and respiration (BR) were examined in relation to primary productivity (PP) for the first time in a shallow tropical ecosystem (Cochin Estuary), India. The degree of dependence of BP (6.3 199.7 mu g C L sup(-1) d sup(-1...

  8. Impact of Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme on seasonal and spatial variations of biogeochemical factors in the Yellow River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Lee, Kenneth; Dong, Zhijun; Di, Baoping; Wang, Yueqi; Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal and spatial distributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), together with temperature, salinity and total suspended matter (TSM), were investigated in the Yellow River estuary (China) to examine the biogeochemical influence of the ;Water and Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS); that is used to manage outflows from the river. Four cruises in April, June (early phase of WSRS), July (late phase of WSRS) and September were conducted in 2013 (WSRS from 19th June to 12th July). The results showed that nutrient species could be divided into two major groups according to their seasonal and spatial distributions. One group included NO3-, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and Si(OH)4, primarily from freshwater discharge. NO3- and DON related to anthropogenic sources were also separated from Si(OH)4, which was related to weather. The other group included dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), NO2-, and NH4+. Along with freshwater inputs, sediment absorption/desorption showed impacts on DIP and DOP concentration and distribution. Nitrification was a dominant factor controlling NO2- concentrations. NH4+ was influenced by both sediment absorption/desorption and nitrification. The WSRS not only shifted the seasonal patterns of nutrients in the estuary, with high concentrations moved from autumn to June and July, but also promoted the nutrient spread to the south central part of the Bohai Sea. Spatial distribution of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was influenced by the WSRS, with high concentrations being found in the river mouth in June and September, flanking the river mouth in July, and in the south central part of the Bohai Sea in September. Although Chl-a concentrations increased in June and July, the seasonal patterns did not change. The highest concentrations were found in September. Nutrient loadings during the WSRS relieved DIP and Si(OH)4 limitation in the estuary and south central Bohai Sea, causing an excess of DIN and disrupting

  9. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Ahmad Asmat; Gires Usup

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS) agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease ...

  10. Modeling lateral circulation and its influence on the along-channel flow in a branched estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; He, Qing; Shen, Jian

    2017-12-01

    A numerical modeling study of the influence of the lateral flow on the estuarine exchange flow was conducted in the north passage of the Changjiang estuary. The lateral flows show substantial variabilities within a flood-ebb tidal cycle. The strong lateral flow occurring during flood tide is caused primarily by the unique cross-shoal flow that induces a strong northward (looking upstream) barotropic force near the surface and advects saltier water toward the northern part of the channel, resulting in a southward baroclinic force caused by the lateral density gradient. Thus, a two-layer structure of lateral flows is produced during the flood tide. The lateral flows are vigorous near the flood slack and the magnitude can exceed that of the along-channel tidal flow during that period. The strong vertical shear of the lateral flows and the salinity gradient in lateral direction generate lateral tidal straining, which are out of phase with the along-channel tidal straining. Consequently, stratification is enhanced at the early stage of the ebb tide. In contrast, strong along-channel straining is apparent during the late ebb tide. The vertical mixing disrupts the vertical density gradient, thus suppressing stratification. The impact of lateral straining on stratification during spring tide is more pronounced than that of along-channel straining during late flood and early ebb tides. The momentum balance along the estuary suggests that lateral flow can augment the residual exchange flow. The advection of lateral flows brings low-energy water from the shoal to the deep channel during the flood tide, whereas the energetic water is moved to the shoal via lateral advection during the ebb tide. The impact of lateral flow on estuarine circulation of this multiple-channel estuary is different from single-channel estuary. A model simulation by blocking the cross-shoal flow shows that the magnitudes of lateral flows and tidal straining are reduced. Moreover, the reduced lateral

  11. Caffeine in an Urbanized Estuary: Past and Present Influence ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeine has been identified by previous research as a potential tracer of sanitary wastewater. To further assess the utility of caffeine as a tracer of wastewater sources, samples from 25 sites throughout Boston Harbor were collected and analyzed for caffeine by LC-MS/MS. Caffeine concentrations in Boston Harbor ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor; mean concentrations and median concentrations were 51 ng/L were 33 ng/L respectively. These data were visualized by a simple inverse distance weighting model to improve the understanding of transport and fate dynamics of wastewater derived contaminants. Elevated concentrations of caffeine in the inner harbor during the sampling period were determined to be the result of a combined sewage overflow (CSO) event as well as illicit discharge of sanitary sewage into municipal storm drains. A comparison of contemporary results to data from 1998 to 1999 shows significant reductions in caffeine levels within the harbor. For instance, concentrations were reduced by a factor of approximately 20 at the site of the former wastewater effluent discharge outfall in Boston Harbor. Lower present-day concentrations throughout the harbor were attributed to the relocation of effluent discharge from within the harbor to Massachusetts Bay, and a reduction in the number and discharge volume of CSOs. Spatial distributions of caffeine identified CSOs as the major contemporary source of con

  12. Are large macroalgal blooms necessarily bad? Nutrient impacts on seagrass in upwelling-influenced estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing-Lewis, Margot L; Hacker, Sally D; Menge, Bruce A; McConville, Sea-oh; Henderson, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of nutrient pathways and their resulting ecological interactions can alleviate numerous environmental problems associated with nutrient increases in both natural and managed systems. Although not unique, coastal systems are particularly prone to complex ecological interactions resulting from nutrient inputs from both the land and sea. Nutrient inputs to coastal systems often spur ulvoid macroalgal blooms, with negative consequences for seagrasses, primarily through shading, as well as through changes in local biogeochemistry. We conducted complementary field and mesocosm experiments in an upwelling-influenced estuary, where marine-derived nutrients dominate, to understand the direct and indirect effects of nutrients on the macroalgal-eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) interaction. In the field experiment, we found weak evidence that nutrients and/or macroalgal treatments had a negative effect on eelgrass. However, in the mesocosm experiment, we found that a combination of nutrient and macroalgal treatments led to strongly negative eelgrass responses, primarily via indirect effects associated with macroalgal additions. Together, increased total light attenuation and decreased sediment oxygen levels were associated with larger effects on eelgrass than shading alone, which was evaluated using mimic algae treatments that did not alter sediment redox potential. Nutrient addition in the mesocosms directly affected seagrass density; biomass, and morphology, but not as strongly as macroalgae. We hypothesize that the contrary results from these parallel experiments are a consequence of differences in the hydrodynamics between field and mesocosm settings. We suggest that the high rates of water movement and tidal submersion of our intertidal field experiments alleviated the light reduction and negative biogeochemical changes in the sediment associated with macroalgal canopies, as well as the nutrient effects observed in the mesocosm experiments. Furthermore, adaptation

  13. Phytoplankton pigments and functional community structure in relation to environmental factors in the Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cruises were undertaken in the Pearl River Estuary in November 2011 and March 2012 to analyze the distribution of phytoplankton pigments and to define the relationships of pigment indices and functional community structure with environmental factors. Among 22 pigments, 17 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorophyll a was found in all samples, with a maximum of 7.712 μg L−1 in spring. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant accessory pigment, with mean concentrations of 2.914 μg L−1 and 0.207 μg L−1 in spring and autumn, respectively. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin were high in the northern or northwest estuary in spring and in the middle-eastern and northeast estuary in autumn. Chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c3, prasinoxanthin, and peridinin were similarly distributed during the two cruises. Chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin positively correlated with nutrients in spring, whereas 19′-hex-fucoxanthin and 19′-but-fucoxanthin negatively correlated. The biomass proportion of microphytoplankton (BPm was higher in spring, whereas that of picophytoplankton (BPp was higher in autumn. BPm in spring was high in areas with salinity 30. BPm increased but BPn reduced with the increase in nutrient contents. By comparison, BPp reduced with the increase in nutrient contents in spring, but no relationship was found between BPp and nutrient contents in autumn. The ratios of photosynthetic carotenoids to photoprotective carotenoids in the southern estuary approached unity linear relationship in spring and were under the unity line in autumn.

  14. Uranium and barium cycling in a salt wedge subterranean estuary: The influence of tidal pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.R.; Burnett, W.C.; Misra, S.; Suryaputra, I.G.N.A.; Chanton, J.P.; Dittmar, T.; Peterson, R.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to oceanic metal budgets is only beginning to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that biogeochemical processes in a northern Florida subterranean estuary (STE) significantly alter U and Ba concentrations entering the coastal ocean via SGD. Tidal pumping controlled the distribution of dissolved metals in shallow beach groundwater. Hourly observations of intertidal groundwaters revealed high U and low Ba concentrations at high tide as a result of seawater infiltration into the coastal aquifer. During ebb tide, U decreased and Ba increased due to freshwater dilution and, more importantly, biogeochemical reactions that removed U and added Ba to solution. U removal was apparently a result of precipitation following the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). A significant correlation between Ba and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in shallow beach groundwaters implied a common source, likely the mineralization of marine particulate organic matter driven into the beach face by tidal pumping. In deeper groundwaters, where the labile organic matter had been depleted, Ba correlated with Mn. We estimate that net SGD fluxes were − 163 and + 1660 μmol m− 1 d− 1 for U and Ba, respectively (or − 1 and + 8 μmol m− 2 d− 1 if a 200-m wide seepage area is considered). Our results support the emerging concept that subterranean estuaries are natural biogeochemical reactors where metal concentrations are altered relative to conservative mixing between terrestrial and marine endmembers. These deviations from conservative mixing significantly influence SGD-derived trace metal fluxes.

  15. CO2 supersaturation and net heterotrophy in a tropical estuary (Cochin, India): Influence of anthropogenic effect - Carbon dynamics in tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Madeswaran, P.; Nair, S.

    Carbon biogeochemistry of a tropical ecosystem (The Cochin Estuary, India) undergoing increased human intervention was studied during February (premonsoon), April (early monsoon) and September (monsoon) 2005. The Cochin estuary sustains high levels...

  16. Metal toxicity characterization factors for marine ecosystems: considering the importance of the estuary for freshwater emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... for metal emissions to freshwater and coastal seawater, respectively. The new CFs were applied to calculate endpoint impact scores for the same amount of metal emission to each compartment, to compare the relative ecotoxicity damages in freshwater and marine ecosystems in LCA. Site-dependent marine CFs...... for emission to freshwater were calculated for 64 comparatively independent seas (large marine ecosystems, LMEs). The site-dependent CF was calculated as the product of fate factor (FF), bioavailability factor (BF), and effect factor (EF). USEtox modified with site-dependent parameters was extended...

  17. Factors influencing on lactation

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Gmoshinskaya

    2013-01-01

    All factors influencing on lactation can be divided into 4 groups: organizational, medical, psychological and social. Among the last ones family support, solving of social problems in the family, formation of comfort conditions for breast-feeding, psychological state of the mother and her ability to relax during breast-feeding have the main significance. Formed maternity instinct and developed lactation dominant during pregnancy, understanding of the significance of breast-feeding among the f...

  18. Assessing Morphological Changes due to Hydrometeorologic Influences in Mehendiganj Island, Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Overeem, I.; Rogers, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system is the largest river system in the world with massive discharge rates and sediment loads (annually over one billion tons). Sediment from these rivers has formed one of the largest and most densely populated deltas in the world. The combined rivers discharge through the Meghna estuary into the Bay of Bengal. The study area, Mehendiganj Island, is located in the morphologically dynamic Meghna estuary region of the delta and is characterized by rapid accretion and erosion. The net effect of erosion-accretion processes between the years 1987-2012 was analyzed using Landsat satellite imagery. Time-lapse series were generated over consecutive monsoon periods to estimate net erosion, and reveal that morphological changes are influenced by hydrological conditions (e.g. areal extent of flooding surface, hydrometeorology) driven by high river and sediment discharge, mainly during the seasonal monsoon (wet) period. The hydrological conditions and, consequently, the morphological changes exhibit a skewed pattern in annual distribution on account of high-energy condition prevailing during the monsoon. Total erosion and accretion within the study area was estimated to be about 5997 hectares and 2922 hectares, respectively. The measured annual erosion rates were as high as 1493 hectares, which were about 15% of the existing land surface within the study area. Discharge rates and sediment loads over the course of the study period were calculated using a numerical model (WBMsed) and was validated by comparisons with field-measured values. Moreover, hydrological parameters were analyzed in the context of statistical hydrology in order to obtain trends and were correlated with annual accretion and erosion rates attained from the satellite image analysis. Anomalies in the patterns of annual accretion and erosion rates were detected during extreme hydrometeorological events such as high floodwater years and cyclones. The morphological changes

  19. Phytoplankton biomass and composition in a well-flushed, sub-tropical estuary: The contrasting effects of hydrology, nutrient loads and allochthonous influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J A; Phlips, E J; Badylak, S; Dix, N; Petrinec, K; Mathews, A L; Green, W; Srifa, A

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine trends in phytoplankton biomass and species composition under varying nutrient load and hydrologic regimes in the Guana Tolomato Matanzas estuary (GTM), a well-flushed sub-tropical estuary located on the northeast coast of Florida. The GTM contains both regions of significant human influence and pristine areas with only modest development, providing a test case for comparing and contrasting phytoplankton community dynamics under varying degrees of nutrient load. Water temperature, salinity, Secchi disk depth, nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll concentrations were determined on a monthly basis from 2002 to 2012 at three representative sampling sites in the GTM. In addition, microscopic analyses of phytoplankton assemblages were carried out monthly for a five year period from 2005 through 2009 at all three sites. Results of this study indicate that phytoplankton biomass and composition in the GTM are strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, such as water residence times and tidal exchanges of coastal waters, which in turn are affected by shifts in climatic conditions, most prominently rainfall levels. These influences are exemplified by the observation that the region of the GTM with the longest water residence times but lowest nutrient loads exhibited the highest phytoplankton peaks of autochthonous origin. The incursion of a coastal bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis into the GTM in 2007 demonstrates the potential importance of allochthonous influences on the ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors controlling the field settling velocity of cohesive sediment in estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    this paper expressed as the root mean square [rms] velocity gradient, [G]) in the water on the W-50 in situ. There is a strong need to establish algorithms based on in situ measurements describing the dual impact of both SSC and G on the flocculation process, and hence, W-50. The present paper addresses......It has long been recognized that the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the major determinants for the flocculation of cohesive particles into sediment flocs in estuaries. It is furthermore well known that the turbulent shear of the water significantly influences the flocculation...... process and the equilibrium settling velocity of flocculated sediment in a turbulent flow. A vast number of authors have reported algorithms relating the median settling velocity (W-50) to suspended sediment concentration. However, only a few studies have dealt with the impact of the turbulent shear (in...

  1. Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Vijay, J.G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Madhu, N; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Balachandran, K.K.

    Cochin backwaters, a micro tidal estuary, undergo a characteristic transformation from a river dominated system during summer monsoon to a tide-dominant system during pre-monsoon season. The present study observes that as the river flow weakens...

  2. Tidal influence on the diel vertical migration pattern of zooplankton in a tropical monsoonal Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineetha, G.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Kusum, K.K.; Sooria, P.M.; Shivaprasad, A.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.

    habitats is often determined by their dominant behavioral patterns: diel vertical migration (DVM) and tidal vertical migration (TVM). The modes of these endogenous rhythms often vary among estuaries based on the river runoff and tidal characteristics...

  3. Inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen influence isotopic composition and trophic structure in SE Australian estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Debashish; Saintilan, Neil; Alderson, Brendan; Hollins, Suzanne

    2015-11-15

    Urban development in coastal settings has increased the input of nitrogen into estuaries globally, in many cases changing the composition of estuarine ecosystems. By focussing on three adjacent estuaries with a gradient of anthropogenic N loadings, we used stable isotopes of N and C to test for changes due to increased anthropogenic N input on the structure of some key trophic linkages in estuaries. We found a consistent enrichment in δ(15)N corresponding to increased anthropogenic N at the three ecosystem levels studied: fine benthic organic matter, grazing invertebrate, and planktivorous fish. The degree of enrichment in δ(15)N between fine benthic organic matter and the grapsid crab Parasesarma erythrodactyla was identical across the three sites. The glassfish Ambassis jacksoniensis showed lower levels of enrichment compared to basal food sources at the higher N-loaded sites, suggesting a possible effect of anthropogenic N in decreasing food-chain length in these estuaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedimentary Records of Hyperpycnal Flows and the Influence of River Damming on Sediment Dynamics of Estuaries: Examples from the Nelson, Churchill, Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, G.; Duboc, Q.; Boyer-Villemaire, U.; Lajeunesse, P.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment cores were sampled in the estuary of the Nelson and Churchill Rivers in western Hudson Bay, as well as in the estuary of the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers in Gulf of St. Lawrence in order to evaluate the impact of hydroelectric dams on the sedimentary regime of these estuaries. The gravity cores at the mouth of the Nelson River recorded several cm-thick rapidly deposited layers with a reverse to normal grading sequence, indicating the occurrence of hyperpycnal flows generated by major floods during the last few centuries. These hyperpycnal flows were probably caused by ice-jam formation, which can increase both the flow and the sediment concentration following the breaching of such natural dams. Following the construction of hydroelectric dams since the 1960s, the regulation of river discharge prevented the formation of hyperpycnal flows, and hence the deposition of hyperpycnites in the upper part of the cores. In the core sampled in the estuary of the Churchill River, only one hyperpycnite was recorded. This lower frequency may be due to the enclosed estuary of the Churchill River, its weaker discharge and the more distal location of the coring site.In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, grain size measurements allowed the identification of a major flood around AD 1844±4 years in box cores from both the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie Rivers, whereas a drastic decrease in variations in the median grain size occurred around AD ~1900 in the estuary of the Sainte-Marguerite River, highlighting the offshore impact of the SM1 dam construction in the early 1900s. Furthermore, sedimentological variations in the box cores from both estuaries have been investigated by wavelet analysis and the sharp disappearance of high frequencies around AD 1900 in the estuary of the dammed river (Sainte-Marguerite River), but not in the estuary of the natural river (Moisie River), also provides evidence of the influence of dams on the sedimentary regime of estuaries.

  5. Seasonal influence of scallop culture on nutrient flux, bacterial pathogens and bacterioplankton diversity across estuaries off the Bohai Sea Coast of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaodong; Sen, Biswarup; Shang, Junyang; He, Yike; Xie, Ningdong; Zhang, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jianle; Johnson, Zackary I; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the environmental impacts of scallop culture on two coastal estuaries adjacent the Bohai Sea including developing a quantitative PCR assay to assess the abundance of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Scallop culture resulted in a significant reduction of nitrogen, Chlorophyll a, and phosphorous levels in seawater during summer. The abundance of bacteria including V. parahaemolyticus varied significantly across estuaries and breeding seasons and was influenced by nitrate as well as nutrient ratios (Si/DIN, N/P). Bacterioplankton diversity varied across the two estuaries and seasons, and was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study suggests a significant influence of scallop culture on the ecology of adjacent estuaries and offers a sensitive tool for monitoring scallop contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model-based assessment of estuary ecosystem health using the latent health factor index, with application to the richibucto estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S; Wu, Margaret A; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The ability to quantitatively assess ecological health is of great interest to those tasked with monitoring and conserving ecosystems. For decades, biomonitoring research and policies have relied on multimetric health indices of various forms. Although indices are numbers, many are constructed based on qualitative procedures, thus limiting the quantitative rigor of the practical interpretations of such indices. The statistical modeling approach to construct the latent health factor index (LHFI) was recently developed. With ecological data that otherwise are used to construct conventional multimetric indices, the LHFI framework expresses such data in a rigorous quantitative model, integrating qualitative features of ecosystem health and preconceived ecological relationships among such features. This hierarchical modeling approach allows unified statistical inference of health for observed sites (along with prediction of health for partially observed sites, if desired) and of the relevance of ecological drivers, all accompanied by formal uncertainty statements from a single, integrated analysis. Thus far, the LHFI approach has been demonstrated and validated in a freshwater context. We adapt this approach to modeling estuarine health, and illustrate it on the previously unassessed system in Richibucto in New Brunswick, Canada, where active oyster farming is a potential stressor through its effects on sediment properties. Field data correspond to health metrics that constitute the popular AZTI marine biotic index and the infaunal trophic index, as well as abiotic predictors preconceived to influence biota. Our paper is the first to construct a scientifically sensible model that rigorously identifies the collective explanatory capacity of salinity, distance downstream, channel depth, and silt-clay content-all regarded a priori as qualitatively important abiotic drivers-towards site health in the Richibucto ecosystem. This suggests the potential effectiveness of the

  7. Model-based assessment of estuary ecosystem health using the latent health factor index, with application to the richibucto estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to quantitatively assess ecological health is of great interest to those tasked with monitoring and conserving ecosystems. For decades, biomonitoring research and policies have relied on multimetric health indices of various forms. Although indices are numbers, many are constructed based on qualitative procedures, thus limiting the quantitative rigor of the practical interpretations of such indices. The statistical modeling approach to construct the latent health factor index (LHFI was recently developed. With ecological data that otherwise are used to construct conventional multimetric indices, the LHFI framework expresses such data in a rigorous quantitative model, integrating qualitative features of ecosystem health and preconceived ecological relationships among such features. This hierarchical modeling approach allows unified statistical inference of health for observed sites (along with prediction of health for partially observed sites, if desired and of the relevance of ecological drivers, all accompanied by formal uncertainty statements from a single, integrated analysis. Thus far, the LHFI approach has been demonstrated and validated in a freshwater context. We adapt this approach to modeling estuarine health, and illustrate it on the previously unassessed system in Richibucto in New Brunswick, Canada, where active oyster farming is a potential stressor through its effects on sediment properties. Field data correspond to health metrics that constitute the popular AZTI marine biotic index and the infaunal trophic index, as well as abiotic predictors preconceived to influence biota. Our paper is the first to construct a scientifically sensible model that rigorously identifies the collective explanatory capacity of salinity, distance downstream, channel depth, and silt-clay content-all regarded a priori as qualitatively important abiotic drivers-towards site health in the Richibucto ecosystem. This suggests the potential

  8. Elucidation of the tidal influence on bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced estuary through simultaneous observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Eswaran, R.; Gardade, L.; Kuchi, N.; Mapari, K.E.; Naik, S.D; Anil, A.C.

    climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science, 274, 2025-2031. Correll, D. L. (1999). Phosphorus: A rate limiting nutrient in surface waters. Poultry Science, 78, 674-682. Craig, D. L., Fallowfield, H. J., & Cromar, N. J. (2004). Use.... J., & Carpenter, S. R. (2008). Influence of eutrophication on disease in aquatic ecosystems: patterns, processes, and predictions. In: Infectious disease ecology: effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems. Chapter 4 Princeton...

  9. Complex patterns in fish - sediment mercury concentrations in a contaminated estuary: The influence of selenium co-contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. J.; Swadling, K. M.; Butler, E. C. V.; Macleod, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) loads do not always correspond to Hg concentrations in resident fish and selenium (Se) presence has been reported to play a pivotal role in mitigating Hg bioaccumulation. Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations were measured in sediments and a benthic fish species (Platycephalus bassensis) from a contaminated estuary (Derwent Estuary, Tasmania). Elevated sediment concentrations of Se did not result in increased Se concentrations in fish, but low concentrations of Se were associated with increased MeHg bioavailability (% MeHg) from sediments to fish. Where MeHg (≈99% of total Hg) concentration in fish was high Se uptake also increased, indicating that maintaining positive Se:Hg ratios may reduce the toxicity of MeHg. MeHg was detectable in sediments throughout the estuary, and a molar excess of THg over Se suggested that there was insufficient Se to prevent methylation from the sediments. Se:Hg ratios of less than 1.0 in sediments, coupled with high %MeHg fraction and high biotic sediment accumulation factors for MeHg (BSAFMeHg), indicated that the lower region of the Derwent Estuary could be a hotspot for Hg methylation, despite having significantly lower THg concentrations. In contrast, Hg bioavailability to fish from sediments close to the source may be reduced by both inorganic Hg species complexation and lower methylation rates. There was a strong association between THg and Se in estuarine sediments, suggesting that Se plays an important role in sediment Hg cycling and should be a key consideration in any future assessments of Hg methylation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation.

  10. Tidal Influence on the Diel Vertical Migration Pattern of Zooplankton in a Tropical Monsoonal Estuary

    KAUST Repository

    Vineetha, G.

    2015-04-03

    Monsoonal estuaries, located along the coastline of the Indian subcontinent, differ from other estuaries by their time dependence on the salinity characteristics. Effective sustenance and retention of the mesozooplankton community in the estuarine habitats is often determined by their dominant behavioral patterns: diel vertical migration (DVM) and tidal vertical migration (TVM). The modes of these endogenous rhythms often vary among estuaries based on the river runoff and tidal characteristics. The present study is a pioneering attempt to depict the vertical migration pattern of zooplankton along a diel and tidal scale in a tropical, microtidal, monsoonal estuary. We observed that in spite of the prominent asymmetry in the magnitude of the river runoff between the seasons, most of the zooplankton groups exhibited strong DVM, with a clear increase in biomass and abundance in surface waters during night. The peak increase in biomass and abundance at night always synchronized with the slack periods in the tidal cycles, which differed from the general concepts of downward migration during ebb tide and upward migration during flood tide in estuarine systems. The weak currents during the slack period might have favored the effective vertical migration of the mesozooplankton community in this monsoonal estuarine system. © 2015 Society of Wetland Scientists

  11. Linking the river to the estuary : Influence of river discharge on tidal damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Toffolon, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of river discharge on tidal damping in estuaries is explored within one consistent theoretical framework where analytical solutions are obtained by solving four implicit equations, i.e., the phase lag, the scaling, the damping and the celerity equation. In this approach the damping

  12. Artificial structures in sediment-dominated estuaries and their possible influences on the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Markus A; Scholle, Jörg; Teschke, Katharina

    2014-08-01

    Artificial substrates are omnipresent today in most estuaries mostly in form of massive rip-rap used for groynes and jetties. In the Weser estuary, Germany, 60% of the shoreline is covered with such artificial substrates while, natural rocky substrate is lacking, as in all Wadden Sea estuaries. This large quantity of artificial substrates may be colonized by a benthic hard-substrate community which differs from the local natural soft-substrate assemblage. In this study we examined species compositions, abundances, biomass, and numbers of species of subtidal benthic communities on groynes and in the natural habitat, the sediment, along the salinity gradient of the Weser estuary. Species composition changed on both substrates significantly with salinity and was also significantly different between the substrates. In a comparison with the sediment, the groynes did not provide any benefit for non-indigenous nor for endangered species in terms of abundance, biomass, and number of species, but represent habitats with higher total abundances and biomass; though some non-indigenous species even occurred exclusively on groynes. In particular, groynes supported filter-feeding organisms which play an important role by linking benthic and pelagic food webs. The dominance of the suspension feeders affects crucial estuarine ecosystem services and may have important implications for the estuarine management by altering the estuarine ecological quality status. Hence, artificial substrates should be considered in future conservation planning and in ecological quality monitoring of the benthic fauna according to the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolving the complex relationship between harmful algal blooms and environmental factors in the coastal waters adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-Xi; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    The sea area adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary is the most notable region for harmful algal blooms (HABs(1)) in China as both diatom and dinoflagellate blooms have been recorded in this region. Affected by the Changjiang diluted water (CDW(2)) and currents from the open ocean (i.e., Taiwan warm current, TWC(3)), the environmental conditions in the coastal waters adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary are quite complex. To obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of HABs in this region, analyses based on field investigation data collected by the National Basic Research Priority Program (CEOHAB I(4)) were performed using principle component analysis (PCA(5)), multiple regression analysis (MRA(6)) and path analysis (PA(7)). The results suggested that phosphate and silicate are the major factors that directly affect the diatom bloom, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN(8)), temperature and turbidity are the factors that influence the dinoflagellate bloom. CDW and the TWC have different roles in affecting the two types of algal blooms. CDW, which has a high concentration of nitrate and silicate, is essential for the diatom bloom, while the intrusion of the TWC (mainly Kuroshio subsurface water that is rich in phosphate at the bottom) is critical for the maintenance of the dinoflagellate bloom. The results of this study offer a better understanding of the mechanisms of HABs in the East China Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estuaries 1

    OpenAIRE

    Battey, B.

    2016-01-01

    'Estuaries 1' can be viewed at https://vimeo.com/202629040 'Estuaries 1' is the first of the Estuaries series of audiovisual compositions, which explore the expressive potentials of the author's Variable-Coupled Map Networks and OptiNelder methods for generative music and image. It evokes an 'unstable stasis' through processes that are always on the edge of destabilisation.

  15. Estuaries 2

    OpenAIRE

    Battey, B.

    2017-01-01

    'Estuaries 2' is the second of the author's Estuaries series of audiovisual compositions, which explore the expressive potential of the authors Variable-Coupled Map Networks and OptiNelder methods for generative music and images. 'Estuaries 2' focuses on dialog between grid-based logic and all-over textures with random distributions,

  16. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  17. Water and salt budget in the Azikode estuary during postmonsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Shyam, K.R.; Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.

    Computed values of flux showed that seaward Eulerian residual flow of water was the major factor influencing the salt and water budget in the Azikode Estuary. Depth integrated residual flow was seaward at all depths. Upstream transport of salt...

  18. Combined influence of sedimentation and vegetation on the soil carbon stocks of a coastal wetland in the Changjiang estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Chen, Huaipu; Cao, Haobing; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan

    2017-07-01

    Coastal wetlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Large quantities of sediment deposited in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary by the Changjiang River promote the propagation of coastal wetlands, the expansion of saltmarsh vegetation, and carbon sequestration. In this study, using the Chongming Dongtan Wetland in the Changjiang estuary as the study area, the spatial and temporal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the influences of sedimentation and vegetation on the SOC stocks of the coastal wetland were examined in 2013. There was sediment accretion in the northern and middle areas of the wetland and in the Phragmites australis marsh in the southern area, and sediment erosion in the Scirpus mariqueter marsh and the bare mudflat in the southern area. More SOC accumulated in sediments of the vegetated marsh than in the bare mudflat. The total organic carbon (TOC) stocks increased in the above-ground biomass from spring to autumn and decreased in winter; in the below-ground biomass, they gradually increased from spring to winter. The TOC stocks were higher in the below-ground biomass than in the above-ground biomass in the P. australis and Spartina alterniflora marshes, but were lower in the below-ground biomass in S. mariqueter marsh. Stocks of SOC showed temporal variation and increased gradually in all transects from spring to winter. The SOC stocks tended to decrease from the high marsh down to the bare mudflat along the three transects in the order: P. australis marsh > S. alterniflora marsh > S. mariqueter marsh > bare mudflat. The SOC stocks of the same vegetation type were higher in the northern and middle transects than in the southern transect. These results suggest that interactions between sedimentation and vegetation regulate the SOC stocks in the coastal wetland in the Changjiang estuary.

  19. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  20. The influence of salting out on the sorption of neutral organic compounds in estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A; Rawling, M C

    2001-12-01

    The relative (unsaturated) solubility and sorption of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have been studied along an estuarine salinity gradient. The aqueous compound was salted out with increasing salinity and an aqueous salting constant of about 0.0021 g(-1) was derived. Sorption of the compound to estuarine particles increased with increasing salinity for a range of particle concentrations, but the magnitude of this effect (sorption salting constants of about 0.005-0.011 g(-1)) indicated that salting out of the aqueous phase was not solely responsible. It is suggested that the hydrophobicity of sediment organic matter is enhanced by its interaction with seawater ions through a reduction in the charge of the particle surface and, possibly, modification of the structure of the organic matter. Examination of literature data on the sorption of neutral organic compounds to estuarine sediment indicates a general increase in sorption with increasing salinity which can be empirically defined by a salting equation. Although charge reduction of estuarine particles is a general observation, it is not possible to establish the general significance of this effect (or any other form of salting out of sediment organic matter) on the sorption of organic compounds in estuaries because appropriate site- and compound-specific aqueous salting constants are unavailable. Increased sorption at high salinities has obvious implications for the disposal and transport of organic chemicals in estuaries. However, the inverse dependency of sediment-water partitioning on particle concentration is likely to be of at least equal significance in macrotidal environments where sediment resuspension occurs. An empirical model, combining the effects of salinity and particle concentration, is proposed for deriving first-order estimates of the partitioning of neutral organic compounds in estuaries.

  1. The influence of neap and spring tide on stratification and salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    Salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries is affected by the interaction between fresh water and saline water. When the river discharge is practically stable, the degree to which salt water from the ocean penetrates landward depends on the tide. The 1-D longitudinal dispersion is the parameter that describes the mixing between fresh and saline water. The dimension of this parameter is [L2/T], representing the spreading of a substance (e.g., salinity) per unit of time. The dimensionless dispersion is a function of the stratification, described by the estuarine Richardson number. But which physical parameters should be used to make the dispersion dimensionless? Basically, it should be scaled by a spatial distance (the mixing length) and a measure for the spreading velocity. However, the questions are: 1) which mixing length to use: the depth of the estuary (as a measure for vertical gravitational circulation), the tidal excursion (as a measure for the exchange with longitudinal salinity gradient and trapped pockets on the banks), or a mixture of the two? and 2) which velocity to use: the tidal amplitude (as a measure for the flow velocity), or the shear velocity (as a measure for the turbulence). Using the depth instead of the tidal excursion implies that the stronger the tide (e.g., spring tide), the smaller the stratification and the shorter the intrusion length, while using the tidal excursion implies that the weaker the tide (e.g., neap tide), the shorter the intrusion length. If we use the tidal velocity amplitude instead of the shear velocity, the effect of bottom shear is not taken into account explicitly. Most observational data in real estuaries are available during spring tide, when the estuaries are better mixed and when salinity is supposed to intrude furthest inland. On top of this, it is questionable if the neap-tide variations lead to approximate steady state salt intrusion at the extremes. Hence, the field data so far can't provide unequivocal answers to

  2. The use of sedimentary %C, %N, {delta} {sup 15}N, and Pb concentrations to assess historical changes in anthropogenic influence on Portuguese estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paula [IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Travessa Martim de Freitas, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: pcastro@ci.uc.pt; Valiela, Ivan [Boston University Marine Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, 02543 MA (United States); Freitas, Helena [IMAR - Institute of Marine Research, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Travessa Martim de Freitas, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2007-06-15

    Vertical profiles of C, N, {delta} {sup 15}N and Pb were measured in the Mondego and Mira estuaries as markers that conveyed notions as to the relative influence of anthropogenic influence over the past decades. Recent carbon changes in both estuaries may reflect changes in estuarine productivity, probably as a consequence of sediment reworking and erosion, and also of losses in salt marsh area and dwarf eelgrass beds. {delta} {sup 15}N values began to diverge considerably before the %C and %N and were higher in Mondego. {delta} {sup 15}N signatures detected N enrichment at relatively low rates, and indicated that Mondego received more enriched N than Mira. Lead concentrations differed between estuaries, with higher concentrations in Mondego. The secular increase in %N, Pb, and {delta} {sup 15}N signatures was significantly related to human density in the watersheds of the estuaries and were sensitive indicators of anthropogenic activity. - The variables C, %N, {delta} {sup 15}N, and Pb were reliable sediment sentinels that reflected the level of anthropogenic influence in the past decades in estuarine ecosystems.

  3. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  4. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  5. Predicting fish species distribution in estuaries: Influence of species' ecology in model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2016-10-01

    Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species

  6. Stratification and salt-wedge in the Seomjin river estuary under the idealized tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Hwan; Jang, Dongmin; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Advection, straining, and vertical mixing play primary roles in the process of estuarine stratification. Estuaries can be classified as salt-wedge, partially-mixed or well-mixed depending on the vertical density structure determined by the balancing of advection, mixing and straining. In particular, straining plays a major role in the stratification of the estuarine water body along the estuarine channel. Also, the behavior of a salt wedge with a halocline shape in a stratified channel can be controlled by the competition between straining and mixing induced by buoyancy from the riverine source and tidal forcing. The present study uses Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) to show that straining and vertical mixing play major roles in controlling along-channel flow and stratification structures in the Seomjin river estuary (SRE) under idealized conditions. The Potential Energy Anomaly (PEA) dynamic equation quantifies the governing processes thereby enabling the determination of the stratification type. By comparing terms in the equation, we examined how the relative strengths of straining and mixing alter the stratification types in the SRE due to changes in river discharge and the depth resulting from dredging activities. SRE under idealized tidal forcing tends to be partially-mixed based on an analysis of the balance between terms and the vertical structure of salinity, and the morphological and hydrological change in SRE results in the shift of stratification type. While the depth affects the mixing, the freshwater discharge mainly controls the straining, and the balance between mixing and straining determines the final state of the stratification in an estuarine channel. As a result, the development and location of a salt wedge along the channel in a partially mixed and highly stratified condition is also determined by the ratio of straining to mixing. Finally, our findings confirm that the contributions of mixing and straining can be assessed by using the

  7. Factors that influence prescribing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumock, Glen T; Walton, Surrey M; Park, Hayley Y; Nutescu, Edith A; Blackburn, Juan C; Finley, Jamie M; Lewis, Richard K

    2004-04-01

    Strategies to control the quality and cost of medication use are largely dependent on the ability to alter selection of medications. Previous models of prescribing behavior have focused on physicians. In the hospital setting, clinical pharmacists and formulary committee members are also key players in drug therapy decision-making. Differences between physicians, formulary committee members, and clinical pharmacists have not been compared. Knowledge of these differences could have importance in predicting the effectiveness of strategies designed to influence drug use in this setting. To describe and compare the opinions of physicians, clinical pharmacists, and formulary committee members with respect to key factors that influence medication prescribing in community hospitals. Physicians, clinical pharmacists, and formulary committee members were solicited to participate. A trained interviewer administered a standardized questionnaire designed to elicit opinions of participants regarding the importance of factors thought to influence drug prescribing. Responses were described using descriptive statistics, and differences between the groups were determined by post hoc analysis. A total of 150 individuals participated in the study. Safety, effectiveness, formulary status, and restrictions on prescribing were considered highly influential by all participants. Physicians rated the availability of drug samples and personal experience higher (more influential on prescribing) than clinical pharmacists and formulary committee members. Clinical pharmacists and formulary committee members rated the influence of recommendations by clinical pharmacists, prescribing guidelines, and cost or cost comparisons higher than physicians. Factors that were drug-related or that involved policy-related programs tended to be more influential than indirect factors. Those who seek to implement programs to alter medication use should recognize and employ factors that are most influential in the

  8. Shift of anammox bacterial community structure along the Pearl Estuary and the impact of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bingbing; Liu, Jiwen; Yang, Hongmei; Hsu, Ting Chang; He, Biyan; Dai, Minhan; Kao, Shuh Ji; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) plays an important role in the marine nitrogen cycle. The Pearl Estuary, a typical subtropical estuary characterized by hypoxia upstream and high loads of organic matter and inorganic nutrients caused by anthropogenic activities, has received extensive attention. In this study, anammox bacterial community structures in surface sediments along the Pearl Estuary were investigated using 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) genes. In addition, abundance of anammox bacteria in both water and surface sediments was investigated by quantitative PCR. Obvious anammox bacterial community structure shift was observed in surface sediments, in which the dominant genus changed from "Candidatus Brocadia" or "Candidatus Anammoxoglobus" to "Candidatus Scalindua" along the salinity gradient from freshwater to the open ocean based on 16S rRNA gene and HZO amino acid phylotypes. This distribution pattern was associated with salinity, temperature, pH of overlying water, and particularly C/N ratio. Phylogenetic analysis unraveled a rich diversity of anammox bacteria including four novel clusters provisionally named "Candidatus Jugangensis," "Candidatus Oceanicum," "Candidatus Anammoxidans," and "Candidatus Aestuarianus." The abundance of anammox bacteria in surface sediments, bottom and surface waters ranged from 4.22 × 105 to 2.55 × 106 copies g-1, 1.24 × 104 to 1.01×105 copies L-1, and 8.07×103 to 8.86×105 copies L-1, respectively. The abundance of anammox bacteria in the water column was positively correlated with NO2- and NO3-, and negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen, although an autochthonous source might contribute to the observed abundance of anammox bacteria.

  9. Factors Influencing New Business Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Oana Iacobuţă

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the creation of new businesses and to point out both the differences and the similarities existing between countries and groups of countries in terms of these influencing factors. We are mainly interested in the place Romania and Bulgaria have among the countries of the world from the perspective of entrepreneurial spirit and its influencing factors. To capture the level of business formation we use New business density from World Bank Doing business. Drawing on the existing literature we consider for our analysis several indicators related to economic environment such as GDP per capita, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the level of taxes, foreign direct investments and public debt and indicators describing the quality of governance. The research uses 2014 data for 67 countries, from all development categories, collected from Heritage Foundation database. The research results obtained with principal components analysis show that good governance results in higher levels of GDP per capita and income taxes and the increase of the level of business formation. Also, good governance leads to a decrease in inflation and unemployment. Furthermore, the hierarchical cluster analysis is used to identify groups of countries and to outline similarities and differences between them.

  10. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  11. Tidal and seasonal influences in dolphin habitat use in a southern Brazilian estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lopes Paitach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe how franciscana and Guiana dolphin habitat use is influenced by tidal cycles and seasonality in Babitonga Bay. The franciscanas use a greater area in winter and a smaller area in summer, but the extent of the area used did not vary with the tide. Guiana dolphins did not change the extent of the area used within seasons or tides. Franciscanas remained closer to the mouth of the bay and the islands during ebb tide, moving to the inner bay areas and closer to the mainland coast during flood tide. Guiana dolphin used areas closer to the mainland coast during the flood tide. Guiana dolphin patterns of movement do not seem to be related to the tidal current. Franciscanas used sandier areas while Guiana dolphins preferred muddy areas, with some seasonal variation. We suggest that these dolphins modify their distributions based on habitat accessibility and prey availability. This study enhances our knowledge of critical habitat characteristics for franciscana and Guiana dolphins, and these factors should be considered when planning local human activities targeting species conservation.

  12. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  13. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (<4%). According with the total metal concentrations, background levels and normalised enrichment factors (NEF) of the metals studied, the impact of the Peña Colorada iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  14. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmolejo-Rodriguez, Ana Judith [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, (IPN) La Paz, B.C.S. (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, (CSIC), Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: amarmole@ipn.mx; Prego, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, (CSIC), Vigo (Spain); Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro [Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad de Colima, Col. (Mexico); Shumilin, Evgueni [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, (IPN) La Paz, B.C.S. (Mexico); Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, (CSIC), Vigo (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Pena Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 {mu}m, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mg g{sup -1} correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (<4%). According with the total metal concentrations, background levels and normalised enrichment factors (NEF) of the metals studied, the impact of the Pena Colorada iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  15. Hydro-morphological modelling of small, wave-dominated estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinger, Jill H.

    2017-11-01

    Small, intermittently open or closed estuaries are characteristic of the coasts of South Africa, Australia, California, Mexico and many other areas of the world. However, modelling attention has tended to focus on big estuaries that drain large catchments and serve a wide diversity of interests e.g. agriculture, urban settlement, recreation, commercial fishing. In this study, the development of a simple, parametric, system dynamics model to simulate the opening and closure of the mouths of small, wave-dominated estuaries is reported. In the model, the estuary is conceived as a basin with a specific water volume to water level relationship, connected to the sea by a channel of fixed width, but variable sill height. Changes in the form of the basin are not treated in the model, while the dynamics of the mouth channel are central to the model. The magnitude and direction of the flow through the mouth determines whether erosion or deposition of sediment occurs in the mouth channel, influencing the sill height. The model is implemented on the Great Brak Estuary in South Africa and simulations reveal that the raised low water levels in the estuary during spring tide relative to neap tide, are occasioned by the constriction of the tidal flow through the shallow mouth. Freshwater inflows to the estuary are shown to be significant in determining the behaviour of the inlet mouth, a factor often ignored in studies on tidal inlets. Further it is the balance between freshwater inflows and wave events that determines the opening or closure of the mouth of a particular estuary.

  16. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  17. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  18. Preliminary results on the influence of river discharges on biogeochemical processes in Godavari estuary and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    ) flushing of the estuary, (b) temporal variability in mixing processes, (c) discharge of nutrients, (d) evolution of biological productivity patterns, and (e) associated biogeochemical processes in mind, we have planned and carrying out systematic studies...

  19. Summer nutrients structure and phytoplankton growth under the influence of freshwater-saline water mixing in the Changjiang River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jianfang

    2015-04-01

    The spatial distribution of NO3-, PO43-, SiO32- in summer were studied in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea(ECS), the nutrients distribution was mainly controlled by the Changjiang dilution water and offshore seawater mixing. NO3-, PO43-, SiO32- were high west and low east, presenting two tongues shape nearshore. Combined with the nutrient structure difference along the estuary gradient, the potential relative nutrient limitation of surface water at each station was distinguished. Coastal water was featured with excess nitrogen, in summer DIN/P ratio was up to 160 in the frequent algae blooms area, while Si/N reached as low as 0.5, which could be caused by luxury consumption of P and Si by diatom bloom. For better understanding the process of nutrients structure variation and influence on phytoplankton growth under the Changjiang dilution water and seawater mixing, we also conducted field incubation simulating different fresh-saline water mixing scale, by 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% for about 3 days. The results were as follows: (1) The lower the percentage of freshwater, the lower the growth rate and pH increase rate of phytoplankton during the exponential growth period; (2) Macronutrients were apparently consumed. PO43- in the 100%, 75% and 50% dilution treatments were depleted within 48 h, suggesting that PO43- limit phytoplankton growth below salinity of 26. (3) For the 100% treatment the DIN/P ratio doubled as PO43- was consumed rapidly, while DIN decreased slowly. The DIN/Si ratio decreased to about 0.7 times the original level during the first 48 h, reflecting the lower initial DIN/Si value compared to the diatom uptake ratio (dDIN/dSi) during the incubation period. The incubation presented the phytoplankton growth extent and rate difference during fresh-saline water mixing, which makes nutrients gradient, and this mixing process may cause local blooms to change the nutrient structure, then might result in phytoplankton

  20. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  1. Influence of the Bay of Cadiz and the Guadalquivir Estuary on the Carbon Distribution in the North Eastern Self of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Carracedo, Lidia I.; Gomez-Parra, Abelardo; Forja, Jesus M.

    2012-03-01

    To study the short-term effects of the physical environment on carbon cycle dynamics in the north eastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz, changes in currents, tides, salinity, temperature, fugacity of CO2 (f CO2)and dissolved oxygen were observed in a series of high resolution measurements. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the bay of Cádiz and Guadalquivir Estuary on the carbon distribution in the adjacent continental shelf. Three cruises have been undertaken in June 2006, November 2006 and February 2007. In an annual scale Guadalquivir Estuary exported dissolved inorganic carbon while Bay of Cádiz imported it. Diurnal variability of f CO2 could have a potentially important implication on the estimate of air-sea CO2 fluxes

  2. Interaction between suspended sediment and tidal amplification in the Guadalquivir Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Bing; Winterwerp, Johan C.; He, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Water level records at two stations in the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain), one near the estuary mouth (Bonanza) and one about 77 km upstream (Sevilla), have been analysed to study the amplification of the tide in the estuary. The tidal amplification factor shows interesting temporal variation, including a spring-neap variation, some extreme low values, and especially the anomalous behaviour that the amplification factor is larger during a number of periods. These variations are explained by data analysis combined with numerical and analytical modelling. The spring-neap variation is due to the quadratic relation between the bottom friction and the tidal flow velocity. The river flood events are the direct causes of the extreme low values of the amplification factor, and they trigger the non-linear interaction between the tidal flow and suspended sediment transport. The fluvial sediment input during a river flood causes high sediment concentration in the estuary, up to more than 10 g/l. This causes a reduction of the effective hydraulic drag, resulting in stronger tidal amplification in the estuary for a period after a river flood. After such an event the tidal amplification in the estuary does not always fall back to the same level as before the event, indicating that river flood events have significant influence on the long-term development of this estuary.

  3. Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Amphipod Corophium volutatorin Two Estuaries in South-east England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. G.; Gerdol, V.

    1997-05-01

    The distribution of Corophium volutator(Pallas) in the estuaries of the Rivers Blackwater and Crouch in South-east England was examined by taking samples of mud from 137 sites at approximately 0·5 m below mean high water of neap tidal level. Corophium volutatorwere approximately twice as abundant in creeks and semi-enclosed bays than on the open mud flats, a difference that was significant statistically. There was no correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the median particle size of the sediment nor the mud content. There was a significant but weak negative correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The aggregation of C. volutatorin the creeks and bays was attributed to their dispersal behaviour of swimming on the flood tide, which would sweep the amphipods into such areas where the tide rises but does not flow laterally. On the open mud flats, displacement of swimming amphipods by the flood tide further upstream and into semi-enclosed areas would occur. Their dispersal behaviour places C. volutatorin the creeks and bays within the saltmarsh vegetation, where their bioturbatory feeding habits may be responsible, in part, for the significant loss of pioneer zone vegetation that occurs there.

  4. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2015-11-01

    Estuarine Microplastics (MPs) are limited to know globally. By filtering subsurface water through 330 μm nets, MPs in Jiaojiang, Oujiang Estuaries were quantified, as well as that in Minjiang Estuary responding to Typhoon Soulik. Polymer matrix was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. MP (estuaries influenced on MPs contamination levels. Typhoon didn't influence the suspended MP densities significantly. Our results provide basic information for better understanding suspended microplastics within urban estuaries and for managerial actions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The influence of an extreme drought event in the fish community of a southern Europe temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, F.; Leitão, R.; Viegas, I.; Dolbeth, M.; Neto, J. M.; Cabral, H. N.; Pardal, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, a severe drought occurred throughout the Mondego River catchment's area, inducing lower freshwater flows into the estuary. As a consequence, both 2004 and 2005 were considered as extreme drought events. From June 2003 to June 2006, the fish assemblage of the Mondego Estuary was sampled monthly in five stations during the night, using a 2 m beam trawl. Fish abundance was standardized as the number of individuals per 1000 m 2 per season and the assemblage was analyzed based on ecological guilds: estuarine residents, marine juveniles, marine adventitious, freshwater, catadromous and marine species that use the estuary as a nursery area. A total of 42 species belonging to 23 families were identified, with estuarine residents and nursery species dominating the fish community. Variations in the fish community were assessed using non-metric MDS, being defined as three distinct periods: summer and autumn 2003, 2004/2005 and winter and summer 2006. The main drought-induced effects detected were the depletion of freshwater species and an increase in marine adventitious in 2004/2005, due to an extended intrusion of seawater inside the estuary and a significant reduction in abundance during the driest period of estuarine resident species. Nevertheless, from the management point of view, it could be stated that although some variations occurred due to environmental stress, the main core of the Mondego Estuary fish community remained relatively unchanged.

  6. The influence of seasonal climate on the morphology of the mouth-bar in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Townend, Ian; Cai, Huayang; He, Jiawei; Mei, Xuefei

    2018-02-01

    The geomorphology of the Yangtze Estuary in the Changjiang River Delta in Eastern China has been the subject of extensive research. This study extends previous work to examine the influence of wind-waves on the mouth-bar, where about half of the river-borne material settles to the bed. The site is located just outside of Changjiang River mouth, which is meso-tidal and subject to seasonally varying river flows and wind-wave conditions. Modeling was performed with a coupled wave-current hydrodynamic model using TELEMAC and TOMAWAC and validated against observed data. Bottom Shear Stress (BSS) from river, tide and waves based on the numerical model output was used to infer the respective contribution to the evolution of the subaqueous delta. Our examination did not however extend to modeling the sediment transport or the morphological bed changes. The results suggest that (i) the dominance of river discharge is limited to an area inside the mouth, while outside, the mouth-bar is tide-wave dominant; (ii) considering just the tide, the currents on the shallow shoals are flood dominant and deep channels are ebb dominant, which induces continued accretion over the shallows and erodes the deeper parts of the mouth-bar until the tidal currents become too weak to transport sediment; (iii) whereas waves are very efficient at reshaping the shallow shoals, with the effect being subtly dependent on the depth distribution over the mouth-bar; (iv) the stability of shallow shoal morphology is highly dependent on the presence of seasonal wind-waves and characterized as "summer storing and winter erosion", while deep channels perform like corridors of water and sediment, exporting sediment all year round. The nature of the mouth-bar response has important implications for coastal management, such as the ongoing deep water channel maintenance, reclamations and coastal defense measures.

  7. Swartkops estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baird, D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swartkops estuary has been an object of study for many years and research results obtained during the past 30 years were considered at a symposium in 1987. This report documents the proceedings of this symposium as well as conclusions...

  8. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  9. NEW DATA ABOUT MACROZOOBENTHOS OF BEYSUGSKY ESTUARY (SEA OF AZOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Bulysheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Beysugsky Estuary is one of the biggest estuaries of the Azov-Kuban’ lowland. Like the other water bodies in the South of Russia, this one is subject to strong anthropogenic load: detachment of the freshwater part for establishing the Beysug spawning area; regulation of the flow of the rivers feeding the estuary; destruction of the Yasenskaya spit and narrowing of the Bugaz mouth; disorganized tourism. The ongoing reformation of the ecosystem makes it necessary to carry out the analyses of the modern state of the biota of this water body and uncover reasons and regularities of its change.Location. Beysug Estuary of the Sea of Azov.Methods. Quantitative zoobenthos samples were taken with the Petersen dredger (sampling area 0,034 m2 from board of the inflatable “Zodiac” boat. Qualitative samples were taken in the coastal zone by hand and with the dredge. All the samples taken were washed through the bag made of mill sieve with mesh size 0,5 mm, and then were fixed in a plastic bucket by 4 % formaldehyde (quantitative samples or 70 % ethyl alcohol (qualitative samples. Taking and processing of samples were carried out in field and laboratory environment using common methods. 22 samples at 7 stations were taken in total.Results. Macrozoobenthos was presented by 14 invertebrate species. Estuarine fauna is the depleted version of the euryhaline one of the Sea of Azov with Holocene relic macrophyte-dwelling elements. Biodiversity and quantitative characters of the estuarine communities decrease from west to east. Pelophylic detritophages predominated in the benthic communities of the estuary. The results of this research are meant to be used for uncovering historical ways of forming of benthic fauna and clearing up the dependence of community structure on the seawater influence, freshwater flow, regulation of freshwater and seawater sources, nature of changing of faunas at salinization of estuaries connected with the sea and the

  10. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in ... and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. ... planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on ...

  11. The influence of channel deepening on estuarine turbidity levels and dynamics, as exemplified by the Ems estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; van Beusekom, J.E.E.; Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725

    2014-01-01

    Active deepening of tidal channels usually results in the alteration of the vertical and the horizontal tide. This may lead to concurrent significant increases in mean suspended matter concentrations (SPM) in coastal plain estuaries, the turbidity maximum (ETM) included. This is exemplified by an

  12. Mineralogy and Sr–Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Singh, S.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    1    Author Version: Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., vol.156(5); 2015; 103-115 Mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution V. Purnachandra Rao*$, R... was transferred to Savillex® vial and digested repeatedly with HF-HNO3-HCl at ~ 120°C to bring the sediment to complete solution. The acid digestion step was repeated as needed to ensure that the entire sample was brought to complete solution. The < 2 μm...

  13. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated....... In contrast, a significant decrease of bacterial indicators of faecal pollution at high tide was probably the result of various causes, such as the decrease of continental and agriculturalland mn-off effect by dilution, aml/or increase in the abundance of potential specific predators. Thus, drastic changes...

  14. Unraveling the environmental and anthropogenic drivers of bacterial community changes in the Estuary of Bilbao and its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Aguirre

    Full Text Available In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the changes in taxonomic composition and environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure across an annual cycle in the Estuary of Bilbao as well as its tributaries. In spite of this estuary being small and characterized by a short residence time, the environmental factors most highly correlated with the bacterial community mirrored those reported to govern larger estuaries, specifically salinity and temperature. Additionally, bacterial community changes in the estuary appeared to vary with precipitation. For example, an increase in freshwater bacteria (Comamonadaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae was observed in high precipitation periods compared to the predominately marine-like bacteria (Rhodobacterales and Oceanospirillales that were found in low precipitation periods. Notably, we observed a significantly higher relative abundance of Comamonadaceae than previously described in other estuaries. Furthermore, anthropic factors could have an impact on this particular estuary's bacterial community structure. For example, ecosystem changes related to the channelization of the estuary likely induced a low dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, high temperature, and high chlorophyll concentration period in the inner euhaline water in summer (samples with salinity >30 ppt. Those samples were characterized by a high abundance of facultative anaerobes. For instance, OTUs classified as Cryomorphaceae and Candidatus Aquiluna rubra were negatively associated with DO concentration, while Oleiphilaceae was positively associated with DO concentration. Additionally, microorganisms related to biological treatment of wastewater (e.g Bdellovibrio and Zoogloea were detected in the samples immediately downstream of the Bilbao Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP. There are several human activities planned in the region surrounding the Estuary of Bilbao (e.g. sediment draining

  15. Unraveling the environmental and anthropogenic drivers of bacterial community changes in the Estuary of Bilbao and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Mikel; Abad, David; Albaina, Aitor; Cralle, Lauren; Goñi-Urriza, María Soledad; Estonba, Andone; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the changes in taxonomic composition and environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure across an annual cycle in the Estuary of Bilbao as well as its tributaries. In spite of this estuary being small and characterized by a short residence time, the environmental factors most highly correlated with the bacterial community mirrored those reported to govern larger estuaries, specifically salinity and temperature. Additionally, bacterial community changes in the estuary appeared to vary with precipitation. For example, an increase in freshwater bacteria (Comamonadaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae) was observed in high precipitation periods compared to the predominately marine-like bacteria (Rhodobacterales and Oceanospirillales) that were found in low precipitation periods. Notably, we observed a significantly higher relative abundance of Comamonadaceae than previously described in other estuaries. Furthermore, anthropic factors could have an impact on this particular estuary's bacterial community structure. For example, ecosystem changes related to the channelization of the estuary likely induced a low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, high temperature, and high chlorophyll concentration period in the inner euhaline water in summer (samples with salinity >30 ppt). Those samples were characterized by a high abundance of facultative anaerobes. For instance, OTUs classified as Cryomorphaceae and Candidatus Aquiluna rubra were negatively associated with DO concentration, while Oleiphilaceae was positively associated with DO concentration. Additionally, microorganisms related to biological treatment of wastewater (e.g Bdellovibrio and Zoogloea) were detected in the samples immediately downstream of the Bilbao Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). There are several human activities planned in the region surrounding the Estuary of Bilbao (e.g. sediment draining, architectural changes

  16. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  17. Factors Influencing Mortality in Hemorrhagic Stroke | Dawodu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Mortality in hemorrhagic stroke is very high. The factors influencing it have not been well studied in Africans. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate in hemorrhagic strokes and the factors that influence it, such as Glasgow coma scale score and admitting blood pressure. Methods

  18. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  19. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  20. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  1. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  2. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  3. Exploring Psychological Factors Influencing Deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Kuhar

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary societies there is a growing need to coordinate and legitimize different perspectives. Instead of a dialogical search for consensus polarizing communication still prevails. The legitimacy of formal political institutions and conventional forms of political participation is in decline; increasingly publicly expressed people's need for a greater influence on social developments reveals a deficit in approaches how to include them more actively in discussions on complex social pro...

  4. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  5. Environmental influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of the puffer fish Sphoeroides greeleyi and Sphoeroides testudineus in a Brazilian subtropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Fávaro

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of Sphoeroides greeleyi and Sphoeroides testudineus were established from collections (biological material and environmental data conducted on a monthly basis from May 2000 to April 2001 in intertidal areas along the north-south axis of the estuarine complex of Paranaguá, Paraná State. In addition to characterizing a north-south spatial gradient, which fluctuates seasonally, the variation in the abiotic factors made possible the division of the estuary into three regions: north, central and south. Spatially, it was found that the number of individuals declines significantly for both species in the north-south direction of the estuary. Moreover, significant differences were found in the size of individuals across the estuarine regions. The largest S. greeleyi individuals were caught in the north, as well as the smallest S. testudineus individuals. The catches with the highest numbers of puffer fish occurred from late spring to early autumn, coinciding with the occurrence of specimens of smaller size and lower mean body mass. The results indicate that spatial and temporal variations in the environment impact the distribution patterns of both puffer fish species, suggesting that the co-occurrence of closely related species functions as a modulating factor in that distribution.

  6. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    sectional survey) methods were ... Conclusion: The study showed that students had the perception that various factors influenced condom use ..... analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve ...

  7. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fungicides, pruning and fermentation were cocoa technologies adopted by farmers. The significant factors influencing adoption of cocoa technologies included age, educational level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, ...

  8. Factors influencing health care workers' implementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing health care workers' implementation of tuberculosis contact tracing in Kweneng, Botswana. Lebapotswe Tlale, Rosemary Frasso, Onalenna Kgosiesele, Mpho Selemogo, Quirk Mothei, Dereje Habte, Andrew Steenhoff ...

  9. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zizi GOSCHIN; Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  11. Correspondence between zooplankton assemblages and the Estuary Environment Classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  13. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  14. Spatiotemporal Distribution, Sources, and Photobleaching Imprint of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Yangtze Estuary and Its Adjacent Sea Using Fluorescence and Parallel Factor Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the seasonal and interannual dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the Yangtze Estuary, surface and bottom water samples in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent sea were collected and characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC in both dry and wet seasons in 2012 and 2013. Two protein-like components and three humic-like components were identified. Three humic-like components decreased linearly with increasing salinity (r>0.90, p<0.001, suggesting their distribution could primarily be controlled by physical mixing. By contrast, two protein-like components fell below the theoretical mixing line, largely due to microbial degradation and removal during mixing. Higher concentrations of humic-like components found in 2012 could be attributed to higher freshwater discharge relative to 2013. There was a lack of systematic patterns for three humic-like components between seasons and years, probably due to variations of other factors such as sources and characteristics. Highest concentrations of fluorescent components, observed in estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM region, could be attributed to sediment resuspension and subsequent release of DOM, supported by higher concentrations of fluorescent components in bottom water than in surface water at two stations where sediments probably resuspended. Meanwhile, photobleaching could be reflected from the changes in the ratios between fluorescence intensity (Fmax of humic-like components and chromophoric DOM (CDOM absorption coefficient (a355 along the salinity gradient. This study demonstrates the abundance and composition of DOM in estuaries are controlled not only by hydrological conditions, but also by its sources, characteristics and related estuarine biogeochemical processes.

  15. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma River and estuary, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-09-01

    A dry (1979-1980) and a wet (1980-1981) season had a marked effect on the freshwater inflow into the Keiskamma estuary. Under low inflow conditions, which results in elevated salinities in the upper reaches, an upstream migration of adult Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) to freshwater takes place. During periods of increased river inflow adult M. petersi move downstream to the more saline reaches of the estuary. These two migratory responses have been interpreted as (a) a breeding migration under high inflow conditions which ensures that larvae are in close proximity to salinities that favour growth and development, and (b) an adult upstream migration back to freshwater to escape elevated estuarine salinities as a result of the low freshwater inflow.

  16. Organic carbon cycling in sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent shelf: Implication for the influence of Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Bin; Pan, Huihui; Wang, Jinpeng; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-11-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent shelf were analyzed for elemental and stable carbon isotopic composition, and lignin-phenols to investigate spatial variability of the sources, transport and decay of sedimentary organic carbon (OC). Bulk and molecular proxy data indicated a mixed marine/terrestrial OC sources in the study area. A three end-member mixing model using Monte-Carlo simulation showed that marine OC was the predominant OC source, accounting for an increasing fraction along the coast and seaward, while soil-derived OC and C3 vascular plant detrital OC decreased seaward and southward. Large fragments of lignin-rich C3 vascular plant OC were deposited mainly near the river mouth, whereas fine-grained lignin-poor soil-derived OC was delivered further south alongshore. Higher values of lignin decay indices, seaward and southward, were attributed to selective transport of terrestrial OC on fine-grained particles and efficient remineralization in mobile muds. Λ8 of OC in Changjiang Estuary sediments has slightly decreased in recent years, which could in part be due to the trapping of terrestrial coarse particles by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). Also, we propose that there has been an increasing input of phytodetritus derived from freshwater phytoplankton to coastal sediments after the construction of the TGD.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards internet piracy among Nigerian University students. The ex-post factor research design was adopted. In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ...

  18. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical Journal ... that effective IPTp service utilization in Sesheke District is very low. The study also identified factors and some challenges influencing IPTp service utilization. These factors and.

  19. Spatial variation in the environmental control of crab larval settlement in a micro-tidal austral estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Cardyn, Carlos Simón; Garcés-Vargas, José

    2012-09-01

    Settlement of benthic marine invertebrates is determined by the interaction between physical factors and biological processes, in which the tide, wind, and predation can play key roles, especially for species that recruit within estuaries. This complexity promotes high variability in recruitment and limited predictability of the size of annual cohorts. This study describes the settlement patterns of megalopae of the commercially important crab Cancer edwardsii at three locations (one in the center and two at the mouth of the estuary) within the Valdivia River estuary (~39.9°S), over three consecutive years (2006-2008). At each location, 12 passive benthic collectors with a natural substratum were deployed for 48 h at 7-day intervals, over a lunar cycle. Half of the collectors were covered with mesh to exclude predators. The main findings were as follows: (1) circulation changes due to upwelling relaxation or onshore winds controlled crab settlement at sites within the mouth of the estuary, (2) at the internal estuarine site, settlement was dominated by tidal effects, and (3) the effect of predation on settlement was negligible at all scales. The results show that the predominant physical factor controlling the return of competent crab larvae to estuarine environments varies spatially within the estuary. The lack of tidal influence on settlement at the mouth of the estuary can be explained by the overwhelming influence of the intense upwelling fronts and the micro-tidal regime in the study area.

  20. Assessing the impact of nutrient enrichment in estuaries: susceptibility to eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, S J; Devlin, M J; Malcolm, S J; Parker, E R; Mills, D K; Mills, C; Tett, P; Wither, A; Burt, J; Jones, R; Winpenny, K

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a generic tool for assessing risks and impacts of nutrient enrichment in estuaries. A simple model was developed to predict the magnitude of primary production by phytoplankton in different estuaries from nutrient input (total available nitrogen and/or phosphorus) and to determine likely trophic status. In the model, primary production is strongly influenced by water residence times and relative light regimes. The model indicates that estuaries with low and moderate light levels are the least likely to show a biological response to nutrient inputs. Estuaries with a good light regime are likely to be sensitive to nutrient enrichment, and to show similar responses, mediated only by site-specific geomorphological features. Nixon's scale was used to describe the relative trophic status of estuaries, and to set nutrient and chlorophyll thresholds for assessing trophic status. Estuaries identified as being eutrophic may not show any signs of eutrophication. Additional attributes need to be considered to assess negative impacts. Here, likely detriment to the oxygen regime was considered, but is most applicable to areas of restricted exchange. Factors which limit phytoplankton growth under high nutrient conditions (water residence times and/or light availability) may favour the growth of other primary producers, such as macrophytes, which may have a negative impact on other biological communities. The assessment tool was developed for estuaries in England and Wales, based on a simple 3-category typology determined by geomorphology and relative light levels. Nixon's scale needs to be validated for estuaries in England and Wales, once more data are available on light levels and primary production.

  1. Climate Ready Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on climate change impacts to different estuary regions, tools and resources to monitor changes, and information to help managers develop adaptation plans for risk management of estuaries and coastal communities.

  2. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  3. Influences of hydrological regime on heavy metal and salt ion concentrations in intertidal sediment from Chongming Dongtan, Changjiang River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiale; Gao, Xiaojiang; Yang, Jin

    2017-11-01

    The tidal flat along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary has long been reclaimed for the agricultural purposes, with the prevailing hydrological conditions during such pedogenic transformations being of great importance to their successful development. In this study, samples of surface sediment from Chongming Dongtan, situated at the mouth of the Changjiang River estuary, were collected and analyzed in order to understand how hydrological management can influence the concentrations of heavy metals and salt ions in pore water, and chemical fractionation of heavy metals during the reclamation process. We performed a series of experiments that simulated three different hydrological regimes: permanent flooding (R1), alternative five-day periods of wetting and drying (R2), continuous field capacity (R3). Our results exhibited good Pearson correlations coefficients between heavy metals and salt ions in the pore water for both R1 and R2. In particular, the concentrations of salt ions in the pore water decreased in all three regimes, but showed the biggest decline in R2. With this R2 experiment, the periodic concentration patterns in the pore water varied for Fe and Mn, but not for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Neither the fractionation of Ni nor the residual fractions of any metals changed significantly in any regime. In R1, the reducible fractions of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the sediment decreased, while the acid extractable fractions increased. In R2, the acid extractable and the reducible fractions of Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb both decreased, as did the oxidizable fraction of Cu. These data suggest that an alternating hydrological regime can reduce both salinity and the availability of heavy metals in sediments.

  4. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  5. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  6. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  7. Factors influencing Complications and Conversion rates following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis is associated with a relatively high rate of conversion as well as complications. The aim of this study was to analyze prospectively various pre-operative and per-operative factors influencing the complications and conversion rate. Methods: A total of 60 ...

  8. Farmers\\' Perceived Agricultural Input Factors Influencing Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated agricultural input factors influencing adoption and production of food crops in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data from 120 randomly selected farmers were used for the study. Findings show that the major inputs used by the respondents are improved seeds (89.2%), fertilizer (66.7%) and agrochemicals ...

  9. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... This paper, published in the peer-reviewed journal of philanthropy The Foundation Review, discusses the development and use of this new tool as well as various aspects of internal and inter-institutional communication as it pertains to donor collaboration. Download the PDF : Factors Influencing Donor ...

  10. Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  11. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. 19 (2) December, 2015 ... IFAD-Community Based Agricultural and Rural Development Project in Katsina. State. Data for the study were ... were the factors influencing smallholder farmers participation in the project. The result further shows ...

  12. Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive Influence of Factors Predisposing Secondary School Adolescents Dropouts to Sexual Risk Behaviour in Ogun State. ... Parent/peer approval of condom use (r = .114; p> .05), , attitude about personal use of condoms (r = .638; p>.05), gender (r = .555; p>.05). However, there is negative correlation between ...

  13. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the institutional factors influencing adoption of recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at least five years were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were ...

  14. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This article explores the hypothesis that predisposing and enabling factors of households influence the vaccination status of the children under the age of five in Khartoum State, Sudan. Method The study was a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 410 male and female children under five ...

  15. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly ...

  16. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  17. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User. Groups (FUGs) were ...

  18. Information accessibility and utilizatoin as factors influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated information accessibility and utilization as factors influencing decision-making of managers in commercial banks in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 550 managers from the 66 licensed commercial banks. The study revealed that there was a ...

  19. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  20. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to determine factors influencing adoption of cocoa technologies disseminated by Olam organization to cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from thirty cocoa farmers (Olam's model farmers) through the use of structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed ...

  1. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    An attempt was made in this study to bridge the existing gap in the knowledge of the influence exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential .... inflation, high level of employment, low level of unemployment and balanced economic ... employment rate on property returns 1s consistent with that of Apergi (2003). Sari et al.

  2. Factors that influence advertising design ideation | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... As commonly observed in any area of design, there are roles that guide ideation, encoding and presentation of visual information to target audiences in a way that breaks cultural bounds and communication barriers. The ability of ...

  3. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' participation in. IFAD-Community Based Agricultural and Rural Development Project in Katsina. State. Data for the study were obtained by the use of structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the 698 respondents.

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' participation in IFAD-Community Based Agricultural and Rural Development Project in Katsina State. Data for the study were obtained by the use of structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the 698 respondents. In the first ...

  5. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... Ghana Journal of Geography Vol. 3. 2011. Home Environmental Factors ... influence school progress and performance among learners in Windhoek,. Namibia. Although numerous studies .... percent in the upper primary phase and 23 percent in the junior secondary phase. A meager 6 percent survived to ...

  6. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  7. Psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the psychosocial factors capable of influencing abortion among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Two hundred (200) students consisted of 63(31.5%) males and 137(68.5%) females participated in the survey. The study adopted ex-post facto design. Their age ranged between 16 to 40 years with ...

  8. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the knowledge and practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding1 (EBF) among lactating mothers with infants aged zero2 to six months at Ahero Sub District Hospital in Nyando District, Kenya. A cross- sectional design was conducted to 117 breastfeeding ...

  9. Factors influencing healthcare worker's participation in physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing healthcare worker's participation in physical activity in one public hospital in South Africa: Do healthcare workers have barriers to exercise? ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Employers should seek to eliminate the barriers that discourage use of worksite to increase level of PA.

  10. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  11. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  12. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  13. Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. R. A.; Barletta, M.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The seasonal migration of a salt wedge and rainfall were the major factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of ichthyoplankton and microplastics along the main channel of the Goiana Estuary, NE Brazil. The most abundant taxa were the clupeids Rhinosardinia bahiensis and Harengula clupeola, followed by the achirid Trinectes maculatus (78.7% of the catch). Estuarine and mangrove larvae (e.g. Anchovia clupeoides, Gobionellus oceanicus), as well as microplastics were ubiquitous. During drier months, the salt wedge reaches the upper estuary and marine larvae (e.g. Cynoscion acoupa) migrated upstream until the zones of coastal waters influence. However, the meeting of waterfronts in the middle estuary forms a barrier that retains the microplastics in the upper and lower estuary most part of the year. During the late dry season, a bloom of zooplankton was followed by a bloom of fish larvae (12.74 ind. 100 m-3) and fish eggs (14.65 ind. 100 m-3) at the lower estuary. During the late rainy season, the high freshwater inflow flushed microplastics, together with the biota, seaward. During this season, a microplastic maximum (14 items 100 m-3) was observed, followed by fish larvae maximum (14.23 ind. 100 m-3) in the lower estuary. In contrast to fish larvae, microplastics presented positive correlation with high rainfall rates, being more strictly associated to flushing out/into the estuary than to seasonal variation in environmental variables. Microplastics represented half of fish larvae density. Comparable densities in the water column increase the chances of interaction between microplastics and fish larvae, including the ingestion of smaller fragments, whose shape and colour are similar to zooplankton prey.

  14. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings: Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within...

  15. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  16. Factors influencing managers’ attitudes towards performance appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managers often have negative attitudes towards performance appraisal because of its problematic nature, which is influenced by political and social contextual factors. These negative attitudes lead to reduced employee support, inaccurate performance appraisal ratings and, consequently, negative employee perceptions of the performance appraisal process. This state of affairs necessitates a deeper understanding of the factors influencing managers’ attitudes towards performance appraisal.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that influence managers’ attitudes towards performance appraisal.Motivation for the study: Previous research has confirmed the importance of performance appraisals in organisations. However, managers’ dislike of and aversion to performance appraisal impact negatively on the effectiveness of performance appraisal systems and ultimately the development and performance of employees.Research design, approach and method: An interpretivist qualitative study was adopted, utilising naïve sketches and in-depth interviews to collect data from eight managers, purposively selected. The data were analysed by using Tesch’s descriptive data analysis technique.Main findings: This study revealed that performance appraisal is fundamentally an uncomfortable and emotional process for managers, which results in their adopting defensive attitudes. Because of many uncertainties, managers do not always display the ability or readiness to conduct performance appraisals. The organisational context might place the individual manager in a position to distort employee ratings, which in turn negatively influences that manager’s attitude.Practical and managerial implications: This study provides insight into the present-day experience of managers in respect of performance appraisal and highlights the factors that influence their attitudes.Contribution: The insight gained from

  17. [Factors influencing the choice of nursing studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Rafael-Gutiérrez, Sabiniana; Arreciado-Marañón, Antonia; Bernaus-Poch, Enriqueta; Vers-Prat, Olga

    2010-01-01

    To explore the factors that influenced first year students in their choice of nursing studies. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study with a phenomenological focus carried out in 2009 in the Vall d'Hebron University Nursing School (EUIVH). Semi-structured, individual, guided in-depth interviews were used. The study population was made up of students registered for the first year of the course. The factors influencing the decision to take a degree in nursing are numerous, with no single factor appearing as dominant. However, aspects such as personal contacts in the healthcare world, the duration of the course and expectations in the employment market are those considered as motivators for the choice. Contact with the theoretical content of the course positively changed students' perceptions with respect to the professional role and to increase loyalty among those who did not put nursing in first place. Nursing is one of the most solicited university degrees. The absence of a clear determining factor in choosing it, as well as the complexity of the caring profession, and the possible use of this degree as a way in to other preferred courses make continuity in professional practice difficult. The question arises as to whether interventions to minimise the lack of professionals in the field should be aimed at those factors that are positive for choosing these courses, or at those that influence the later abandonment of the profession. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations. PMID:28660238

  19. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  20. Picophytoplankton community in a tropical estuary: Detection of Prochlorococcus-like populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Rajaneesh, K.M.; Anil, A.C.; Sundar, D.

    The influence of hydrography on the picophytoplankton (PP) abundance in estuaries was studied by sampling along a salinity gradient in an Indian estuary. Prochlorococcus-like cells were detected at salinities ranging from 0.06 to 35, which otherwise...

  1. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  2. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats.

  3. Connectivity of the Habitat-Forming Kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among Estuaries and Open Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  4. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup.

  5. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  6. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-05-01

    Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside.

  8. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  9. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  10. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  11. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... predictors. Thus, nerve gap distance and repair type exert their influence through time to muscle reinnervation. These findings emphasize that factors that control early axonal outgrowth influence the final level of recovery attained years later. They also highlight that a time window exists within which...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  12. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  13. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  14. Influence of Anthropogenic Nutrient Additions on Greenhouse Gas Production Rates at Water-soil Interfaces in an Urban Dominated Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of readily dissolvable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from incomplete wastewater treatment and sewer overflow during storm events associated with NYC and other urban centers. Nutrient deposition may alter C utilization in the estuarine water column, associated sediments and surrounding wetlands. In these anaerobic systems, we hypothesize that microbial activity is limited by the availability of easily-degradable C (not electron acceptors), which acts as a co-metabolite and provides energy for organic matter decomposition. Sporadic transport of highly C enriched storm derived runoff may substantially enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) production rates through the utilization of stored C pools. To test our hypothesis carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) process rates (1) were evaluated from soil cores removed from three distinct HRE wetland sites (Saw Mill Creek, Piermont, and Iona Island Marsh(s)) across a salinity gradient and incubated under varying nutrient treatments. Further, CO2 and CH4 surface water effluxes (2) were quantified from multiple river cruises spanning two years at varying distance from nutrient sources associated with NYC. Incubation experiments from wetland soil core experiments demonstrated that readily degradable C but not inorganic N additions stimulated GHG production (200 - 350 ug C g-1 of dry soil day-1) threefold compared to negative controls. The HRE was found to be both a CO2 and CH4 source under all conditions. The greatest GHG efflux (300 - 3000 nmoles C m-2 day-1) was quantified in mid-channel, tributary, and near shore sites in close proximity to NYC which following precipitation events demonstrated 2-20X increased GHG efflux. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic C additions associated with dense urban centers have the potential to enhance anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent GHG production.

  15. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The government should strengthen the medical professionalism for young physicians and improve the

  16. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  17. Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafforn, Katherine A; Kelaher, Brendan P; Simpson, Stuart L; Coleman, Melinda A; Hutchings, Pat A; Clark, Graeme F; Knott, Nathan A; Doblin, Martina A; Johnston, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to multiple chemical and physical stressors, but distinguishing anthropogenic impacts from other environmental drivers remains challenging. Rarely are multiple stressors investigated in replicated studies over large spatial scales (>1000 kms) or supported with manipulations that are necessary to interpret ecological patterns. We measured the composition of sediment infaunal communities in relation to anthropogenic and natural stressors at multiple sites within seven estuaries. We observed increases in the richness and abundance of polychaete worms in heavily modified estuaries with severe metal contamination, but no changes in the diversity or abundance of other taxa. Estuaries in which toxic contaminants were elevated also showed evidence of organic enrichment. We hypothesised that the observed response of polychaetes was not a 'positive' response to toxic contamination or a reduction in biotic competition, but due to high levels of nutrients in heavily modified estuaries driving productivity in the water column and enriching the sediment over large spatial scales. We deployed defaunated field-collected sediments from the surveyed estuaries in a small scale experiment, but observed no effects of sediment characteristics (toxic or enriching). Furthermore, invertebrate recruitment instead reflected the low diversity and abundance observed during field surveys of this relatively 'pristine' estuary. This suggests that differences observed in the survey are not a direct consequence of sediment characteristics (even severe metal contamination) but are related to parameters that covary with estuary modification such as enhanced productivity from nutrient inputs and the diversity of the local species pool. This has implications for the interpretation of diversity measures in large-scale monitoring studies in which the observed patterns may be strongly influenced by many factors that covary with anthropogenic modification.

  18. Factors that influence Medical Reserve Corps recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Kristine; Gershon, Robyn M; Conde, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a key strategy used in the United States to assure an adequate surge capacity healthcare workforce for response to disasters. A survey of Hawaiian healthcare providers (n = 1,057) was conducted to identify factors that influence interest, ability, and willingness to join the MRC; 468 (44.3%) healthcare providers responded. Overall, females were more likely to demonstrate an interest in joining the MRC, while physicians and dentists reported lower levels of ability and willingness, in addition to a lower level of interest in joining the MRC than the other professional groups. The most important motivating factor in joining the MRC was altruism and the ability to help one's own community. Respondents reported a number of factors that would influence their decision to join or remain a MRC member. These included: (1) time commitment required; (2) MRC organization and management; (3) provision of MRC-sponsored training or education sessions and continuing education credits; (4) concerns regarding the safety of family members during a disaster; (5) professional liability protection for work performed during MRC operations; and (6) competing personal obligations. Strategies targeting these factors probably will be most effective in recruitment and retention of MRC volunteers as well as members of other public health surge capacity volunteer groups.

  19. Factors influencing the fracture of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2018-02-01

    Implant fractures are rare but offer a challenging clinical situation. To determine the prevalence of implant fracture and the possible risk factors predisposing an implant to a higher fracture risk. This retrospective study is based on 2670 patients consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses. Anatomical-, patient-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) evaluated the effect of explanatory variables on implant fracture. Forty-four implants (out of 10 099; 0.44%) fractured. The mean ± standard deviation time for fracture to occur was 95.1 ± 58.5 months (min-max, 3.8-294.7). Half of the occurrences of fracture happened between 2 and 8 years after implantation. Five factors had a statistically significant influence on the fracture of implants (increase/decrease in fracture probability): use of higher grades of titanium (decrease 72.9%), bruxism (increase 1819.5%), direct adjacency to cantilever (increase 247.6%), every 1 mm increase in implant length (increase 22.3%), every 1 mm increase in implant diameter (decrease 96.9%). It is suggested that 5 factors could influence the incidence of implant fractures: grade of titanium, implant diameter and length, cantilever, bruxism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.

  1. Impact of fluvial sediment input to tidal amplification in an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Bing; Fernández Bermejo, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Water level records at two stations in the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain), one near the estuary mouth (Bonanza) and one about 70 km upstream (Seville), have been analysed to study the amplification of the tide in the estuary. The amplification factor, defined as the ratio between the amplitudes of the semi-diurnal tide at the two stations, show interesting temporal variations (See Figure 1). Firstly, a spring-neap variation is present showing that the tide is less amplified during spring tide than during neap tide. This can be explained by the stronger damping during spring tide due to the bottom resistance which increases non-linearly with the tidal flow velocity, indicating that bottom resistance is an important factor influencing the tidal amplification in the estuary. Secondly, the variation shows some spikes of extreme lows, which appear to be related to river floods causing a large difference between the mean water levels at the two stations. Thirdly, it is interesting to see that the amplification factor has a larger value during a number of periods, also after smoothing out the spring-neap variation. Further analysis of the data together with the data of turbidity and river discharges in combination with the results from various sediment transport modelling studies for the estuary reveals that this phenomenon is caused by the non-linear interaction between the tidal flow and suspended sediment transport, initiated by high sediment input from the river during a river flood. The high sediment concentration, up to more than 10 g/l, causes a reduction of the bottom resistance to the flow resulting in stronger tidal amplification in the estuary. The larger tidal amplitude causes higher tidal flow velocity which in turn keeps the suspended sediment concentration high. PIC Figure 1. Amplification factor of the semi-diurnal tide between Seville and Bonanza, daily data as well as the smoothed data after filtering out the spring-neap variation

  2. Comparison of environmental forcings affecting suspended sediments variability in two macrotidal, highly-turbid estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Schmidt, Sabine; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    The relative contribution of environmental forcing frequencies on turbidity variability is, for the first time, quantified at seasonal and multiannual time scales in tidal estuarine systems. With a decade of high-frequency, multi-site turbidity monitoring, the two nearby, macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (west France) are excellent natural laboratories for this purpose. Singular Spectrum Analyses, combined with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and Wavelet Transforms, were applied to the continuous multiannual turbidity time series. Frequencies of the main environmental factors affecting turbidity were identified: hydrological regime (high versus low river discharges), river flow variability, tidal range, tidal cycles, and turbulence. Their relative influences show similar patterns in both estuaries and depend on the estuarine region (lower or upper estuary) and the time scale (multiannual or seasonal). On the multiannual time scale, the relative contribution of tidal frequencies (tidal cycles and range) to turbidity variability decreases up-estuary from 68% to 47%, while the influence of river flow frequencies increases from 3% to 42%. On the seasonal time scale, the relative influence of forcings frequencies remains almost constant in the lower estuary, dominated by tidal frequencies (60% and 30% for tidal cycles and tidal range, respectively); in the upper reaches, it is variable depending on hydrological regime, even if tidal frequencies are responsible for up 50% of turbidity variance. These quantifications show the potential of combined spectral analyses to compare the behavior of suspended sediment in tidal estuaries throughout the world and to evaluate long-term changes in environmental forcings, especially in a context of global change. The relevance of this approach to compare nearby and overseas systems and to support management strategies is discussed (e.g., selection of effective operation frequencies/regions, prediction of the most

  3. Factors influencing severity of peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaby, Martin; Karring, Eva; Schou, Søren; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis. Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level. Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors. The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  5. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and rare earth elements (REE) were measured in 122 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and 70 surficial sediments from the Zuari estuary and the adjacent shelf to understand their distribution, provenance...

  7. Estuarine Habitats for Juvenile Salmon in the Tidally-Influenced Lower Columbia River and Estuary : Reporting Period September 15, 2008 through May 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, António M. [Oregon Health & Science University, Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction

    2009-08-02

    This work focuses on the numerical modeling of Columbia River estuarine circulation and associated modeling-supported analyses conducted as an integral part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort led by NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. The overall effort is aimed at: (1) retrospective analyses to reconstruct historic bathymetric features and assess effects of climate and river flow on the extent and distribution of shallow water, wetland and tidal-floodplain habitats; (2) computer simulations using a 3-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the sensitivity of salmon rearing opportunities to various historical modifications affecting the estuary (including channel changes, flow regulation, and diking of tidal wetlands and floodplains); (3) observational studies of present and historic food web sources supporting selected life histories of juvenile salmon as determined by stable isotope, microchemistry, and parasitology techniques; and (4) experimental studies in Grays River in collaboration with Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) and the Columbia Land Trust (CLT) to assess effects of multiple tidal wetland restoration projects on various life histories of juvenile salmon and to compare responses to observed habitat-use patterns in the mainstem estuary. From the above observations, experiments, and additional modeling simulations, the effort will also (5) examine effects of alternative flow-management and habitat-restoration scenarios on habitat opportunity and the estuary's productive capacity for juvenile salmon. The underlying modeling system is part of the SATURN1coastal-margin observatory [1]. SATURN relies on 3D numerical models [2, 3] to systematically simulate and understand baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system [4-7] (Fig. 1). Multi-year simulation databases of circulation are produced as an integral part of SATURN, and have multiple applications in understanding estuary

  8. Learning Lessons from Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittka, Christine

    2006-01-01

    There is something that draws all people to the sea and especially to the fertile estuaries that nuzzle up to its shores. An estuary serves as both a nursery and a grave for sea creatures. If life evolved from some primordial sea, it may well have been an estuary--a place where ocean and rivers meet and fresh and salty waters mingle in the…

  9. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  10. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is often incomplete though it is uncertain which factors, such as the type and extent of the injury or the method or timing of repair, determine the degree of functional recovery. Serial electrophysiological techniques were used to follow recovery from...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  11. Differences in the structure of copepod assemblages in four tropical estuaries: Importance of pollution and the estuary hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V; Dias, Cristina O; Bonecker, Sérgio L C

    2017-02-15

    We examined the relationship between pollution and structure of copepod assemblages in estuaries, using sampling standardization of salinity range to reduce the effects of "Estuarine Quality Paradox". Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four Southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and different hydrodynamic characteristics. The pollution negatively impacted the descriptors of the assemblage structure. The distribution of structure of copepod assemblages also showed a main separation trend between the most polluted estuaries and those less polluted. Temperature was the main factor affecting the assemblage structuring in the four estuaries. This factor acted in synergism with the effects of pollution impact and physical characteristics of the estuaries on the structure of copepod assemblages, supporting the potential vulnerability of coastal environments due to nutrient enrichment associated with climate change. Our study demonstrated the importance of sampling standardization of the salinity range in estuaries for reliable analysis of pollution effects on biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkun, Alp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

  13. The effects of hydrological dynamics on benthic diatom community structure in a highly stratified estuary: The case of the Ebro Estuary (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, L.; Trobajo, R.; Leira, M.; Ibáñez, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study of the distribution of benthic diatom assemblages and their relationship with environmental factors in a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary, i.e. the Ebro Estuary, shows the importance of hydrological dynamics to explain the features of the diatom community in such an estuary, where river flow magnitude and fluctuations imply strong physicochemical variability especially in sites close to the sea. Eight sites along the estuary were sampled during 2007-2008 both at superficial and deep water layers, in order to gather both horizontal and vertical estuarine physicochemical and hydrological gradients. Canonical Variates Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis segregated diatom community in two assemblages depending on the dynamics of the salt-wedge. The diatom assemblages of riverine conditions (i.e. without salt-wedge influence) where characterised by high abundances of Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta and Amphora pediculus, meanwhile high abundances of Nizschia frustulum and Nitzschia inconspicua were characteristic of estuarine conditions (i.e. under salt-wedge influence). Redundancy Analysis showed that both diatom assemblages responded seasonally to Ebro River flows, especially in estuarine conditions, where fluctuating conditions affected diatom assemblages both at spatial and temporal scale.

  14. Tidal influence on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Seine Estuary and biomarker responses on the copepod Eurytemora affinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleaud, K. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France) and Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie et de Geosciences, UMR CNRS 8187 LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, 28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France) and Faculte des Sciences et Techniques du Havre, LEMA-UPRES EA3222, Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie-Milieux Aquatiques, GDR IMOPHYS, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, 76058 Le Havre (France); Forget-Leray, J. [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques du Havre, LEMA-UPRES EA3222, Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie-Milieux Aquatiques, GDR IMOPHYS, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, 76058 Le Havre (France); Peluhet, L.; LeMenach, K. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Lille 1, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie et de Geosciences, UMR CNRS 8187 LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, 28 Avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France); Budzinski, H. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, ISM-LPTC-UMR 5255, Laboratory of Physico- and Toxico-Chemistry, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: h.budzinski@ism.u-bordeaux1.fr

    2009-01-15

    To elucidate tidally related variations of hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) bioavailability and the impact of these contaminants on estuarine ecosystems, both PCB and PAH concentrations were investigated in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate material (SPM) of the Seine Estuary. Both PAH and PCB highest levels were observed in surface and bottom water when SPM remobilizations were maximum, in relation to higher speed currents. In parallel, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were investigated in the copepod Eurytemora affinis. Significant decreasing AChE levels were measured during the tidal cycle and between surface and bottom copepods related to salinity and to HOC concentration variations. Significant increasing GST levels were also observed when HOC concentrations in the water column were the highest. This study underlined the need to standardize sampling procedures for biomonitoring studies in order to avoid interfering factors that could modify biomarker responses to chemical exposure. - Variations of contamination of E. affinis and enzymatic responses have been studied over a tide cycle in view to improve the use of this copepod for biomonitoring.

  15. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  16. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  17. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating bankfull discharge and depth in ungauged estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisen, J.I.A.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to measure river discharge accurately in an estuary, and particularly, in the region where the tidal flow dominates over the river discharge. River discharge is important for the morphology and hydrodynamics of estuaries as it influences the salt intrusion process, tidal dynamics,

  19. The zooplankton of Msikaba estuary | Wooldridge | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stratification is well developed in Msikaba estuary and has a major influence on the distribution of the zooplankton. The oligohaline zooplankton component does not become well established, while marine zooplankton organisms penetrate relatively far up the estuary in the high salinity bottom waters. The euryhaline ...

  20. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  1. Surgical factors influencing mesiodistal implant angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Kirmeier, Robert; Jakse, Norbert; Pertl, Christof; Wegscheider, Walther; Lorenzoni, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to identify relevant surgical parameters influencing the mesiodistal angular deviation of dental implants. Pilot drillings of 2 mm diameter were performed in bovine ribs with a parallelometer. The subsequent preparation of the implant socket was performed freehand. Utilizing six different implant systems, at least 80 drillings per system of different diameters were performed. The pilot drillings were marked with 2 mm steel pins and cephalometric radiographs were taken. The mesiodistal angle between the longitudinal implant axis and the marked pilot drillings was measured and evaluated by a blinded investigator. To evaluate the influence of the surgeons' experience, their drillings were compared with those of a group of unexperienced surgeons. Additionally, the influence of drilling speed and size of bur steps on drilling accuracy were evaluated. The difference between the lowest value of 0.91 degrees of mesiodistal angular deviation found for 3i implants and the highest of 1.36 degrees for Ankylos implants was of low statistical significance (P=0.065). Drillings of experienced surgeons showed less deviation compared with those of a beginners group (P<0.0001). Higher deviations were measured when a bur size was skipped. Drillings performed at high speed showed significantly higher deviations than those with fewer rewinds per minute. In order to achieve precise implant angulation, all bur diameters available should be used. Utilizing low drilling speeds results in less mesiodistal deviation. The surgeon's experience seems to be the most relevant factor in precise implant placement.

  2. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  3. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  4. The Mtata River estuary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... A survey of the fish fauna of Transkei estuaries. Part Three: The Mtata River estuary. E.E. Plumstead* and J.F. Prinsloo. Department of Zoology, University of Transkei, Private Bag X1 001, Unitra, Umtata, Republic of Transkei. H.J. Schoonbee. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, ...

  5. The Hudson River estuary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinton, J.S; Waldman, J.R

    2006-01-01

    ... emphasis on important issues specific to the Hudson, such as the effect of power plants and high concentrations of PCBs. The chapters are written by specialists at a level that is accessible to students, teachers, and the interested layperson. The Hudson River Estuary is a unique scientifi c biography of a major estuary, with relevance to the s...

  6. Factors Influencing Women's Intention to Limit Child Bearing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The desire for large family size is one of the factors influencing fertility in Ethiopia. Thus, understanding factors that influence the fertility intentions of women is ... Results: A greater intention to limit childbearing is associated with older age, ...

  7. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices.

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  9. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.

  10. Factors Influencing Women's Intention to Limit Child Bearing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgraound: The desire for large family size is one of the factors influencing fertility in Ethiopia. Thus, understanding factors that influence the fertility intentions of women is important for family planning program purposes and population policy. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine factors which influence ...

  11. Experimental study of the density influence on the incipient motion and erosion modes of muds in unidirectional flows: the case of Huangmaohai Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Bai, Yuchuan; Ji, Chunning; Williams, John

    2015-02-01

    The incipient motion and erosion behavior of bottom muds in coastal areas have wide applications in coastal engineering, water environment management, and also the protection of marine benthic communities. Due to the strong inter-particle cohesion of fine sediments and the diversity in its physical properties, the mechanism of the coastal mud erosion is not well understood and the determination of the threshold for the incipient motion remains a challenge. In order to investigate the influence of the mud density on the incipient motion of fully disturbed coastal mud, experiments were carried out using a 22-m-long laboratory flume and mud samples from Huangmaohai Estuary, South China Sea. Muds with densities ranging from 1100 to 1550 kg/m3 were tested under unidirectional open channel flows, which yielded threshold velocities ranging from 0.11 to 1.67 m/s, corresponding to bed shear stresses ranging from 0.029 to 4.191 N/m2. Based on the experimental results, an empirical formula for the threshold velocity at the incipient motion of coastal muds with different densities is presented. The computed results together with the proposed formula were also compared with other theories. Besides, four different erosion patterns of coastal muds at incipient motion were identified according to experimental observations, namely erosion in the pattern of fluid muds, strips, pieces, and blocks. The physical mechanisms for different erosion patterns were also analyzed and interpreted. The presented experimental achievements well enrich our knowledge of coastal mud behavior and lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the incipient motion of bottom muds.

  12. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  14. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is often incomplete though it is uncertain which factors, such as the type and extent of the injury or the method or timing of repair, determine the degree of functional recovery. Serial electrophysiological techniques were used to follow recovery from...... median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  15. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  16. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  17. Influence of the Aznalcóllar mining spill on the vertical distribution of heavy metals in sediments from the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, I; DelValls, T A; Forja, J M; Gómez-Parra, A

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Park of Doñana and the Guadalquivir estuary were impacted by the release of 6 million cubic meters of acid waste after the mine-tailing spill in Aznalcóllar (Andalusia, SW, Spain). Here is presented the monitoring of the accidental spill on vertical distribution of heavy metals in the estuarine sediments. The total concentration of six metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu), their chemical speciation and the organic carbon concentration were analyzed in sediment vertical profiles. The results obtained determine background levels similar to previously reported in the area. The analysis catalogues the impact of the accident on the estuary as acute and mainly associated with high concentrations of Zn and Cd. The recent enrichment in Zn and Cd and their geochemical association with the more mobile fractions of the sediment determine an environmental risk associated with the acute impact and detected in some of the areas of the estuary.

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    OpenAIRE

    Tantry Nugroho; Ujang Sumarwan; Kirbrandoko Kirbrandoko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respon...

  19. Influence of fresh water, nutrients and DOC in two submarine-groundwater-fed estuaries on the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aisling M; Cave, Rachel R

    2012-11-01

    Coastal fresh water sources, which discharge to the sea are expected to be directly influenced by climate change (e.g. increased frequency of extreme weather events). Sea-level rise and changes in rainfall patterns, changes in demand for drinking water and contamination caused by population and land use change, will also have an impact. Coastal waters with submarine groundwater discharge are of particular interest as this fresh water source is very poorly quantified. Two adjacent bays which host shellfish aquaculture sites along the coast of Co. Galway in the west of Ireland have been studied to establish the influence of fresh water inputs on nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in each bay. Neither bay has riverine input and both are underlain by the karst limestone of the Burren and are susceptible to submarine groundwater discharge. Water and suspended matter samples were collected half hourly over 13 h tidal cycles over several seasons. Water samples were analysed for nutrients and DOC, while suspended matter was analysed for organic/inorganic content. Temperature and salinity measurements were recorded during each tidal station by SBE 37 MicroCAT conductivity/temperature sensors. Long-term mooring data were used to track freshwater input for Kinvara and Aughinish Bays and compare it with rainfall data. Results show that Kinvara Bay is much more heavily influenced by fresh water input than Aughinish Bay, and this is a strong source of fixed nitrogen to Kinvara Bay. Only during flood events is there a significant input of inorganic nitrogen from fresh water to Aughinish Bay, such as in late November 2009. Fresh water input does not appear to be a significant source of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) to either bay, but is a source of DOC to both bays. C:N ratios of DOC/DON show a clear distinction between marine and terrestrially derived dissolved organic material. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  1. Factors influencing residents' pursuit of urology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Drew A; Nguyen, Hiep T; Phillips, John L

    2011-11-01

    To assess the predictors of residents' pursuit of fellowship training by surveying current urology residents and recent graduates. Postgraduate fellowship training of urologists could be an important source of urologic physician-scientists and continued innovation in urologic care. A Web-based survey was electronically mailed to urology residents and recent graduates of urologic residency. Variables concerning sex, marital status, debt load, research and clinical exposure, publications, and postgraduate careers were recorded. Of the 71 respondents, 46 (65%) were married and 45% had children/dependents. Of the 69% who applied for fellowship, the "most important" factors influencing the pursuit of fellowship were intellectual appeal (82%), mentors (79%), the desire for an additional point of view for surgical training (58%), and the desire to pursue a career in academics (52%). Forty of those completing a fellowship (87%) versus two of those completing residency alone (13%) would pursue a career in academics. Residents with a mentor were 20 times more likely to pursue a urology fellowship. A shorter residency (5 years), encouragement by a program director, and manuscript publication during residency were also independent predictors. Mentorship, a shorter residency, and manuscript publication during residency were independent predictors of pursuing fellowship training. Debt load, age, marital status, and a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine were not significant factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of local and systemic factors on the occurrence of dental implant failures up to the second-stage surgery (abutment connection). This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants and were consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses between 1980 and 2014 at 1 specialist clinic. Several anatomic-, patient-, health-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used at the patient level as well as the implant level to evaluate the effect of explanatory variables on the failure of implants up to abutment connection. A generalized estimating equation method was used for the implant-level analysis to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were available for a single patient. Overall, 642 implants (6.36%) failed, of which 176 (1.74%) in 139 patients were lost up to second-stage surgery. The distribution of implants in sites of different bone quantities and qualities was quite similar between implants lost up to and after abutment connection. Smoking and the intake of antidepressants were the statistically significant predictors in the multivariate model (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02369562). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  3. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  4. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  5. A continuing 30-year decline in water quality of Jiaojiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-ye WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative description of a long-term series of aquatic environmental factors and their spatial distributions was generated using measured data from the Jiaojiang Estuary from 1982 to 2011. The aquatic environmental factors included suspended matter, salinity, and nutrients. Based on these factors, the aquatic ecosystem health in the Jiaojiang Estuary over the last 30 years was analyzed. The results indicated that the suspended matter concentration in the estuary was mainly affected by the amounts of suspended sediment and solid waste, with the value fluctuating over a long period, and the range of high concentration expanded continually; the salinity was mainly affected by precipitation and surface water resources, showing an overall decreasing trend, and the region with low salinity moved seaward and toward the reclamation areas; and the nutritional status, mainly affected by discharge of industrial wastewater and domestic sewage, was satisfactory in the 1980s and 1990s, but the status became severe in recent years. Reclamation had a great influence on these three factors: high reclamation strength led to a significant increase in the suspended matter concentration and a deterioration of the nutritional status, and the reclamation rate was negatively related with the salinity in the estuary. There was a significant positive correlation between the health status of the aquatic ecosystem and salinity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The correlation coefficient between the health status and nutritional status was −0.71, while the correlation between the suspended matter concentration and health status was not as significant as that of the other two factors. The dynamics of the aquatic environment could be divided into four stages: sustainable health from the 1980s to the 1990s, continued deterioration from 2000 to 2003, improvement from 2004 to 2005, and secondary deterioration from 2006 to 2011. The Jiaojiang Estuary is faced with

  6. The influence of key environmental variables on phytoplankton community structure in the estuary of tidal rivers around Luoyuan Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbin; Zheng, Peng; Liang, Yunyan; Cai, Yuanbin

    2017-10-01

    A total of 348 species belonging to 8 phyla and 125 genera were observed in seasonally sampled phytoplankton of tidal rivers from 13 sampling sites around Luoyuan Bay, and all field samplings were carried out in productive period (March/June/August/ December) at ebb tide. Bacillariophyta species were the most abundant species, followed by Chlorophyta, Cyanophytes, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Xanthophyta and Chrysophytas. Seasonal distribution index (SDI) value ranged from 0.63 to 0.86, which meant that species found at those sites in 4 seasons tended to be largely different. Phytoplankton individuals ranged from 5.939×104 ind L-1 in winter to 75.31×104 ind L-1 in autumn. Phytoplankton biomass ranged from 0.620 mg L-1 in summer to 2.373 mg L-1 in autumn. The grey correlation analysis (GCA) showed that the nutrient variables played an important role in the influence on phytoplankton community in every season. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed impact of environmental variables on the different species, most of Bacillariophyta species were negative correlation with nutrients (TP and NH3-N) in the four seasons, Chlorophyta species and Cyanophyta species did not show obvious correlation with environment variables in every season. The combination of GRA analysis and CCA analysis provided a method to quantitatively reveal the correlation between phytoplankton community and environmental variables in water body of tidal rivers at this region.

  7. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p705 The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  8. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  9. Cognitive impulsivity in abused children: influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN M. FERNÁNDEZ MILLÁN

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the impulsivity is a topic that it has been studied for some time for different psychologicalschools, it has been in the last decades, at least in our country, when the impulsivity has acquired a biggerinterest. The numerous studies of Buela-Casal’s investigation group can be presented as example ofthis growing interest (Buela-Casal, Carretero-Dios and De los Santos-Roig, 2002. This interest comesmotivated by the relationship that the impulsivity has with the school yield and with the violence, sincesome studies show its linking with the aggressive behaviors. In this study, centered in the continuousReflection-impulsivity (R-I, the existent impulsivity differences are shown among the mistreatedminor took in protection centers, and the minor that have not been mistreated. We have also studiedthe influence or relationship with diverse factors like the school, the years of establishment or thebehavioral impulsivity. We have followed a cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and we have usedthe MMF20 like instrument for the mensuration of the study topic. The results show a correlationbetween the number of made errors and the abuse, as well as with a certain negative correlation betweenerrors and years in school.

  10. Flushing characteristics of Mahim river estuary (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabnis, M.M.; Zingde, M.D.

    to the influence of wastewater. Flushing time of 19 tidal cycles was estimated by applying modified tidal prism method. After a large number of tidal cycles the estuary would retain 9.3x10 super(4) m super(3) of wastewater which was over 15% of the spring high tide...

  11. Nutrient cycling and foodwebs in Dutch estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this review several aspects of the functioning of the Dutch estuaries (Ems-Dollard, Wadden Sea, Oosterschelde, Westerschelde, Grevelingen and Veerse Meer) have been compared. A number of large European rivers (especially Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch

  12. Penobscot Estuary (Maine) Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's NEFSC collects fisheries data from the Penobscot Estuary using several types of fishing gear. The data is used to determine species presence, relative...

  13. Influencing Transnational Terrorist Organizations: Using Influence Nets to Prioritize Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatur, Roy P

    2005-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to consolidate this array of factors; and more importantly, to suggest a framework for analyzing the interactions and relative importance of each factor to support resource allocation decisions...

  14. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  15. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  16. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  17. A high resolution temporal study of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the eutrophic Taw Estuary (SW England).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gerald; Glegg, Gillian A; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-09-15

    The Taw Estuary (SW England) is eutrophic as a result of enhanced nutrient inputs from its catchment. However, factors influencing the timing and extent of phytoplankton bloom formation are not fully understood in this system. In this study, high resolution chemical and biological sampling was undertaken in late-winter/spring and summer 2008 in order to gain further insights into bloom dynamics in the Taw Estuary. Temporal variations in chlorophyll a maxima in the upper and middle estuary during summer were controlled by river flow and tidal amplitude, with nutrient limitation probably less important. Concentrations of chlorophyll a were highest during low river flow and neap tides. Increased river flows advected the chlorophyll maximum to the outer estuary, and under highest river discharges, chlorophyll a concentrations were further reduced. This feature was even more pronounced when spring tides coincided with high flows. The main bloom species were the diatoms Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira guillardii. Using two multivariate statistical techniques in combination, five distinct physical and biogeochemical states in the Taw estuarine waters were identified. These states can be summarised as: A(1), high chlorophyll a, high temperature, long residence times, nutrient depletion; A(2), strong coastal water influence; B(1), decreasing chlorophyll a, increasing river flow and/or spring tides; B(2), transitional between states A(1) and B(3); B(3), high river flow. It was thus possible to differentiate between contrasting environmental conditions that were either beneficial or detrimental for the development of algal blooms. A conceptual model of diatom - dominated primary production for the Taw Estuary is proposed which describes how physical controls (river flow, tidal state) moderate plankton biomass production in the upper and mid - estuarine regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low educational outcome is a problem in Namibia. This might be explained as a function of several factors such as socioeconomic background, child input and school internal factors. These factors must all be taken into consideration to explain why children do not fulfil basic education and attain low learning outcomes.

  19. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  20. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  1. Climate Ready Estuaries Progress Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate Ready Estuaries has supported adaptation activities in National Estuary Programs since 2008. In 2012, the program partnered with 23 NEPs, completed a pilot project with water utilities, and held workshops. Download annual reports from 2009-2012.

  2. Study of fractionation and potential mobility of metal from the Guadalquivir estuary: changes in mobility with time and influence of the aznalcollar mining spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, José; Usero, José; Gracia, Ignacio

    2005-07-01

    This study analyzed the evolution of metal levels in surface sediments from the Guadalquivir estuary between 1997 and 2002 and assessed the impact of the April 1998 Aznalcollar tailings dam failure and subsequent cleanup on metal concentrations in surface sediments. We also analyzed metal distribution with time in five chemical fractions of the surface sediments: exchangable, carbonate, reducible, oxidizable, and residual. This work showed that the April 1998 Aznalcollar tailings dam failure caused a considerable increase in the concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in the surface sediments of the Guadalquivir estuary. It was also found there was a change in the distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb between the chemical fractions of the sediment after the failure of the dam. There were increases in the percentages of Cd in the carbonate fraction, of Zn and Pb in the reducible fraction, and of Cu in the oxidizable fraction, whereas the percentages of these elements associated with the residual fraction decreased. In 1999, there was a decrease in the metal concentrations in the surface sediments from the Guadalquivir estuary, and by 2000 the chemical distribution and metal levels had returned to levels similar those before the dam failure.

  3. Assessment of pollution of the Boca de Camichin Estuary in Nayarit (Mexico) and its influence on oxidative stress in Crassostrea corteziensis oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; Romero-Bañuelos, C A; Medina-Díaz, I M; Rojas-García, A E; Vega-López, A; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Boca de Camichin Estuary is one of the main producers of Crassostrea corteziensis oysters in Mexico, but the presence of pollutants can affect oyster production. Molluscs produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to changes in the environment and pollution. These ROS induce oxidative damage in biomolecules. The main objective of this study was to evaluate pollution in the estuary and the subsequent oxidative stress in C. corteziensis oysters during the 2010 production cycle. For this aim, we performed monthly samplings in the oyster farms from January to May. We took water samples to quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal content; also, we evaluated oxidative damage (lipoperoxidation, lipidic hydroperoxides, protein oxidation) and enzyme activity (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and AChE) in oyster gills. The results show the presence of Cu, Fe, Mn, naphthalene, benz[a]anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene. On the other hand, AChE activity was not inhibited, which suggests that organophosphorus pollutants or carbamates were absent. Regarding oxidative stress, oysters from the estuary had oxidative damage in lipids, not proteins, and altered antioxidant enzyme activity, when compared to control organisms. Interestingly, we did not observe any correlation between the pollutants and the oxidative stress parameters evaluated in this study. Thus, we cannot rule out that a synergistic effect between the environmental variables and the pollutants is causing the oxidative stress in these oysters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  5. Molecular Fingerprint and Dominant Environmental Factors of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Pengze; Li, Mingcong; Wei, Guangshan; Li, Han; Gao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    ...), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M...

  6. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie M Teixeira-Poit; Michael T Halpern; Heather L Kane; Michael Keating; Murrey Olmsted

    2017-01-01

    .... Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice...

  7. Clinical factors influencing participation in society after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on

  8. Perceived factors influencing the choice of leadership styles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... there is a significant difference between male and female librarians on choice of perceived factors influencing their leadership styles. It was recommended that since librarians are aware of the factors, chief librarians should be mindful of the way they go about the influencing process so as to get positive attitude from staff.

  9. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Univ ersities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  10. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Universities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  11. Activity limitations and factors influencing functional outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Determining the functional abilities and factors influencing outcome of patients with stroke following rehabilitation are essential for the planning of future interventions and services in order to optimise recovery. Objectives: To determine the activity limitations and factors influencing functional outcome of patients ...

  12. Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for disability grant. ... The assessment process was not entirely objective and was influenced by subjective factors. ... and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. The doctors' personal life experiences were a major determinant of the ...

  13. Analysis of the factors influencing the private cost of teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the factors that influence private cost of teacher education in public tertiary institutions in South-South Nigeria in 2014/2015 academic session. The aim was to determine the actual private unit cost of teacher education as well as the factors influencing it and their level of impact on private cost.

  14. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  15. Focusing on the Interfaces, Estuaries and Redox Transition Zones, for Understanding the Microbial Processes and Biogeochemical Cycling of Carbon under the Looming Influence of Global Warming and Anthropogenic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H.; Jiao, N.

    2013-12-01

    the phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish communities in major world estuaries and coastal oceans. However, due to the rapid evolution rate and high adaptive nature of environmental microorganisms, global warming and anthropogenic perturbations may change the structure and function of the aquatic microbial communities. The estuarine redox transition zones may harbor diverse and novel microbial function groups and communities. How the different microbial processes may influence the ecological functionality and efficiency of estuarine ecosystems needs to be thoroughly investigated to be fully understood.

  16. 330 Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... such as “I use alcohol to drive away shyness”; “I smoke for excitement and pleasure”. The fifth factor is SCHOOL “the stress in the school”; “frustration from the lecturers”. Hypothesis Testing. Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference between male and female undergraduate students on factors ...

  17. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. With vaccine-preventable disease accounting for many <5-year deaths in most developing countries, it is imperative to determine the factors responsible for poor immunisation coverage in these countries. Objective. To identify maternal sociodemographic factors associated with child immunisation uptake in ...

  18. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  19. Letters and Viewpoints Some Factors Influencing Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 1998 – 1999 to investigate the influence of shade tolerance, seed sources and insect herbivory on the regeneration of selected heavily exploited timber species (Maesopsis eminii, Zanthoxylum gilletii, Polyscias fulva, and Prunus africana) in Kakamega forest. 58 woody species were recorded in ...

  20. Factors Influencing Degradation of Mercaptans by Thiobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...

  1. Factors Influencing Cheating Tendency in Examinations Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the analysis revealed that self-concept, Intelligence, moral value and test anxiety significantly influence students' tendency to be involved in examination malpractice. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that parents and lecturers should endeavour to build good moral in their students so that ...

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    Department of Periodontics, New Dental Complex. University of Benin Teaching ... Choosing a career is one of the most important life decisions ... for a better management of the future dental workforce in Nigeria. Studies on reasons influencing career choice of dental students, dental hygiene students have been conducted ...

  3. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted ...

  4. ESTABLISHED BUSINESS OWNERS' SUCCESS: INFLUENCING FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN CARLOS AYALA CALVO; GUADALUPE MANZANO GARCÍA

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the following factors on established business owners' success. First, the human capital of the entrepreneur is examined (education, experience, locus of internal control, need for achievement and resilience). Second, the characteristics of the firm with reference to the initial financial resources, number of partners, frequency and breadth of external communication are taken into consideration, and finally, factors relevant to the conception and developm...

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Carel LIGEON; Gregorowicz, Philip; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption in LAC countries. The factors that significantly affect alcohol consumption are: al...

  6. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    esterification ) and degradation (lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation). In general terms, insulin promotes synthetic pathways while catecholamine and glucagon...LCT) during duodenal infusion decreased the output of LCT in thoracic duct lymph. Octanoic acid also reduced triacylglycerol synthesis from oleic acid ...shared by its influence on the fat load provided the liver and the liver’s ability to partition fatty acids among esterification , oxida- tion and

  7. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  8. Rare earth elements in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi estuary,central west coast of India: Influence of mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, T.G.

    in physico-chemical properties from La to Lu, REEs can be used (a) to characterize their provenance and (b) to better understand the processes associated with the first leg of sedimentation from river to estuary and in coastal system (Elderfield et al...- and heavy REE-enrichment with positive Ce (1.1) and Eu anomalies (1.4). The values of (L/H) n , (La/Yb) n and (La/Gd) n (Table 2) are low indicating that the light REEs (LREE) are lower than middle REEs (MREE) and heavy REEs (HREE). Further, the low...

  9. Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kürşad Özlen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students participated in the survey. SPSS program was used to analyze data. The results indicate extreme agreement levels for probable factors except slight agreement levels for technology use, supervisor, assessment and student’s self efficacy.

  10. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  11. Factors influencing seminar learning and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  12. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  13. Factors influencing Complications and Conversion rates following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 60 patients (45 females and 15 males) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis were studied prospectively by analyzing the data accumulated in the process of investigation and treatment. Factors associated with conversion and complications were assessed to determine their ...

  14. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  15. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  16. Factors influencing the use of Information Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    funding, and inadequate power supply and obsolesce of ICT facilities. The study concluded that shortage of trained ICT professionals and funding are crucial factors affecting the use of ICT. The study recommended among other recommendation that relevant ICT literacy education should be embedded in the training of ...

  17. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With the intent to learn from its experiences in working with foundations and other research funders, IDRC produced six case studies on jointly funded programs related to the environment, global health, and information technologies in developing regions around the world. A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that ...

  18. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-07-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development.

  19. factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors ...

  20. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable populations, such as female sex workers. In 2010, the Global Health Research Initiative awarded a $1.8 million grant to the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) to build research capacity in Africa for ...

  1. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, C. J. M.; Hoeks, Jacobus

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns

  2. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  3. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  4. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... effective interventions to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objective: To assess factors affecting practices and utilisation of Vitamin A supplementation services among mothers with children below five years attending. Mbagathi District Hospital. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.

  5. Factors influencing pregnancy outcomes in Morogoro Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal, perinatal and infant mortality rates are still high in developing countries despite national and international efforts to redress this problem. This study was conducted to investigate maternal knowledge and attitudes regarding the risk factors that adversely affect pregnancy outcomes in Morogoro municipality, ...

  6. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is often incomplete though it is uncertain which factors, such as the type and extent of the injury or the method or timing of repair, determine the degree of functional recovery. Serial electrophysiological techniques were used to follow recovery from...

  7. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... generally low, no modern processing technique and no storage facilities. It also established the need to help them. Key words: Socio-economic factors, entrepreneurship, fishing communities, women to acquire modern skills hence general improvement in their livelihoods. Journal Of Agriculture And Social Research Vol.

  8. demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and malaria vaccines should be made easily accessible to members of households alongside with environmental hygiene in order to reduce the incidence of malaria in the area. Keywords: Malaria, Incidence, Prevalence and Socioeconomic factors. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is one of the ...

  9. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  10. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  11. Multiproxies (benthic foraminifera, ostracods and biopolymers approach applied to identify the environmental partitioning of the Guadiana River Estuary (Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River is the fourth longest river in Europe and is a natural frontier between southern Portugal and Spain. This river was historically used to transport minerals exploited in the region since the Roman Empire and therefore suffered human interventions that have been intensified after the industrial revolution. The Guadiana River has in its limits the Guadiana Valley Natural Park, which is of great value for the Conservation of Geobiodiversity. This study mainly aims to identify zones with the environmental characteristics in the estuarine area of the Guadiana River based on the distribution and ecology of microorganisms (ostracods and foraminifera associated with physicochemical parameters and sedimentological and geochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, total organic carbon and total sulfur data. Fifty-five foraminifera taxa were identified along the estuary with dominance of Ammonia tepida and Miliammina fusca and 13 ostracods taxa with dominance Leptocythere lacertosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA performed using biotic and abiotic variables indicated that pH, grain size, total organic carbon (TOC and lipids were the most influent factors in the distribution of these organisms. Four zones were identified in the Guadiana River estuary: i Low estuary - region with the largest marine influence with sandy sediment, higher salinity and total sulfur and mainly represented by the dominance of estuarine species of foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Cribroelphidium vadescens and by the ostracods (Darwinula stevensoni, Semicytherura sulcata and Urocythereis oblonga; ii Intermediate estuary - region characterized by neutral pH and sandy sediment enriched in carbohydrates; this region is characterized by the presence of the ostracods species Cytherois fischeri and Neocytherideis subulata and by calcareous and agglutinated species in foraminiferal assemblages; iii Upper estuary - silt, high TOC, proteins and

  12. Influencing Factors of Science Olympiad Students’ Success

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kürşad Özlen; Mehmet Özgün

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the success of science olympiad students who participate in national and international science olympiads. The collected data is analyzed descriptively after conducting a developed survey. Survey was prepared based on twelve variables with three, four or five measuring items. Among six private high schools of Bosna Sema Educational Institutions in four different cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of 136 science olympiad students ...

  13. Developmental factors that influence sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

    2011-04-01

    The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors affected longevity, regardless of definition. Pork producers can implement management protocols that can extend the productive life of breeding females, resulting in improved profitability and animal welfare.

  14. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, “male65,” “female65” and “male85,” that differed in talker (male∕female) and presentation level (65∕85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed. PMID:20968381

  15. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  16. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  17. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Occurrence of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several decades, a large quantity of reactive nitrogen has been transported into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal water, due to intense human activities in the Yangtze River Basin. At present, it annually receives a high load of anthropogenic inorganic nitrogen (about 1.1 × 1011 mol N) from increased agricultural activities, fish farming, and domestic and industrial wastewater discharge in the Yangtze River Basin, consequently leading to severe eutrophication and frequent occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the estuary and adjacent coastal areas. Hence, the microbial nitrogen transformations are of major concern in the Yangtze Estuary. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been reported to play a significant role in the removal of reactive nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the occurrences of anammox bacteria and associated activity in the Yangtze Estuary were evidenced with molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. It is observed that the anammox bacteria at the study area mainly consisted of Candidatus Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia. Salinity was found to be a key environmental factor controlling distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Also, temperature and organic carbon had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. Q-PCR assays of anammox bacteria indicated that their abundance had a range of 2.63 ×106 - 9.48 ×107 copies g-1 dry sediment, with high spatiotemporal heterogeneity. The potential anammox activities measured in the present work varied between 0.94 - 6.61nmol N g-1 dry sediment h-1, which were related to temperature, nitrite and anammox bacterial abundance. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6 - 12.9 % to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  19. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  20. Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William R; Nevins, Justin C; Gaither, Caroline; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C

    2012-01-01

    Some pharmacists have changed the focus of their practice from solely dispensing. Emerging services they have added include medication therapy management and other pharmacy services. To assess the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, resource adequacy, and pharmacy staffing on pharmacy practice change. A total of 1847 licensed U.S. pharmacists received 2 mail surveys as part of a larger national pharmacist survey. The core survey collected information about practice setting, prescription volume, and staffing. The supplemental survey assessed how the pharmacy had changed over the past 2 years to enable the delivery of pharmacy services. The amount of change was assessed by 12 items, which were summed to provide an aggregate change index. Five variables from organizational change literature were assessed as influences on practice change: proactiveness, risk taking, autonomy, work ethic, and adequacy of resources. In addition, the associations of pharmacist and technician staffing with practice change were assessed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the aggregate change index as the dependent variable and the 7 potential influences on change as the independent variables. Four hundred usable surveys were analyzed. At least some level of practice change was reported in 60% of pharmacies surveyed. The linear regression analysis of the model was significant (Pentrepreneurial orientation-proactiveness and autonomy-as well as adequacy of resources and pharmacy technician staffing. Many pharmacies reported that some aspects of their practice have changed, such as collecting patient information and documenting care. Few reported changes in asking patients to pay for pharmacy services. These findings support previous results, which show that the capacity for organizational change can be augmented by increasing proactiveness, autonomy among employees, and the availability of adequate and appropriate resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Factors influencing sleeping metabolic rate in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, M P; Cole, T J; Whitehead, R G

    1989-07-01

    Seven West African infants were studied prospectively from birth to 1 year to investigate factors affecting sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), particularly acute infection. There was no rise in SMR associated with acute infection, after adjustment for the effects of changes in body weight and body temperature. In the case of two illnesses, malaria and 'fever', there were falls in adjusted SMR. It is suggested that these falls can be accounted for by the effects of altered energy intake. Other effects on SMR were in close agreement with previous work.

  2. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  3. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  4. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  5. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  6. Factors influencing treatment results in pseudophakic endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, F; Sen, E; Demirbay, P; Taşkintuna, I; Teke, M Y; Ozdal, P; Ortaç, S; Oz, O; Tarkan, F; Firat, E

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors, therapeutic approaches and factors associated with the poor visual outcome in pseudophakic endophthalmitis. Data related to 28 cases with the diagnosis of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and IOL implantation were gathered retrospectively. Preceding surgery was extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) in 18, phacoemulsification in 8 and scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation in two cases. Posterior capsule rupture and diabetes mellitus were considered to contribute to the development of endophthalmitis because of their high incidences (50% and 25%) in the study group. Microbiological studies from aqueous and vitreous humour were done in 85% of the cases and 58% were positive. S. Epidermidis was the most common organism, accounting for 50% of the isolates. All cases were given topical and systemic antibiotics. Inflammation was controlled by addition of subconjunctival antibiotics to this regimen in two, intravitreal antibiotic injection in 14, pars plana vitrectomy, total capsular and lens extraction and intravitreal antibiotic injection in three, lens exchange, intracapsular and intravitreal antibiotic injection in three cases. Six (21%) cases eventually needed evisceration. Visual acuity of 20/40 or better was achieved in 25%, and 20/100 or better in 64%. Treatment delay (p=0.039), capsular rupture complicating cataract surgery, especially with extracapsular cataract extraction (p=0.015), and initial visual acuity worse than hand motion (p=0.003) were strong predictors of poor visual outcome. The risk of endophthalmitis was not different forplanned ECCCE (0.26%) andphacoemulsification (0.27%) but the prognosis was better with the latter.

  7. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  8. Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda ...

  9. Communication and socio-personal factors influencing adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication and socio-personal factors influencing adoption of dairy farming ... with adoption of dairy farming technologies among livestock owners a sample of 154 ... The criteria like frequencies, percentage, mean and product moment ...

  10. EDUCATIONAL MARKETING: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF A UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the higher education sector is forcing the higher educational institutions (HEI to develop more competitive marketing strategies. For developing universities marketing strategies HEI need to understand the student choice process of a university. Understanding university choice process is not easy, this process involves complex decision which affects students’ life (future career, friends, residence, etc.. Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore the factors that influence university choice decision, in general, by investigating factors, relevant in literature, which most influence this decision. Among the factors identified are: institutional reputation, cost, employment opportunities, parents’ influence, educational offer, location. This study has been done in order to find the most important factors that influence choice of a university among Romanian students.

  11. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health

  12. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  13. Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    57811, Nairobi, Kenya. ... A study was carried out to investigate the effect of culture medium factors that influence the shoot ... amenable to tissue culture but further studies are required to obtain rooting of in vitro shoots to come.

  14. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-01-01

    Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms...

  15. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran...

  16. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Environmental factors significantly influenced all production traits measured for ... pH, phosphorus and soil organic carbon content. ..... intake (Collier et al., 2005), which may result in a negative energy balance (Bernabuccil.

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Availability and Form on Phytoplankton Growth in a Eutrophied Estuary (Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Cira

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability and form are important controls on estuarine phytoplankton growth. This study experimentally determined the influence of urea and nitrate additions on phytoplankton growth throughout the growing season (March 2012, June 2011, August 2011 in a temperate, eutrophied estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Photopigments (chlorophyll a and diagnostic photopigments: peridinin, fucoxanthin, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll b and microscopy-based cell counts were used as indicators of phytoplankton growth. In March, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Gyrodinium instriatum and only fucoxanthin-based growth rates were stimulated by nitrogen addition. The limited response to nitrogen suggests other factors may control phytoplankton growth and community composition in early spring. In June, inorganic nitrogen concentrations were low and stimulatory effects of both nitrogen forms were observed for chlorophyll a- and diagnostic photopigment-based growth rates. In contrast, cell counts showed that only cryptophyte and dinoflagellate (Heterocapsa rotundata growth were stimulated. Responses of other photopigments may have been due to an increase in pigment per cell or growth of plankton too small to be counted with the microscopic methods used. Despite high nitrate concentrations in August, growth rates were elevated in response to urea and/or nitrate addition for all photopigments except peridinin. However, this response was not observed in cell counts, again suggesting that pigment-based growth responses may not always be indicative of a true community and/or taxa-specific growth response. This highlights the need to employ targeted microscopy-based cell enumeration concurrent with pigment-based technology to facilitate a more complete understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in estuarine systems. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the seasonal importance of nitrogen availability in

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Availability and Form on Phytoplankton Growth in a Eutrophied Estuary (Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Emily K; Paerl, Hans W; Wetz, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and form are important controls on estuarine phytoplankton growth. This study experimentally determined the influence of urea and nitrate additions on phytoplankton growth throughout the growing season (March 2012, June 2011, August 2011) in a temperate, eutrophied estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA). Photopigments (chlorophyll a and diagnostic photopigments: peridinin, fucoxanthin, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll b) and microscopy-based cell counts were used as indicators of phytoplankton growth. In March, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Gyrodinium instriatum and only fucoxanthin-based growth rates were stimulated by nitrogen addition. The limited response to nitrogen suggests other factors may control phytoplankton growth and community composition in early spring. In June, inorganic nitrogen concentrations were low and stimulatory effects of both nitrogen forms were observed for chlorophyll a- and diagnostic photopigment-based growth rates. In contrast, cell counts showed that only cryptophyte and dinoflagellate (Heterocapsa rotundata) growth were stimulated. Responses of other photopigments may have been due to an increase in pigment per cell or growth of plankton too small to be counted with the microscopic methods used. Despite high nitrate concentrations in August, growth rates were elevated in response to urea and/or nitrate addition for all photopigments except peridinin. However, this response was not observed in cell counts, again suggesting that pigment-based growth responses may not always be indicative of a true community and/or taxa-specific growth response. This highlights the need to employ targeted microscopy-based cell enumeration concurrent with pigment-based technology to facilitate a more complete understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in estuarine systems. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the seasonal importance of nitrogen availability in estuaries, and also

  19. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  20. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  1. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  2. Multiple factors influencing OR ventilation system effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surgical site infections has become more critical during the last years. The number of airborne microbes depends on the number released by the staff in the room or supplied from neighbouring rooms. In order to minimize the risk of nosocomial infections during surgical procedures technical developments like ventilation systems were introduced in the operating room (OR. In this study several factors like clothing and types of ventilation systems have been investigated and their impact on the effectiveness for reducing microbial burden in the OR has been assessed. In case of OR-gowns we found a benefit for a disposable Swedish clothing concept regarding microbiological contamination in comparison with the German standard multiuse clothing. Moreover our study shows that there is comparable effectiveness of a fairly novel temperature controlled airflow ventilation system (TAF compared to standard low turbulent uni-directional airflow (TAV.

  3. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  4. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  5. Factors influencing smoking among secondary school pupils in Ilala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data coding was done during data entry & quantitative data analysis was done through SPSS Version 12.0, a computer package programme, whereas qualitative ... The factors that were found to contribute for their experiment to smoke include peer influence, family influence and the school environment, advertisement and ...

  6. [Influence of nonindustrial risk factors on congenital abnormalities formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talykova, L V

    2009-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities could result from exposure to occupational hazards. Epidemiologic study of nickel compounds influence on reproductive health in females engaged into nickel purification in Murmansk region enterprises did not reveal increased risk of the anomalies. The study was aimed to define influence of various risk factors connected not to work conditions, but to mother's health, bad habits, age, on congenital abnormalities in newborns.

  7. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  8. Factors influencing involvement of youth in crime as perceived by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire styled “Factors influencing youth involvement in crime questionnaire (FIYICQ) was the instrument used to data for the study. The study was carried out with the view of finding out if variables such as sex, age, and mode of residence would have influence in the perception of respondents regarding youth ...

  9. Factors influencing adoption of Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of respondents' socio-economic characteristics on adoption was investigated along with other factors influencing adoption of the Small-Scale palm oil Processing Equipment (SSPE) in Delta State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in administrating 164 structured questionnaires. Data were ...

  10. Do socio-demographic factors influence the travel behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature-based tourism products in Africa, especially South Africa, are playing an important role in attracting visitors. It is therefore essential to understand travel behaviour and the factors influencing the behaviour of visitors, as such knowledge can influence future park visits, park development and target marketing strategies ...

  11. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  12. Controls on suspended aggregate size in partially mixed estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, David C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.

    2003-10-01

    Knowledge of aggregate size in estuaries is important to determining the fate and transport of suspended sediment and particle adherent contaminants. We have used a suite of in situ instruments to determine the controls of aggregate size distributions in three muddy, partially mixed estuaries in the mid-Atlantic USA. A novel method is presented to estimate turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and the resulting Kolmogorov microscale ( λK) using a profiling acoustic Doppler velocimeter that has been contaminated by boat motion. The physical processes that control particle size distribution differ in the three estuaries due to the different hydrodynamics and benthic characteristics. Controls within each estuary also vary with different depth regimes. Surface particle size dynamics in all the studied estuaries are affected by irregular advection events. In the hydrodynamically energetic York River, mid-depth regions are controlled tidally by the combined processes of small λK decreasing particle size at high TKE and differential settling increasing particle size during lower TKE, more stratified conditions. Mid-depth regions in the lower energy Elizabeth River are controlled by irregular resuspension and trapping at the pycnocline of large low density particles. Bottom regions in all estuaries are most strongly influenced by resuspension, tidally in the energetic estuaries and irregularly in the low energy estuary. Near-bed particle size distributions are controlled by both λK and the distribution of particles in the bed in the higher energy estuaries. Just above the bed, large porous particles survive resuspension in the lower energy Elizabeth River, particles become smaller with decreased λK in the more energetic York River, and biological aggregation causes large dense particles to resist turbulent breakup in the Chesapeake Bay, which has a more active benthic community. The net result just above the bed is that particle size and settling velocity are

  13. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria. PMID:22259220

  14. Acute pancreatitis: analysis of factors influencing survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M L; Daggett, W M; Civette, J M; Vasu, M A; Lawson, D W; Warshaw, A L; Nardi, G L; Bartlett, M K

    1977-01-01

    Of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), there remains a group who suffer life-threatening complications despite current modes of therapy. To identify factors which distinguish this group from the entire patient population, a retrospectiva analysis of 519 cases of AP occurring over a 5-year period was undertaken. Thirty-one per cent of these patients had a history of alcoholism and 47% had a history of biliary disease. The overall mortality was 12.9%. Of symptoms and signs recorded at the time of admission, hypotension, tachycardia, fever, abdominal mass, and abnormal examination of the lung fields correlated positively with increased mortality. Seven features of the initial laboratory examination correlated with increased mortality. Shock, massive colloid requirement, hypocalcemia, renal failure, and respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation were complications associated with the poorest prognosis. Among patients in this series with three or more of these clinical characteristics, maximal nonoperative treatment yielded a survival rate of 29%, compared to the 64% survival rate for a group of patients treated operatively with cholecystostomy, gastrostomy, feeding jejunostomy, and sump drainage of the lesser sac and retroperitoneum.

  15. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  16. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  17. Factors that Influence Quality Service of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as a profession requires a thorough commitment and sincerity among educators in guiding and shaping the patterns of learning toward forming identities and lead change in the students. As an adult with a lot of knowledge and experience, classroom becomes an important medium for the delivery and access to knowledge to the students in an instructional condition that effectively and efficiently. Therefore, all educators need to prepare themselves to face challenges to deal with children as a leader in charge in constructing a conducive and persuasive educational relationship. Important characteristics in this context is how to create a memorable delivery systems that meet the standard qualities and aligned with the education laws enforced. As a teacher who has received training from experts and civil servants thus all actions taken should be sincere, open, meet the service specification that gives attention to the self-esteem of the students with a good service, quality, and meet their needs. Therefore, this study will discuss the main factors that affect the quality of service to the students among the teachers namely motivation and professional competence. Selected samples in this study were 327 teachers from Secondary School in Pekanbaru. This study has shown a clear interest in improving the quality of motivation and the quality of service of teachers to the students. The aspects of the professional competence of teachers are still experiencing problems in applying the knowledge and skills to lead and manage the classroom inrealizing   a conducive environment.

  18. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  19. Factors influencing the implementation of evidence in Chinese nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Broome, Marion E; Feng, Sheng; Hu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    To explore the influencing factors from staff nurses, nurse managers, nursing directors and a physician involved in nursing evidence implementation in Mainland China. Although the need for evidence-based nursing is well recognised, continuous efforts are needed to strive for closing the gap from evidence to action. Previous studies have explored influencing factors from individual and organisational perspectives in Western countries. However, it remains unclear what the influences (i.e., context and culture) in the developing countries as China. A grounded theory design using in-depth individual interviews was conducted. Interviews with 56 participants from 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects were conducted in Mainland China. Constant comparative analysis was used to discover the concepts describing the influencing factors during the implementation process. Factors that influenced implementation of evidence-based practice in the Chinese context were identified. These included the leaders of the projects, the nature of the evidence, practising nurses, patients involved in the projects, the system where the projects were implemented, as well as the influence from outside of the system. A variety of factors influencing evidence implementation in Chinese nursing context were identified and further explored from the perspective of different project leaders and culture influence. There is apparently a strong demand for a supportive system, targeted strategies to facilitate various evidence implementations and integrated core elements of evidence-based practice at the point care. The blurred boundaries and complexity of influencing factors call for a systematic and dynamic perspective during implementation. The competitive priorities emphasise the importance of integration between clinical nursing care and evidence-based practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Factors that influence chest injuries in rollovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digges, Kennerly; Eigen, Ana; Tahan, Fadi; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The design of countermeasures to reduce serious chest injuries for belted occupants involved in rollover crashes requires an understanding of the cause of these injuries and of the test conditions to assure the effectiveness of the countermeasures. This study defines rollover environments and occupant-to-vehicle interactions that cause chest injuries for belted drivers. The NASS-CDS was examined to determine the frequency and crash severity for belted drivers with serious (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) chest injuries in rollovers. Case studies of NASS crashes with serious chest injuries sustained by belted front occupants were undertaken and damage patterns were determined. Vehicle rollover tests with dummies were examined to determine occupant motion in crashes with damage similar to that observed in the NASS cases. Computer simulations were performed to further explore factors that could contribute to chest injury. Finite element model (FEM) vehicle models with both the FEM Hybrid III dummy and THUMS human model were used in the simulations. Simulation of rollovers with 6 quarter-turns or less indicated that increases in the vehicle pitch, either positive or negative, increased the severity of dummy chest loadings. This finding was consistent with vehicle damage observations from NASS cases. For the far-side occupant, the maximum chest loadings were caused by belt and side interactions during the third quarter-turn and by the center console loading during the fourth quarter-turn. The results showed that the THUMS dummy produced more realistic kinematics and improved insights into skeletal and chest organ loadings compared to the Hybrid III dummy. These results suggest that a dynamic rollover test to encourage chest injury reduction countermeasures should induce a roll of at least 4 quarter-turns and should also include initial vehicle pitch and/or yaw so that the vehicle's axis of rotation is not aligned with its inertial roll axis during the initial stage

  1. Factors influencing preferences of Korean people toward advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su Hyun Kim

    2011-07-01

    Although Korean society has begun to seek a way of utilizing advance directives, there is not much known about the factors influencing the average Korean person's preference toward advance directives. The purpose of this study was to examine factors, in addition to demographic variables, influencing preferences regarding advance directives. These include: to what extent people's awareness of advance directives, preferences of extending their life at the end of life, experience of illness and medical care, and family functioning independently influence the preferences toward advance directives. The participants were 382 community-dwelling Korean people. The data analysis was performed using hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. The findings showed that a majority of Korean people had a positive preference on advance directives and the factors influencing their preferences for advance directives were the preferences against the use of life-sustaining treatment at the end of life, a good self-rated heath status, and an unsatisfactory family functioning.

  2. Factors influencing the Use of Mobile Payments in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    Success Factors in M-Commerce”, Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, Vol. 4,. No. 3, 63-79. Zmijewska A., Lawrence E., Steele R (2004). Towards Understanding of Factors Influencing user acceptance of mobile payments in proceeding of: Proceedings of the IADIS. International Conference WWW/Internet ...

  3. New factors influencing G protein coupled receptors' system functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New factors such as the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) surrounding's chemical environment, cell membrane constituents, the existent gap junction, endogenous receptor affinity status and animal species have been shown to influence the GPCR physiology and variations of those factors can modify the functions of the ...

  4. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. How- ever, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors ...

  5. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  6. Factors influencing medical students in pursuing a career in surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many factors play a role in the decision of a medical student to pursue a career in surgery. With a decline in numbers of applications into surgical programmes seen globally, the aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence medical students in pursuing a career in surgery. Methods: A descriptive ...

  7. Influencing factors on lecture attendance at a tertiary institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tendency towards decreasing class attendance by students is a concern for many tertiary institutions. Various factors contribute to the motivation of students, which in turn directly or indirectly influence them to attend lectures. The aim of the study is mainly to investigate which factors are related to the problem of low ...

  8. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further details were provid by means of a questionnaire. Results. PEF ranged from 350 to 760 1/min, with a mean (± standard deviation (SD» of 539 ± 681/min. Factors expected to influence PEF included height and mass, where is unexpected factors included sport intensity and academic grade. A trend to reduced peak ...

  9. Interrelated factors influence of current stock market on pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Петрівна Мацелюх

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacts on market prices of securities are generalized. It is found that in the process of price determination and its implementation exist a system of interrelated factors of influence, which are divided into objective and subjective; internal and external; traditional and specific. It is proved that the impact of factors associated with risk pricing in financial assets

  10. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  11. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  12. An assessment of factors influencing the prescribing of antibiotics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of factors influencing the prescribing of antibiotics in Acute Respiratory Illness: A questionnaire study. D Hoffman, J Botha, I Kleinschmidt. Abstract. Introduction: Non-clinical factors are major determinants in the decision to prescribe medication. This study was prompted by the impression that Primary Care ...

  13. Do lifestyle factors influence colorectal cancer risk in Lynch syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, F.J.B.; Botma, A.; Winkels, R.; Nagengast, F.M.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is one of the inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes and is due to germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Within LS affected-families the expression of the syndrome varies, which suggests that other factors, such as lifestyle factors, have an influence

  14. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  15. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  16. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ever, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with women choice of public health facility during child- birth. ... cility, media exposure, cost of accessing drugs, transport.

  17. Factors influencing the Nigerian shipping market under a depressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the Nigerian shipping market under a depressed economic environment. ... All these factors coupled with worldwide economic recession culminated into adverse fall in the Nigeria shipping business as witnessed in the decrease in ship and cargo traffic in recent years and high cost of transporting export ...

  18. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the formulation of preventive strategies within a comprehensive treatment approach.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  20. Factors Influencing the Use of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey data from 15 estate firms were collected to analyze the vital motivating factors influencing the use of ICT in real estate practice. A five point Likert scale was used to examine their opinions and spearman rank correlation was used to test if there is any relationship between internal and external motivating factors.

  1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cost is a major concern for delivery of minimally invasive surgical technologies due to the nature of resources required. It is unclear whether factors extrinsic to technology availability impact on this uptake. Objectives: To establish the influence of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors in the adoption of ...

  2. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. However, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with ...

  3. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P; Sigal, Ian A

    2018-01-01

    To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally.

  5. Factors Influencing the Yemeni Customers’ Intention to Adopt Takaful Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Echchabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the Yemeni customers’ intention to adopt Takaful products, and to explore the potential factors that influence their decision. This study applies SEM and one sample t-test to analyse the collected data. The results indicate that among the factors included in this study, only compatibility positively and significantly affects the adoption intention. This is the first study that addresses the adoption of Takaful products in Yemen and the factors that influence it. Furthermore, this study extends the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT by applying it to a different setting.

  6. Hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary - Brazil: pre jetty conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Siegle; SCHETTINI, Carlos A. F.; KLEIN, Antonio H. F.; Toldo Jr.,Elírio E.

    2009-01-01

    Estuarine hydrodynamics is a key factor in the definition of the filtering capacity of an estuary and results from the interaction of the processes that control the inlet morphodynamics and those that are acting in the mixing of the water in the estuary. The hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the Camboriú estuary were assessed by two field campaigns conducted in 1998 that covered both neap and spring tide conditions. The period measured represents the estuarine hydrodynamics an...

  7. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  8. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canicali Primo, Cândida; de Oliveira Nunes, Bruna; de Fátima Almeida Lima, Eliane; Marabotti Costa Leite, Franciele; Barros de Pontes, Monica; Gomes Brandão, Marcos Antônio

    2016-04-01

    Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  9. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  10. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors...... by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework – the food choice kaleidoscope [Jaeger et al., 2011, Appetite, 56(2), 412-23] was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand...

  11. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  12. Factors Influencing Home Death in a Japanese Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Akiyama; Hiroo Hanabusa; Hiroshi Mikami

    2011-01-01

    To examine factors influencing home death, an anonymous survey was mailed to 998 home care supporting clinics (HCSCs) in the 23 wards of Tokyo, Japan. We classified the HCSCs into two types (single physician practice and multiple physician practice) and identified factors of each type of practice that predict home death. The factors associated with a greater probability of dying at home were as follows: in the multiple physician practices, collaboration with hospitals and teaching coping skil...

  13. Main Non-Clinical Factors Influencing Endodontic Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Specialisation in endodontics allows for endodontic referrals by general dental practitioner (GDPs) and the study of factors influencing referral. These centre on a triad consisting of the referral process, non-clinical and clinical reasons for referral. Many non-clinical factors have been identified which may influence the referral process to the endodontist. A systematic review study was undertaken into the main non-clinical factors influencing endodontic referral by general dental practitioners to endodontists. Such awareness and appreciation of these factors benefits the commercial aspect of the referral practice, increases access by reducing barriers to care, and ultimately improves patient care. A literature search yielded three papers that met the eligibility criteria. All studies included were cross sectional survey studies completed by GDPs. The main non-clinical factors seen from the studies include: Availability. Personality, relationships and communication. Availability presented as a common thread throughout all the studies. In conclusion, endodontic referral is multifactorial and influenced by several factors, that are not related to the nature of the endodontic disease, and this is a dynamic process. Due to the lack of high level studies, and limitations of the available studies, further research is suggested into the relevant area of non-clinical endodontic factors for endodontic referral and thus allowing for further analysis.

  14. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  15. Water quality in South African temporarily open/closed estuaries: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... semi-open and closed. However, the scale and extent to which biogeochemical processes within estuaries influence water quality is still poorly understood and further research is required to improve understanding of these processes in temporarily open/closed estuaries. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2007, 32(2): ...

  16. Planktonic diatoms of the Zuari estuary, Goa (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    ). The Zuari estuary on the west coast (Goa) of India is a highly dynamic and variable environment with considerable tidal influence. The perennial connection of this estuary with the Arabian sea results in rhythmic ingress and egress of marine and estuarine...

  17. Water quality in South African temporarily open/closed estuaries: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and water quality characteristics of the estuaries considered supported the conceptual model under the three dominant mouth states: open, semi-open and closed. However, the scale and extent to which biogeochemical processes within estuaries influence water quality is still poorly understood and further ...

  18. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.

  19. [The benthic fauna of Sabancuy Estuary, Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Solís, A; Torruco Gómez, D

    2001-03-01

    The fish and invertebrates community structure in the Sabancuy estuary was analyzed in two seasons and 14 sampling stations (13 along the estuary and one in the marine adjacent coast). No significant differences were found between seasons. The environmental frame defines two zones within the estuary, the first extends from the access highway to Sabancuy town until the Pujo mouth in the west; the second from the bridge to the estuary head in the east. The most abundant invertebrates were mollusks (51.8% of the total), in biomass the crustaceans dominated. The fish included 21 families and 33 species; the most abundant were Gerridae, Scianidae, Sparidae, Lutjanidae and Ciprinodontidae. The highest diversities of both communities correspond to the central part of the estuary. These communities include three sections with notable differences in faunal distribution: one is influenced by the exit to Terminos lagoon, the secondary in the estuary head and a third is in a transition zone defined by the proximity of the town access bridge. The ecological organization suggests a strong division caused by the bridge, both sides are scarce in habitats and nutrient resources and this is reflected in the low species counts.

  20. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  1. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: mvilla@us.es [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mosqueda, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain); Perianez, R. [E.U.I.T.A., Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Carretera de Utrera, Km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Vaca, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary

  2. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  3. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  4. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  6. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  7. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  8. Seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors influence on acute cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Dotsenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to explore the influence of seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors on acute cardiovascular events in the practice of emergency. Methods and results. 11285 cards of emergency visits were analyzed in 2014. The seasonal fluctuations in the frequency of acute cardiovascular events had acrophase in winter months and a mini-phase in summer months (amplitude oscillation was 1.45 times. A close relationship between such fluctuations and meteorologically unfavorable days (III and IV types of weather was found. Such days number was significantly higher in winter months and less during summer months The maximum frequency of acute cardiovascular events increased more than 4-fold when meteorologically unfavorable days and negative influence of geophysical factors (magnetic storms and lunar phase were detected. Conclusion. Influence of seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors on the acute cardiovascular events needs to be taken into account in the preventive and treatment schemes.

  9. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  10. Nursing students' learning dynamics and influencing factors in clinical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N

    2017-12-07

    Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  12. Factors Influencing Occupational Therapists' Decision to Supervise Fieldwork Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varland, Joscelyn; Cardell, Elizabeth; Koski, Jeanette; McFadden, Molly

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision to supervise a Level II occupational therapy fieldwork student. A survey was sent to occupational therapists identified from licensure boards and alumni rosters, including those who have and have not supervised students (n = 548). The results identified both positive and negative influences along with predictive factors of supervising a student. While positive factors included continuing education units, education on fieldwork expectations, their own fieldwork experiences, shared supervision, and access to educational resources, negative influences consisted of: job responsibilities, caseload, productivity standards, working part-time, and fear of failing a student. The discussion focuses on how to address the needs of the clinician and facilitate fieldwork placement.

  13. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  15. Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Moxham, Lorna; Walker, Sandra; Happell, Brenda

    2010-03-01

    The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented.

  16. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  17. Key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee; Ammarapala, Veeris; Suanmali, Suthathip

    2017-08-31

    The construction industry involves many hazardous activities that may expose workers to a wide variety of health hazards. Selection of construction safety equipment is crucial in ensuring workers' safety. This article aims to examine key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection, utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A questionnaire survey is conducted in the construction companies in Bangkok, Thailand. The factor analysis extracts 103 sets of data into six key factors - namely supplier agreements, supplier support, personal, equipment design, safety-related policies and cost value factors - with a total of 20 associated items. The AHP results conclude that the safety-related policies, equipment design and personal factors are the most important factors when selecting construction safety equipment. A construction company can use the study results as a checklist to help assess different safety equipment, and to select the best equipment.

  18. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  19. Education in Subsaharian Africa and its influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářová, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    4 Education in Sub-Saharan Africa and factors, which influence it The main theme of this master thesis is education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its first part, which can be understood as an introduction into the situation in the region, describes influence of particular factors, e.g. poverty, conflicts and health conditions, on education of inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. Second part deals with level of education in specific countries of the region and for each country provides data on previous...

  20. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  1. Factors that influence the childbearing intentions of Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E; Metcalfe, A; Jack, M; Tough, S C

    2011-05-01

    The role of men in the childbearing decision process and the factors that influence men's childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. This study aimed to describe the factors that strongly influence the childbearing intentions of men and to describe differences in these factors according to men's age group. A telephone survey (response rate 84%) was conducted with 495 men between the ages of 20 and 45 living in an urban setting who, at the time of contact, did not have biological children. Men were asked about what factors strongly influence their intention to have children. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to determine if these factors were significantly associated with age. Of those sampled, 86% of men reported that at some point in the future they planned to become a parent. The factors that men considered to be most influential in their childbearing intentions were: the need to be financially secure, their partner's interest/desire to have children, their partner's suitability to be a parent and their personal interest/desire to have children. Men who were 35-45 years old had lower odds of stating that financial security (crude OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.18-0.54) and partner's interest in having children (crude OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) were very influential, but had higher odds of stating that their biological clock (crude OR: 4.37, 95% CI: 1.78-10.76) was very influential in their childbearing intentions than men in the 20-24 year age group. The factors that influence men's intentions about when to become a parent may change with age. Understanding what influences men to have children, and what they understand about reproductive health is important for education, program and policy development.

  2. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ13C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg-1, while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg-1. CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ13C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global patterns and predictors of fish species richness in estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Rita P; Henriques, Sofia; França, Susana; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Cardoso, Inês; Laborde, Marina; Cabral, Henrique N

    2015-09-01

    1. Knowledge of global patterns of biodiversity and regulating variables is indispensable to develop predictive models. 2. The present study used predictive modelling approaches to investigate hypotheses that explain the variation in fish species richness between estuaries over a worldwide spatial extent. Ultimately, such models will allow assessment of future changes in ecosystem structure and function as a result of environmental changes. 3. A comprehensive worldwide data base was compiled of the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. Generalized Linear Models were used to quantify how variation in species richness among estuaries is related to historical events, energy dynamics and ecosystem characteristics, while controlling for sampling effects. 4. At the global extent, species richness differed among marine biogeographic realms and continents and increased with mean sea surface temperature, terrestrial net primary productivity and the stability of connectivity with a marine ecosystem (open vs. temporarily open estuaries). At a smaller extent (within a marine biogeographic realm or continent), other characteristics were also important in predicting variation in species richness, with species richness increasing with estuary area and continental shelf width. 5. The results suggest that species richness in an estuary is defined by predictors that are spatially hierarchical. Over the largest spatial extents, species richness is influenced by the broader distributions and habitat use patterns of marine and freshwater species that can colonize estuaries, which are in turn governed by history contingency, energy dynamics and productivity variables. Species richness is also influenced by more regional and local parameters that can further affect the process of community colonization in an estuary including the connectivity of the estuary with the adjacent marine habitat, and, over smaller spatial extents, the size of these

  5. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity in marsh sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yin, Guoyu; You, Li

    2013-07-01

    ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important process of nitrogen cycle has been studied in estuarine environments. However, knowledge about the dynamics of anammox bacteria and their interactions with associated activity remains scarce in these environments. Here we report the anammox bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity in the Yangtze Estuary, using molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that high anammox bacterial diversity occurred in this estuary, including Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia, and two novel clusters. The patterns of community composition and diversity of anammox bacteria differed across the estuary. Salinity was a key environmental factor defining the geographical distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Temperature and organic carbon also had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. The abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 2.63 × 106 and 1.56 × 107 gene copies g-1, and its spatiotemporal variations were related significantly to salinity, temperature, and nitrite content. The anammox activity was related to temperature, nitrite, and anammox bacterial abundance, with values of 0.94-6.61 nmol N g-1 h-1. The tight link between the anammox and denitrification processes implied that denitrifying bacteria may be a primary source of nitrite for the anammox bacteria in the estuarine marshes. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6%-12.9% to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  6. Variation of phytoplankton community structure from the Pearl River estuary to South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-10-01

    The Pearl River is located in the northern part of South China Sea. The environment of the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is significantly impacted by nutrients from anthropogenic activities. Along the anthropogenic pollution gradient from the PRE to South China Sea, the phylogenetic diversity and biomass of phytoplankton was examined in relation to physic-chemical variables. The richness of rbcL gene was higher in the open sea than the estuary, while the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in the estuary than in the open sea. The cluster analysis of the sequences data resulted in seven phytoplankton community types and the dominant species of phytoplankton changed from Cryptophytes and Diatoms to Prymnesiophytes and Diatoms along the gradient. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by nutrients and salinity. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus, nitrite and ammonium (P phytoplankton diversity was highly positively affected by salinity (P phytoplankton distribution and biomass of the study area. Further research is necessary to reveal the influence mechanism of environmental factors on the phytoplankton.

  7. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendel, A L; Bessa, F; Alves, V E N; Amorim, A L A; Patrício, J; Palma, A R T

    2017-04-15

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06±0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing soccer referee's intentions to quit the game

    OpenAIRE

    C.; Gervis, M; Rhind, DJA

    2014-01-01

    The number of football referees in England has declined significantly over recent years, posing a threat to the future of competitive soccer. This exploratory study investigates the factors which influence referee's intention to quit the game. Unstructured qualitative interviews (N = 12) were conducted with 3 past and 9 present referees. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive content analysis. Three higher order dimensions emerged: Organizational factors (e.g. support, train...

  9. Finding Factors that Influence Carsharing Usage: Case Study in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Junhee Kang; Keeyeon Hwang; Sungjin Park

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the factors that affect carsharing demand. As a proxy for carsharing demand, the number of (booking) transactions made by carsharing users is counted based on the data from one of the two major carsharing operators in Seoul, Korea. In order to identify the factors influencing station-based carsharing usage, multiple linear regression modeling was performed with the number of carsharing transactions as a dependent variable and with the three groups o...

  10. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

  11. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  12. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  13. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  14. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study investigated factors influencing utilization of modern family planning services among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Descriptive survey design was adopted for it.

  15. Influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge sharing is an effective means to provide information for organizational growth. The study investigated the influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among researchers in selected research institutes in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method. Total enumeration technique was ...

  16. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: cunwaobiala@gmail.com ... Efforts to implement these programmes through some public extension systems such as Agricultural .... Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the factors that influence output realised from CBNRMP ...

  17. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the socio-cultural factors influencing women's participation in sports as perceived by female undergraduates in the University of Ilorin. Two hundred female undergraduate students residing in school halls of residence were involved in the study. These were selected using simple randomsampling.

  18. Factors influencing increase in tuberculosis patients in Mpumalanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors considered most important in this study were lack of knowledge of TB among participants despite their various levels of education, poverty, overcrowding, ... religious and ritual beliefs, and the influence of traditional healers' herbal medicines with the dictum that participants have been possessed by evil spirits.

  19. Factors influencing the Use of Mobile Payments in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M-payments, which refer to payments over a mobile device, have not taken off as fast as expected in Tanzania, especially in the case of Zantel Telecommunication Company. The slow adoption rate raises many questions about what drives consumer behaviour. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate factors influencing the ...

  20. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; R. Koopmans; L. Stok-Koch

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  1. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study explored factors that influence male involvement in reproductive health in western Kenya. Qualitative study design was used. From December 2008 to February 2009, data were collected via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) at three provinces of western Kenya. Twelve in-depth interviews ...

  2. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on Swazi nation land. ... Future interventions in the agriculture sector should not overlook the role played by women in pursuing the goal of achieving household food security through agricultural production. Key words: Swazi Nation Land, commercial, investment, ...

  3. Factors influencing uptake of family planning services among men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current reports indicate that male participation improves uptake of maternal healthcare and family planning services among women. Objective: To determine factors that influence male participation in family planning services in Kenya. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Nationally representative survey of Eight provinces ...

  4. Factors influencing acceptability of voluntary counseling and testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To understand the factors influencing choice of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV with a view of suggesting measures for increased uptake. Design: Focus group discussions were used to elicit reasons for carrying out VCT and a cross sectional survey to estimate the proportion of people who ...

  5. Factors Influencing Sesame ( Sesamun indicum L) Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing Sesame marketing in Jigawa state of Nigeria were examined. The sampling procedure involved the use of purposive and simple random sampling technique. A total of 156 middlemen consisting of 40 wholesalers, 77 rural assemblers and 39 buying agents were selected using simple random sampling ...

  6. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted

  7. Factors Influencing the Usage of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Incidence remains very high especially among pregnant women and children under five. study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the usage of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for prevention of malaria among pregnant women.

  8. Influence of Organisational Factors on the Quality of Manufactured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four organisational factors, which includes goals, commitment, structure and networking believed to influence quality of manufactured products have been examined in the context of Ghanaian firms and ranked in ascending order. A survey approach using a questionnaire was adopted and a non-parametric quantitative ...

  9. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neurosurgical emergencies and are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury. This study aimed at evaluating the current management and factors that influence outcome in patients treated for extradural hematoma in an African setting. Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients ...

  10. Influence of Psycho-demographic Factors and Effectiveness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual risk behaviours (SRBs) among youths continue to reverse the initial gains in HIV/STD control in Nigeria. Very little is known about the interactive influence of psycho-demographic factors (self concept, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and gendezr) and psycho-behavioural interventions (psychoeducation and assertiveness ...

  11. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of the effects of the combined influences of environmental factors on cow productivity depended on the physiological stage of animal growth and reproduction. Environmental effects on production efficiency were buffered by maternal effects at birth, but became more significant after weaning (9%) to yearling age ...

  12. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of breed and environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed on litter parameters of rabbits raised in a semi-humid environment was investigated using two hundred and twenty four (224) litter records collected between 1991 and 1997. New Zealand White ...

  13. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  14. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  15. Fish milt quality and major factors influencing the milt quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In commercial fish production, the evaluation of milt quality is essential in order to increase the efficiency of artificial fertilization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that qualitative parameters of milt (i.e. seminal fluid composition, spermatozoa motility and sperm production) could be influence by several factors including ...

  16. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  17. An Analysis of Factors that Influence Computer Literacy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence computer literacy among university students. The study was primarily inspired by the realization that students acquire computer skills at varying levels and progress to use computers with varying proficiency despite the fact that they will be engaging in a ...

  18. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the social aspect, more than half of the caretakers (55.9%) were married, while. 36.6% were single. Only 2.2% were widowed ... and early marriages (one out of five) as the major cause of malnutrition in the community. Influencing factors for ... assimilation of nutrients into the body. The reduced food intake results in the ...

  19. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study sought to determine factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning (NFP) among child bearing women in Chilonga Catchment area. The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively. Literature review revealed that information ...

  20. Factors influencing partnerships between higher education and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Rekola, Leena

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the factors influencing partnerships between higher education and healthcare. Partnerships have often been studied as organisations' internal processes or multi-professional team activities. However, there has been less research on the partnership as a phenomenon between organisations and, until now, the research has mainly focused on experiences in the US and the UK. The study was carried out in Finland. Staff from a university of applied sciences and a service unit for the elderly took part in nine focus group interviews (n=39) and produced self-evaluations based on diaries (n=13) and essays (n=24). The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The factors influencing partnerships were: a joint development target, agreeing on collaboration, providing resources for partnership, enhancing mutual understanding, sharing operational culture, commitment and participatory change management and communication. This study updates, and complements, previous reviews on factors influencing partnerships, by providing some new concepts and a new cultural perspective from Finland on a partnership between higher education and healthcare. The results provide information on factors that influence partnerships and develop and manage their sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  2. Factors Influencing Choice of Occupational Area among Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Choice of Occupational Area among Technical Education Students with Differing Entry Qualifications. ... Interest in study area; perceived availability of job opportunities related to area of specialization; simplicity of area in training and in employment; and perceived affordability of equipment for ...

  3. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made particular demands on water resource base and the environment and its sustainability is threatened by human induced activities. This study assessed the socio-economic, sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community ...

  4. Factors influencing the uptake of contraception services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors that influence the uptake of contraception services by adolescents in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative research method which is explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature was used to investigate the phenomenon from the ...

  5. Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify leads to factors influencing student nurses' performance in the final year practical examination at Gweru School of Nursing. A descriptive survey was used to collect data from a census of 16 assessors and cluster sample of 35 student nurses. A questionnaire designed for the research ...

  6. A Study of Factors Influencing Brain Drain among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This economic situation deeply affected the medical groups that migration became the chorus of the medical personnel. This perennial situation made the study to examine the factors influencing brain drain among the medical personnel in Nigeria, using a selected University Teaching Hospital Complex as a case study.

  7. Socio-Psychological Factors Influencing the Educational Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the influence of socio-psychological factors on the educational aspiration of married women in Rivers State. A stratified random sample of 680 married women selected purposively from 8 out of 23 local government areas of Rivers State was used for the study. The sample covered both the ...

  8. Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted to gain an understanding of the pedagogic, administrative and attitudinal factors that influence the teaching of Physical Education and Sports in cluster H schools of Chivi district of Zimbabwe. The research employed the descriptive survey design. Data was collected by means of ...

  9. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems. ... The study recommends strengthening legume value chains; improving extension service delivery and conducting a cost-benefit analysis of adopting legume-based multiple ...

  10. Sickness Presenteeism of German Teachers: Prevalence and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhöffer, Sarah; Claus, Matthias; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate teachers' sickness presenteeism (SP). We examined the prevalence of SP in a sample of teachers as well as work-related and health-related influencing factors of teachers' SP. We used a cross-sectional study design. Teachers working at different types of schools in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany)…

  11. Factors Influencing Road Traffic Delay: Drivers' Perspectives And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined drivers' perception of road traffic delay attributes and factors influencing road traffic delay with a view to assessing loss of man hours along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway. This view translated to policy statements that can tremendously reduce the road traffic delay in the study area. Primary data were ...

  12. Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of environmental factors and salinity on phosphate solubilization by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger F7 from agricultural soil. ... Presence of soluble phosphates, in terms of different concentrations of KH2PO4 supplemented in PVK agar media, suppressed TCP solubilization activity by F7. F7 showed different ...

  13. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 26: No1, 1998. 3. Factors that influence household ... Ms L Viljoen. Departement Consumer Study: Food, Clothing, Housing. University of Stellenbosch ..... Occupation and education of the household head and the occupational status of the wife or ...

  14. An Investigation into factors influencing the choice of business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines critically the factors that influence the choice of Business Education in tertiary institutions with specific reference to University of Lagos and Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. For the study, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to100 students in University of Lagos and 75 ...

  15. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... herbal content (18%), advertisements (14%), and promotions (14%)]. Form had the greatest influence on the decision to purchase. Forms that were most popular were chewable tablets (50%) and liquid/syrups (35%). Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most often used as choice tactics.

  16. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertility issues for HIV-positive women are becoming increasingly important. The study investigated the pregnancy desires of HIV positive women of Gert Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that ...

  17. Factors Influencing Women's Choice of Place of Delivery in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Women's Choice of Place of Delivery in Rural Malawi -An Explorative Study. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... conclude that the barriers to use of professional obstetric care in Malawi partly can be attributed to the health care system itself, and that a more individualized maternity care is needed.

  18. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  19. Factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The researcher, being a nursing lecturer, questioned the method of selection of learning opportunities for student nurses in two training hospitals in the Northern part of Namibia. The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary ...

  20. Factors that Influence Research Output of Academic Librarians in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey was carried out to determine the factors that influence research output of academic librarians in Niger state. It was aimed at providing the reality of the opinion on research output of academic librarians who are working in Niger state. Questionnaire were designed and distributed to (65) sixty five of the (85) eighty ...

  1. Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature in Nigeria ha ve thus far c oncentrated on the adoption of mobile technologies especially feature phones, hence, this paper deployed Rogers' innovation adoption theory to explain the factors that influence the adoption of smartphones among undergraduate students in Nigeria's first s tateowned university ...

  2. Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Public Opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under ...

  3. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inguinal hernia repair surgery is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This study sought to highlight factors that may influence decisions concerning inguinal hernia repair techniques. Methods: This descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in September 2014 among ...

  4. Factors that may influence South African nurses' decisions to emigrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the data indicated that nurses' inadequate remuneration, poor working conditions, excessive workloads, lack of personal growth and career advancement possibilities and inability to meet their safety and security needs were major factors that influenced nurses' decisions to emigrate. The recommendations ...

  5. Factors influencing awareness and attendance of traditional oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In order to institute preventive programmes against harmful traditional oral health practices there is a need to identify targets. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing awareness and attendance of traditional oral health practices by residents of a peri-urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: A ...

  6. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  7. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  8. Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was carried out to investigate the effect of culture medium factors that influence the shoot regenerative potential of Macadamia nodal segments in vitro. Explants were obtained from shoots of current growth flush of Macadamia integrifolia and inoculated onto different test media. Woody plant medium (WPM) gave ...

  9. Physical and sexual abuse factors influencing marriage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and sexual abuse factors influencing marriage and cohabitation among women of reproductive age in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. J A Ayangunna, D Oladeji. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the psychological studies of social issue Vol. 10 (1&2) 2007: pp. 185-196. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  10. Factors Influencing Outcome of Sigmoid Volvulus in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is one of the commonest causes of intestinal obstruction in Uganda. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the outcome of SV in Northern Uganda. Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted on 103 sigmoid volvulus patients admitted ...

  11. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extradural hematomas are neurosurgical emergencies and are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury. This study aimed at evaluating the current management and factors that influence outcome in patients treated for extradural hematoma in an African setting.

  12. Evaluation of Factors that Influence School Readiness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preschool child is often confronted with adverse environmental influences that may affect his/her development and hence his readiness for schooling. The factors that affect school readiness were evaluated in 532 nursery school pupils using a proforma on perinatal problems and gross motor development of the pupils.

  13. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Teachers' Perception of Factors Influencing Internet Use in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated teachers' perceptions of factors influencing internet use in the English Language Classroom. The study adopted descriptive research design. Teachers perceived that lack of internet facilities, language laboratory, teachers' reluctance to adapt to internet use, low morale of English language teachers, ...

  15. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  16. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  17. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  18. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  19. Factors Influencing Faculty Migration. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matier, Michael W.

    A review and synthesis of the literature on factors influencing faculty decisions to leave an institution are presented. From this review, Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg's "empirical analysis of action" methodology was selected as the foundation for a survey of 37 Arts and Sciences faculty, for whom the response rate was 51%. Each received a…

  20. Factors influencing the enrolment of students for science subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the enrolment of students for science subjects and strategies that can be used to improve the enrolment with the view of improving the population of science students in Oluyole Local Government Area, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the ...

  1. Analysis of the factors influencing farmers' adoption of alley farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed factors that influence farmers' alley farming technology adoption behaviours in the intensified land use systems of Imo State, Nigeria. A logit econometric model was used to quantify and analyze data obtained from 480 randomly selected farm households from 12 agriculturally intensified autonomous ...

  2. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in the University of Ibadan, Ibadan. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and Technology) out of nine faculties were purposively sampled.

  3. Factors influencing high socio-economic class mothers' decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing high socio-economic class mothers' decision regarding formula-feeding practices in the Cape Metropole. ... South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... The aims of the study were to identify the reasons why high socio-economic class women in the Cape Metropole decide not to breast-feed; to evaluate ...

  4. The Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; de Wit, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area). The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well...

  5. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socio-economic factors influencing the adoption of rice varieties with high yielding and weed suppressing abilities in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 135 rice farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics, logit regression analysis and likert ...

  6. Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminants management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminants management practices in Kaduna State. ... Moor Journal of Agricultural Research ... Analysis revealed that certain socio-economic characteristics of respondents such as age, income, flock size, investment, veterinary visits, education, number of small ruminants started ...

  7. The factors influencing safety of archeology monuments in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir K. Tulush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article characterizes situation in preserving the arche-ology monuments in region – the most numerous objects of a cultural heritage in the republic. Modern factors, making the greatest influence on barrows and sites of ancient settlement as the basic types of monu-ments of Tuva are considered.

  8. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Mawusi Amos; Freda Dzifa Intiful; Laurene Boateng

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques usin...

  9. Maternal Factors Influencing Timeliness of Seeking Treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a critical health challenge in Malawi, especially among children under the age of five. This study analyzed the factors influencing timeliness of seeking malaria treatments and preferences among health care providers. The data were the 2012 Malaria Indicator Survey. Data were analyzed using Poisson and ...

  10. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    with a following increase in pH level can lead to an overgrowth of certain microbiota resulting in bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. Humans are continuously exposed to a large amount of environmental factors providing a possible influence on their microbial ecology. Antibiotic administration is one...

  11. A Path Model of Psychosocial Factors Influencing Quality, Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Path Model of Psychosocial Factors Influencing Quality, Quality Marital Relationship Among Married Individuals in Southwest Nigeria. ... a critical part of human wellbeing, plays significant roles in keeping married individuals psychologically healthy to facilitate quality quality marital relationship among the married people.

  12. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  13. Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A disability grant is the financial assistance given by the government to South African citizens and bona fide refugees who have ... to explore the factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for a disability grant. Methods: ..... although this is gradually changing with the inclusion of these aspects.

  14. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  15. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  16. Socio-economic factors influencing foreign rice consumption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic factors influencing foreign rice consumption in Ikwuano and Umuahia north local governmentareas of Abia State. ... Government should create enabling environment to attract foreign rice producing companies in Thailand, China, e.t.c. to enter into partnership with Federal, State, Local governments as well ...

  17. Factors influencing the development of early- or late-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A positive family history of PD, seen in 31.1% of LOPD patients, was associated with a younger AAO in the study population. Conclusions. These associations may be attributed to specific genetic and/or environmental risk factors that increase PD susceptibility and influence the clinical course of the disorder. More studies on ...

  18. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency

  19. Factors influencing a herence to an Emergency Department National Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theo van Achterberg; Lilian Vloet; Joke Mintjes; Remco Ebben

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency

  20. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)