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Sample records for estrous cycle phase

  1. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

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    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  2. Insulin binding characteristics in canine muscle tissue: effects of the estrous cycle phases

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    Álan G. Pöppl

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hormonal fluctuations during the different estrous cycle are a well-recognized cause of insulin resistance in bitches, and little is known about insulin receptor binding or post-binding defects associated with insulin resistance in dogs. To evaluate insulin binding characteristics in muscle tissue of bitches during the estrous cycle, 17 owned bitches were used in the study (six in anestrus, five in estrus, and six in diestrus. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in all patients by means of injection of 1mL/kg of a glucose 50% solution (500mg/kg, with blood sample collection for glucose determination at 0, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after glucose infusion. Muscle samples, taken after spaying surgery, were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80 ºC until the membranes were prepared by sequential centrifugation after being homogenized. For binding studies, membranes were incubated in the presence of 20,000cpm of human 125I-insulin and in increasing concentrations of unlabeled human regular insulin for cold saturation. The IVGTT showed no differences among bitches during the estrous cycle regarding baseline glycemia or glycemic response after glucose infusion. Two insulin binding sites - high-affinity and low-affinity ones - were detected by Scatchard analysis, and significant statistical differences were observed in the dissociation constant (Kd1 and maximum binding capacity (Bmax1 of the high-affinity binding sites. The Kd1 for the anestrus group (6.54±2.77nM/mg of protein was smaller (P<0.001 than for the estrus (28.54±6.94nM/mg of protein and diestrus (15.56±3.88nM/mg of protein groups. Bmax1 in the estrus (0.83±0.42nM/mg of protein and diestrus (1.24±0.24nM/mg of protein groups were also higher (P<0.001 than the values observed in anestrus (0.35±0.06nM/mg of protein. These results indicate modulation of insulin binding characteristics during different phases of the estrous

  3. [Profile of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content in the murine uterus during the different phases of the estrous cycle].

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    Gomes, Regina Célia Teixeira; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Soares, José Maria; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C

    2007-01-01

    Identification and quantitation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the uterus of female mice during the estrous cycle. Four groups (n = 10 each) of virgin, 100-day old female mice were assembled according to the estrous cycle phase: proestrus, estrus, metaestrus and diestrus. Samples of the median portion of uterine horns were processed for light microscopy examination (H/E and Alcian blue + PAS). The GAGs were extracted and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed by the unpaired Student's t-test. At light microscopy GAGs appear in all layers of the uterus, especially in the endometrium, between collagen fibers, in the basal membrane and around fibroblasts. Biochemical analyses disclosed presence of dermatan sulphate (DS), chondroitin sulphate (CS and heparan sulphate (HS) during all estral cycle phases. There was no clear electrophoretic separation between DS and CS, thus these two GAGs were considered together (DS+CS) (proestrus = 0.854 +/- 0.192; estrus = 1.073 +/- 0.254; metaestrus = 1.003 +/- 0.255; diestrus = 0.632 +/- 0.443 microg/mg). HS was as follows: proestrus = 0.092 +/- 0.097; estrus = 0.180 +/- 0.141; metaestrus = 0.091 +/- 0.046; diestrus = 0.233 +/- 0.147 microg/mg. The uterine content of DS+CS peaked at estrus (estrogenic action) and that of HS at diestrus (progestagen action). Due to a constant turnover process, there are definite alterations in the uterine profile of GAGs content during the estrous cycle in mice, which may be modulated by female sex hormones.

  4. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

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    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  5. Neurosecretory cells of the amygdaloid complex during estrous cycle.

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    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2005-02-01

    Ultrastructure of neurosecretory cells of the dorsomedial nucleus of the cerebral amygdaloid complex (one of the main zones of sexual dimorphism) was studied in different phases of the estrous cycle. The characteristics of the "light" and "dark" cells change depending on the concentrations of sex steroids during estrus and metestrus.

  6. Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images.

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    Shannon L Byers

    Full Text Available The efficiency of producing timed pregnant or pseudopregnant mice can be increased by identifying those in proestrus or estrus. Visual observation of the vagina is the quickest method, requires no special equipment, and is best used when only proestrus or estrus stages need to be identified. Strain to strain differences, especially in coat color can make it difficult to determine the stage of the estrous cycle accurately by visual observation. Presented here are a series of images of the vaginal opening at each stage of the estrous cycle for 3 mouse strains of different coat colors: black (C57BL/6J, agouti (CByB6F1/J and albino (BALB/cByJ. When all 4 stages (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus need to be identified, vaginal cytology is regarded as the most accurate method. An identification tool is presented to aid the user in determining the stage of estrous when using vaginal cytology. These images and descriptions are an excellent resource for learning how to determine the stage of the estrous cycle by visual observation or vaginal cytology.

  7. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

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    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  8. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

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    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  9. Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in the Rat Uterine Cervix During the Estrous Cycle

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    Cubas, Jairo Jose Matozinho; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group): GI – proestrous, GII – estrous, GIII – metaestrous and GIV – diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, phyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change. PMID:20668628

  10. Peripheral Inhibitor of AChE, Neostigmine, Prevents the Inflammatory Dependent Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle

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    Andrzej P. Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH/luteinising hormone (LH secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal. An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg. Peripheral treatment with Donepezil and Neostigmine prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0.05 in LHβ gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland (AP and in LH release. Moreover, Donepezil completely abolished (P<0.05 the suppressory effect of inflammation on GnRH synthesis in the preoptic area, when pretreatment with Neostigmine reduced (P<0.05 the decrease in GnRH content in this hypothalamic structure. Moreover, administration of both AChE inhibitors diminished (P<0.05 the inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on the expression of GnRH receptor in the AP. Our study shows that inflammatory dependent changes in the GnRH/LH secretion may be eliminated or reduced by AChE inhibitors suppressing inflammatory reaction only at the periphery such as Neostigmine, without the need for interfering in the central nervous system.

  11. Validation of a mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle for cows with different estrous cycle characteristics.

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    Boer, H M T; Butler, S T; Stötzel, C; Te Pas, M F W; Veerkamp, R F; Woelders, H

    2017-11-01

    A recently developed mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle was parameterized to fit empirical data sets collected during one estrous cycle of 31 individual cows, with the main objective to further validate the model. The a priori criteria for validation were (1) the resulting model can simulate the measured data correctly (i.e. goodness of fit), and (2) this is achieved without needing extreme, probably non-physiological parameter values. We used a least squares optimization procedure to identify parameter configurations for the mathematical model to fit the empirical in vivo measurements of follicle and corpus luteum sizes, and the plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH for each cow. The model was capable of accommodating normal variation in estrous cycle characteristics of individual cows. With the parameter sets estimated for the individual cows, the model behavior changed for 21 cows, with improved fit of the simulated output curves for 18 of these 21 cows. Moreover, the number of follicular waves was predicted correctly for 18 of the 25 two-wave and three-wave cows, without extreme parameter value changes. Estimation of specific parameters confirmed results of previous model simulations indicating that parameters involved in luteolytic signaling are very important for regulation of general estrous cycle characteristics, and are likely responsible for differences in estrous cycle characteristics between cows.

  12. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

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    Gomes C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  13. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

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    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of estrous cycle, as well as CL development and functionality, was not affected by number of follicular waves.

  14. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

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    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.

  15. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in bovine reproductive system during estrous cycle

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    A.M. Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several reports suggest the participation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in progesterone signaling in the reproductive system. This study aimed at investigating the presence and localization of PGRMC1 in bovine ovary, oviduct and uterus, during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. In the ovary, PGRMC1 has been detected in surface germinal epithelium, granulosa cells, theca cells and in the germinal vesicle of the oocytesat all stages of folliculogenesis. In the corpus luteum the expression of PGRMC1 was influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. In the oviducts and in the uterus horns, PGRMC1 was immunolocalized in the luminal epithelium, in the muscle layer cells and in the endothelial cells. In the uterus, PGRMC1 was intensely localized also in the glandular endometrium. However, in the oviducts and in the uterus horns, the localization of PGRMC1 was independent on the stage of the estrous cycle and on whether evaluating the ipsilateral or the contralateral organ. In conclusion, the present immunohistochemical study showed that PGRMC1 is located in various compartments of the bovine female reproductive organs. With the exception of the corpora lutea, PGRMC1 localization showed similar pattern during different stage of the estrous cycle.

  16. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle.

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    Santiago, Ammy M; Clegg, Deborah J; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-12-01

    17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. These data suggest that physiological

  17. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle

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    Santiago, Ammy M.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective 17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). Methods These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. Results The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. Conclusion

  18. Expression of progesterone receptor protein in the ovine uterus during the estrous cycle: Effects of nutrition, arginine and FSH.

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    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Thammasiri, Jiratti; Kraisoon, Aree; Reyaz, Arshi; Bass, Casie S; Kaminski, Samantha L; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Redmer, Dale A

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) AB in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated or non-treated sheep administered with arginine (Arg) or saline (Sal) fed a control (C), excess (O) or restricted (U) diet, uterine tissues were collected at the early, mid and/or late luteal phases. In exp. 1, ewes from each diet were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, Arg or Sal administration three times daily from day 0 of the first estrous cycle until uterine tissue collection. In exp. 2, ewes were injected twice daily with FSH on days 13-15 of the first estrous cycle. Uterine tissues were immunostained to detect PGR followed by image analysis. PGR were detected in luminal epithelium (LE), endometrial glands (EG), endometrial stroma (ES), myometrium (Myo), and endometrial and myometrial blood vessels. The percentage of PR-positive cells and/or intensity of staining were affected by phase of the estrous cycle, plane of nutrition, and/or FSH but not by Arg. In exp. 1, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE and EG but not in ES and Myo was greater at the early and mid than late luteal phase, was not affected by plane of nutrition, and was similar in LE and EG. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in LE, EG and Myo, and was the greatest in LE, less in EG, and least in ES and Myo. In exp. 2, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE, EG, ES and Myo was affected by phase of the estrous cycle, but not by plane of nutrition; was greater at the early than mid luteal phase; and was greatest in LE and EG, less in luminal (superficial) ES and Myo and least in deep ES. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in all compartments but ES, and was the greatest in LE and luminal EG, less in deep EG, and least in ES and Myo. Comparison of data for FSH (superovulated) and Sal-treated (non-superovulated) ewes demonstrated that FSH affected PR expression in all evaluated

  19. Estrous cycle and food availability affect feeding induced by amygdala 5-HT receptor blockade.

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    Parker, Graham C; Bishop, Christopher; Coscina, Donald V

    2002-04-01

    We have recently reported that bilateral infusions of the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (MET) into the posterior basolateral amygdala (pBLA) elicit feeding in female rats tested at mid-light cycle. The present study was performed to determine whether (1) testing at two different phases of the estrous cycle, and/or (2) the palatability of the food might modify this effect. Subjects were 18 adult females with bilateral pBLA cannulae. Following familiarization with Froot Loops cereal, a within-subjects design tested all animals for 1- and 2-h food intake under 2 Drug (0.3 nmol MET vs. Vehicle), 2 Estrous Cycle (diestrus vs. estrus) and 2 Food (lab chow vs. Froot Loops) conditions. Rats weighed more at diestrus than at proestrus (Pestrus (Pestrus. A three-way interaction (Pestrus than in diestrus to lab chow but not Froot Loops. These data suggest pBLA MET differentially affects feeding over the estrous cycle depending on the palatability of food available.

  20. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

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    Indu Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl, inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl, magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl, sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L, potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L, and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01 higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001 related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001 negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.

  1. Effects of the estrous cycle and ovarian hormones on behavioral indices of anxiety in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S; Dussaubat, N; Díaz-Véliz, G

    1996-10-01

    The influence of the estrous cycle and the effects of exogenous administration of estradiol and progesterone on level of anxiety were studied in intact and ovariectomized rats. Intact Sprague-Dawley female rats were classified according to the stages of estrous cycle. Another group of rats was ovariectomized bilaterally and, 14 days after surgery, they received estradiol benzoate (10 micrograms/kg, s.c.) and/or progesterone (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or corn oil (1 ml/kg). The behavioral tests began 3 h after estradiol or 6 h after progesterone and consisted of: (1) exploration of an elevated plus-maze; and (2) retention of a passive avoidance response. Open-arm exploration of the plus-maze varied according to light intensity and the stages of the estrous cycle. There was a slight increase in open-arm exploration by rats in metestrus, under high light intensity. Low light intensity increased the exploration of the open arms by rats in proestrus and estrus, compared to the other phases of the cycle. Retention of the passive avoidance response was inhibited during proestrus and estrus. Progesterone increased open-arm exploration of the plus-maze under high light conditions, whereas estradiol antagonized this effect. Retention of passive avoidance was inhibited after estradiol or progesterone injection. These results suggest that the behavioral indices of anxiety can vary across the estrous cycle, that low light intensities have anxiolytic-like effects, and that the sensitivity to this effect is higher during proestrus and estrus. This could be explained through modulatory effects of ovarian hormones upon behavioral indices of anxiety.

  2. Stress and estrous cycle affect strategy but not performance of female C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, J.P.; Kentrop, J.; de Kloet, E.R.; Oitzl, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Stress induces a switch in learning strategies of male C57BL/6J mice from predominantly spatial to more stimulus-response learning. To study generalization of these findings over sex, we investigated female C57BL/6J mice at three phases of the estrous cycle under non stress and acute (10 min)

  3. Hamster activity and estrous cycles: control by a single versus multiple circadian oscillator(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, M S; Nelson, R J; Zucker, I

    1981-01-01

    Running activity onset and estrous onset were recorded for hamsters exposed to progressively shorter daily light/dark (T) cycles. The period of the estrous cycle was a quadruple multiple of the period of the activity rhythm during entrainment to T cycles of 23.5-21.5 hr. There was no evidence of desynchronization of the activity and estrus rhythms. The very short estrous periods shown during exposure to short T cycles indicate that an intrinsic 96-hr interval for ovarian follicular maturation...

  4. The use of prostaglandins in controlling estrous cycle of the ewe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Sergio; Gil, Jorge; Viñoles, Carolina; Olivera-Muzante, Julio

    2013-02-01

    This review considers the use of prostaglandin F(2α) and its synthetic analogues (PG) for controlling the estrous cycle of the ewe. Aspects such as phase of the estrus cycle, PG analogues, PG doses, ovarian follicle development pattern, CL formation, progesterone synthesis, ovulation rate, sperm transport, embryo quality, and fertility rates after PG administration are reviewed. Furthermore, protocols for estrus synchronization and their success in timed AI programs are discussed. Based on available information, the ovine CL is refractory to PG treatment for up to 2 days after ovulation. All PG analogues are effective when an appropriate dose is given; in that regard, there is a positive association between the dose administered and the proportion of ewes detected in estrus. Follicular response after PG is dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle at treatment. Altered sperm transport and low pregnancy rates are generally reported. However, reports on alteration of the steroidogenic capacity of preovulatory follicles, ovulation rate, embryo quality, recovery rates, and prolificacy, are controversial. Although various PG-based protocols can be used for estrus synchronization, a second PG injection improves estrus response when the stage of the estrous cycle at the first injection is unknown. The estrus cycle after PG administration has a normal length. Prostaglandin-based protocols for timed AI achieved poor reproductive outcomes, but increasing the interval between PG injections might increase pregnancy rates. Attempts to improve reproductive outcomes have been directed to provide a synchronized LH surge: use of different routes of AI (cervical or intrauterine), different PG doses, and increased intervals between PG injections. Finally we present our point of view regarding future perspectives on the use of PG in programs of controlled sheep reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fear extinction in an obsessive-compulsive disorder animal model: Influence of sex and estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Milad, Mohammed Ragib; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2018-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients. In rodents, it evokes repetitive behaviors that engage brain areas that are homologous with those found to be dysfunctional in OCD patients. These regions, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, are also involved in fear inhibition, which is impaired in OCD. Here, we treated rats with mCPP (0.5 and 3.0 mg/kg) to evaluate its influence on self-grooming behavior and assess potential fear extinction retention deficits, taking into account sex differences and females' estrous cycle. We found that mCPP exacerbated grooming in male and female rats, irrespective of the estrous cycle phase. Fear extinction retention, however, was impaired only in females. Moreover, females undergoing fear extinction training during the metestrus/diestrus phases of the estrous cycle were more sensitive to the impairments induced by mCPP. Our results indicate that mCPP can induce OCD-like symptoms, exacerbating self-grooming and impairing fear extinction. It suggests that changes in 5-HT signaling through 5-HT2c receptors may have an important role in the OCD pathophysiology and that the influence of gonadal hormones in OCD should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perfil de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados no útero de camundongas durante o ciclo estral Profile of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content in the murine uterus during the different phases of the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Teixeira Gomes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Quantificar glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados (GAGs no útero de camundongas durante o ciclo estral. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se quatro grupos de camundongas virgens com 100 dias de idade (n= 10 cada conforme a fase ciclo estral: proestro, estro, metaestro e diestro. Amostras da porção média dos cornos uterinos foram preparadas para observação em microscopia de luz (H/E e Alcian blue + PAS. Os GAGs foram extraídos e caracterizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student não pareado. RESULTADOS: À microscopia de luz, os GAGs sulfatados apresentam-se em todas as camadas do útero, em especial no endométrio, entre as fibras colágenas, na membrana basal e ao redor dos fibroblastos. A análise bioquímica mostrou haver dermatam sulfato (DS, condroitim sulfato (CS e heparam sulfato (HS durante todas as fases do ciclo estral. Não houve separação eletroforética clara entre DS e CS, de modo que estes dois GAGs foram considerados em conjunto (DS+CS (proestro = 0,854 ± 0,192; estro = 1,073 ± 0,254; metaestro = 1,003 ± 0,255; e diestro = 0,632 ± 0,443 µg/mg. Os resultados de HS foram: proestro = 0,092 ± 0,097; estro = 0,180 ± 0,141; metaestro = 0,091 ± 0,046; e diestro = 0,233 ± 0,147 µg/mg. A concentração DS+CS apresentou-se maior no estro (ação estrogênica e a do HS no diestro (ação progestagênica. CONCLUSÃO: Os GAGs no útero de camundongas sofrem alterações durante as fases do ciclo estral, refletindo o constante processo de renovação, sendo modulados pelos hormônios sexuais.OBJECTIVE: Identification and quantitation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the uterus of female mice during the estrous cycle. METHODS: Four groups (n = 10 each of virgin, 100-day old female mice were assembled according to the estrous cycle phase: proestrus, estrus, metaestrus and diestrus. Samples of the median portion of uterine horns were processed for light microscopy examination (H

  7. Estrous cycle characterisation and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Yoshioka, M; Jensen, E; O'Brien, J K; Katsumata, E; Gili, C; McBain, J F; Sweeney, J; Monfort, S L

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were: (i) to determine the excretory dynamics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog (altrenogest) on reproductive hormone excretion; (iii) to correlate follicular growth and ovulation (as determined by transabdominal ultrasound) to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; (iv) examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and (v) to develop an intrauterine insemination technique. Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous cycles (2 consecutive cycles) and nine post altrenogest cycles in ten females, estrous cycles were found to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal phase, respectively. Peak estrogen conjugates (EC; 5.4+/-3.8 ng/mg creatinine (Cr)) occurred 8 h prior to the LH surge (70.9+/-115.7 ng/mg Cr). The time of ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, occurred 32.1+/-8.9 h and 24.3+/-7.0 h after the onset of the LH surge and LH peak, respectively. Mean preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference were 2.1+/-0.5 cm and 6.5+/-1.5 cm, respectively. Of the 27 estrous synchronisation attempts, 13 resulted in an ovulatory cycle, with ovulation occurring 21 days post-altrenogest treatment. Intrauterine (4 of 5) and intracornual (1 of 3) inseminations conducted across eight estrous cycles resulted in five pregnancies (63%), one pregnancy resulted from the use of liquid stored semen, whereas four were achieved using cryopreserved semen. These data provide new information on female bottlenose dolphin reproductive physiology, and demonstrate that the combination of endocrine monitoring and serial ultrasonography contributed to successful AI

  8. Hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 expression in the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Zenclussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the Heme Oxygenase-1 (Hmox1 locus in mice results in intrauterine lethality. The expression of the heme catabolyzing enzyme encoded by this gene, namely HO 1, is required to successfully support reproductive events. We have previously observed that HO-1 acts at several key events in reproduction ensuring pregnancy. HO-1 defines ovulation, positively influences implantation and placentation and ensures fetal growth and survival. Here, we embarked on a study aimed to determine whether hormonal changes during the estrous cycle in the mouse define HO-1 expression, thus influencing receptivity. We analyzed the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen by ELISA and HO-1 mRNA expression in uterus by real time RT-PCR at the metestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Further, we studied the HO-1 protein expression by Western Blot upon hormone addition to cultured uterine AN3 cells. We observed that HO-1 variations in uterine tissue correlated to changes in hormonal levels at different phases of the estrus cycle. In vitro, HO-1 protein levels in AN3 cells augmented after the addition of physiological concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, which confirmed our in vivo observations. Our data suggest an important role for hormones in HO-1 regulation in uterus that has a significant impact in receptivity and later on blastocyst implantation.

  9. Luteal function during the estrous cycle in arginine-treated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Casie S; Redmer, Dale A; Kaminski, Samantha L; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2017-03-01

    Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle. Ewes (n = 111) were categorized by weight and randomly assigned to one of three nutritional planes: maintenance control (C), overfed (2× C) and underfed (0.6× C) beginning 60 days prior to onset of estrus. After estrus synchronization, ewes from each nutritional plane were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: Arg or saline. Serum and CL were collected at the early, mid and late luteal phases. The results demonstrated that: (1) nutritional plane affected ovulation rates, luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA expression, (2) Arg affected luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA expression and (3) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and the VEGF and NO systems depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. These data indicate that plane of nutrition and/or Arg supplementation can alter vascularization and expression of selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue during the estrous cycle in sheep. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Cytological Characteristics of Mucose Cell and Vaginal Temperature and pH During Estrous Cycle in Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Darodjah Rasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to examine the characteristics cytology of mucous cell-,temperature- and pH vagina during estrous cycle in local sheep.  31local sheep were synchronized with vaginal sponge consist of 20  mg  progesterone hormone before carried out observations of cytology of cells from the vaginal mucose through vaginal swabs, temperature and pH of the vagina.  Vaginal swabs were collected daily at 7 am for a weeks.Vaginal temperature and pH measurement is carried out twice a day, at 07.00 am and 15.00 pm for a weeks after vaginal swabs. Smears of the swab were then prepared on glass slide and they were stained with Giemsa.  Vaginal epithelial cells; Parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells were counted and their percentages during pro-estrous, estrous and di-estrous were determined. Di-estrous was characterized by the absent of superficial cells in the epithelial vagina. Pro-estrous was characterized by the increasing progressively of intermediate/superficial cells in epithelial vagina, whereas estrous was characterized by the presence of superficial/cornification cells in most epithelial vagina. Based on the dominance of superficial cell, the number of sheep identified as estrous is highest on third day, with 52%.  Observation on vaginal temperature also resulting that the highest temperature values obtained on the third day of 39,08±0.28°C.  It could be effected of the vaginal pH during the observation. Underthe influence ofestrogen, the epithelial vaginalcellssynthesizeand accumulateglycogenin large quantitiesdepositedin the lumen ofvagina. Vaginal bacteriametabolizethe glycogenformlactic acid, which causesvaginal pHis low.The pH conditions prevent from pathogenic microorganisms and fungi. Increased estrogenal so cause cell proliferation through the thickening of the epithelium lining of the vagina so that the cells differentiate.Increasing of glycogenin the superficial cells, and  ceratin cells found in the cytoplasm of

  11. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  12. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  13. The rodent estrous cycle: Characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the estrous cycle in laboratory rodents can be a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. It can also serve as a way of insuring that animals exhibiting abnormal cycling patterns are disincluded from a study prior t...

  14. Kappa opioid receptors in rat spinal cord vary across the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P C; Aicher, S A; Drake, C T

    2000-04-07

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) were immunocytochemically localized in the lumbosacral spinal cord of female rats in different stages of the estrous cycle to examine the influence of hormonal status on receptor density. KOR labeling was primarily in fine processes and a few neuronal cell bodies in the superficial dorsal horn and the dorsolateral funiculus. Quantitative light microscopic densitometry of the superficial dorsal horn revealed that rats in diestrus had significantly lower KOR densities than those in proestrus or estrus. This suggests that female reproductive hormones regulate spinal KOR levels, which may contribute to variations in analgesic effectiveness of KOR agonists across the estrous cycle.

  15. Role of estrogens in anterior pituitary gland remodeling during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, S; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Magri, L; Radl, D; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the action of estrogens leading to the remodeling of the anterior pituitary gland, especially during the estrous cycle. Proliferation and death of anterior pituitary cells and especially lactotropes is regulated by estrogens, which act by sensitizing these cells to both mitotic and apoptotic stimuli such as TNF-alpha, FasL and dopamine. During the estrous cycle, the changing pattern of gonadal steroids is thought to modulate both cell proliferation and death in the anterior pituitary gland, estrogens being key players in cell turnover. The mechanisms involved in estrogen-modulated cell renewal in the anterior pituitary gland during the estrous cycle could include an increase in the expression of proapoptotic cytokines as well as the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at proestrus, when estrogen levels are highest and a peak of apoptosis, in particular of lactotropes, is evident in this gland. Estrogens exert rapid antimitogenic and proapoptotic actions in the anterior pituitary through membrane-associated estrogen receptors, a mechanism that might also be involved in remodeling of this gland during the estrous cycle. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Distribution and quantitative changes in amounts of aquaporin 1, 5 and 9 in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowronski Mariusz T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporins (AQPs are a family of membrane channel proteins that facilitate bulk water transport. To date, 11 isoforms of AQPs have been reported to be expressed in the female and male reproductive systems. The purpose of our study was to determine the localization and quantitative changes in the expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 within the pig uterus during different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Methods Immunoperoxidase and semi-quantitative immunoblotting techniques were used to examine the distribution and changes in amounts of AQP1, AQP5 and AQP9 in uteral cells of pigs at the early (Days 2-4, middle (10-12, late (14-16 stage of the luteal phase and late (18-20 stage of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle as well as on Days 14-16 and 30-32 of gestation (the onset and the end of implantation process. Results The results demonstrated that AQP1, 5, and 9 were clearly detected in all studied stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. AQP1 was localized within uterine blood vessels. In cyclic gilts, endometrial and myometrial expression of AQP1 protein did not change significantly but increased during gestation. AQP5 was localized in smooth muscle cells and uterine epithelial cells. Endometrial expression of AQP5 protein did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Myometrial expression of AQP5 did not differ significantly during the estrous cycle but increased in the pregnancy. The anti-AQP9 antibody labeled uterine epithelial cells of uterus. Endometrial expression of AQP9 did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Conclusions The results suggest that a functional and distinctive collaboration exists among diverse AQPs in water handling during the different uterine phases in the estrous cycle and

  17. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  18. Whole-body metabolism varies across the estrous cycle in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G C; McKee, M E; Bishop, C; Coscina, D V

    2001-10-01

    Food intake in rats and other mammals is lowest at estrus and highest at diestrus. While much is known about the effects of different estrous phases on energy intake, as well as some of the metabolic effects the associated hormones exert, little has been reported about changes in whole-body metabolism that accompany those phases. This study investigates how energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) vary in intact female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) tested mid-light cycle over 2 h on days associated with estrus vs. diestrus. Rats showed small but reliable decreases in body weight on days associated with estrus, but not diestrus. EE was significantly increased by approximately 21% on the day associated with estrus compared to diestrus. At the same time, RQ was significantly decreased by approximately 7% on the day associated with estrus, indicating a relative shift to fat over carbohydrate as the energy substrate to support energetic needs. Future investigations of ingestive processes can integrate the present findings to investigate how gender differences in feeding and metabolism contribute to regulatory behaviors.

  19. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  20. Role of Peripheral Alpha2 Adrenergic Receptors in Tonic Pain During Different Stages of Estrous Cycle in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AR Abyazi Shelmani; M Taherianfard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Estrogen and progesterone are supposed to modify pain sensitivity. However, the actual role of each of these steroid hormones in this respect is not well known. Plasma concentrations of these hormones show variation during estrous cycle. The role of alpha2 receptors in tonic pain has been pointed out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the agonist and antagonist effect of alpha2 adrenergic receptors on tonic pain sensitivity during all stages of estrous cycle in fem...

  1. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail: carl.d.smith179.mil@mail.mil; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  3. Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) during the estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Ramos, Rosemar Luz; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Garcia, Gary Wayne; Gomes Vale, William

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal profile of progesterone and 17 β-estradiol has been evaluated during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha). The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78±0.39 ng/ml, estrus 2.83±2.34 ng/ml, metestrus 1.49±1.24 ng/ml, diestrus 3.71±1.48 ng/ml. An increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24 h in the estrous phase. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98±961.00 pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56±650.54 pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83±767.28 pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94±725.29 pg/ml. The current results have suggested that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, indicating that this hormone has been associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influenced ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis inhibitors and observing the effect of this hormone on ovarian activity of proteolytic enzymes in the follicular wall. (author)

  4. LEVEL OF ESTRADIOL 17-β SERUM AND OVARIAN FOLLICULARE DYNAMICS IN SHORT ESTROUS CYCLE OF BALI CATTLE

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    C.M Airin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to confirm the short estrous cycles and determine the blood level ofestradiol 17-β and ovarian follicukar dynamics in these cases. The research was conducted using sevenBali cattle, approximately 2 years of age, kept in healthy condition with normal estrous cycles.Observation of estrus symptoms was performed daily. Ovarian follicles was examined and measuredusing ultrasonography started at the estrus day. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, bloodsample collection and ultrasonographical examination of the ovaries were performed daily in the sametime. Serum level of estradiol 17-β was performed using EIA. The short cycle estrus were observed in 4Bali cattle (n=7 among natural estrous cycle. They have only one wave ovarian follicular developmentwhereas the maximal size of ovarian follicles ovulation likes the normal cycle The duration of shortestrous cycle was 7-10 days with normal usual estrus behavior. The peak of blood serum level was107.77 ± 55.94 pg/ml when the diameter dominant follicle of short estrous cycle was reached 10.5 ±0.38 mm. It can be concluded that the short estrous cycles may occur in Bali cattle after puberty amongnormal cycles.

  5. Effects of adrenalectomy and constant light on the rat estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J C

    1978-01-01

    Adult female ARS/Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to acclimatize to a a lighting schedule of 12L:12D (LD) for 5 weeks. At that time, half the animals were adrenalectomized, and all rats remained in LD for an additional 4 to 5 weeks. Subsequently, half of the control and half of the adrenalectomized rats were exposed to constant light (LL) for an additional 8 weeks, at which time all animals were sacificed. Operated rats with regenerated adrenal tissue, determined either by macroscopic examination or serum corticosterone assay (about 50% of the rats), were excluded from all data calculations. Acute disturbances of estrous cycle length were minor. The long-term effects revealed a significant increase in 5-day cycles among the adrenalectomized rats, although the majority of cycles recorded (80%) were still 4 days in length. None of the rats in LD showed spontaneous persistent estrus. Adrenalectomy did not affect the number of ova shed. When placed in LL, the adrenalectomized rats continued to cycle longer than the unoperated controls, but all rats showed persistent estrus (5 or more consecutive days of vaginal cornification) within 7--8 weeks. Adrenalectomized rats had significantly higher body weights than controls. Relative uterine weight was decreased in these animals in both lighting regimens but only reached statistical significance in LD. Ovarian weight, by contrast, was significantly increased among adrenalectomized rats in LD but was identical in both groups in LL. Adrenal weight of intact rats was not altered by LL. Since estrous cycles can continue for at least 6 months in the absence of the adrenal gland, the persistent estrus that occurs in LL is not merely due to the loss of a diurnal rhythm of corticosteroids. Indeed, when adrenalectomized rats are placed in LL, they continue to show estrous cycles longer than do intact rats. Adrenalectomy does appear to increase the length of the cycle in some animals, and the hormonal basis for this warrants further

  6. Sensorimotor-correlated discharge recorded from ensembles of cerebellar Purkinje cells varies across the estrous cycle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    1995-09-01

    1. In the present study, locomotor-correlated activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells, recorded using arrays of microwires chronically implanted in adult female rats, was examined across estrous-cycle-associated fluctuations in endogenous sex steroids. Ongoing studies from this laboratory have shown that systemic and local administration of the sex steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) augments excitatory responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells to iontophoretically applied glutamate, recorded in vivo from anesthetized female rats. In addition, this steroid potentiated discharge correlated with limb movement. For the present study, extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from as many as 5-11 Purkinje cells simultaneously during treadmill locomotion paradigms. Motor modulation of activity was recorded across three to five consecutive estrous cycles from behaviorally identified cohorts of neurons to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in endogenous sex steroids alter motor modulation of Purkinje cell discharge. 2. Locomotor-associated discharge correlated with treadmill locomotion was increased by a mean of 47% on proestrus, when E2 levels are elevated, relative to diestrus 1. These changes in discharge rate during treadmill locomotion were of significantly greater magnitude than corresponding cyclic alterations in discharge during stationary periods. 3. Correlations with the circadian cycle were also significant, because peak levels of locomotor-associated discharge on the night of behavioral estrus, following elevations in circulating E2, were on average 67% greater than corresponding discharge recorded during the light (proestrus). 4. Alterations in the step cycle were also observed across the estrous cycle: significant decreases in the duration of the flexion phase (by 265 ms, P estrus compared with diestrus. 5. When recorded on estrus, Purkinje cell discharge correlated with the stance or flexion phase of the step cycle was greater in magnitude and preceded the

  7. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  8. Role of Peripheral Alpha2 Adrenergic Receptors in Tonic Pain During Different Stages of Estrous Cycle in Rats

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    AR Abyazi Shelmani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Estrogen and progesterone are supposed to modify pain sensitivity. However, the actual role of each of these steroid hormones in this respect is not well known. Plasma concentrations of these hormones show variation during estrous cycle. The role of alpha2 receptors in tonic pain has been pointed out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the agonist and antagonist effect of alpha2 adrenergic receptors on tonic pain sensitivity during all stages of estrous cycle in female rats. Methods: Xylasine as alpha2 agonist and yohimbin as alpha2 antagonist were used via intraperitoneal route (IP. Adult rats weighing 180-200 grams were used. Animals were maintained on 12h reverse light/dark cycle for 7 days prior to the experiment. Water and food was available ad libitum. Formalin test was performed by subcutaneous injection of 50 l formalin (2.5% solution into the hind paw. Formalin test was performed in all stages of estrous cycle for 60 minutes. Animals were divided into four groups; 1- control group (intact animal, 2- Sham group (animals received 0.2 ml normal saline by IP route, 3- Agonist groups (animals received 0.2 ml xylasine 1, 3 mg/kg body weight by IP route and 4- Antagonist group (animals received 0.2 ml yohimbine 1, 3 mg/kg body weight by IP route. Data were statistically analyzed using 2 way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test as post-hoc test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Results showed that xylasine significantly (p<0.05 decreases pain sensitivity in all stages of estrous cycle. Analgesic effect of xylasine was maximum in estrus stage of estrous cycle and minimum in metestrus stage of estrous cycle. Yohimbine significantly (p<0.05 increases pain sensitivity in all stages of estrous cycle. Hyperalgesic effect of yohimbine was maximum in metestrus stage of estrous cycle and minimum in estrus stage of estrous cycle. Conclusion: These results indicate that alpha2 adrenergic system and endogenous

  9. Estrous cycle fluctuations in sex and ingestive behavior are accentuated by exercise or cold ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhay, Amir; Benton, Noah A; Klingerman, Candice M; Krishnamoorthy, Kaila; Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". In female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), low circulating levels of ovarian steroids are associated with increased food hoarding and decreased sexual motivation, but these effects are exaggerated in food-restricted females. To determine whether cold ambient temperature has the same effects as food restriction, groups of hamsters were fed ad libitum while they were housed at either 5 °C or 22 °C, and then tested for behavior for 90 min on each day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 22 °C, high levels of sexual motivation and low levels of food hoarding were seen every day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 5 °C, high levels of sexual motivation were restricted to the periovulatory day. On the three nonestrous days, these females showed high levels of food hoarding, but not food intake. A separate cohort of females were provided with access to running wheels and housed at 22 °C. They showed high levels of sexual motivation restricted to the periovulatory day, similar to the pattern of sexual motivation seen in cold-housed females. Unlike cold-housed females, those with running wheels showed low levels of food hoarding and high levels of food intake. Food restriction, cold housing, and access to wheels had no significant effect on plasma estradiol or progesterone concentrations, but significantly decreased plasma leptin concentrations. All three energetic challenges unmask estrous cycle fluctuations in sexual motivation that are obscured in laboratory conditions, i.e., isolation in a small cage with an overabundance of food. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. C/EBPβ Isoforms Expression in the Rat Brain during the Estrous Cycle

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    Valeria Hansberg-Pastor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ is a transcription factor expressed in different areas of the brain that regulates the expression of several genes involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. This protein has three isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, and LIP with different transcription activation potential. The role of female sex hormones in the expression pattern of C/EBPβ isoforms in the rat brain has not yet been described. In this study we demonstrate by western blot that the expression of the three C/EBPβ isoforms changes in different brain areas during the estrous cycle. In the cerebellum, LAP2 content diminished on diestrus and proestrus and LIP content diminished on proestrus and estrus days. In the prefrontal cortex, LIP content was higher on proestrus and estrus days. In the hippocampus, LAP isoforms presented a switch on diestrus day, since LAP1 content was the highest while that of LAP2 was the lowest. The LAP2 isoform was the most abundant one in all the three brain areas. The LAP/LIP ratio changed throughout the cycle and was tissue specific. These results suggest that C/EBPβ isoforms expression changes in a tissue-specific manner in the rat brain due to the changes in sex steroid hormone levels presented during the estrous cycle.

  11. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP during the estrous cycle.

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    A Andronowska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1 and VEGFR-2 (flk-1. The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  12. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species.

  13. Fecal estrogen, progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): evidence for delayed implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Roberts, Beth M; Maly, Morgan A; Vance, Carrie K; Debeachaump, Jennifer; Majors, Jackie; Riger, Peter; Decaluwe, Heather; Kouba, Andrew J

    2013-08-27

    Declining numbers of wild giant anteaters highlight the importance of sustainable captive populations. Unfortunately, captive reproductive management is limited by the lack of external physical indicators of female reproductive status and the aggressive behavior of males. We examined the endocrinology of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and whether delayed implantation is a gestational strategy for giant anteaters as described for other xenarthrans. Feces were collected from seven captive females 3-5 times weekly and mating was recorded. Concentrations of estrogen (estrone-glucuronide, E1, and estradiol-17β, E2), progestagen (20-oxo-progestagens, P4), and glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites were examined in fecal extracts by enzyme immunoassay. Estrous cycles for nulliparous females (6 cycles, n = 2) compared to the multiparous female (6 cycles, n = 1) were shorter (47.3 +/- 4.3 days versus 62.5 +/- 2.6 days) with relatively lower luteal phase concentrations of P4 (49.4 +/- 2.9 ng/g versus 136.8 +/- 1.8 ng/g). The four remaining females had unclear ovarian activity: two females exhibited apparent luteal activity but unclear fluctuations in estrogens, while the other two females had parallel fecal P4 and estrogens concentrations. Pregnancy ranged 171-183 days with females returning to estrus post-partum as early as 60 days (n = 3, 1.8-4 years of age at mating). Delayed implantation was indicated by a biphasic elevation in fecal P4 metabolites: the initial 4-fold increase occurred for 81-105 days and was followed by a 26-fold secondary rise in P4 metabolites lasting 66-94 days prior to parturition. Fecal GC was correlated with fecal estrogens and greatest during estrus, late pregnancy, and six days prior to parturition (estrous cycle GC, 14.4-62.8 ng/g; pregnancy GC, 13.6-232.7 ng/g). Estrous cycles of giant anteaters occurred year-round, but were shorter and more intermittent in younger nulliparous animals compared to a multiparous female. A pronounced

  14. Different enzymatic antioxidative pathways operate within the sheep caruncular and intercaruncular endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, K H; Faure, P; Garrel, C

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in the role played by antioxidant enzymes in the regulation of endometrial function in mammals. However, little is known about enzymatic antioxidative pathways involved in conditioning the cyclic and early pregnant endometrium for conceptus attachment and implantation in domestic ruminants. We aimed to investigate changes in activities of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1, SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) in sheep caruncles (CAR) and intercaruncles (ICAR) endometrial tissues of cyclic and early pregnant ewes. Irrespective of day of cycle or pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activities of SOD1 and SOD2 than in ICAR. On day 12 of the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX and GR than in CAR tissues. On days 12 and 16 the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. CAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, and 16 of the estrous cycle. The activity of CAT in ICAR increased from days 4 and 8 to day 12 of the estrous cycle. The activity of SOD2 in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On day 12 of pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in ICAR. On day 16 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in CAR. The activity of GPX in ICAR increased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy. The activity of GPX in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. The activity of GR in CAR and ICAR increased from days 12 and 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On days 16 and 18 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. The activity of CAT in CAR decreased from day 12 to days 16 and 18 of pregnancy. The activity of CAT in ICAR decreased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy and

  15. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (Pstress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Estrogen-dependent expression of sine oculis homeobox 1 in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sijeong [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hwang [Fertility Center of CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyemin [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Miseon [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Ryun; Song, Haengseok [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kwonho, E-mail: kwonho.hong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngsok, E-mail: youngsokchoi@cha.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-08

    The sine oculis homeobox 1 (SIX1) is a member of the Six gene family. SIX1 is involved in tissue development by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, function of SIX1 in the uterus remains unknown. Here, we found that Six1 expression is regulated along the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. Six1 expression was significantly increased at estrus stage and decreased at the rest of stages. SIX1 is detected in the luminal and glandular epithelium of uterine endometrium at the estrus stage. Estrogen injection increased Six1 expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, whereas progesterone had no effect on its expression. Estrogen receptor antagonist inhibited estrogen-induced Six1 expression. Our findings imply that SIX1 may play a role as an important regulator to orchestrate the dynamic of uterine endometrium in response to estrogen level during the estrous cycle. These results will give us a better understanding of uterine biology. - Highlights: • Six1 expression is regulated during the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. • Six1 is highly expressed at the estrus stage of estrous cycle. • SIX1 is detected in luminal/glandular epithelium of the uterus at the estrus stage. • Estrogen stimulates Six1 expression in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner.

  17. Assessment of estrous cycle, ovarian and uterine tissue and fetal parameters of Wistar rats treated with Topiramate

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    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is included in the newer generation of antiepileptic drugs and is known to have multiple mechanisms of action. The drug has also been used for reducing body weight. Its effect on reproductive tissues and estrous cycle deserve greater attention. Then, this study aimed to investigate possible effects of the drug on ovarian and uterine tissues, estrous cycle and some fetal parameters of non-epileptic Wistar rats. In Experiment I, females received tap water (C - Control group; n=8 or Topiramate (TPM group; 100 mg/kg; n=8, orally for 6 weeks. The estrous cycle and food consumption were monitored. Ovarian and uterine sections were examined under light microscopy. In Experiment II, pregnant rats of C and TPM groups received treatments during the pre-implantation, implantation or organogenesis period. In females of Experiment I, TPM had no effect on the food consumption, final body weight, weekly body weight and estrous cycle. Ovarian and uterine weight was similar in both groups. The kinetics of folliculogenesis was unaffected by treatment with the drug. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in endometrial thickness of TPM-group. In Experiment II, fetal weight was decreased (p<0.05 in all periods of TPM exposure. There was no effect of treatment on fetal external morphology. In conclusion, the findings indicate that TPM promotes discrete alterations in the uterine tissue, and causes decrease on the fetus weight after exposure in different gestational periods.

  18. Genomic priming of the antisecretory response to estrogen in rat distal colon throughout the estrous cycle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    The secretion of Cl(-) across distal colonic crypt cells provides the driving force for the movement of fluid into the luminal space. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in secretion in females, which is dependent on the novel protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) isozyme and PKA isoform I targeting of KCNQ1 channels. This sexual dimorphism in the E2 response is associated with a higher expression level of PKC delta in female compared with the male tissue. The present study revealed the antisecretory response is regulated throughout the female reproductive (estrous) cycle and is primed by genomic regulation of the kinases. E2 (1-10 nm) decreased cAMP-dependent secretion in colonic epithelia during the estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. A weak inhibition of secretion was demonstrated in the proestrus stage. The expression levels of PKC delta and PKA fluctuated throughout the estrous cycle and correlated with the potency of the antisecretory effect of E2. The expression of PKC delta and PKA were up-regulated by estrogen at a transcriptional level via a PKC delta-MAPK-cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated pathway indicating a genomic priming of the antisecretory response. PK Cdelta was activated by the membrane-impermeant E2-BSA, and this response was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The 66-kDa estrogen receptor-alpha isoform was present at the plasma membrane of female colonic crypt cells with a lower abundance found in male colonic crypts. The study demonstrates estrogen regulation of intestinal secretion both at a rapid and transcriptional level, demonstrating an interdependent relationship between both nongenomic and genomic hormone responses.

  19. Thymosin-∞1 in the ovary and the levels of thymosin-∞1 and T lymphocytes during estrous cycle in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakharia, D.D.; Kinder, J.E.; Wise, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental evidence in rodents has emphasized the role of thymic hormones, particularly thymosin-α 1 (ThA1), thymosin-β 4 and T lymphocytes, in regulation of ovarian development. Similar information is unavailable for farm animals including swine. Serum and follicular fluid (FF) ThA1 levels and percentage of peripheral blood (PB) T lymphocyte population during different phases of the estrous cycle were determined. T lymphocytes in PB were enumerated by the sheep erythrocyte rosette test. Percentage of T lymphocyte population at both early luteal (EL) and mid luteal phases (ML) were significantly (P<0.01) higher than during late luteal phase (LL). ThA1 measured by radioimmunoassay in FF of follicles of diameter <8 mm was significantly (P<0.01) higher than serum levels. Culture supernatants of corpus luteum (CL) and cells derived from follicles of diameter <8 mm (CF) contained significant amounts of ThA1 suggesting release of ThA1 from CL and CF. Germinal epithelium, follicular basal membrane, theca cells, granulosa cells and cells in CL stained positive for ThA1 by immunofluorescence test. Gilt estrous cycle phase was determined either by observing ovary morphology or counting the days after estrous. ThA1 levels in follicular fluid were significantly (P<0.01) higher during luteal phase than during follicular phase. Levels during ML or LL were significantly (P<0.01) higher than EL. ThA1 secreted by ovary may have a regulatory role in cyclicity of gilts and follicle development

  20. Dietary Deficiency of Essential Amino Acids Rapidly Induces Cessation of the Rat Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to

  1. Estrous cycle modulation of extracellular serotonin in mediobasal hypothalamus: role of the serotonin transporter and terminal autoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswood, S; Truitt, W; Hotema, M; Caldarola-Pastuszka, M; Uphouse, L

    1999-06-12

    In vivo microdialysis was used to examine extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of male and female Fischer (CDF-344) rats. Females from the stages of diestrus, proestrus, and estrus were used. Additionally, ovariectomized rats, primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus progesterone were examined. Extracellular 5-HT in the MBH varied with stage of the estrous cycle and with the light/dark cycle. Proestrous females had the highest microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT during the light portion of the light/dark cycle and lowest concentrations during the dark portion of the cycle. Diestrous females had the highest levels during the dark portion of the cycle, while males and estrous females showed little change between light and dark portions of the cycle. In ovariectomized rats, there was no effect of 2.5 microg or 25 microg estradiol benzoate (s.c.) on extracellular 5-HT; but the addition of 500 microg progesterone, 48 h after estrogen priming, reduced microdialysate 5-HT near the threshold for detection. In intact females and in males, reverse perfusion with 3 microM fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or 2 microM methiothepin, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, increased microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT. Estrous females and males showed nearly a 4-fold increase in microdialysate 5-HT in response to fluoxetine while smaller responses were seen in diestrous and proestrous rats. In contrast, proestrous rats showed the largest response to methiothepin. Estrous females showed a delayed response to methiothepin, but there was no methiothepin-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in males. These findings are discussed in reference to the suggestion that extracellular 5-HT in the MBH is regulated in a manner that is gender and estrous cycle dependent. The 5-HT terminal autoreceptor may exert a greater role in proestrous females; the serotonin transporter appears to play a more active

  2. Endoscopic monitoring the estrous phase of Arabian mares with assaying its biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the changes occur in the vagina, cervix and endometrium during the pre- ovulatory period in Arabian mares by using endoscope as a diagnostic tool as well as the availability of taking an endoscopic biopsy during this stage.Methods: Ten cyclic and healthy arabian mares were subjected to ultrasound scanning of their ovaries to estimate the diameter of the preovulatory follicles, collection of blood samples for estimating the hormonal levels (Estradiol-17 β and progestrone for confirming the estrous phase, endoscopic monitoring their vagina, cervix and endometrium, the availability of taking biopsical samples and histological examination of the obtained samples.Results: The obtained data revealed that, the mean diameter of the preovulatory follicles was (3.95±0.34 cm, the plasma estradiol and progestrone levels were (85.98±5.26 pg/mL and (0.73±0.23 ng/mL, respectively, endoscopic monitoring the vagina, cervix and endometrium revealed hyperemic vaginal mucous membrane, soft and opened cervical ostium with abundant estrous mucous and folding, hyperemic and edematous appearance of the endometrium, respectively and the histological features of the biopsical endometrial samples revealed that, The lamina propria-sub mucosa was packed with simple or branched tubular glands lined with simple columnar epithelium showing oval or rounded dark nuclei with different degrees of secretory activities of the glands.Conclusions: The endoscope proved to be a reliable tool for confirming the estrous phase in mares and monitoring the gross features of the vagina, the cervix and the endometrium, in addition to the availability of taking biopsical smears.

  3. Presence of a Temperature Gradient Among Genital Tract Portions and the Thermal Changes Within These Portions Over the Estrous Cycle in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SHEIKH ALI, Hossam; KITAHARA, Go; TAMURA, Youji; KOBAYASHI, Ikuo; HEMMI, Koichiro; TORISU, Shidow; SAMESHIMA, Hiroshi; HORII, Yoichiro; ZAABEL, Samy; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (V...

  4. Estrous cycle affects the neurochemical and neurobehavioral profile of carvacrol-treated female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabace, L.; Zotti, M.; Morgese, M.G.; Tucci, P.; Colaianna, M.; Schiavone, S.; Avato, P.; Cuomo, V.

    2011-01-01

    Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils from aromatic plants. It showed antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Although it was approved for food use and included in the chemical flavorings list, no indication on its safety has been estimated. Since the use of plant extracts is relatively high among women, aim of this study was to evaluate carvacrol effects on female physiology and endocrine profiles by using female rats in proestrus and diestrus phases. Serotonin and metabolite tissue content in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, after carvacrol administration (0.15 and 0.45 g/kg p.o.), was measured. Drug effects in behavioral tests for alterations in motor activity, depression, anxiety-related behaviors and endocrine alterations were also investigated. While in proestrus carvacrol reduced serotonin and metabolite levels in both brain areas, no effects were observed in diestrus phase. Only in proestrus phase, carvacrol induced a depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test, without accompanying changes in ambulation. The improvement of performance in FST after subchronic treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) suggested a specific involvement of serotonergic system. No differences were found across the groups with regard to self-grooming behavior. Moreover, in proestrus phase, carvacrol reduced only estradiol levels without binding hypothalamic estradiol receptors. Our study showed an estrous-stage specific effect of carvacrol on depressive behaviors and endocrine parameters, involving serotonergic system. Given the wide carvacrol use not only as feed additive, but also as cosmetic essence and herbal remedy, our results suggest that an accurate investigation on the effects of its chronic exposure is warranted. - Highlights: → Carvacrol induced a depressive-like phenotype in rats, depending on ovarian cyclicity. → Carvacrol selectively reduced serotonin content in female rats in proestrus phase. → Carvacrol reduced serotonin

  5. Surveillance and management of estrous cycle in Awassi and Lacaune ewes during out of season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Bogdan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to increase fertility in sheep by applying modern biotechnology: induction and synchronization of estrous in non- breeding season. The ewes were divided into 3 equal batches. In all batches intravaginal sponge (Veramix/Intervet containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after removal of the sponge an injections of prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5ml/animal was administered in batch II. Batch III received two injections: PMSG hormone (Folligon/Intervet at the dose of 500 IU/animal and prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5 ml/animal. The research focused on several directions: assessment of estrous manifestation; occurrence of estrous interval after completion of hormonal therapy; duration of estrous; appreciation of gestation after the first and second estrous clinically manifested; percentage of fecundity. From the results obtained it follows that induction and synchronization of estrous in non-breeding season showed economic advantages by shortening the time needed for the installation of gestation, the possibility of lambing distribution, preparation and organization of mating.

  6. Estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract of female rats upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Pan

    Full Text Available Co-morbidity of bladder, bowel, and non-specific pelvic pain symptoms is highly prevalent in women. Little evidence is present on modulation of pelvic pain syndromes by sex hormones, therefore, the objective of this study was to clarify the effects of hormonal fluctuations within the estrous cycle on regulatory neuropeptides in female rats using a model of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The estrous cycle in female rats (Sprague-Dawley, 230-250 g was assessed by vaginal smears and weight of uterine horns. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction was induced by a single inflammatory insult to the distal colon. Protein expression of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, nerve growth factor (NGF, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the pelvic organs, sensory ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord was compared in rats in proestrus (high estrogen vs diestrus (low estrogen. Under normal physiological conditions, concentration of SP and CGRP was similar in the distal colon and urinary bladder during all phases of the estrous cycle, however, acute colitis induced a significant up-regulation of CGRP content in the colon (by 63% and urinary bladder (by 54%, p≤0.05 to control of rats in proestrus. These changes were accompanied by a significant diminution of CGRP content in L6-S2 DRG after colonic treatment, likely associated with its release in the periphery. In rats with high estrogen at the time of testing (proestrus, experimental colitis caused a significant up-regulation of BDNF colonic content from 26.1±8.5 pg/ml to 83.4±32.5 pg/ml (N = 7, p≤0.05 to control and also induced similar effects on BDNF in the urinary bladder which was also up-regulated by 5-fold in rats in proestrus (p≤0.05 to respective control. Our results demonstrate estrous cycle dependent fluctuations of regulatory neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization, which may contribute to pain fluctuations in female patients

  7. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in the preoptic region of the brain during the estrous cycle of the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompolo, S.; Clarke, I.J.; Scott, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones located in the preoptic area (POA). GABA neurons in this region,express estrogen receptors, and synapse with GnRH cells. Reduced levels of GABA are thought to be permissive of the preovulatory LH surge. We aimed to determine whether the function of GABA changes across the ovine estrous cycle. GAD is an enzyme that synthesises GABA. We measured mRNA levels for the GAD-65 transcript in the diagonal band of Broca (dbB), POA and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BnST) of ewes (4/group) that were killed (overdose of Pentobarbital) during the luteal (L), follicular (F) or estrous (E) phase of the estrous cycle. Brains were perfused and processed for in situ hybridisation.Sections (20 μm) were hybridised with an 35 S-labelled GAD-65 probe and the number of silver grains/cell was counted. Grains/cell were similar across the cycle in dbB and the ventral BnST. In the dorsal and lateral BnST, GAD expression was greater (P<0.05) in the L (65 ± 3;SEM) than in F (56 ± 30), with a return to luteal phase levels at estrus (70 ± 3). Expression in the POA was lower (P<0.05) during estrus (54 ± 3) than during the luteal phase (70 ± 4). These data show that expression of GAD-65 is lower in some regions of BnST at the time of the cycle (follicular) when estrogen initiates events that lead to the preovulatory LH surge. Expression in the POA is lower at estrus (during the GnRH/LH surge) than during the luteal phase:this could be permissive of the surge. Higher GAD-65 expression in the luteal phase could be due to high progesterone levels at this time of the cycle. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  8. Working and reference memory across the estrous cycle of rat: a long-term study in gonadally intact females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Tomaz, Carlos; Arnone, Benedetto; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2010-11-12

    The results of many studies conducted over the past two decades suggested a role of estrogen on mammal's ability to learn and remember. In the present paper, we analyzed the influence that the endogenous fluctuation of estrogen, naturally present across the different phases of estrous cycle of female rats, can exert over the performance of tasks utilized to assess memory. In particular, we analyzed the performances in an eight arms radial maze task, dependent upon working memory, and in a water maze (WM) task, dependent upon spatial reference memory. The water maze is aversively motivated by the desire to escape onto a safe platform, whereas the radial arm maze (RAM) is motivated by food reward. The difference in reinforcement may affect the speed of learning, the strategy adopted and the necessity for accurate navigation. Therefore, coherent results obtained through the two different tasks can be due to mnemonic factors. The study was conducted during a long period of time, 14 months, utilizing gonadally intact females, without pharmacological and surgical treatments. In order to evaluate the post-acquisition phase we first trained the animals to reach the criterion in performing tasks, and then we submitted them to experimental phase. Our results show that estrogen can have an effect on memory processes, and that this effect may be different in relation to different kinds of memory. In fact, in our study, estrogen selectively improved working memory, but not reference memory, during post-acquisition performance of a RAM task with four baited and four un-baited arms. Moreover, WM performances showed that estrogen have a negative effect on spatial reference memory. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence of a temperature gradient among genital tract portions and the thermal changes within these portions over the estrous cycle in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Tamura, Youji; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hemmi, Koichiro; Torisu, Shidow; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (VT), cervix (CT), uterine body (UBT) and uterine horns (UHT). Blood samples were collected immediately before temperature recording to assay peripheral levels of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17β (E(2)). Moreover, transrectal ultrasonography was carried out after temperature recording to monitor the ovulatory follicle and track ovulation. During the experiment, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for further calculation of the temperature humidity index (THI). The temperature within the genital tracts in these cows progressively increased towards the uterine horns from the vagina. The VT, CT, UBT and UHTs were significantly higher in association with peripheral P(4) concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml (mid-luteal phase) when compared with lower peripheral P(4) concentrations. The VT was more significantly (Pfemale genital tract in bovine.

  10. PERFIL CITOLÓGICO VAGINAL DE OVELHAS DA RAÇA SANTA INÊS NO ACOMPANHAMENTO DO CICLO ESTRAL VAGINAL CYTOLOGY PROFILE FOR ACCOMPANIMENT TO ESTROUS CYCLE IN BREED SANTA INÊS EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adamir Torres de Souza

    2007-09-01

    . The glass slides had been observed to the optic microscope with increases of 10 x and 40 x for counting of 100 cells and visualization of the morphologic and staining characteristics of the epithelial cells to the long one of the estrous cycle. The changeable phases of the estrous cycle – proestrous, estrous, metoestrum and diestrum – e types cells – basal, parabasal, anuclear superficial –, intermediate and had been studied by means of ANOVA, to the level of probability of 5% for the test of Tukey. The some types cells of the vaginal epithelium had been found to the long one of the phases of the estrous cycle and evaluated four types of cells: nuclear superficial, intermediate, basal and parabasal. In the phase of estrous a difference was noticed statistics of the anuclear superficial cells on the too much types (P<0,05. One concluded that through the exfoliation vaginal cytology it can be differentiated the phases of the estrous cycle in ewe of the race Saint Inês.

    KEY-WORDS: Estrous cycle, ewe, vaginal cytology, vaginal epithelium.

  11. All in good time : dynamics of the bovine estrous cycle investigated with a mathematical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine fertility is subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially since a decline in dairy cow fertility has been observed during the last decades. One factor is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Fertility is a complex process, regulated by interactions between brain and

  12. Histomorphometric and functional studies of the rat thyroid throughout the estrous cycle Histomorfometria e função tireoidiana no ciclo estral da rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the estrous cycle on the thyroid gland was studied. Twenty one five-to-seven-month-old Wistar female rats were divided according to the stage of the estrous cycle in two groups: metaestrus-diestrus and proestrus-estrus. After gross inspection, the thyroids were weighed, sampled, and processed for staining with hematoxilyn-eosin. Seric concentrations of total T4, free T4, total T3, TSH, progesterone, and estradiol were measured. The values of estradiol were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus stage. However, no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of progesterone, free T4, total T4 and TSH throughout the cycle were found. The results of the morphometric study of the thyroid did not indicate any significant differences between the groups. These findings suggest that there is no thyreotrophic effect of estrogen during the estrous cycle in rats.

  13. Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticosterone facilitates behavioral adaptation to a novel experience in a coordinate manner via mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. Initially, MR mediates corticosterone action on appraisal processes, risk assessment and behavioral flexibility and then, GR activation promotes consolidation of the new information into memory. Here, we studied on the circular holeboard (CHB the spatial performance of female mice with genetic deletion of MR from the forebrain (MRCaMKCre and their wild type littermates (MRflox/flox mice over the estrous cycle and in response to an acute stressor. The estrous cycle had no effect on the spatial performance of MRflox/flox mice and neither did the acute stressor. However, the MRCaMKCre mutants needed significantly more time to find the exit and made more hole visit errors than the MRflox/flox mice, especially when in proestrus and estrus. In addition, stressed MRCaMKCre mice in estrus had a shorter exit latency than the control estrus MRCaMKCre mice. About 70% of the female MRCaMKCre and MRflox/flox mice used a hippocampal (spatial, extra maze cues rather than the caudate nucleus (stimulate-response, S-R, intra-maze cue strategy and this preference did neither change over the estrous cycle nor after stress. However, stressed MRCaMKCre mice using the S-R strategy needed significantly more time to find the exit hole as compared to the spatial strategy using mice suggesting that the MR could be needed for the stress-induced strategy switch towards a spatial strategy. In conclusion, the results suggest that loss of MR interferes with performance of a spatial task especially when estrogen levels are high suggesting a strong interaction between stress and sex hormones.

  14. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole; Grossi, Anette Blak; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Erneholm, Karin; Skytte, Christina; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-10-28

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, Paenibacillaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Syntrophaceae. We found a higher abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the prepubertal Göttingen Minipigs compared to sexually mature non-pregnant Göttingen Minipigs. However, correlation tests and diversity parameters revealed a very stable vaginal microbiota in the Göttingen Minipigs, both before and after sexual maturity and on different days throughout an estrous cycle. The vaginal microbiota in Göttingen Minipigs was not dominated by lactobacilli, as it is in women and according to our results the minipig vaginal microbiota is very stable, in opposite to women. These differences should be considered when using the minipig as a model of the genital tract in women.

  16. The effect of cooling management on blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length at heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Kaim, Moshe; Jacobi, Shamay; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-07-15

    The use of ultrasound imaging for the examination of reproductive organs has contributed substantially to the fertility management of dairy cows around the world. This method has many advantages such as noninvasiveness and immediate availability of information. Adding Doppler index to the ultrasound imaging examination, improved the estimation of blood volume and flow rate to the ovaries in general and to the dominant follicle in particular. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the blood flow to the dominant follicle and compare them to the follicular development throughout the cycle. We further set out to examine the effects of different types of cooling management during the summer on the changes in blood flow to the dominant follicle. For this purpose, 24 Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, under heat stress, were randomly assigned one of two groups: one was exposed to five cooling sessions per day (5CS) and the other to eight cooling sessions per day (8CS). Blood flow to the dominant follicle was measured daily using Doppler index throughout the estrous cycle. No differences in the preovulatory dominant follicle diameter were detected between the two cooling management regimens during the cycle. However, the length of the first follicular wave was significantly longer, whereas the second follicular wave was nonsignificantly shorter in the 5CS group as compared to the 8CS group. In addition, no difference in blood flow was found during the first 18 days of the cycle between the two groups. However, from Day 20 until ovulation a higher rate of blood flow was measured in the ovaries of cows cooled 8 times per day as compared to the 5CS group. No differences in progesterone levels were noted. Finally, the estrous cycle length was shorter in the 8CS group as compared to the 5CS group. Our data suggest that blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length is affected by heat stress. Using the appropriate cooling management during heat stress can

  17. Estrous cycle-dependent neural plasticity in the caudal brainstem in the female golden hamster : Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of axo-dendritic relationships and dynamic remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P. O.; Kortekaas, R.; Veening, J. G.; de Weerd, H.; Algra, A.; Mouton, L. J.; van der Want, J. J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the short four-day estrous cycle of the female hamster various behavioral (lordosis, vocalization and aggression) and autonomic adaptations occur. Presumably, these changes are under ovarian control. Recently, we described a distinct estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha-IR) cell

  18. Estrous cycle-dependent neural plasticity in the caudal brainstem in the female golden hamster: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of axo-dendritic relationships and dynamic remodeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Veening, J.G.; Weerd, H. de; Algra, A.; Mouton, L.J.; Want, J.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    During the short four-day estrous cycle of the female hamster various behavioral (lordosis, vocalization and aggression) and autonomic adaptations occur. Presumably, these changes are under ovarian control. Recently, we described a distinct estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha-IR) cell

  19. Estrous cycle dependent changes in expression and distribution of Fas, Fas ligand, Bcl-2, Bax, and pro- and active caspase-3 in the rat ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, K.A.; Voorendt, M.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Vugt, van H.H.; Teerds, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, the localization of proteins involved in ovarian apoptosis were studied throughout the estrous cycle in the presence of fluctuating hormone levels. Fas, Fas ligand, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expression and proteins were detected in all ovarian tissue extracts,

  20. Estrous cycle regulatory mechanisms of the uterus are altered in cows that do not demonstrate behavioral estrus during an ovulation induction protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrus is the start of an estrous cycle in cows, and triggers several precisely timed events including receptivity to the bull, ovulation, conception, formation of the corpus luteum, and recognition of pregnancy. In the absence of a pregnancy signal, the corpus luteum (CL) must regress in response ...

  1. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  2. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal...... environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing...... in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  3. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2 in ovine endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL. These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1 and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFNτ, produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor α (ERα (directly and OTR (indirectly genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFNτ increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFNτ in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFNτ has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFNτ are to inhibit ERα and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus.

  4. A study on the effects of the estrous cycle on uterine fluid and blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG content in the cow

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    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the IgG content and its variations in uterine fluid (UF during the estrous cycle of the cow and to compare them with those of the blood serum (S, six pairs of serum and UF samples for each phase of the cycle selected out of 240 bovine genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir. The UF samples were collected by gentle scraping of the endometrium using a curette after uterine incision and their IgG content and those of the serum were measured by single radial immuno-diffusion (SRID assay. Serum IgG values (Mean ± SEM were generally higher than the UF values throughout the cycle except for di-estrus (S: 38.50 ± 0.90, UF: 51.60 ± 2.10 mg mL-1, in which the highest values were observed in UF samples. In met-estrus the difference was not significant (S: 34.80 ± 1.80mg mL-1, UF: 30.80 ± 5.20 mg mL-1, however, in estrus the mean UF IgG value (12.50 ± 1.10 mg mL-1 was lower than that of the serum (31.30 ± 1.20 mg mL-1. In pro-estrus, the lowest values (S: 27.80 ± 1.30 mg mL-1, UF: 9.10 ± 1.50 mg mL-1 were obtained. The results showed a lower IgG values in the bovine UF than those of the serum in the follicular phase of the cycle, while in di-estrus the UF IgG content was the highest, suggesting some IgG production in the uterus at this phase.

  5. Control of the estrous cycle to improve fertility for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Larson, J E; Marquezini, G; Stevenson, J S

    2010-04-01

    Early estrus-synchronization protocols focused on regressing the corpus luteum (CL) with an injection of PGF(2alpha) followed by detection of estrus or involved the use of exogenous progestins that prevent estrus from occurring. Later, protocols combining the use of PGF(2alpha) and exogenous progestins were developed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was utilized to control follicular waves, synchronize ovulation, or to luteinize large dominant follicles. Our research aimed to develop reliable protocols that 1) relied solely on fixed-timed AI (TAI); 2) required a maximum of 3 animal handlings, and 3) were successful in estrous-cycling and noncycling females. In cows, insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert during the 7-d interval between the initial GnRH and PGF(2alpha) injections enhanced pregnancy rates by 9 to 10%. In a multi-location study, a TAI protocol yielded pregnancy rates similar to a protocol involving detection of estrus plus a fixed-time clean-up AI for females not detected in estrus (54 vs. 58%, respectively, for cows and 53 vs. 57%, respectively, for heifers). Initiation of estrous cycles in noncycling cows is likely the primary manner in which beef producers may improve fertility in response to estrus synchronization and TAI protocols. Treatment of noncycling females with progesterone and GnRH increases the percentage of cycling females and improves fertility to a TAI, but inducing cyclicity with hCG failed to enhance fertility in TAI protocols. Supplementing progesterone after TAI failed to increase pregnancy rates in beef cattle. In contrast, administration of hCG 7 d after TAI induced an accessory CL, increased progesterone, and tended to enhance pregnancy rates. Development of TAI protocols that reduce the hassle factors associated with ovulation synchronization and AI provide cattle producers efficient and effective tools for capturing selective genetic traits of economic consequences. Location variables, however, which may include

  6. Food deprivation and leptin prioritize ingestive and sex behavior without affecting estrous cycles in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Casper, Janelle F; Barisich, Amanda; Schoengold, Candace; Cherry, Sandeep; Surico, Justine; DeBarba, Ashley; Fabris, Frank; Rabold, Elizabeth

    2007-03-01

    Energy consumption is critical for the energetically expensive processes related to reproduction, and thus, mechanisms that increase ingestive behavior are directly linked to reproductive success. Similarly, the mechanisms that inhibit hunger and ingestive behavior might be most adaptive when these mechanisms cause individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in order to find and court potential mates. In the laboratory, ingestive behaviors are typically studied separately from reproductive behaviors even though it is likely that these behaviors evolved under conditions in which both food and mates were available. We examined the choice between paracopulatory and ingestive behaviors in a semi-natural environment in which both food and potential mates were available. Intact female Syrian hamsters showed a high preference for males on days 3 and 4 (day 4 being the day of ovulation and estrous behavior), and a 48-h period of food deprivation significantly decreased preference for sex and increased preference for eating and food hoarding on day 3 in 89% of the hamsters, although none became anestrous. The same period of food deprivation significantly decreased the level of vaginal marking without significant effects on plasma estradiol concentrations. Next, hamsters were either food deprived (FD) or fed ad libitum, and half of each group was treated with vehicle or the adipocyte hormone leptin. The percentage of females with a low preference for sex was significantly greater in the FD compared to the ad libitum-fed groups, and leptin treatment prevented this effect. Metabolic fuels, possibly acting through leptin and other hormones, might influence sensitivity to estradiol or enhance the downstream effects of estradiol, thereby increasing motivation for sex and decreasing the relative motivation to forage, hoard and eat food.

  7. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  8. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J.

    1991-01-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through [35S]sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle

  9. Relationship between Length of Estrous Cycle and all of Progesterone Level and Milk Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Farghaly, H.A.M.; Osman, K.T.; Regulaty, H.A.; Eboul-Ela, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (15 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2007 to July 2007. At the same time blood samples (10 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugural vein into evacuated tubes. Blood and milk samples were placed immediately on ice and arrived at the laboratory immediately after collection. Blood and milk tubes were centrifuged at 1500 for 15 min in a centrifuge for serum and fat less milk separation. Serum and milk samples were frozen at -25 degree C and later analyzed for progesterone by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as anovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≤1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P< 0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P< 0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 2nd International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Applications, 28/3 - 1/4/2010 34 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes ; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in nonpregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression

  10. Stable Density and Dynamics of Dendritic Spines of Cortical Neurons Across the Estrous Cycle While Expressing Differential Levels of Sensory-Evoked Plasticity

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    Bailin H. Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodic oscillations of gonadal hormone levels during the estrous cycle exert effects on the female brain, impacting cognition and behavior. While previous research suggests that changes in hormone levels across the cycle affect dendritic spine dynamics in the hippocampus, little is known about the effects on cortical dendritic spines and previous studies showed contradictory results. In this in vivo imaging study, we investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on the density and dynamics of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice. We also examined if the induction of synaptic plasticity during proestrus, estrus, and metestrus/diestrus had differential effects on the degree of remodeling of synapses in this brain area. We used chronic two-photon excitation (2PE microscopy during steady-state conditions and after evoking synaptic plasticity by whisker stimulation at the different stages of the cycle. We imaged apical dendritic tufts of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of naturally cycling virgin young female mice. Spine density, turnover rate (TOR, survival fraction, morphology, and volume of mushroom spines remained unaltered across the estrous cycle, and the values of these parameters were comparable with those of young male mice. However, while whisker stimulation of female mice during proestrus and estrus resulted in increases in the TOR of spines (74.2 ± 14.9% and 75.1 ± 12.7% vs. baseline, respectively, sensory-evoked plasticity was significantly lower during metestrus/diestrus (32.3 ± 12.8%. In males, whisker stimulation produced 46.5 ± 20% increase in TOR compared with baseline—not significantly different from female mice at any stage of the cycle. These results indicate that, while steady-state density and dynamics of dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of female mice are constant during the estrous cycle, the susceptibility of these neurons to

  11. Social influences on the estrous cycle of the captive sun bear (Helarctos Malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Hunt, Kathleen; Kyes, Randall; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Ha, James; Wasser, Samuel K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential influences of existing social housing arrangements on captive sun bear female reproductive cycling. Three social conditions were studied: 1.2, 1.1, and 0.2. Fecal hormone metabolites of total estrogens, progestins and glucocorticoids were compared between the three social conditions and were analyzed along with vaginal cytology data in individuals that experienced a change in social condition. Behavioral data were collected on females in each of the social conditions and summarized into agonistic, affiliative and sexual categories. Results indicated that sun bears are spontaneous ovulators, but that the presence of a male does influence hormone metabolite concentrations and cytological profiles. Male presence was also associated with a greater proportion of females cycling. In most female pairs, only one female cycled, typically the younger, subordinate female. The presence of a second female appeared to have a suppressive influence on both cycling and mating behavior. Agonistic behavior and associated stress may be a mechanism for lowering progesterone. In contrast, high estrogen levels were associated with low levels of agonistic interactions; thus, reproductive cycle monitoring could facilitate social introductions with either sex. Females in 1.2 social groupings had significantly higher GC metabolite concentrations and agonistic behavior, suggesting that 1.2 social groupings may not be advisable for captive breeding programs. Data from the North American historical captive population indicate that at most 32% of all sun bear pairs and only 18.5% of females have successfully reproduced. Implications of these social and reproductive patterns for captive management are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Diet-induced obesity reduces core body temperature across the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Maloney, Shane K; Mark, Peter J

    2018-04-16

    Obesity during pregnancy causes adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes and programs offspring for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Obesity also disrupts core body temperature (T c ) regulation in nonpregnant rodents; however, it is unknown whether obesity alters normal maternal T c adaptations to pregnancy. Since T c is influenced by the circadian system, and both obesity and pregnancy alter circadian biology, it was hypothesized that obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic patterns of T c before and during gestation. Obesity was induced by cafeteria (CAF) feeding in female Wistar rats for 8 weeks prior to and during gestation, whereas control (CON) animals had free access to chow. Intraperitoneal temperature loggers measured daily T c profiles throughout the study, while maternal body composition and leptin levels were assessed near term. Daily temperature profiles were examined for rhythmic features (mesor, amplitude and acrophase) by cosine regression analysis. CAF animals exhibited increased fat mass (93%) and associated hyperleptinemia (3.2-fold increase) compared to CON animals. CAF consumption reduced the average T c (by up to 0.29°C) across the estrous cycle and most of pregnancy; however, T c for CAF and CON animals converged toward the end of gestation. Obesity reduced the amplitude of T c rhythms at estrus and proestrus and on day 8 of pregnancy, but increased the amplitude at day 20 of pregnancy. Photoperiod analysis revealed that obesity reduced T c exclusively in the light period during pre-pregnancy but only during the dark period in late gestation. In conclusion, obesity alters rhythmic T c profiles and reduces the magnitude of the T c decline late in rat gestation, which may have implications for maternal health and fetal development.

  13. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36) in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol-17β (E) plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36), a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h) and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h) and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx) resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  14. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT): effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  15. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT: effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trynke R de Jong

    Full Text Available The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT. We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB or low-anxiety (LAB rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  16. Relationship between length of estrous cycle and progesterone levels and milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  17. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

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    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  18. Starting Ovsynch protocol on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle increased fertility in dairy cows by affecting ovarian response during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to compare fertility in cows using an Ovsynch protocol starting on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle with an Ovsynch protocol initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle during heat stress (temperature-humidity index (THI)=77-83). Cows (n=459) at the beginning of the lactation period were randomly assigned to time-of-ovulation synchronization treatments: (1) control, Ovsynch (first GnRH treatment, PGF2α treatment 7 days later, second GnRH treatment 56 h later, and TAI 16 h later), initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle (40 ± 2 days postpartum, n=224) and (2) Ovsynch initiated on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle (estrus=day 0) based on detection of the first estrus after day 30 postpartum (O6, 35 ± 2 postpartum, n=235). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS. The percentage of cows responding to the initial GnRH injection using the Ovsynch protocol was greater with the O6 treatment compared to the control treatment (60.4% compared with 52.6%). The percentage of cows having a corpus luteum (CL) on the day of the PGF2α injection was not different among treatments (control=87.0% and O6=90.2%, respectively). Also more cows in the O6 treatment group responded to the second GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol compared with control treatments (82.5% compared with 75.8%). Treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32 ± 0.7 days and 60 ± 3 days after the resynchronized timing of AI but pregnancy losses (5.3% compared with 6.8%) did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that initiating the Ovsynch protocol 6 days after estrus during the first 40 days postpartum resulted in a greater pregnancy rate at the synchronized estrus and increased fertility compared with control cows during heat stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ovarian matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated during the estrous cycle but not during short photoperiod induced regression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus

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    Vrooman Lisa A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are implicated as mediators for ovarian remodeling events, and are involved with ovarian recrudescence during seasonal breeding cycles in Siberian hamsters. However, involvement of these proteases as the photoinhibited ovary undergoes atrophy and regression had not been assessed. We hypothesized that 1 MMPs and their tissue inhibitors, the TIMPs would be present and differentially regulated during the normal estrous cycle in Siberian hamsters, and that 2 MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels would increase as inhibitory photoperiod induced ovarian degeneration. Methods MMP-2, -9, -14 and TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA and protein were examined in the stages of estrous (proestrus [P], estrus [E], diestrus I [DI], and diestrus II [DII] in Siberian hamsters, as well as after exposure to 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of inhibitory short photoperiod (SD. Results MMP-9 exhibited a 1.6-1.8 fold decrease in mRNA expression in DII (p Conclusions Although MMPs appear to be involved in the normal ovarian estrus cycle at the protein level in hamsters, those examined in the present study are unlikely to be key players in the slow atrophy of tissue as seen in Siberian hamster ovarian regression.

  20. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36 in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

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    Prabuddha Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Estradiol-17β (E plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36, a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  1. Influence of continuous illumination on estrous cycle of rats: time course of changes in levels of gonadotropins and ovarian steroids until occurrence of persistent estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Y

    1984-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone and progesterone were determined chronologically by radioimmunoassays in two groups of adult female rats exposed to continuous illumination (LL). Group 1 rats showing vaginal estrous cycles were sacrificed at 3- to 6-hour intervals during late proestrus through early estrus of the first 5 cycles after exposure to LL. Group 2 animals which displayed persistent vaginal estrus in an early period of exposure to LL were killed on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th days of vaginal estrus. In Group 1 rats, surges of the hormones, except estrone, took place in all the 5 cycles. The occurrence of peak hormone levels in each cycle was invariably delayed after transfer of animals to LL. According to regression analyses, the lengths of secretion cycles of LH, FSH, 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone in rats under LL were 100.89, 100.46, 101.14 and 101.06 h, respectively. Elevation of 17 beta-estradiol levels was observed prior to the LH surge, and peaks of progesterone and FSH occurred following it. However, the secretion patterns of these hormones appear to be disrupted with length of exposure to LL. In group 2 rats, the mean concentration of LH during persistent estrus was approximately similar to that on the morning of the days of proestrus of the 4-day cycles of rats placed under an alternating 12-hour light-dark regimen (LD), whereas the mean FSH concentration was continuously low. While the concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and estrone in persistent-estrous rats were elevated, progesterone levels remained low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Semi-quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the localization and neuropeptide content of gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals in the median eminence throughout the estrous cycle of the rat.

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    Prevot, V; Dutoit, S; Croix, D; Tramu, G; Beauvillain, J C

    1998-05-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of gonadotropin releasing hormone-immunoreactive elements was studied in the external zone of the median eminence of adult female Wistar rats. On the one hand, the purpose of the study was to determine the distribution of gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals towards the parenchymatous basal lamina at the level of hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, throughout the estrous cycle. On the other hand, we have semi-quantified the gonadotropin releasing hormone content in nerve terminals or preterminals during this physiological condition. A morphometric study was coupled to a colloidal 15 mn gold postembedding immunocytochemistry procedure. Animals were killed at 09.00 on diestrus II, 0.900, 10.00, 13.00, 17.00 and 18.00 on proestrus and 09.00 on estrus (n = 4-8 rats/group). A preliminary light microscopic study was carried out to identify an antero-posterior part of median eminence strongly immunostained by anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone antibodies but which was, in addition, easily spotted. This last condition was necessary to make a good comparison between each animal. Contacts between gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals and the basal lamina were observed only the day of proestrus. Such contacts, however, were rare and in the great majority of cases, gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals are separated from basal lamina by tanycytic end feet. The morphometric analysis showed no significant variation in average distance between gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals and capillaries throughout the estrous cycle. Consequently, it did not appear that a large neuroglial plasticity exists during the estrous cycle. However, the observation of contacts only on proestrus together with some ultrastructural images evoke the possibility of a slight plasticity. The semi-quantitative results show that the content of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the nerve endings presented two peaks on proestrus: one at 09.00 (23 +/- 5

  3. Influence of sex and estrous cycle on synaptic responses of the medial vestibular nuclei in rats: role of circulating 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Scarduzio, Mariangela; Dieni, Cristina V; Brecchia, Gabriele; Boiti, Cristiano; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2012-02-10

    We investigated the possible influence of sex and estrous cycle on the synaptic responses of neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and their long-term modifications. In brain stem slices of male and female rats during proestrus (PE) and diestrus (DE), we evaluated the field potential evoked in the MVN by vestibular afferent stimulation. Here we find that in PE females the field potential had a lower threshold and higher amplitude than in DE females and in males and also that the stimulus-response curve was shifted to the left. Such difference is related to the level and cyclic fluctuation of circulating 17β-estradiol (E(2)). This is supported by the exogenous administration of E(2) in DE females and males, with low levels of circulating E(2) that enhanced the field potential amplitude to values close to those of PE females. Sex and estrous cycle also influence the MVN synaptic plasticity. This has been shown by investigating the effect of testosterone (T) on the induction of long-term effects, since T is the precursor for the neural synthesis of E(2) (estrogenic pathway), which is involved in the induction of fast long-term potentiation (LTP), or of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT, androgenic pathway) which mediates slow LTP and long-term depression (LTD). We found that T mostly induced LTD in PE females and no effect in DE females, while it only provoked fast LTP in males. We suggest that high level of circulating E(2) may interfere with the conversion of T, by inhibiting the neural estrogenic pathway and facilitating the androgenic one. On the whole these results demonstrate an influence of circulating E(2) on vestibular synaptic transmission and plasticity that in some cases may contribute to the sex and menstrual cycle dependence of symptoms in human vestibular pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent changes in neurosteroid and benzodiazepine effects on food consumption and plus-maze learning behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S; Kulkarni, S K

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of estrous cycle and gender of the rat on the effects of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor active neurosteroid, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone), the benzodiazepine, triazolam, and a GABA(A) receptor antagonistic neurosteroid, delta5-androsten-3beta-ol-17-one sulfate (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), on food intake and elevated plus-maze learning behaviors. Allopregnanolone (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) and triazolam (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a hyperphagic effect, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (5 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited an anorectic effect. However, allopregnanolone was more potent in diestrous females, whereas triazolam exhibited significantly higher hyperphagic potency in estrus females. The extent of anorexia following dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was alike in male and female rats. The triazolam- and allopregnanolone-induced hyperphagic effect was blocked by bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist. In contrast to triazolam, the hyperphagic effect of allopregnanolone was insensitive to flumazenil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a benzodiazepine antagonist. Vehicle-treated diestrous rats displayed moderately higher latencies in the elevated plus-maze learning task than estrus or proestrus females. Although allopregnanolone and triazolam elicited equipotent learning deficits in plus-maze learning in male and female rats, the magnitude of impairment-induced by triazolam was significantly higher in diestrous females than proestrus females. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate enhanced memory performance only in male rats. Although the use of the elevated plus-maze as a learning paradigm with benzodiazepines and neurosteroids may be sensitive to changes in anxiety, the differential data suggest that neurosteroid-induced effects are at least partly specific to learning behavior. These results confirm the role of estrous cycle and sex of rats in modifying the potency of

  5. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  6. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its functional receptor in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle and the modulatory role of ghrelin on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells in buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Chouhan, V S; Hyder, I; Babitha, V; Yadav, V P; Khan, F A; Sonwane, A; Singh, G; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2014-07-01

    Evidence obtained during recent years provided has insight into the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) development, function, and regression by locally produced ghrelin. The present study was carried out to evaluate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in bubaline CL during different stages of the estrous cycle and investigate the role of ghrelin on progesterone (P4) production along with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of P4 synthesis intermediates. The mRNA and protein expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was significantly greater in mid- and late luteal phases. Both factors were localized in luteal cells, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Immunoreactivity of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was greater during mid- and late luteal phases. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL concentrations for 48 h after obtaining 75% to 80% confluence. At a dose of 1 ng/mL, there was no significant difference in P4 secretion between control and treatment group. At 10 and 100 ng/mL, there was a decrease (P production in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoe Misa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14

  8. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  9. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

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    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  10. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I

    1993-01-01

    We used lectin overlay blotting and SDS-PAGE to analyze the estrous cycle-specific expression of mouse vaginal epithelial glycoproteins. Seven lectins chosen for their differential carbohydrate-binding specificity revealed 15 glycoproteins that showed cycle-related expression. Each lectin had...... in proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...... the complexity of glycoconjugate synthesis in mouse vagina and reveal the distinct cycle-specific patterns of individual glycoprotein expression. These cyclic glycoproteins could serve as vaginal biochemical markers for the specific phases of the estrous cycle....

  11. ESTROUS CYCLE: BASIC PHYSIOLOGY AND STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING ESTRUS DETECTIONCICLO ESTRAL: FISIOLOGÍA BÁSICA Y ESTRATEGIAS PARA MEJORAR LA DETECCIÓN DE CELOS

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    Guáqueta, Humberto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Complet understanding of factors involved with estrous cycle in cows is an essential topic for reproductive managment in dairy and beef herds. Recent increases in different biotechnologies such as artificial insemination, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer programs. have the primary base in this concern. The high incidence in night mounting activity and short time cycles means that estrus detection is very important and too difficult, and has showed how this work is a big problem in livestock, and subfertility in many heifers and cows is one of the principal causes for culling of the herd.El entendimiento de los factores que regulan el ciclo estral de la vaca es un componente esencial del manejo reproductivo en las fincas ganaderas. El incremento en la utilización de mano de obra calificada y especialistas en reproducción, así como la implementación de programas de inseminación artificial, sincronización del ciclo estral y transferencia de embriones han venido acentuando esta necesidad. La alta incidencia de actividad de monta durante la noche y los cortos periodos de duración del estro hacen de la detección de celos una tarea nada fácil, lo que parcialmente explicaría por qué la detección de calores es, después de la mastitis, la problemática número uno en muchas ganaderías y por qué la subfertilidad de las hembras se constituye en una de las principales razones de descarte del hato.

  12. [Changes in the monoamine content in different parts of hypothalamus depending on the stages of the estrous cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N; Adamskaia, E I

    1976-01-01

    Fluorimetric determination of monoamines in various regions of the hypothalamus and at different stages of the estral cycle in rats showed that the serotonin, noradrenaline, and particularly dophamine content changed both in the course of the cycle and at different time (10, 15 and 18 hours) of the same stage of the cycle. Dophamine concentration in the arcuate area--the centre of the tonic activity--reached its maximum at 18 hours of the diestrus-2 (D2) and fell to the minimum at 10 hours of the proestrus (P). Noradrenaline level in the preoptic area increased at 18 hours of the D2 and fell at 10 hours of the P. It is supposed that in the hypothalamic regulation of the estral cycle at least two monoamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) took part; the trigger role belongs to noradrenaline of the preoptic area (the cyclic centre).

  13. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on cocaine self-administration in rhesus macaques.

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    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that men and women vary in their pattern of cocaine use resulting in differences in cocaine dependence and relapse rates. Preclinical laboratory studies have demonstrated that female rodents are indeed more sensitive to cocaine's reinforcing effects than males, with estrous cycle stage as a key determinant of this effect. The current study sought to extend these findings to normally cycling female rhesus macaques, a species that shares a nearly identical menstrual cycle to humans. Dose-dependent intravenous cocaine self-administration (0.0125, 0.0250, and 0.0500 mg/kg/infusion) using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement was determined across the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 discrete phases - menses, follicular, periovulatory, luteal, and late luteal phases - verified by the onset of menses and plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Dependent variables including number of infusions self-administered per session, progressive ratio breakpoint, and cocaine intake were analyzed according to cocaine dose and menstrual cycle phase. Analysis of plasma hormone levels verified phase-dependent fluctuations of estradiol and progesterone, with estrogen levels peaking during the periovulatory phase, and progesterone peaking during the luteal phase. Progressive ratio breakpoint, infusions self-administered, and cocaine intake did not consistently vary based on menstrual cycle phase. These findings demonstrate that under the current experimental parameters, the reinforcing effects of cocaine did not vary across the menstrual cycle in a systematic fashion in normally cycling rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

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    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW, motor behavior (MB, and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU, trained + TU (T + TU, sedentary + vehicle (S + V, trained + vehicle (T + V. The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 weeks. During this training, (BW was monitored daily as well as the estrous cycle (EC by vaginal smear. The TU (15 mg/kg s.c was administered 3 times/week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, data on MB, BW and morphohistopathological changes in viscera were compiled. The (T + TU group had on average, a higher (BW in the fourth week compared to the first week, and (BW higher than (S + V and (S + TU groups. We noted an interruption in the EC and a decrease in weight of ovaries in animals treated with TU. In addition, there was an increase in the relative weight of the heart in groups (T + V and (T+ TU, and kidneys in group (T + TU. Histopathological analysis showed periportal congestion and isolated foci of hepatic necrosis in rats with TU. Thus, TU combined with training abolished the EC, promoted ovarian atrophy, liver necrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in motor activity.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento com undecanoato de testosterona (UT combinado ao treinamento físico moderado sobre ciclo estral, peso corporal, estruturas do sistema reprodutor, comportamento motor e morfologia hepática e renal em ratas. Ratas Wistar (180 a 250 g foram divididas em: sedentárias + UT (S+UT, treinadas + UT (T+UT, sedentárias + veículo (S+V, treinadas + veículo (T+V. As ratas nadaram 50 min/dia com sobrecarga de ~5% do peso corporal por 4 semanas. Durante o período de treinamento foi realizado acompanhamento diário do peso corporal (PC e do

  15. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  16. [Protective effect of melatonin and epithalon on hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in female rats in its premature aging model and on estrous cycles in senescent animals in various lighting regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevsky, A V; Milyutina, Yu P; Bukalyov, A V; Baranova, Yu P; Vinogradova, I A; Arutjunyan, A V

    2013-01-01

    Potential neuroprotective effects of the pineal gland hormone melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon on estrous cycles and the central regulation of reproduction in female rats exposed to unfavourable environmental factors have been studied. Estrous cycles of young, mature and aging rats exposed to light pollution were described. The diurnal dynamics and daily mean content of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic areas responsible for gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion in animals of different age groups were investigated. An effect of a chemical factor on the noradrenergic system of the medial preoptic area and on the dopaminergic system of the median eminence with arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus was studied in premature aging of reproduction model. Administration of the pineal gland peptide melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon was shown to be able to correct a number of impairments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that can be observed, when the experimental animals were exposed to permanent artificial lighting and a neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The data obtained testify to an important role of the pineal gland in the circadian signal formation needed for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in order to exert its preovulatory peak secretion and to the protective effect of melatonin and epitalon, which are able to reduce unfavourable environmental influences on reproduction of young and aging female rats.

  17. Variations in maternal care alter corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and stimulate the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the ovaries of UCh rats

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    Amorim João PA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in maternal care are associated with neonatal stress, hormonal disturbances and reproductive injuries during adulthood. However, the effects of these variations on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovary development remain undetermined. This study aimed to investigate whether variations in maternal care are able to influence the hormonal profile, follicular dynamics and expression of AR, ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of UCh rat offspring. Methods Twenty-four adult UCh rats, aged 120 days, were randomly divided into two groups (UChA and UChB and mated. Maternal care was assessed from birth (day 0 to the 10th postnatal day (PND. In adulthood, twenty adult female rats (UChA and UChB offspring; n = 10/group, aged 120 days, were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus. Results UChA females (providing high maternal care more frequently displayed the behaviors of carrying pups, as well as licking/grooming and arched back nursing cares. Also, mothers providing high care had elevated corticosterone levels. Additionally, offspring receiving low maternal care showed the highest estrous cycle duration, increased corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, overexpression of receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, increased numbers of primordial, antral and mature follicles and accentuated granulosa cell proliferation. Conclusions Our study suggests that low maternal care alters corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, disrupting the estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and differentially regulating the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of adult rats.

  18. Characterization of endocrine events during the periestrous period in sheep after estrous synchronization with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleeff, J; Karsch, F J; Padmanabhan, V

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Internal Drug Releasing (CIDR) device is an intravaginal pessary containing progesterone (P4) designed for synchronizing estrus in ruminants. To date, there has been little information available on the timing, duration, and quality of the follicular phase after CIDR removal and how those characteristics compare with natural periovulatory endocrine events. The present communication relates the results of methods we used to characterize the endocrine events that followed CIDR synchronization. Breeding-season ewes were given an injection (10 mg) of Lutalyse (PGF2 alpha), and then studied during three consecutive estrous cycles, beginning in the luteal phase after the estrus induced by PGF2 alpha. Cycle 1 estrus was synchronized with 1 CIDR (Type G) inserted for 8 d beginning 10 d after PGF2 alpha. Cycles 2 and 3 were synchronized with two CIDRs for 8 d beginning 10 d after previous CIDR removal. Cycle 1 estrous behavior and serum gonadotropins showed a follicular phase (the interval from CIDR withdrawal to gonadotropin surge [surge] peak) of 38.2 +/- 1.5 hr. Two CIDRs lengthened the interval to 46.2 +/- 1.5 hr (P synchronization concentrated surges within a 24-hr period in 92% of the ewes in Cycles 1 and 2. Cycles 3 ewes were euthanized at estimated luteal, early follicular, late follicular, LH surge, and secondary FSH rise timepoints. Endocrine data and ovaries showed that 88% of the ewes synchronized with two CIDRs were in the predicted stage of the estrous cycle. These data demonstrate that the CIDR device applied during the luteal phase effectively synchronizes estrus and results in a CIDR removal-to-surge interval of similar length to a natural follicular phase.

  19. Cell-cycle phase specificity of chloroethylnitrosoureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linfoot, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) is considered a non-cell cycle phase specific drug, it has been shown to produce differential cell killing in G 1 , S, and G 2 /M phase cells, with S phase cells appearing relatively resistant. Studies of cell cycle phase specific cell killing produced by nitrosoureas with different chemical reactivities, clearly indicated that the ability of compounds to cross-link DNA was important in determining their phase specificity. Cells that lacked guanine O 6 -alkytransferase activity showed similar patterns of BCNU phase specificity regardless of their intrinsic sensitivity to BCNU. DNA inter-strand cross-linking, as measured by alkaline elution, was similar in cells exposed to BCNU in G 1 or S phase. 3 H [1-chloroethyl-1nitrosourea] binding to DNA was the same in G 1 , S and G 2 /M phase cells indicating that phase-specific differences in drug uptake and intracellular drug dose were not responsible for phase specific cell kill. These studies suggest that cross-link lesions, other than DNA inter-strand cross-links, and/or effects on DNA repair, other than guanine O 6 -alkyltransferase, are additional important determinants of BCNU phase specific cell killing

  20. Estrous of Goats Undergone Superovulation Induction with Anti-inhibin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Siregar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrous performance of goats underlying superovulation induction with anti-inhibin was done using anti-inhibin induction on rabbit. Twenty four goats used in this research that divided four groups namely P0 (control, P1 (immunization at days of 4 cycle, P2 (immunization at days of 9 cycle and P3 (immunization at days of 13 cycle. Immunization on groups was done with injection of 500 μg antibody against inhibin after synchronize before that. Estrous synchronization using injection 0.5 ml cloprostenol (EstronTM, Bioveta two times with interval 10 days. Twenty four hours after immunization, all of goats injection of cloprostenol with same doses. Estrous observation was done after injection of cloprostenol later three times a days. Collection of blood was done at estrous (to analyze of estradiol concentration and at days of 7 cycle (to analyze of progesterone concentration. All f goats after treatment showed estrous behavior as swelling around the vulva and redness, a thin mucous discharge from vulva, social behaviors, and showed mounted. Awal of estrous on P0, P1, P2, and P3 groups were 35.00+7.01; 28.67+4,50; 27.67+4.76; and 29.67+5.86 hours, respectively and revealed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Duration of estrous on P0, P1, P2, and P3 were 36.67+3.27; 49.33+3.20; 50.33+10.23; and 53.67+11.96 hours, respectively and revealed significant difference (P<0.05 between P2 and P3 with P0 and P1. Length of cycle on P0, P1, P2, and P3 groups were 20.33+1.75; 19.33+0.82; 19.33+2.50; and 20.83+2.56, respectively and revealed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. (Animal Production 11(1: 34-39 (2009 Key Words: anti-inhibin, goats, superovulation, synchronization

  1. The ovarian cycle in rats: a long term EEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Jaworska-Feil, L.; Ellis, J.L.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Lason, W.; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Rats of the WAG/Rij strain are considered as a genetic model for generalised absence epilepsy. The relationship between the phase of the estrous cycle and the number of spontaneously occurring spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated during the 4 days of the cycle. Vaginal smears were daily

  2. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  3. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  4. Endometrial IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, mRNA expression in mares resistant or susceptible to post-breeding endometritis. Effects of estrous cycle, artificial insemination and immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumuso, Elida; Giguère, Steeve; Wade, José; Rogan, Dragan; Videla-Dorna, Ignacio; Bowden, Raúl A

    2003-11-15

    Endometrial mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was assessed in mares resistant (RM) or susceptible (SM) to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBE). Eight RM and eight SM, were selected based on reproductive records and functional tests out of a herd of 2,000 light cross-type mares. Three experiments were done to study transcription patterns in (i) basal conditions; (ii) after artificial insemination (AI); and (iii) after administration of an immunomodulator at time of artificial insemination. Endometrial biopsies were taken during consecutive cycles: (i) at estrus, when follicles reached 35 mm and at diestrus (7 +/- 1 days after ovulation); (ii) at 24 h post-AI, with dead semen (estrus) and in diestrus; (iii) at 24 h after treatment with a Mycobacterium phlei cell-wall extract (MCWE) preparation and AI (with dead semen), and at diestrus. mRNA expression was quantitated by real time PCR. Under basal conditions, SM had significantly higher mRNA expression of all cytokines in estrus and of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in diestrus, compared to RM. After AI, there were no differences between RM and SM in estrus; however, mRNA expression for all three pro-inflammatory cytokines was higher than under basal conditions. In diestrus, RM showed significantly lower IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression than SM. When MCWE was administered at time of AI, no differences between cytokine induction from RM and SM were found. Globally, mRNA expression for all three cytokines correlated well among themselves when expression was high. The present study showed that (i) in basal conditions RM had lower mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines than SM with no effect of estrous cycle; (ii) AI upregulated mRNA expression for all three cytokines in both RM and SM, with persistance in diestrus in the latter; (iii) treatment with MCWE at time of AI down-regulated mRNA expression

  5. [Concentration of monoamines and activity of several enzymes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in young and aging rats during the estrous cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantyn', V A

    1976-07-01

    The arcuate nucleus (AN) and the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus were investigated in young and ageing female rats. During the estral cycle (EC) the monoamine (MA) content, the monoaminoxidase (MAO), NADP and NAD-diaphorase activities were determined in the AN, and the MA content and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) -- in the ME. In young rats in the proestrus-estrus there was an increase in the activity of the NADP and NAD-diaphorase and of the MA content, but a decrease of the MAO activity. This indicated an intensified function of the nucleus at these stages of the EC. Accumulation of the MA in the ME was noted in the diestrus, while in the proestrus their concentration sharply fell; on the other hand, the activity of the AP was considerably increased. In the ageing rats the dynamics of the indices under study during the EC were largely unchanged. However, the functional activity of the AN proved to increase, and in the ME and elevation of the MA concentration and disturbance of its release from the nerve terminals was seen.

  6. Ghrelin decreases firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in an estrous cycle and endocannabinoid signaling dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin is known to influence function of GnRH neurons, however, the direct effects of the hormone upon these neurons have not been explored, yet. The present study was undertaken to reveal expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R in GnRH neurons and elucidate the mechanisms of ghrelin actions upon them. Ca(2+-imaging revealed a ghrelin-triggered increase of the Ca(2+-content in GT1-7 neurons kept in a steroid-free medium, which was abolished by GHS-R-antagonist JMV2959 (10 µM suggesting direct action of ghrelin. Estradiol (1nM eliminated the ghrelin-evoked rise of Ca(2+-content, indicating the estradiol dependency of the process. Expression of GHS-R mRNA was then confirmed in GnRH-GFP neurons of transgenic mice by single cell RT-PCR. Firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH-GFP neurons were lower in metestrous than proestrous mice. Ghrelin (40 nM-4 μM administration resulted in a decreased firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH neurons in metestrous, but not in proestrous mice. Ghrelin also decreased the firing rate of GnRH neurons in males. The ghrelin-evoked alterations of the firing parameters were prevented by JMV2959, supporting the receptor-specific actions of ghrelin on GnRH neurons. In metestrous mice, ghrelin decreased the frequency of GABAergic mPSCs in GnRH neurons. Effects of ghrelin were abolished by the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 antagonist AM251 (1µM and the intracellularly applied DAG-lipase inhibitor THL (10 µM, indicating the involvement of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin exerts direct regulatory effects on GnRH neurons via GHS-R, and modulates the firing of GnRH neurons in an ovarian-cycle and endocannabinoid dependent manner.

  7. In vitro transfer rate of 14C from acetate-1-14C into ovarian steroids in the rat ovary during the estrous cycle and effects of LH and FSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, F.; Ishida, S.; Seto, K.; Kawakami, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fluctuations of ovarian biosynthetic activity and effects of exogenous LH and FSH on it during the estrous cycle were investigated by measuring in vitro transfer rates of 14 C from 14 C-1-acetate into progesterone (P), 20α-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one (20α-OH-P) and estrogen (estradiol and estrone, E) in the ovarian homogenates from rats autopsied at 2 hour intervals. The transfer rate of 14 C from 14 C-1-acetate into P was lowest in the afternoon of estrus and increased from the morning of diestrus 1, making its peaks during the afternoon of diestrus 2 and in the midnight of proestrus. The transfer of 14 C into 20α-OH-P was high on the days of diestrus 2 and proestrus with its peak in the afternoon of the latter day. The maximum transfer of 14 C into E in the afternoon of proestrus and a high rate in the morning of estrus with relatively low one in the midnight were observed. Exogenously injected LH (150 μg) or FSH (150 μg) was eigther stimulatory or inhibitory to the transfer rates of 14 C from 14 C-1-acetate into ovarian steroids. During day time of diestrus 2 and midnight between proestrus and estrus, the transfer of 14 C into P and 20α-OH-P increased by LH, and during day time of proestrus and from the afternoon of estrus to the morning of diestrus 1 decreased. The transfr of 14 C into E increased by LH from the afternoon of diestrus 2 to the morning of proestrus, and decreased during the ofternoon of proestrus and from the afternoon of estrus to the morning of diestrus 2. Administration of FSH was also stimulatory or inhibitory. The 14 C transfer into P and 20α-OH-P increased by FSH from the afternoon of estrus to the morning of proestrus, but in the afternoon of proestrus they decreased. Transfer of 14 C into E increased by FSH significantly on the days of diestrus 2 and proestrus, and slightly on the day of estrus, while it decreased in the afternoon of diestrus 1. (author)

  8. PROJECT GOVERNANCE – PHASES AND LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Titus DEENEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When talking about projects, the barrier is clear: successful and failed. Some fail due to different reasons, but lack of good project and risk management played a large part. Others succeed largely because of the rigorous and disciplined application of good project practices. But both groups illustrate many points that underline and demonstrate important concepts applicable to current projects. Systematic application of good methods leads to successful outcomes in projects of all types. All projects are fundamentally dependent on people, and human beings are not very different today than we were hundreds, or even thousands, of years ago. This paper uncovers main elements in projects area such as the concepts and governance of projects, with an underline of the main characteristics and the projects phases and life cycle that erase the uncertainty that joins all the projects built at any time.

  9. Cell cycle phases in the unequal mother/daughter cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Chlebowicz-Sledziewska, E; Fangman, W L

    1984-11-01

    During cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells produce buds (daughter cells) which are smaller and have longer cell cycles. We performed experiments to compare the lengths of cell cycle phases in mothers and daughters. As anticipated from earlier indirect observations, the longer cell cycle time of daughter cells is accounted for by a longer G1 interval. The S-phase and the G2-phase are of the same duration in mother and daughter cells. An analysis of five isogenic strains shows that cell cycle phase lengths are independent of cell ploidy and mating type.

  10. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (P0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18 nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10 pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanhee Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Prostaglandins (PGs function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 (ABCC4 and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 (SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Methods Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. Results ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1, but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. Conclusion These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  12. Segmentation and classification of cell cycle phases in fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ilker; Bunyak, Filiz; Chagin, Vadim; Cardoso, M Christina; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2009-01-01

    Current chemical biology methods for studying spatiotemporal correlation between biochemical networks and cell cycle phase progression in live-cells typically use fluorescence-based imaging of fusion proteins. Stable cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged protein GFP-PCNA produce rich, dynamically varying sub-cellular foci patterns characterizing the cell cycle phases, including the progress during the S-phase. Variable fluorescence patterns, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position changes and abundance of touching cells require sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic segmentation and cell cycle classification. We extend the recently proposed graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) for fluorescence-based nucleus segmentation using regional density functions and dramatically improve its efficiency, making it scalable for high content microscopy imaging. We utilize surface shape properties of GFP-PCNA intensity field to obtain descriptors of foci patterns and perform automated cell cycle phase classification, and give quantitative performance by comparing our results to manually labeled data.

  13. Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I ...

  14. Solar Cycle Phase Dependence of Supergranular Fractal Dimension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar Cycle Phase Dependence of Supergranular Fractal Dimension ... NIE Institute of Technology, Mysore, India. ... This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page ...

  15. CORE COMPETENCIES AND PHASES OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Selma Zone Fekih; Koubaa, Manel Belguith

    2013-01-01

    Organizations evolve according to well-defined phases during which it must raise some competencies more than others. This study discusses the importance of core competencies according to the phases of the life cycle of the organization. In this research, we mobilize the core competencies approach to explore the competence required at each stage of the organizational life cycle. The quantitative study of 50 Tunisian companies operating in the food sector shows that the importance of core ...

  16. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  17. Estrous correlated modulations of circadian and ultradian wheel-running activity rhythms in LEW/Ztm rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wollnik, Franziska; Turek, Fred W.

    1988-01-01

    Estrogen treatment alters the expression of ultradian activity rhythms in male and female LEW/Ztm rats. This finding raises the possibility that the expression of ultradian rhythms may vary on different days of the estrous cycle. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the circadian and ultradian wheel-running activity rhythms of entrained (LD 12:12) and free-running sexually mature LEW/Ztm females during their 4- or 5-day estrous cycle. The mean daily activity, the duration of activity, the cir...

  18. Menstrual cycle phase does not predict political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Isabel M; Pound, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception); political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations" questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought.

  19. Menstrual cycle phase does not predict political conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Scott

    Full Text Available Recent authors have reported a relationship between women's fertility status, as indexed by menstrual cycle phase, and conservatism in moral, social and political values. We conducted a survey to test for the existence of a relationship between menstrual cycle day and conservatism. 2213 women reporting regular menstrual cycles provided data about their political views. Of these women, 2208 provided information about their cycle date, 1260 provided additional evidence of reliability in self-reported cycle date, and of these, 750 also indicated an absence of hormonal disruptors such as recent hormonal contraception use, breastfeeding or pregnancy. Cycle day was used to estimate day-specific fertility rate (probability of conception; political conservatism was measured via direct self-report and via responses to the "Moral Foundations" questionnaire. We also recorded relationship status, which has been reported to interact with menstrual cycle phase in determining political preferences. We found no evidence of a relationship between estimated cyclical fertility changes and conservatism, and no evidence of an interaction between relationship status and cyclical fertility in determining political attitudes. Our findings were robust to multiple inclusion/exclusion criteria and to different methods of estimating fertility and measuring conservatism. In summary, the relationship between cycle-linked reproductive parameters and conservatism may be weaker or less reliable than previously thought.

  20. PHASE RELATIONSHIPS OF SOLAR HEMISPHERIC TOROIDAL AND POLOIDAL CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraközy, J., E-mail: murakozy.judit@csfk.mta.hu [Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory (DHO), Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences H-4010 Debrecen P.O.B. 30, H-4010 (Hungary)

    2016-08-01

    The solar northern and southern hemispheres exhibit differences in their intensities and time profiles of the activity cycles. The time variation of these properties was studied in a previous article covering the data from Cycles 12–23. The hemispheric phase lags exhibited a characteristic variation: the leading role was exchanged between hemispheres every four cycles. The present work extends the investigation of this variation using the data of Staudacher and Schwabe in Cycles 1–4 and 7–10 as well as Spörer’s data in Cycle 11. The previously observed variation cannot be clearly recognized using the data of Staudacher, Schwabe, and Spörer. However, it is more interesting that the phase lags of the reversals of the magnetic fields at the poles follow the same variations as those of the hemispheric cycles in Cycles 12–23, i.e., one of the hemispheres leads in four cyles and the leading role jumps to the opposite hemisphere in the next four cycles. This means that this variation is a long-term property of the entire solar dynamo mechanism, for both the toroidal and poloidal fields, which hints at an unidentified component of the process responsible for the long-term memory.

  1. Predicting the start and maximum amplitude of solar cycle 24 using similar phases and a cycle grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jialong; Zong Weiguo; Le Guiming; Zhao Haijuan; Tang Yunqiu; Zhang Yang

    2009-01-01

    We find that the solar cycles 9, 11, and 20 are similar to cycle 23 in their respective descending phases. Using this similarity and the observed data of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers (SMSNs) available for the descending phase of cycle 23, we make a date calibration for the average time sequence made of the three descending phases of the three cycles, and predict the start of March or April 2008 for cycle 24. For the three cycles, we also find a linear correlation of the length of the descending phase of a cycle with the difference between the maximum epoch of this cycle and that of its next cycle. Using this relationship along with the known relationship between the rise-time and the maximum amplitude of a slowly rising solar cycle, we predict the maximum SMSN of cycle 24 of 100.2 ± 7.5 to appear during the period from May to October 2012. (letters)

  2. Opportunities for sub-laser-cycle spectroscopy in condensed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We discuss how sub-cycle attosecond spectroscopy can be extended from gas to condensed phase. ► We show that attosecond streaking measurements can be applied to bound electrons. ► We discuss time-resolving the formation of band structure in laser fields. - Abstract: To a large extent, progress of attosecond spectroscopy in the gas phase has been driven by designing approaches where time-resolution is not limited by the pulse duration. Instead, the time resolution comes from exploiting the sensitivity of electronic response to the oscillations of the electric field in the laser pulse and attosecond control over these oscillations. This paper discusses perspectives and opportunities for transporting the ideas of sub-cycle spectroscopy from gas to condensed phase

  3. Serum Thyrotropin and Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Benvenga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About one-fifth of patients treated with levothyroxine have serum thyrotropin (TSH above target concentrations but, in approximately 15% of them, the cause of this TSH insufficient normalization remains unknown. We report the cases of two regularly menstruating women with known thyroid disease who had TSH levels consistently >3 mU/L (and sometimes above target levels during mid-cycle, but consistently lower serum levels during the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. A major TSH release by the thyrotrophs in response to high circulating levels of estradiol (E2 at mid-cycle may increase levels of TSH compared to other phases of the cycle. The increased TSH can be misinterpreted as refractory hypothyroidism if the woman is under L-T4 replacement therapy or as subclinical hypothyroidism if the woman is not. Our findings might have important implications for diagnosis and management of thyroid disease, suggesting to request serum TSH measurements outside of the periovulatory days.

  4. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  5. APT, The Phase I tool for HST Cycle 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Brett S.; Bertch, Maria; Curtis, Gary; Douglas, Robert E., Jr.; Krueger, Anthony P.

    2002-12-01

    In the continuing effort to streamline our systems and improve service to the science community, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is developing and releasing, APT The Astronomer’s Proposal Tool as the new interface for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Phase I and Phase II proposal submissions for HST Cycle 12. APT, was formerly called the Scientist’s Expert Assistant (SEA), which started as a prototype effort to try and bring state of the art technology, more visual tools and power into the hands of proposers so that they can optimize the scientific return of their programs as well as HST. Proposing for HST and other missions, consists of requesting observing time and/or archival research funding. This step is called Phase I, where the scientific merit of a proposal is considered by a community based peer-review process. Accepted proposals then proceed thru Phase II, where the observations are specified in sufficient detail to enable scheduling on the telescope. In this paper, we will present our concept and implementation plans for our Phase I development and submission tool, APT. More importantly, we will go behind the scenes and discuss why it’s important for the Science Policies Division (SPD) and other groups at the STScI to have a new submission tool and submission output products. This paper is an update of the status of the HST Phase I Proposal Processing System that was described in the published paper “A New Era for HST Phase I Development and Submission.”

  6. Phase resetting reveals network dynamics underlying a bacterial cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Li, Ying; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2012-01-01

    Genomic and proteomic methods yield networks of biological regulatory interactions but do not provide direct insight into how those interactions are organized into functional modules, or how information flows from one module to another. In this work we introduce an approach that provides this complementary information and apply it to the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, a paradigm for cell-cycle control. Operationally, we use an inducible promoter to express the essential transcriptional regulatory gene ctrA in a periodic, pulsed fashion. This chemical perturbation causes the population of cells to divide synchronously, and we use the resulting advance or delay of the division times of single cells to construct a phase resetting curve. We find that delay is strongly favored over advance. This finding is surprising since it does not follow from the temporal expression profile of CtrA and, in turn, simulations of existing network models. We propose a phenomenological model that suggests that the cell-cycle network comprises two distinct functional modules that oscillate autonomously and couple in a highly asymmetric fashion. These features collectively provide a new mechanism for tight temporal control of the cell cycle in C. crescentus. We discuss how the procedure can serve as the basis for a general approach for probing network dynamics, which we term chemical perturbation spectroscopy (CPS).

  7. Potential benefits of saturation cycle with two-phase refrigerant injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a saturation cycle is proposed to enhance a vapor compression cycle performance by reducing thermodynamic losses associated with single phase gas compression and isenthalpic expansion. In order to approach the saturation cycle, a two-phase refrigerant injection technique is applied to the multi-stage cycle. This multi-stage cycle with different options is modeled, and its performance is evaluated under ASHRAE standard operating conditions for air conditioning systems. Moreover, the two-phase refrigerant injection cycle is compared with the typical vapor injection cycle which is utilizing the internal heat exchanger or the flash tank. Low GWP refrigerants are applied to this two-phase refrigerant injection cycle. In terms of the COP and its improvement, R123 has a higher potential than any other refrigerants in the multi-stage cycle. Lastly, practical ideas realizing the saturation cycle are discussed such as multi-stage phase separator, phase separator with helical structure inside, and injection location of the compressor. -- Highlights: • A saturation cycle is proposed to enhance the vapor compression cycle performance. • Two-phase refrigerant injection technique is applied to the multi-stage cycle. • Modeling results of the proposed cycle show the significant performance improvement. • Low GWP refrigerants are applied and R123 shows the highest performance. • New parameters, α and ε, are used to show the potential of the saturation cycle

  8. Menstrual cycle phase affects discrimination of infant cuteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Probst, Fabian; Perrett, David I; Heinrichs, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more sensitive than men to subtle cuteness differences in infant faces. It has been suggested that raised levels in estradiol and progesterone may be responsible for this advantage. We compared young women's sensitivity to computer-manipulated baby faces varying in cuteness. Thirty-six women were tested once during ovulation and once during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. In a two alternative forced-choice experiment, participants chose the baby which they thought was cuter (Task 1), younger (Task 2), or the baby that they would prefer to babysit (Task 3). Saliva samples to assess levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were collected at each test session. During ovulation, women were more likely to choose the cuter baby than during the luteal phase, in all three tasks. These results suggest that cuteness discrimination may be driven by cyclic hormonal shifts. However none of the measured hormones were related to increased cuteness sensitivity. We speculate that other hormones than the ones measured here might be responsible for the increased sensitivity to subtle cuteness differences during ovulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  10. Influência do ciclo estral sobre a sensibilidade da resposta cronotrópica à norepinefrina em ratas submetidas a estresse agudo Influence of estrous cycle on the sensitivity of cronotropic answer to norepinephrine in rats submitted to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tanno

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O estresse pode alterar a sensibilidade da resposta cronotrópica às catecolaminas em vários tecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a sensibilidade à norepinefrina (NE em átrios direitos de ratas submetidas ao estresse agudo por natação nas fases de estro e proestro. Ratas Wistar em estro ou proestro foram submetidas a uma sessão de 50 min de natação, após a qual foram anestesiadas e sacrifícadas. Os átrios direitos destes animais e de ratas controle foram isolados para obtenção de curvas concentração-efeito à NE antes e após o bloqueio dos sistemas de metabolização das catecolaminas (fenoxibenzamina + estradiol. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA ou teste t de Student. Não houve diferenças de sensibilidade à NE entre as fases de estro e proestro nos tecidos isolados de animais controle (p>0,05. No proestro, a natação induziu supersensibilidade à NE (pStress may change the response to catecholamines in many tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the estrous cycle on the sensitivity to norepinephrine in right atria from female rats submitted to a single swimming session. Wistar female rats were submitted to one swimming session at estrus or proestrus. Immediately after the stress session, the animal was sacrificed and its right atria set up for isometric recording of spontaneous beating. Concentration-effect curves to norepinephrine were obtained before and after inhibition of uptake1 (phenoxibenzamine and uptake2 (estradiol. Swimming stress did not change the sensitivity to noradrenaline in right atria from rats at estrus. However, at proestrus swimming induced supersensitivity to norepinephrine (pD2 control: 7.14 ± 0.03 vs. pD2 swimming: 7.55 ± 0.04; p< 0.05. Moreover at proestrus, the inhibition of the uptake systems induced a lower shift to the left in the concentration-effect curves to norepinephrine compared to the estrus. Changes on the uptake systems seem to be involved in the

  11. Estudo estereológico comparativo de complexos cumulus-ovócito aspirados de folículos durante o ciclo estral em bovinos Comparative stereological study of cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from follicles during the estrous cycle in bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Calado

    2005-08-01

    appeared to be independent to their position in relation to the oocyte. During the estrous cycle, cell type C1 progressively developed to C2, and this one to C3.

  12. Interictal spike frequency varies with ovarian cycle stage in a rat model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, James; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Moretto, Jillian; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J; Pearce, Patrice; Fenton, Andre A; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2015-07-01

    In catamenial epilepsy, seizures exhibit a cyclic pattern that parallels the menstrual cycle. Many studies suggest that catamenial seizures are caused by fluctuations in gonadal hormones during the menstrual cycle, but this has been difficult to study in rodent models of epilepsy because the ovarian cycle in rodents, called the estrous cycle, is disrupted by severe seizures. Thus, when epilepsy is severe, estrous cycles become irregular or stop. Therefore, we modified kainic acid (KA)- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) models of epilepsy so that seizures were rare for the first months after SE, and conducted video-EEG during this time. The results showed that interictal spikes (IIS) occurred intermittently. All rats with regular 4-day estrous cycles had IIS that waxed and waned with the estrous cycle. The association between the estrous cycle and IIS was strong: if the estrous cycles became irregular transiently, IIS frequency also became irregular, and when the estrous cycle resumed its 4-day pattern, IIS frequency did also. Furthermore, when rats were ovariectomized, or males were recorded, IIS frequency did not show a 4-day pattern. Systemic administration of an estrogen receptor antagonist stopped the estrous cycle transiently, accompanied by transient irregularity of the IIS pattern. Eventually all animals developed severe, frequent seizures and at that time both the estrous cycle and the IIS became irregular. We conclude that the estrous cycle entrains IIS in the modified KA and pilocarpine SE models of epilepsy. The data suggest that the ovarian cycle influences more aspects of epilepsy than seizure susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Entry into the Postparental Phase of the Family Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wawrzyniak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche BeiträgeThe article examines entry into the postparental phase of the family life cycle, which is the familial situation when all children have moved out of the parental household. We position this event chronologically within the life course and examine the probability of occurrence. Using panel data (3 survey waves covering a period of 40 years of a cohort of former North-Rhine Westphalian grammar school pupils, event history models (Cox regression are employed to analyse what factors accelerate or decelerate the transition. This revealed that the parent’s individual biography (in particular the age at the own move out, age at the birth of the first child and the number of children has a major impact on the time of occurrence, while the occupational history has no effect. In addition, sons delay the transition, while children’s academic studies and occupation accelerate it.

  14. A signature-based method for indexing cell cycle phase distribution from microarray profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell cycle machinery interprets oncogenic signals and reflects the biology of cancers. To date, various methods for cell cycle phase estimation such as mitotic index, S phase fraction, and immunohistochemistry have provided valuable information on cancers (e.g. proliferation rate. However, those methods rely on one or few measurements and the scope of the information is limited. There is a need for more systematic cell cycle analysis methods. Results We developed a signature-based method for indexing cell cycle phase distribution from microarray profiles under consideration of cycling and non-cycling cells. A cell cycle signature masterset, composed of genes which express preferentially in cycling cells and in a cell cycle-regulated manner, was created to index the proportion of cycling cells in the sample. Cell cycle signature subsets, composed of genes whose expressions peak at specific stages of the cell cycle, were also created to index the proportion of cells in the corresponding stages. The method was validated using cell cycle datasets and quiescence-induced cell datasets. Analyses of a mouse tumor model dataset and human breast cancer datasets revealed variations in the proportion of cycling cells. When the influence of non-cycling cells was taken into account, "buried" cell cycle phase distributions were depicted that were oncogenic-event specific in the mouse tumor model dataset and were associated with patients' prognosis in the human breast cancer datasets. Conclusion The signature-based cell cycle analysis method presented in this report, would potentially be of value for cancer characterization and diagnostics.

  15. Structural-Phase Transformations of CuZn Alloy Under Thermal-Impact Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Chaplygina, A. A.; Kulagina, V. V.; Chaplygin, P. A.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo method, special features of structural - phase transformations in β-brass are investigated during thermal impact using thermal cycling as an example (a number of successive order - disorder and disorder - order phase transitions in the course of several heating - cooling cycles). It is shown that a unique hysteresis is observed after every heating and cooling cycle, whose presence indicates irreversibility of the processes, which suggests a difference in the structural - phase states both in the heating and cooling stages. A conclusion is drawn that the structural - phase transformations in the heating and cooling stages occur within different temperature intervals, where the thermodynamic stimuli of one or the other structural - phase state are low. This is also demonstrated both in the plots of configurational energy, long- and short-range order parameter, atomic structure variations, and structural - phase state distributions. Simultaneously, there coexist ordered and disordered phases and a certain collection of superstructure domains. This implies the presence of low - stability states in the vicinity of the order - disorder phase transition. The results of investigations demonstrate that the structural - phase transitions within two successive heating and cooling cycles at the same temperature are different in both stages. These changes, though not revolutionary, occur in every cycle and decrease with the increasing cycle number. In fact, the system undergoes training with a tendency towards a certain sequence of structural - phase states.

  16. Does the phase of menstrual cycle affect MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Minna J.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Zou, Kelly H.; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Tempany, Clare M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the phase of menstrual cycle at the time of MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) treatment for uterine leiomyomas affects treatment outcome. Methods: We enrolled all patients participating in a prospective phase III clinical trial from our center who completed 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. Patients with irregular cycles and those on oral contraceptives were excluded. Data prospectively documenting the date of the last menstrual period (LMP) at the time of treatment, length and duration of cycle, and raw symptom severity score (SSS) from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, at baseline and 6 months were collected. Proliferative phase patients were determined retrospectively as those who were treated within less than 14 days from LMP; secretory phase patients were classified as those who were treated greater than 14 days from LMP. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the mean SSS at baseline and mean SSS at 6 months between patients treated in the proliferative versus secretory phase of the cycle. No significant difference in the SSS change from baseline to 6 months was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase does not influence MRgFUS treatment outcome. Symptomatic improvement occurs with treatment during either phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the scheduling of MRgFUS treatment need not be based upon the phase of the menstrual cycle

  17. Does the phase of menstrual cycle affect MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine leiomyomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Minna J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fennessy, Fiona M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zou, Kelly H. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); McDannold, Nathan [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hynynen, Kullervo [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jolesz, Ferenc A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Stewart, Elizabeth A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rybicki, Frank J. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tempany, Clare M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: ctempanyafdhal@partners.org

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the phase of menstrual cycle at the time of MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) treatment for uterine leiomyomas affects treatment outcome. Methods: We enrolled all patients participating in a prospective phase III clinical trial from our center who completed 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. Patients with irregular cycles and those on oral contraceptives were excluded. Data prospectively documenting the date of the last menstrual period (LMP) at the time of treatment, length and duration of cycle, and raw symptom severity score (SSS) from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, at baseline and 6 months were collected. Proliferative phase patients were determined retrospectively as those who were treated within less than 14 days from LMP; secretory phase patients were classified as those who were treated greater than 14 days from LMP. Results: A total of 58 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the mean SSS at baseline and mean SSS at 6 months between patients treated in the proliferative versus secretory phase of the cycle. No significant difference in the SSS change from baseline to 6 months was seen between the two groups. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase does not influence MRgFUS treatment outcome. Symptomatic improvement occurs with treatment during either phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the scheduling of MRgFUS treatment need not be based upon the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  18. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  19. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hansen, J. S.; Elfving, B.

    2017-01-01

    response and inflammation in experimental animals, which may affect female reproduction. This proof-of-principle study therefore aimed to investigate if lung exposure by intratracheal instillation of the MWCNT NM-400 would affect the estrous cycle and reproductive function in female mice.Results: Estrous...... of irregular cycling after exposure. Our data indicates that MWCNT exposure may interfere with events leading to ovulation....

  20. Effects of the menstrual cycle phases on the tilt testing results in vasovagal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Terpiłowski, Lukasz; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Wróblewski, Paweł; Rudnicki, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of positive tilt testing (TT) throughout the menstrual cycle and to determine if the phase of menstrual cycle contributes to the duration of the loss of consciousness. TT results of 183 premenopausal women, aged 29.5 ± 9.8 years, were studied. The menstrual cycle was divided into four phases based on the first day of the last menstrual bleeding: perimenstrual (M), preovulatory (F), periovulatory (O) and postovulatory (L). Positive TT results were equally distributed. In patients with TT in O phase, the highest percentage of NTG provocation was needed. Patients in L phase had significantly lower incidence of cardioinhibitory reaction. The longest duration of loss of consciousness was in the M phase. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the duration of loss of consciousness during positive TT was significantly associated with higher number of syncopal events, TT performed in M phase and lower heart rate at TT termination. Cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction was more frequent during M and O phase than during L phase. The distribution of positive TT results as well as syncope and presyncope does not differ throughout the menstrual cycle. Diagnostic TT in premenopausal women with unexplained syncope could be performed irrespective of the phase of menstrual cycle. TT has similar sensitivity throughout the menstrual cycle. During the postovulatory phase, cardioinhibitory reaction is less frequent than in M and O phases. The duration of loss of consciousness is longer during the M phase of the menstrual cycle independently of the higher syncope number and lower heart rate at TT termination.

  1. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Lori D; Burger, Laura L; Cuttitta, Ashley J; Michele, Daniel E; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8-9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1-6 of running (10-15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Phase lock of rapid cycling synchrotron and neutron choppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.; McGhee, D.; Volk, G.

    1981-01-01

    The 500-MeV synchrotron of Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source operates at 30 Hz. Its beam spill must be locked to neutron choppers with a precision of +- 0.5 μs. A chopper and an accelerator have large and different inertias. This makes synchronization by phase lock to the 60-Hz power line extremely difficult. We solved the phasing problems by running both the Ring Magnet Power Supply (RMPS) of the synchrotron and the chopper motors from a common oscillator that is stable to 1 ppM and by controlling five quantities of the RMPS. The quantities controlled by feedback loops are dc current, injection current, ejection current, resonant frequency, and the phase shift between the synchrotron peak field and the chopper window

  3. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  4. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Brötzner, Christina P.; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electro...

  5. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing cycle-to-cycle variations of the shedding cycle in the turbulent wake of a normal flat plate using generalized phase averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic vortex shedding in the turbulent wake of a thin-flat plate placed normal to a uniform stream at Reynolds number of 6700 is investigated based on Particle Image Velocimetry experiments. The wake structure and vortex formation are characterized using a generalized phase average (GPA), a refinement of the triple decomposition of Reynolds and Hussain (1970) incorporating elements of mean-field theory (Stuart, 1958). The resulting analysis highlights the importance of cycle-to-cycle variations in characterizing vortex formation, wake topology and the residual turbulent Reynolds Stresses. For example, it is shown that during high-amplitude cycles vorticity is strongly concentrated within the well-organized shed vortices, whereas during low-amplitude cycles the shed vortices are highly distorted resulting in significant modulation of the shedding frequency. It is found that high-amplitude cycles contribute more to the coherent Reynolds stress field while the low-amplitude cycles contribute to the residual stress field. It is further shown that traditional phase-averaging techniques lead to an over-estimation of the residual stress field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  7. CORONAL DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE DECLINING PHASE OF A SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minhwan; Choe, G. S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Woods, T. N. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hong, Sunhak, E-mail: gchoe@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-10

    It has been known that some solar activity indicators show a double-peak feature in their evolution through a solar cycle, which is not conspicuous in sunspot number. In this Letter, we investigate the high solar dynamic activity in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle by examining the evolution of polar and low-latitude coronal hole (CH) areas, splitting and merging events of CHs, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) detected by SOHO /LASCO C3 in solar cycle 23. Although the total CH area is at its maximum near the sunspot minimum, in which polar CHs prevail, it shows a comparable second maximum in the declining phase of the cycle, in which low-latitude CHs are dominant. The events of CH splitting or merging, which are attributed to surface motions of magnetic fluxes, are also mostly populated in the declining phase of the cycle. The far-reaching C3 CMEs are also overpopulated in the declining phase of the cycle. From these results we suggest that solar dynamic activities due to the horizontal surface motions of magnetic fluxes extend far in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle.

  8. CORONAL DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE DECLINING PHASE OF A SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Minhwan; Choe, G. S.; Woods, T. N.; Hong, Sunhak

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that some solar activity indicators show a double-peak feature in their evolution through a solar cycle, which is not conspicuous in sunspot number. In this Letter, we investigate the high solar dynamic activity in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle by examining the evolution of polar and low-latitude coronal hole (CH) areas, splitting and merging events of CHs, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) detected by SOHO /LASCO C3 in solar cycle 23. Although the total CH area is at its maximum near the sunspot minimum, in which polar CHs prevail, it shows a comparable second maximum in the declining phase of the cycle, in which low-latitude CHs are dominant. The events of CH splitting or merging, which are attributed to surface motions of magnetic fluxes, are also mostly populated in the declining phase of the cycle. The far-reaching C3 CMEs are also overpopulated in the declining phase of the cycle. From these results we suggest that solar dynamic activities due to the horizontal surface motions of magnetic fluxes extend far in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle.

  9. Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. PMID:25685422

  10. The reversal phase of the bone-remodeling cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    coincides with decreased osteoblast recruitment and impaired initiation of bone formation, that is, uncoupling. Overall, this review stresses that coupling does not only depend on molecules able to activate osteogenesis, but that it also demands the presence of osteoprogenitors and ordered cell......The reversal phase couples bone resorption to bone formation by generating an osteogenic environment at remodeling sites. The coupling mechanism remains poorly understood, despite the identification of a number of 'coupling' osteogenic molecules. A possible reason is the poor attention...

  11. Thermodynamic sensitivity analysis of a novel trigeneration thermodynamic cycle with two-phase expanders and two-phase compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, Stefano; Di Marco, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A novel Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) cycle, operating with two-phase devices for the compression and expansion processes and a single-component wet working fluid, is proposed. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the novel CCHP cycle has been investigated in order to evaluate, in terms of energy performance indicators, its potentiality to serve typical trigenerative tertiary and industrial end-users with different fixed operating temperatures. In general, the novel CCHP cycle is characterized by higher energy performance indicators than a separated energy production system. The comparison between the novel CCHP cycle and several commercialized CCHP systems has been performed in the case studies related to tertiary and industrial end-users. The novel CCHP cycle shows a trigenerative capability in wide ranges of the end-users demands without surplus or deficit of the electric or thermal powers. Furthermore, the maximum allowable capital cost of the whole novel CCHP plant (BEPCC), that will assure the profitability of the investment, is calculated in the tertiary and industrial end-users case studies. For the tertiary end-user, the capital costs of the commercialized CCHP are between the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. On the contrary, for the industrial end-user, they are lower than the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. - Highlights: • Novel CCHP cycle with two-phase expanders and compressors has been conceived. • Novel CCHP cycle has higher performances than a separated energy production system. • Novel CCHP cycle satisfies the user demands in wide ranges without surplus/deficit. • Tertiary user: novel CCHP cycle is competitive against marketed CCHP systems. • Industrial user: novel CCHP cycle is not competitive against marketed CCHP systems.

  12. Cell Cycle Phase Abnormalities Do Not Account for Disordered Proliferation in Barrett's Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lao-Sirieix

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE epithelium is the precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cell cycle proteins have been advocated as biomarkers to predict the malignant potential in BE. However, whether disruption of the cell cycle plays a causal role in Barrett's carcinogenesis is not clear. Specimens from the Barrett's dysplasia—carcinoma sequence were immunostained for cell cycle phase markers (cyclin D1 for G1; cyclin A for S, G2, and M; cytoplasmic cyclin B1 for G2; and phosphorylated histone 3 for M phase and expressed as a proportion of proliferating cells. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle phase of prospective biopsies was also performed. The proliferation status of nondysplastic BE was similar to gastric antrum and D2, but the proliferative compartment extended to the luminal surface. In dysplastic samples, the number of proliferating cells correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P < .001. The overall levels of cyclins A and B1 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P < .001. However, the cell cycle phase distribution measured with both immunostaining and flow cytometry was conserved during all stages of BE, dysplasia, and cancer. Hence, the increased proliferation seen in Barrett's carcinogenesis is due to abnormal cell cycle entry or exit, rather than a primary abnormality within the cell cycle.

  13. Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong

    2017-10-10

    Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.

  14. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  15. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased cleavage and blastocyst rate in ewes treated with bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, A; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rojas-Maya, S; Valencia, J; Rodríguez-Cortez, A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2011-05-01

    Treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) during estrous synchronization increased fertility and prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, a single dose of bST 5 days before the end of progestin treatment improved cleavage and embryo development. Stage of estrous cycle was synchronized in ewes (n=32) with progestin and superovulation was induced by use of FSH. Five days before the end of progestin treatment, ewes were randomly assigned to two groups: bST group (n=16) received a depot injection of 125 mg of bST sc (Lactotropina, Elanco, México) and the control group (n=16) received saline solution. Estrous was detected with rams fitted with an apron every 2 h and estrous sheep were mated every 8 h whilst in estrous. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 post mating, assessed microscopically and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Cell number in blastocysts was counted after Hoechst 33342 staining. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin and progesterone were determined in eight sheep per group from the day of bST treatment to the day of embryo recovery. Cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos (transferable embryos/cleaved) and percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (blastocyst/cleaved) were compared between groups by logistic regression. IGF-I, insulin and progesterone plasma concentrations were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements and cell number by ANOVA. Cleavage rate was greater (Psheep. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were greater (Pprogesterone concentrations (P=0.5). It is concluded that bST injection 5 days before progestin removal increases cleavage rate and the proportion of embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. These effects are associated with an increase in IGF-I and insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  18. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  19. Relationship between geomagnetic classes’ activity phases and their occurrence during the sunspot cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Four well known geomagnetic classes of activity such as quiet days activity, fluctuating activity, recurrent activity
    and shock activity time occurrences have been determined not only by using time profile of sunspot number
    Rz but also by using aa index values.
    We show that recurrent wind stream activity and fluctuating activity occur in opposite phase and slow solar wind
    activity during minimum phase and shock activity at the maximum phase.
    It emerges from this study that fluctuating activity precedes the sunspot cycle by π/2 and the latter also precedes
    recurrent activity by π/2. Thus in the majority the activities do not happen at random; the sunspot cycle starts
    with quiet days activity, continues with fluctuating activity and during its maximum phase arrives shock activity.
    The descending phase is characterized by the manifestation of recurrent wind stream activity.

  20. Default cycle phases determined after modifying discrete DNA sequences in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans, J.; Leyton, C.

    1997-01-01

    After bromosubstituting DNA sequences replicated in the first, second, or third part of the S phase, in Allium cepa L. meristematic cells, radiation at 313 nm wavelength under anoxia allowed ascription of different sequences to both the positive and negative regulation of some cycle phase transitions. The present report shows that the radiation forced cells in late G 1 phase to advance into S, while those in G 2 remained in G 2 and cells in prophase returned to G 2 when both sets of sequences involved in the positive and negative controls were bromosubstituted and later irradiated. In this way, not only G 2 but also the S phase behaved as cycle phases where cells accumulated by default when signals of different sign functionally cancelled out. The treatment did not halt the rates of replication or transcription of plant bromosubstituted DNA. The irradiation under hypoxia apparently prevents the binding of regulatory proteins to Br-DNA. (author)

  1. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  2. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  3. Long-term variations in the geomagnetic activity level Part II: Ascending phases of sunspot cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mussino

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of the Helsinki Ak-values have been reduced to the equivalent aa-indices to extend the aa-data set back to 1844. A periodicity of about five cycles was found for the correlation coefficient (r between geomagnetic indices and sunspot numbers for the ascending phases of sunspot cycles 9 to 22, confirming previous findings based on a minor number of sunspot cycles. The result is useful to researchers in topics related to solar-terrestrial physics, particularly for the interpretation of long-term trends in geomagnetic activity during the past, and to forecast geomagnetic activity levels in the future.

  4. G2 phase arrest of cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Gong Shouliang

    2002-01-01

    The exposure of mammalian cells to X rays results in the prolongation of the cell cycle, including the delay or the arrest in G 1 , S and G 2 phase. The major function of G 1 arrest may be to eliminate the cells containing DNA damage and only occurs in the cells with wild type p53 function whereas G 2 arrest following ionizing radiation has been shown to be important in protecting the cells from death and occurs in all cells regardless of p53 status. So the study on G 2 phase arrest of the cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation has currently become a focus at radiobiological fields

  5. Phase-amplitude reduction of transient dynamics far from attractors for limit-cycling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Sho; Kurebayashi, Wataru; Nakao, Hiroya

    2017-02-01

    Phase reduction framework for limit-cycling systems based on isochrons has been used as a powerful tool for analyzing the rhythmic phenomena. Recently, the notion of isostables, which complements the isochrons by characterizing amplitudes of the system state, i.e., deviations from the limit-cycle attractor, has been introduced to describe the transient dynamics around the limit cycle [Wilson and Moehlis, Phys. Rev. E 94, 052213 (2016)]. In this study, we introduce a framework for a reduced phase-amplitude description of transient dynamics of stable limit-cycling systems. In contrast to the preceding study, the isostables are treated in a fully consistent way with the Koopman operator analysis, which enables us to avoid discontinuities of the isostables and to apply the framework to system states far from the limit cycle. We also propose a new, convenient bi-orthogonalization method to obtain the response functions of the amplitudes, which can be interpreted as an extension of the adjoint covariant Lyapunov vector to transient dynamics in limit-cycling systems. We illustrate the utility of the proposed reduction framework by estimating the optimal injection timing of external input that efficiently suppresses deviations of the system state from the limit cycle in a model of a biochemical oscillator.

  6. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  7. Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Woelders, H.

    2010-01-01

    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current

  8. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  9. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (Pphase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.

  10. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  11. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context

  12. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context.

  13. Predictive Duty Cycle Control of Three-Phase Active-Front-End Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an on-line optimizing duty cycle control approach for three-phase active-front-end rectifiers, aiming to obtain the optimal control actions under different operating conditions. Similar to finite control set model predictive control strategy, a cost function previously...

  14. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  15. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  17. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  18. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  19. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  20. Heart rate patterns during courtship and mating in rams and in estrous and nonestrous ewes ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, A; Omaña, J C; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the heart rate (HR) patterns in rams mated with estrous or nonestrous ewes and in mated estrous and nonestrous ewes () during courtship and mating. For this purpose, HR and behavior were recorded using a radio telemetry recording system and a closed-circuit television system with video recording, respectively. Rams were joined with either an estrous ( = 10) or a nonestrous ( = 10) ewe that was restrained in a stanchion by the neck. Data were continuously recorded until each ram performed 3 ejaculations. Eight days later, the HR of the 10 estrous and 10 nonestrous ewes was recorded during mating. Although the time between entrance into the yard and the first ejaculation was similar across rams, rams that mounted estrous ewes were faster at attaining their second (3min5s ± 17 s vs. 5min28s ± 18 s) and third (7min58s ± 45 s vs. 12 min ± 1min14s) ejaculations (all ewes. In all cases, HR reached maximum values immediately after each ejaculation and the HR pattern was similar across ejaculations (first, second, and third). Although HR was similar between estrous and nonestrous ewes before mating, nonestrous ewes had higher HR ( ewes displayed shorter interejaculation periods but HR did not differ between groups of rams during any ejaculation (first, second, or third), 2) HR for both groups of rams peaked shortly after each ejaculation, and 3) HR increased more in nonestrous than in estrous ewes while mating.

  1. Fluctuations in the limit cycle state and the problem of phase chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepfalusy, P.; Tel, T.

    1981-11-01

    Gaussian fluctuations and first order fluctuation corrections to the deterministic solution are investigated in the framework of the generalized Ginzburg-Landau type equation of motion exhibiting a hard mode transition leading a to homogeneous limit cycle state. It is shown that the stationary distribution of the fluctuations around the limit cycle is not of the form of a Ginzburg-Landau functional. The nature of the further instability in the post bifurcational region, resulting in the phase chaos in the deterministic problem, is found to be qualitatively changed by the presence of noise. (author)

  2. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle THz pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the THz pulse. Electron heating leads to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency, which...... results in a strong modification of the THz-range dielectric function of the material. THz SPM is observed directly in the time domain as a characteristic reshaping of single-cycle THz pulse. In the frequency domain, it corresponds to a strong frequency-dependent refractive index nonlinearity of n...

  3. Results of FY 2002 of feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC, that is the representative of the electric utilities in Japan) established a new organization to develop a commercialized fast reactor (FR) cycle system on July 1, 1999 and feasibility study (F/S) was undertaken in order to determine the promising concepts and to define the necessary R and D tasks. During Phase 1 (JFY 1999 and 2000), a number of candidate concepts were screened from various options, featuring innovative technologies. In the F/S, the options were evaluated and conceptual designs were examined considering the attainable perspectives for following: 1) ensuring safety, 2) economic competitiveness to future LWRs, 3) efficient utilization of resources, 4) reduction of environmental burden and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. The F/S should also guide the necessary R and D to commercialize FR cycle system. To begin with the study of feasible candidate concepts screened in Phase I, Phase 2 started in the plan for five years in 2001. This aims at clarifying several feasible candidate concepts and deciding the research plan after Phase 3 as taking into consideration the innovative technology. As for this plan, an interim report will be carried out in 2003 as one pause and the prospect to clarify the feasible candidates will be expected. Furthermore, after the completion of this research and investigation program, research and development activities will be carried out under a rolling plan in which reviews will be carried out approximately every five years. The objective of these R and D activities is to make a proposal regarding highly attractive and competitive FR cycle system technology that assures safety by 2015. This report summarizes the results of F/S of Phase 2 in 2002. In 2002, the second year of Phase 2, the study was advanced along with the plan which was evaluated by the committee for the Evaluation. Then, in the study of FR system and fuel cycle

  4. Single-Cycle Terahertz Pulse Generation from OH1 Crystal via Cherenkov Phase Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hirohisa; Oota, Kengo; Okimura, Koutarou; Kawase, Kodo; Takeya, Kei

    2018-06-01

    OH1 crystal is an organic nonlinear optical crystal with a large nonlinear optical constant. However, it has dispersion of refractive indices in the terahertz (THz) frequency. This limits the frequencies that satisfy the phase matching conditions for THz wave generation. In this study, we addressed the phase matching conditions for THz wave generation by combining an OH1 crystal with prism-coupled Cherenkov phase matching. We observed the generation of single-cycle THz pulses with a spectrum covering a frequency range of 3 THz. These results prove that combining prism-coupled Cherenkov phase matching with nonlinear optical crystals yields a THz wave generation method that is insusceptible to crystal dispersion.

  5. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  6. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  7. Innovative TRU Burners and Fuel Cycles Options for Phase-Out and Regional Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Andriolo, L.; Maschek, W.

    2015-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) technologies may be considered either for minor actinides (MAs) inventory stabilisation (typical for on-going/regional scenarios) or for a drastic reduction of the transuranics inventory (as in phasing-out scenarios). In this paper, two sodium-cooled fast reactor cores, based on the French ASTRID design and characterised by different amounts of MAs in the fuel, are proposed. Attention focuses on the safety and on the burning performances of the systems. The behaviour of the systems under dynamic conditions has been investigated considering phasing-out and on-going fuel cycle scenarios. The results demonstrate the flexibility of such systems when employed in different kinds of fuel cycles. The impact of different parameters, such as the initial isotopic vector (and Cm content) and the cooling time before reprocessing, on the simulation results is investigated as well. (authors)

  8. Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kato, Atsushi; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Kazujiro; Sato, Koji; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Nakai, Ryodai; Nakabayashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Namekawa, Takashi; Niwa, Hajime; Nomura, Kazunori; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hayafune, Hiroki; Hirao, Kazunori; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Masato; Ono, Katsumi; Ogata, Takanari; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kotake, Shoji; Sagayama, Yutaka; Takakuma, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Namba, Takashi; Fujii, Sumio; Muramatsu, Kazuyoshi

    2006-06-01

    A joint project team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Japan Atomic Power Company (as the representative of the electric utilities) started the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems (F/S) in July 1999 in cooperation with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and vendors. On the major premise of safety assurance, F/S aims to present an appropriate picture of commercialization of fast reactor (FR) cycle system which has economic competitiveness with light water reactor cycle systems and other electricity base load systems, and to establish FR cycle technologies for the future major energy supply. In the period from Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 1999 to 2000, the phase-I of F/S was carried out to screen our representative FR, reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies. In the phase-II (JFY 2001-2005), the design study of FR cycle concepts, the development of significant technologies necessary for the feasibility evaluation, and the confirmation of key technical issues were performed to clarify the promising candidate concepts toward the commercialization. In this final phase-II report clarified the most promising concept, the R and D plan until around 2015, and the key issues for the commercialization. Based on the comprehensive evaluation in F/S, the combination of the sodium-cooled FR with MOX fuel core, the advanced-aqueous reprocessing process and the simplified-pelletizing fuel fabrication process was recommended as the mainline choice for the most promising concept. The concept exceeds in technical advancement, and the conformity to the development targets was higher compared with that of the others. Alternative technologies are prepared to be decrease the development risk of innovative technologies in the mainline choice. (author)

  9. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: duration of its cell cycle and phases at growth rates affected by light intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Umysová, Dáša; Hlavová, Monika; Kawano, S.; Zachleder, Vilém; Čížková, Mária

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2011), s. 75-86 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200614; GA ČR GA525/09/0102; GA ČR GA204/09/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Cell division timing * Cell cycle phases * Chlamydomonas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2011

  10. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  12. The Impact of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Economic Choice and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C; Rutledge, Robb B; Burghart, Daniel R; Glimcher, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that hormones affect both brain and behavior, but less is known about the extent to which hormones affect economic decision-making. Numerous studies demonstrate gender differences in attitudes to risk and loss in financial decision-making, often finding that women are more loss and risk averse than men. It is unclear what drives these effects and whether cyclically varying hormonal differences between men and women contribute to differences in economic preferences. We focus here on how economic rationality and preferences change as a function of menstrual cycle phase in women. We tested adherence to the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP), the standard test of economic rationality. If choices satisfy GARP then there exists a well-behaved utility function that the subject's decisions maximize. We also examined whether risk attitudes and loss aversion change as a function of cycle phase. We found that, despite large fluctuations in hormone levels, women are as technically rational in their choice behavior as their male counterparts at all phases of the menstrual cycle. However, women are more likely to choose risky options that can lead to potential losses while ovulating; during ovulation women are less loss averse than men and therefore more economically rational than men in this regard. These findings may have market-level implications: ovulating women more effectively maximize expected value than do other groups.

  13. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  14. Effects of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and endogenous hormones on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Carter, C Sue; Drogos, Lauren L; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In women with schizophrenia, cognition has been shown to be enhanced following administration of hormone therapy or oxytocin. We examined how natural hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle influence cognition in women with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that female patients would perform worse on "female-dominant" tasks (verbal memory/fluency) and better on "male-dominant" tasks (visuospatial) during the early follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) compared to midluteal phase (high estradiol and progesterone) in relation to estradiol but not progesterone. Fifty-four women (23 with schizophrenia) completed cognitive assessments and provided blood for sex steroid assays and oxytocin at early follicular (days 2-4) and midluteal (days 20-22) phases. Men were included to verify the expected pattern of sex differences on cognitive tests. Expected sex differences were observed on "female-dominant" and "male-dominant" tasks (pperformance did not change across the menstrual cycle on "female-dominant" or "male-dominant" tasks in either group. Estradiol and progesterone levels were unrelated to cognitive performance. Oxytocin levels did not change across the menstrual cycle but were positively related to performance on "female-dominant" tasks in female patients only (pperformance on female dominant tests in women. Physiological levels of oxytocin may thus have a more powerful benefit in some cognitive domains than estrogens in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Economic Choice and Rationality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Lazzaro

    Full Text Available It is well known that hormones affect both brain and behavior, but less is known about the extent to which hormones affect economic decision-making. Numerous studies demonstrate gender differences in attitudes to risk and loss in financial decision-making, often finding that women are more loss and risk averse than men. It is unclear what drives these effects and whether cyclically varying hormonal differences between men and women contribute to differences in economic preferences. We focus here on how economic rationality and preferences change as a function of menstrual cycle phase in women. We tested adherence to the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP, the standard test of economic rationality. If choices satisfy GARP then there exists a well-behaved utility function that the subject's decisions maximize. We also examined whether risk attitudes and loss aversion change as a function of cycle phase. We found that, despite large fluctuations in hormone levels, women are as technically rational in their choice behavior as their male counterparts at all phases of the menstrual cycle. However, women are more likely to choose risky options that can lead to potential losses while ovulating; during ovulation women are less loss averse than men and therefore more economically rational than men in this regard. These findings may have market-level implications: ovulating women more effectively maximize expected value than do other groups.

  16. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  17. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C; Downey, Mike J; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A

    2014-07-08

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer.

  18. INFLUENCE OF EMBRYO IMPLANTATION ON ENDOMETRIUM IN LUTEAL PHASE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Dmitrović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the facts known from embryology, rapid endometrial growth during late luteal phase of the cycle could be expected. In this research, we sought to establish if normal intrauterine pregnancy could be confirmed before gestational sac vizualization, by trans- vaginal ultrasound and hormonal tests. The primary hypothesis was that the endometrial thickness and/or volume in the luteal phase of the cycle, in cycles resulting in normal intra- uterine pregnancy, is significantly different compared to non-conception cycles. We also hypothesized that endometrial thickness and/or volume are different in cycles resulting in normal intrauterine pregnancy compared to cycles resulting in abnormal pregnancy, namely biochemical and ectopic pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Additionally, next to endometrial volumes, we decided to measure the endometrium in three planes (thick- ness, length and width, to see if the hypothesized endometrial volume differences could be approximated by this simple surrogate technique, which is available in most parts of the world. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women enrolled in an assisted reproduction program. Patients were stimulated with standard stimulation protocols. The oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours after the hCG administration and the embryo was transferred 3 or 5 days later. Patients were first seen on day 20–24 of the cycle , and then on day 27–30 of the cycle. A blood sample was taken, and 3D transvaginal ultrasound was done. Following the completion of study visits, patients with a positive HCG test received phone call check- ups until week 12 of pregnancy, and were stratified according to pregnancy outcome. Results: 80 subjects signed the informed consent form. 4 patients had the IUI in the stimulated cycle, one had ET in spontaneous cycle, and 74 patients had undergone IVF/ET in the stimulated cycle. 63 patients in the stimulated cycles completed the study and

  19. New method of thermal cycling stability test of phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Nandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Material (PCM is the most promising material as thermal energy storage nowadays. As thermal energy storage, examination on endurance of material for long-term use is necessary to be carried out. Therefore, thermal cycling test is performed to ensure thermal stability of PCM. This study have found a new method on thermal cycling test of PCM sample by using thermoelectric as heating and cooling element. RT 22 HC was used as PCM sample on this thermal cycling test. The new method had many advantages compared to some references of the same test. It just needed a small container for PCM sample. The thermoelectric could release heat to PCM sample and absorb heat from PCM sample uniformly, respectively, was called as heating and cooling process. Hence, thermoelectric had to be supported by a relay control device to change its polarity so it could heat and cool PCM sample alternately and automatically. On the other hand, the thermoelectric was cheap, easy to be found and available in markets. It can be concluded that new method of thermal cycling test by using thermoelectric as source of heating and cooling can be a new reference for performing thermal cycling test on PCM.

  20. Induction and estrous synchronization during the non-breeding season in Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Luciana Blaga Petrean

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform the induction and estrous synchronization of Saanen goats in the non-breeding season. The study was conducted from July 2014 - April 2015 on 77 Saanen goats, aged between 1.5 to 5 years. The goats were divided into three experimental groups: in group I (n =37 goats intravaginal sponge (Ovigest containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after sponge removal the animals received two injections: prostaglandin (Prosolvin at the dose of 0.75 mg (1 ml/animal and PMSG hormone (Folligon at the dose of 500 IU/animal. In group II (n=20 induction and estrous synchronization was performed using synthetic prostaglandin (Proliz - 1 ml containing 0.2 mg isopropyl ester of cloprostenol and 9 mg benzyl alcohol at the dose of 0.5 ml/animal. The group III (n=20 was considered the control group and estrous synchronization was performed using fertile bucks. In group I the results showed that all goats expressed signs of estrous. The average value of the estrous interval was 33 hours and the average of estrous duration was 20 hours. The number of kids obtained in group I was 94, and prolificacy was P (% = 2.54. In group II and III was not observed occurrence of estrous. Induction and estrous synchronization show economic benefits by shortening the time needed for pregnancy installation, possibility of births grouping, preparation and organization of mating, only if we use a hormone associated protocol and we rigorous respect therapy steps.

  1. Lunar Phase Modulates Circadian Gene Expression Cycles in the Broadcast Spawning Coral Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Aisling K; Willis, Bette L; Harder, Lawrence D; Vize, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Many broadcast spawning corals in multiple reef regions release their gametes with incredible temporal precision just once per year, using the lunar cycle to set the night of spawning. Moonlight, rather than tides or other lunar-regulated processes, is thought to be the proximate factor responsible for linking the night of spawning to the phase of the Moon. We compared patterns of gene expression among colonies of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora at different phases of the lunar cycle, and when they were maintained under one of three experimentally simulated lunar lighting treatments: i) lunar lighting conditions matching those on the reef, or lunar patterns mimicking either ii) constant full Moon conditions, or iii) constant new Moon conditions. Normal lunar illumination was found to shift both the level and timing of clock gene transcription cycles between new and full moons, with the peak hour of expression for a number of genes occurring earlier in the evening under a new Moon when compared to a full Moon. When the normal lunar cycle is replaced with nighttime patterns equivalent to either a full Moon or a new Moon every evening, the normal monthlong changes in the level of expression are destroyed for most genes. In combination, these results indicate that daily changes in moonlight that occur over the lunar cycle are essential for maintaining normal lunar periodicity of clock gene transcription, and this may play a role in regulating spawn timing. These data also show that low levels of light pollution may have an impact on coral biological clocks. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  3. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  4. Characterization of Al-Ti phases in cycled TiF3-enhanced Na2LiAlH6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Fossdal, A.; Brinks, H.W.; Hauback, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    TiF 3 -enhanced Na 2 LiAlH 6 was investigated after dehydrogenation-hydrogenation cycles by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. There was no sign of Ti after ball-milling with TiF 3 , but two types of Al-Ti phases were observed in the cycled samples. In a sample after measuring five pressure-composition isotherms in the temperature range from 170 to 250 deg. C, a fcc phase with a = 3.987 A was observed. This phase is considered to be Al 3 Ti with the L1 2 structure. Samples after one or four cycles at selected temperatures between 170 and 250 deg. C showed diffraction from another fcc phase with a ∼ 4.03 A. This indicates formation of an Al 1-y Ti y solid-solution phase with y ∼ 0.15 similar to previously reported for cycled NaAlH 4 with Ti additives

  5. Feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle system. Interim report of phase 2. Technical study report on synthetic evaluation for FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ohtaki, Akira; Ono, Kiyoshi; Yasumatsu, Naoto; Kubota, Sadae; Heta, Masanori

    2004-09-01

    This report presents the outline of the development and the results of Synthetic evaluation on the candidate Fast Reactor (FR) cycle system concepts, scenario study on FR cycle deployment and cost-benefit analysis on the candidate FR cycle system concepts in the interim evaluation (FY2001 through FY2003) of the phase 2 of the Japanese 'Feasibility Study on Commercialization of Fast Reactor Cycle System (FS)'. The characteristic evaluation extended to evaluate a new view point of social acceptance besides the viewpoints of safety, economics, reduction of environmental burden, efficient utilization of uranium resource, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility, which has been considered since the phase 1 of FS. As for the six view points, hierarchy structures and utility functions for quantitative evaluation have been developed and/or improved. Furthermore, the methodology for weighing the viewpoints, which was also developed, made it possible to examine the characteristics of the candidate concepts from all the seven viewpoints. Generally, the FR cycles with sodium-cooled FR were highly evaluated. The characteristic evaluation for alternative power supply systems was also tried in this report for the first time. FR cycle deployment scenarios clarified the necessity of FR cycle deployment and the desirable core features, etc. through the long-term mass flow analysis, which includes comparison among other nuclear fuel cycle schemes and analysis for evaluating the degree to meet future needs, on the typical FR cycle systems. Regarding cost-benefit analysis, both the amount of the cost estimated by the past R and D and the cost in the Road map of FS are used as the investment for FR cycle research and development (R and D), the results showed that the benefit derived from the commercialization of FR cycle will be more than the investment. (author)

  6. SIMULATION STUDY OF HEMISPHERIC PHASE-ASYMMETRY IN THE SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K., E-mail: kusano@nagoya-u.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601 (Japan)

    2017-01-20

    Observations of the Sun suggest that solar activities systematically create north–south hemispheric asymmetries. For instance, the hemisphere in which sunspot activity is more active tends to switch after the early half of each solar cycle. Svalgaard and Kamide recently pointed out that the time gaps of polar field reversal between the northern and southern hemispheres are simply consequences of the asymmetry of sunspot activity. However, the mechanism underlying the asymmetric feature in solar cycle activity is not yet well understood. In this paper, in order to explain the cause of the asymmetry from the theoretical point of view, we investigate the relationship between the dipole- and quadrupole-type components of the magnetic field in the solar cycle using the mean-field theory based on the flux transport dynamo model. As a result, we found that there are two different attractors of the solar cycle, in which either the north or the south polar field is first reversed, and that the flux transport dynamo model explains well the phase-asymmetry of sunspot activity and the polar field reversal without any ad hoc source of asymmetry.

  7. Knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination during three phases of the menstrual cycle in moderately active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Cecilia; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Saartok, Tönu; Renström, Per

    2006-04-01

    An increased incidence of sports related injuries in the premenstrual phase as well as in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle has been described. This may be explained by alterations in proprioception and neuromuscular coordination due to hormonal variations. Prospective, within women analysis of knee joint kinesthesia and neuromuscular coordination were performed by repeated measures analysis of variance in three hormonally verified phases of three consecutive menstrual cycles. Thirty-two healthy, moderately active female subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Twenty-five of the subjects performed at least one hormonally verified menstrual cycle. A specially designed device was used to investigate knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination was measured with the square hop test. These tests were carried out in the menstrual phase, ovulation phase and premenstrual phase determined by hormone analyses in three consecutive menstrual cycles. An impaired knee joint kinaesthesia was detected in the premenstrual phase and the performance of square hop test was significantly improved in the ovulation phase compared to the other two phases. The results of this study indicate that the variation of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle has an effect on performance of knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination.

  8. In situ survey of life cycle phases of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frada, Miguel J; Bidle, Kay D; Probert, Ian; de Vargas, Colomban

    2012-06-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is characterized by a strongly differentiated haplodiplontic life cycle consisting of a diploid phase, generally bearing coccoliths (calcified) but that can be also non-calcified, and a non-calcified biflagellated haploid phase. Given most studies have focused on the bloom-producing calcified phase, there is little-to-no information about non-calcified cells in nature. Using field mesocoms as experimental platforms, we quantitatively surveyed calcified and non-calcified cells using the combined calcareous detection fluorescent in situ hybridization (COD-FISH) method and qualitatively screened for haploid specific transcripts using reverse transcription-PCR during E. huxleyi bloom successions. Diploid, calcified cells formed dense blooms that were followed by the massive proliferation of E. huxleyi viruses (EhVs), which caused bloom demise. Non-calcified cells were also detected throughout the experiment, accounting for a minor fraction of the population but becoming progressively more abundant during mid-late bloom periods concomitant with EhV burst. Non-calcified cell growth also paralleled a distinct window of haploid-specific transcripts and the appearance of autotrophic flagellates morphologically similar to haploid cells, both of which are suggestive of meiosis and sexual life cycling during natural blooms of this prominent marine phytoplankton species. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effect of door opening and defrost cycle on a freezer with phase change panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gin, B.; Farid, M.M.; Bansal, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into the effectiveness of phase change material (PCM) panels placed against the internal walls of a freezer to maintain stable temperatures in the presence of heat loads such as door openings, defrosting, and loss of electrical power was carried out. Temperature response was studied during loss of power, a defrost cycle lasting 30 min, and a door opening scheme of 13 door openings over an 11 h period. This PCM system has significantly decreased the rate of temperature increase inside the freezer during defrosting and power loss. Energy consumption was measured during steady operation, a defrost cycle of 30 min, and a scheme of eight door openings at 40 min intervals. It was found that heat loads caused greater energy consumption, and that the presence of PCM during defrosting and door openings resulted in slightly lower energy consumption compared to without PCM.

  10. Cell cycle phase dependent emergence of thymidylate synthase studied by monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, S; Hoshino, T; Iwasaki, K; Nomura, K; Jastreboff, M M

    1989-05-01

    A method of identifying thymidylate synthase (TS) at the cellular level was developed using anti-TS monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4), a monoclonal antibody created against purified TS from a HeLa cell line. In HeLa cells and four human glioma cell lines (U-251, U-87, 343-MGA, and SF-188), TS was identified primarily in the cytoplasm. Autoradiographic and flow cytometric studies showed that TS appeared mainly in the G1 phase and subsided early in the S phase; thus, the G1 phase can be divided into TS-positive and -negative fractions. Nuclear TS was not demonstrated unequivocally with M-TS-4, and the relationship between nuclear TS and DNA synthesis could not be determined. Although the percentage of TS-positive cells was larger than the S-phase fraction measured by autoradiography after a pulse of tritiated thymidine or by the immunoperoxidase method using BUdR, the ratios were within a similar range (1.2-1.4) in all cell lines studied. Therefore, the S-phase fraction can be estimated indirectly from the percentage of TS-positive cells measured by M-TS-4. Because the emergence of TS detected by our method is cell cycle dependent, M-TS-4 may be useful for biochemical studies of TS and for cytokinetic analysis.

  11. Solar energetic particle events during the rise phases of solar cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Jain, R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Manoharan, P. K.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Dwivedi, V. C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Nitta, N. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares associated with the solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the rising phases of solar cycles (SC) 23 (1996-1998) (22 events) and 24 (2009-2011) (20 events), which are associated with type II radio bursts. Based on the SEP intensity, we divided the events into three categories, i.e. weak (intensity pfu), minor (1 pfu pfu) and major (intensity ⩾ 10 pfu) events. We used the GOES data for the minor and major SEP events and SOHO/ERNE data for the weak SEP event. We examine the correlation of SEP intensity with flare size and CME properties. We find that most of the major SEP events are associated with halo or partial halo CMEs originating close to the sun center and western-hemisphere. The fraction of halo CMEs in SC 24 is larger than the SC 23. For the minor SEP events one event in SC23 and one event in SC24 have widths < 120° and all other events are associated with halo or partial halo CMEs as in the case of major SEP events. In case of weak SEP events, majority (more than 60%) of events are associated with CME width < 120°. For both the SC the average CMEs speeds are similar. For major SEP events, average CME speeds are higher in comparison to minor and weak events. The SEP event intensity and GOES X-ray flare size are poorly correlated. During the rise phase of solar cycle 23 and 24, we find north-south asymmetry in the SEP event source locations: in cycle 23 most sources are located in the south, whereas during cycle 24 most sources are located in the north. This result is consistent with the asymmetry found with sunspot area and intense flares.

  12. Phenobarbital blockade of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge: association with phase-advanced circadian clock and altered suprachiasmatic nucleus Period1 gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, Sandra J.; Donoghue, Kathleen M.; Franklin, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in laboratory rodents. Barbiturate administration during a critical period on proestrus delays the surge and prolongs the estrous cycle 1 day. Because a nonphotic timing signal (zeitgeber) during the critical period that phase advances activity rhythms can also induce the latter effect, we hypothesized that barbiturates delay the LH surge by phase-advancing its circadian timing signal beyond the critical period. In experiment 1, locomotor rhythms and estrous cycles were monitored in hamsters for 2–3 wk preinjection and postinjection of vehicle or phenobarbital and after transfer to darkness at zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 on proestrus. Phenobarbital delayed estrous cycles in five of seven hamsters, which exhibited phase shifts that averaged twofold greater than those exhibited by vehicle controls or phenobarbital-injected hamsters with normal cycles. Experiment 2 used a similar protocol, but injections were at ZT 5, and blood samples for LH determination were collected from 1200 to 1800 on proestrus and the next day via jugular cannulae inserted the day before proestrus. Phenobarbital delayed the LH surge 1 day in all six hamsters, but it occurred at an earlier circadian time, supporting the above hypothesis. Experiment 3 investigated whether phenobarbital, like other nonphotic zeitgebers, suppresses SCN Period1 and Period2 transcription. Two hours postinjection, phenobarbital decreased SCN expression of only Period1 mRNA, as determined by in situ hybridization. These results suggest that phenobarbital advances the SCN pacemaker, governing activity rhythms and hormone release in part by decreasing its Period1 gene expression. PMID:19297538

  13. Determination of cell cycle phases in live B16 melanoma cells using IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla, Diana E; Kenig, Saša; Mitri, Elisa; Ferraris, Paolo; Marcello, Alessandro; Grenci, Gianluca; Vaccari, Lisa

    2013-07-21

    The knowledge of cell cycle phase distribution is of paramount importance for understanding cellular behaviour under normal and stressed growth conditions. This task is usually assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC) or immunohistochemistry. Here we report on the use of FTIR microspectroscopy in Microfluidic Devices (MD-IRMS) as an alternative technique for studying cell cycle distribution in live cells. Asynchronous, S- and G0-synchronized B16 mouse melanoma cells were studied by running parallel experiments based on MD-IRMS and FC using Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. MD-IRMS experiments have been done using silicon-modified BaF2 devices, where the thin silicon layer prevents BaF2 dissolution without affecting the transparency of the material and therefore enabling a better assessment of the Phosphate I (PhI) and II (PhII) bands. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of cellular microspectra in the 1300-1000 cm(-1) region pointed out a distribution of cells among clusters, which is in good agreement with FC results among G0/G1, S and G2/M phases. The differentiation is mostly driven by the intensity of PhI and PhII bands. In particular, PhI almost doubles from the G0/G1 to G2/M phase, in agreement with the trend followed by nucleic acids during cellular progression. MD-IRMS is then proposed as a powerful method for the in situ determination of the cell cycle stage of an individual cell, without any labelling or staining, which gives the advantage of possibly monitoring specific cellular responses to several types of stimuli by clearly separating the spectral signatures related to the cellular response from those of cells that are normally progressing.

  14. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); Phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G.A.; Merritt, J.L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Jomphe, C.; Marier, J.F.; Beliveau, M.; Mauney, J.; Dickinson, K.; Martinez, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.; Rhead, W.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs).

  15. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  16. Effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformation and mechanical strengthening of stainless steels – A phase-field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Shaw, Brian A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D elastoplastic phase-field model is used to study the effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformationas well as on mechanical strengthening of both austenite and martensite in stainless steel. The results show that with an increasing number of thermal cycles, martensite becomes more...

  17. Effects of oestradiol for luteal phase support in fresh embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Yiqing; Chen, Kai; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Runjv; Zhang, Dan

    2018-05-12

    Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation with progesterone for luteal support after fresh embryo transfer in in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles remains controversial. In this study, we further addressed this question in cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for ovarian stimulation. A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching and research hospital. A total of 1602 patients were given oestradiol valerate (E) in addition to progesterone (P) as luteal support. One thousand six hundred and two patients receiving progesterone alone were selected as the control group. Live birth rate. Secondary measures included clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and premature birth rate. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar for the P alone vs the P+E group. In cycles with oestradiol (E2) levels less than 5000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate (23.44% vs 32.92%, OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.46]). In cycles with oestradiol levels 5000 to 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation did not increase the live birth rate (34.43% vs 35.42%, OR = 0.90 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.01]). In cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, the live birth rate was significantly lower (36.83% vs 31.37%, OR = 0.78 [95% CI 0.62 to 0.99]) and the premature birth rate was significantly higher (19.66% vs 28.73%,OR = 1.65 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.59]) in the E supplementation group. Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation for luteal phase support appears to correlate with the serum oestradiol level on the day of hCG trigger. Oestradiol supplementation is beneficial for improving live birth rate in cycles with oestradiol levels less than 5000 pmol/L, but is not recommended in cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of microstructure on low cycle fatigue in some single phase and biphasic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SMS, URA CNRS 1884, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This overview deals with the effects of microstructural parameters in different single phase and biphasic stainless steels on short crack behaviour and on fatigue life in the low cycle regime. The effect of the grain size is investigated in a single phase austenitic stainless steel. Under plastic strain control, the fatigue life increases when the grain size decreases. The results are discussed by analysing the distributions of crack depths as a function of the grain size. The second type of material is a metastable austenitic steel which partially transforms into martensite during LCF at temperatures between -50 C and +120 C. The grain size of the initially single phase austenitic microstructure has a combined influence on the volume fraction of martensite produced during fatigue and on the fatigue life. In this case, the grain size effect is still considerable but totally indirect because all fatigue cracks grow exclusively in the martensite. The cyclic behaviour analysis in biphasic alloys in which two phases undergo plastic deformation during LCF is considerably more complex because the conventional concept of microstructural barriers cannot be applied. The possible damage patterns in a pair of grains with different mechanical properties are discussed on the example of a solution treated and aged superduplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (SDSS). The hardening of one phase (ferrite) through ageing at 475 C changes the cyclic behaviour of the initial ''quasi single phase'' microstructure. Consequently, the fatigue life under plastic strain control decreases compared with the solution treated SDSS. The discussion is focussed on LCF damage mechanisms at the microstructure size scale with a particular accent put on the propagation of short cracks in the bulk. All the microstructures exhibit some common features with respect to the behaviour of short cracks. In particular a strong effect of microstructural barriers in the bulk and the

  19. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kalipada, E-mail: kalipada.das@saha.ac.in; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects. - Highlights: • The resistance value in Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles is found to increase owing to the magnetic field cycling. • No anomaly in resistance was found in Pr{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}–La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} nanocomposite. • Magnetic measurements indicate the training effect in nanostructure compounds.

  20. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-10-28

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous.

  1. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  2. Exploring the data constrained phase space of the last Antarctic glacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit; Tarasov, Lev

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet over the last two glacial cycles is studied using the Glacial Systems Model (GSM). Glaciological modelling is an effective tool to generate continental-scale reconstructions over glacial cycles, but the models depend on parameterizations to account for the deficiencies (e.g., missing physics, unresolved sub-grid processes, uncertain boundary conditions) inherent in any numerical model. These parameters, considered together, form a parameter phase space from which sets of parameters can be sampled; each set corresponds to an ice sheet reconstruction. The GSM has been updated with a number of recent developments: hybrid SIA-SSA physics, Schoof grounding line parameterization, broadened degrees of freedom in the climate forcing, sub-shelf melt explicitly dependent on ocean temperatures, improved hydrofracturing, cliff failure at the margins, basal topographic uncertainties, impact of basal drag roughness and subgrid statistics, and first order geoidal corrections in the coupled glacial isostatic adjustment component. Parametric uncertainties are defined in the GSM using >36 ensemble parameters. Prior to conducting a full Bayesian calibration, one must first validate the ability of the GSM to simulate a broad range of responses. We attempt this by latin hypercube sampling of the parameter phase space and comparing the model predictions against our constraint database consisting of past elevation, extent and relative sea level observations and the present day geometry. We document the capability of the GSM to envelope the observational constraints given the parametric uncertainties and discuss the implications for the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  3. [Oxidative metabolism of main and accessory olfactory bulbs, limpic system and hypothalamus during the estral cycle of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of hypothalamus, olfactory and limbic systems from female rats in the estrous cycle have been measured. The accessory olfactory bulb becomes most active during diestrous when the hypothalamus reaches its lowest values.

  4. Effect of Estradiol Prescribed during Luteal Phase of Art Cycles and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implantation is one of the most important steps in ART cycles and it depends upon embryo and endometrial reception. Different protocols have been suggested for getting better endometrium. It seems estrogen increases the endometrial reception and pregnancy rate by inducing changes in the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estradiol(E2 on luteal phase support and pregnancy rate in ART cycles Methods: This prospective randomized study was done in Yazd at the IVF center from March until December, 2002. 68 patients who had undergone IVF or ICSI were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria was age>40, endometriosis and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. Induction ovulation protocol was long suppression with GnRH analogues.After embryo transfer, patients were divided in two groups randomly. Both groups received 100mg progesterone IM daily from the transfer day. Estradiol valerate 2 mg/day was added from the 7th transfer day to progesterone in Group I and continued if the BhCG became positive. Abortion and malformations were measured in all patients. Data analyzed with SPSS 11.0 and P value <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Pregnancy rate in the 34 patients of estradiol group (group I was 26.5%which was significantly higher than 11.8 %( 4 cases in the other group (Pvalue=0.034. Abortion rate was higher in estradiol group (3 cases, but there was no abortion in the progesterone group(P=0.119. 2 cases of major fetal malformations were observed in E2 supplementation group (P=0.246 . Conclusions: E2 suplementation to progesterone in the luteal phase of ART cycles, especially in the long GnRH analogues causes higher endometrial receptivity and pregnancy rate.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Pappas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23°C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25°C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.

  6. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zheng; Wei Zhang; Fei Liang; Shuang Lin; Xiangyu Jin

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM) and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compar...

  7. Enhancing signal detection and completely eliminating scattering using quasi-phase-cycling in 2D IR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Robbert; Garrett-Roe, Sean; Strzalka, Halina; Hamm, Peter; Donaldson, Paul

    2010-12-20

    We demonstrate how quasi-phase-cycling achieved by sub-cycle delay modulation can be used to replace optical chopping in a box-CARS 2D IR experiment in order to enhance the signal size, and, at the same time, completely eliminate any scattering contamination. Two optical devices are described that can be used for this purpose, a wobbling Brewster window and a photoelastic modulator. They are simple to construct, easy to incorporate into any existing 2D IR setup, and have attractive features such as a high optical throughput and a fast modulation frequency needed to phase cycle on a shot-to-shot basis.

  8. A phase plane graph based model of the ovulatory cycle lacking the "positive feedback" phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When hormones during the ovulatory cycle are shown in phase plane graphs, reported FSH and estrogen values form a specific pattern that resembles the leaning “&" symbol, while LH and progesterone (Pg values form a "boomerang" shape. Graphs in this paper were made using data reported by Stricker et al. [Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:883–887]. These patterns were used to construct a simplistic model of the ovulatory cycle without the conventional "positive feedback" phenomenon. The model is based on few well-established relations: hypothalamic GnRH secretion is increased under estrogen exposure during two weeks that start before the ovulatory surge and lasts till lutheolysis. the pituitary GnRH receptors are so prone to downregulation through ligand binding that this must be important for their function. in several estrogen target tissue progesterone receptor (PgR expression depends on previous estrogen binding to functional estrogen receptors (ER, while Pg binding to the expressed PgRs reduces both ER and PgR expression. Some key features of the presented model are here listed: High GnRH secretion induced by the recovered estrogen exposure starts in the late follicular phase and lasts till lutheolysis. The LH and FSH surges start due to combination of accumulated pituitary GnRH receptors and increased GnRH secretion. The surges quickly end due to partial downregulation of the pituitary GnRH receptors (64% reduction of the follicular phase pituitary GnRH receptors is needed to explain the reported LH drop after the surge. A strong increase in the lutheal Pg blood level, despite modest decline in LH levels, is explained as delayed expression of pituitary PgRs. Postponed pituitary PgRs expression enforces a negative feedback loop between Pg levels and LH secretions not before the mid lutheal phase. Lutheolysis is explained as a consequence of Pg binding to hypothalamic and pituitary PgRs that reduces local ER expression. When hypothalamic

  9. Supporting innovation. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles moves into first phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, Peter J.; Kupitz, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    energy needs and environmental impact. In order for nuclear energy to play a meaningful role in the global energy supply in the foreseeable future, innovative approaches will be required to address concerns about economic competitiveness, safety, waste and potential proliferation risks.' INPRO's objectives, as defined in the Terms of Reference, are: to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling, in a sustainable manner, energy needs in the 21st century; to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology, are based - to the extent possible - on systems with inherent safety features and minimise the risk of proliferation and the impact on the environment; to create a process that involves all relevant stake holders that will have an impact on, draw from, and complement the activities of existing institutions, as well as ongoing initiatives at the national and international level. INPRO is an Agencywide project, with contributions from all relevant IAEA Departments within available resources. The Project will be implemented in two phases. Phase I was initiated in early 2001 and is planned to run to 2003. In the first phase, work will proceed in five subject areas recognized as important for the future development of nuclear energy technology, and on two parallel tracks. Upon successful completion of INPRO's first phase, taking into account advice from the Steering Committee, and with the approval of participating Member States, a second phase of INPRO may be initiated. Drawing on the results from the first phase, it would be directed at: examining in the context of available technologies the feasibility of commencing an international project; and identifying technologies which might be appropriate for

  10. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Hulzen, M.; Singh, D.P.; Brownrigg, A.W.; Wright, J.P.; Van Dijk, N.H.; Wagemaker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is

  11. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  12. Heat treatments and thermomechanical cycling influences on the R-phase in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Henrique Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies changes observed on the R-phase thermoelastic behavior in a near-equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy. Three kinds of procedures have been performed: different treatments, thermomechanical cycling under constant loading in shape memory helical springs and thermal cycling in as-treated and trained samples. Several heat treatments were carried out to investigate evolution of the R-phase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A heat treatment was chosen on which R-phase is absent. Shape memory springs were produced and submitted to a training process in an apparatus by tensioning the springs under constant loading. Thermal cycling in DSC was realized in as-treated and trained samples. Several aspects of one-step (B2→B19' and two-steps (B2→R→B19' martensitic transformations and R-phase formation and their evolution during tests were observed and discussed.

  13. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Park, Hyeon U; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y

    2010-07-07

    Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses. Even though Vpr-induced G2 arrest has been studied extensively, how Vpr triggers G2 arrest remains elusive. To examine this initiation event, we measured the Vpr effect over a single cell cycle. We found that even though Vpr stops the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, but the initiation event actually occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, Vpr triggers activation of Chk1 through Ser345 phosphorylation in an S phase-dependent manner. The S phase-dependent requirement of Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation by Vpr was confirmed by siRNA gene silencing and site-directed mutagenesis. Moreover, downregulation of DNA replication licensing factors Cdt1 by siRNA significantly reduced Vpr-induced Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation and G2 arrest. Even though hydroxyurea (HU) and ultraviolet light (UV) also induce Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation in S phase under the same conditions, neither HU nor UV-treated cells were able to pass through S phase, whereas vpr-expressing cells completed S phase and stopped at the G2/M boundary. Furthermore, unlike HU/UV, Vpr promotes Chk1- and proteasome-mediated protein degradations of Cdc25B/C for G2 induction; in contrast, Vpr had little or no effect on Cdc25A protein degradation normally mediated by HU/UV. These data suggest that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through a unique molecular mechanism that regulates host cell cycle regulation in an S-phase dependent fashion.

  14. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Dong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses. Even though Vpr-induced G2 arrest has been studied extensively, how Vpr triggers G2 arrest remains elusive. Results To examine this initiation event, we measured the Vpr effect over a single cell cycle. We found that even though Vpr stops the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, but the initiation event actually occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, Vpr triggers activation of Chk1 through Ser345 phosphorylation in an S phase-dependent manner. The S phase-dependent requirement of Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation by Vpr was confirmed by siRNA gene silencing and site-directed mutagenesis. Moreover, downregulation of DNA replication licensing factors Cdt1 by siRNA significantly reduced Vpr-induced Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation and G2 arrest. Even though hydroxyurea (HU and ultraviolet light (UV also induce Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation in S phase under the same conditions, neither HU nor UV-treated cells were able to pass through S phase, whereas vpr-expressing cells completed S phase and stopped at the G2/M boundary. Furthermore, unlike HU/UV, Vpr promotes Chk1- and proteasome-mediated protein degradations of Cdc25B/C for G2 induction; in contrast, Vpr had little or no effect on Cdc25A protein degradation normally mediated by HU/UV. Conclusions These data suggest that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through a unique molecular mechanism that regulates host cell cycle regulation in an S-phase dependent fashion.

  15. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan

    2017-02-22

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  16. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan; B. Bajic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Lada; Arendt, Thomas; Perry, George; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  17. Demographic-Based Perceptions of Adequacy of Software Security's Presence within Individual Phases of the Software Development Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Aleksey

    2013-01-01

    The topic of software security has become paramount in information technology (IT) related scholarly research. Researchers have addressed numerous software security topics touching on all phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC): requirements gathering phase, design phase, development phase, testing phase, and maintenance phase.…

  18. Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Gergely; Kun, Ádám; Scheuring, István; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant

  19. Effect of normal and tumor factors on different phases of cell populations cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F

    1999-12-01

    In the present experiments we studied the effect of extracts from intact liver (LE), ES2 tumor extract (TE), plasmas from intact mice (PI), and from tumor bearing animals (PT) on different phases of hepatocytes and renocytes cell cycles. C3HS 28-day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis, were injected at 16:00 hours and killed every 4 hours during a circadian cycle at 20:00/04; 00:00/08; 04:00/12; 08:00/16; 12:00/20 and 16:00/24 (time of day/hours post treatment). Colchicine (2 microg/g) was injected 4 hours before killing them. Samples of livers and kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. The results were expressed as colchicine arrested metaphases per 1000 nuclei. The TE, LE and PI had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first 12 hours post treatment. During the subsequent 12 hours, not only these treatments but also the PI had an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of the same cell population. Also the TE and the PT had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of the renocytes during the first 12 hours while the effect of all treatments showed a clear inhibition of the mitotic activity studied during the last 12 hours. Taking into account the time elapsed between the injections and the measurements made in these light-dark synchronized animals, we conclude that the increase in mitotic index observed in those tissues stemmed from a reinitiation of cell-cycle traverse in a subpopulation of G2-arrested, noncycling cells.

  20. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  1. Generation of Phase-Stable Sub-Cycle Mid-Infrared Pulses from Filamentation in Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Fuji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sub-single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared (MIR region were generated through a laser-induced filament. The fundamental (ω1 and second harmonic (ω2 output of a 30-fs Ti:sapphire amplifier were focused into nitrogen gas and produce phase-stable broadband MIR pulses (ω0 by using a four-wave mixing process (ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 through filamentation. The spectrum spread from 400 cm-1 to 5500 cm-1, which completely covered the MIR region. The low frequency components were detected by using an electro-optic sampling technique with a gaseous medium. The efficiency of the MIR pulse generation was very sensitive to the delay between the fundamental and second harmonic pulses. It was revealed that the delay dependence of the efficiency came from the interference between two opposite parametric processes, ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 and ω2 - ω1 - ω1 → ω0. The pulse duration was measured as 6.9 fs with cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by using four-wave mixing in nitrogen. The carrier-envelope phase of the MIR pulse was passively stabilized. The instability was estimated as 154 mrad rms in 2.5 h.

  2. Different Phases of Earthquake Cycle Reflected in GPS Measured Crustal Deformations along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.; Klotz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The South American Geodynamic Activities (SAGA) project was initiated in 1993 by the GeoForschungsZentrum together with host organizations in Argentina and Chile with the main objective of studying the kinematics and dynamics of present-day deformation processes along the central and southern Andes. Currently the SAGA network consists of 230 geodetic markers spanning more than 2000 km long distance from Peru/Chile border in the north to Cape Horn in the south. The majority of the observed crustal deformation field is relatively homogenous: roughly parallel to the plate convergence direction and decreasing in magnitude away from the deformation front. This pattern is characteristic for the \\textit{inter-seismic} phase of earthquake deformation cycle and can be explained by the elastic strain accumulation due to locking of the thrust interface between the subducting Nazca and the overriding South America plates. However, in addition to the dominant inter-seismic signal, close examination of the observed velocity field also reveals significant spatial and temporal variations, contrary to the commonly used assumption of constant deformation rates. This variation is especially pronounced for the measurements in the vicinity of the 1995 Mw8.0 Antofagasta earthquake (22{° }S-26{° }S). Here, after capturing up to 1 meters of \\textit{co-seismic} displacements associated with this event, the analysis of data obtained during the three following field campaigns (1996-1999), reveals highly time dependent deformation pattern. This can be explained by the decreasing importance of \\textit{post-seismic} effects of the Antofagasta event relative to the increasing dominance of the inter-seismic phase of subduction. Perhaps, even more interesting time dependent observations have been detected in the southern part the SAGA network (38{° }S-43{° }S).Here, after 35 years of the occurrence of the 1960 Mw9.5 Chile earthquake, we still see the continuing post-seismic effects of this

  3. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  4. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P production (P production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  7. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  8. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives on alertness, cognitive performance, and circadian rhythms during sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Badia, P.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The influence of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on neurobehavioral function and circadian rhythms were studied in healthy young women (n = 25) using a modified constant routine procedure during 24 h of sleep deprivation. Alertness and performance worsened across sleep deprivation and also varied with circadian phase. Entrained circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature were evident in women regardless of menstrual phase or oral contraceptive use. No significant difference in melatonin levels, duration, or phase was observed between women in the luteal and follicular phases, whereas oral contraceptives appeared to increase melatonin levels. Temperature levels were higher in the luteal phase and in oral contraceptive users compared to women in the follicular phase. Alertness on the maintenance of wakefulness test and some tests of cognitive performance were poorest for women in the follicular phase especially near the circadian trough of body temperature. These observations suggest that hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives contribute to changes in nighttime waking neurobehavioral function and temperature level whereas these factors do not appear to affect circadian phase.

  10. Structure and sources of solar wind in the growing phase of 24th solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Goryaev, Farid; Shugay, Julia; Rodkin, Denis; Veselovsky, Igor

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of the solar wind (SW) structure and its association with coronal sources during the minimum and rising phase of 24th solar cycle (2009-2011). The coronal sources prominent in this period - coronal holes, small areas of open magnetic fields near active regions and transient sources associated with small-scale solar activity have been investigated using EUV solar images and soft X-ray fluxes obtained by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS/Sphinx, PROBA2/SWAP, Hinode/EIS and AIA/SDO instruments as well as the magnetograms obtained by HMI/SDO. It was found that at solar minimum (2009) velocity and magnetic field strength of high speed wind (HSW) and transient SW from small-scale flares did not differ significantly from those of the background slow speed wind (SSW). The major difference between parameters of different SW components was seen in the ion composition represented by the C6/C5, O7/O6, Fe/O ratios and the mean charge of Fe ions. With growing solar activity, the speed of HSW increased due to transformation of its sources - small-size low-latitude coronal holes into equatorial extensions of large polar holes. At that period, the ion composition of transient SW changed from low-temperature to high-temperature values, which was caused by variation of the source conditions and change of the recombination/ionization rates during passage of the plasma flow through the low corona. However, we conclude that criteria of separation of the SW components based on the ion ratios established earlier by Zhao&Fisk (2009) for higher solar activity are not applicable to the extremely weak beginning of 24th cycle. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement eHeroes (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  11. DNA Damage during G2 Phase Does Not Affect Cell Cycle Progression of the Green Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase. PMID:21603605

  12. DNA damage during G2 phase does not affect cell cycle progression of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hlavová

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase.

  13. Influence of bodybuilding classes on physical qualities of the qualified sportswomen in different phases of the specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Mulik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to conduct researches of influence of classes of the sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini on manifestation of physical qualities in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Material & Methods: researches were conducted in sports fitness-clubs of Kharkov "Feromon", "Gorod", “King” with the qualified sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini within 3 months of the preparatory period in number of 14 people. We used as methods of the research: the analysis of references and testing of level of motive qualities in separate phases of OMC. Results: the theoretical analysis of features of the accounting of phases of OMC at sportswomen is submitted and the testing of the level of development of physical qualities in different phases of the specific biological cycle at the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is held. Conclusions: the received results demonstrate that physical efficiency of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is not identical in phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It is revealed that the best conditions for performance of considerable exercise stresses in post-ovulatory and post-menstrual phases of OMC, therefore it is expedient to plan them in the preparatory periods of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding.

  14. Label-free cell-cycle analysis by high-throughput quantitative phase time-stretch imaging flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Aaron T. Y.; Lee, Kelvin C. M.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2018-02-01

    Biophysical properties of cells could complement and correlate biochemical markers to characterize a multitude of cellular states. Changes in cell size, dry mass and subcellular morphology, for instance, are relevant to cell-cycle progression which is prevalently evaluated by DNA-targeted fluorescence measurements. Quantitative-phase microscopy (QPM) is among the effective biophysical phenotyping tools that can quantify cell sizes and sub-cellular dry mass density distribution of single cells at high spatial resolution. However, limited camera frame rate and thus imaging throughput makes QPM incompatible with high-throughput flow cytometry - a gold standard in multiparametric cell-based assay. Here we present a high-throughput approach for label-free analysis of cell cycle based on quantitative-phase time-stretch imaging flow cytometry at a throughput of > 10,000 cells/s. Our time-stretch QPM system enables sub-cellular resolution even at high speed, allowing us to extract a multitude (at least 24) of single-cell biophysical phenotypes (from both amplitude and phase images). Those phenotypes can be combined to track cell-cycle progression based on a t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) discriminant analysis, cell-cycle phases can also be predicted label-free with high accuracy at >90% in G1 and G2 phase, and >80% in S phase. We anticipate that high throughput label-free cell cycle characterization could open new approaches for large-scale single-cell analysis, bringing new mechanistic insights into complex biological processes including diseases pathogenesis.

  15. Life cycle assessment of the end-of-life phase of a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Pierluca; Arena, Noemi; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio; Arena, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste. It quantifies the connections between these on-site and off-site processes as well as the main streams of materials sent to recycling, energy recovery, and final disposal. A sensitivity analysis has been eventually carried out by comparing the overall environmental performances of some alternative scenarios, characterised by different criteria for the demolition of the reference building, management of demolition waste and assessment of avoided burdens of the main recycled materials. The results quantify the advantage of an appropriate technique of selective demolition, which could increase the quality and quantity of residues sent to the treatment of resource recovery and safe disposal. They also highlight the contributions to the positive or negative environmental impact of each stage of the investigated waste management system. The recycling of reinforcing steel appears to play a paramount role, accounting for 65% of the total avoided impacts related to respiratory inorganics, 89% of those for global warming and 73% of those for mineral extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, F; Hernández-Cerón, J; Orozco, V; Hernández, J A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2007-11-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) enhances ovarian follicular and embryonic development in sheep and cattle. In the present study, the objective was to assess whether bST given 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization improves prolificacy and lambing rate in sheep. Pelibuey ewes (n=92) exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals received an intravaginal sponge containing 45mg of FGA for 12 days. Five days before sponge withdrawal, ewes were treated with either 125mg of bST sc (bST group; n=47) or saline solution (control; n=45). After the sponge was removed, ewes were observed for estrus and subsequently mated twice. Lambing rate and prolificacy was determined at birth. Blood samples were taken from the time of treatment until day 15 after estrus in eight ewes from the bST group and nine from the control group. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by immunoradiometric assay and progesterone by RIA. Treatment with bST increased (P0.05). IGF-I concentrations were greater (PProgesterone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) between groups. It is concluded that a single dose of bST 5 days before progestin withdrawal increases lambing rate and prolificacy in sheep. These effects are associated with an increase in circulating concentrations of IGF-I.

  17. A new Gsdma3 mutation affecting anagen phase of first hair cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Tamura, Masaru; Aoki, Aya; Fujii, Tomoaki; Komiyama, Hiromitsu; Sagai, Tomoko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Recombination-induced mutation 3 (Rim3) is a spontaneous mouse mutation that exhibits dominant phenotype of hyperkeratosis and hair loss. Fine linkage analysis of Rim3 and sequencing revealed a novel single point mutation, G1124A leading to Ala348Thr, in Gsdma3 in chromosome 11. Transgenesis with BAC DNA harboring the Rim3-type Gsdma3 recaptured the Rim3 phenotype, providing direct evidence that Gsdma3 is the causative gene of Rim3. We examined the spatial expression of Gsdma3 and characterized the Rim3 phenotype in detail. Gsdma3 is expressed in differentiated epidermal cells in the skin, but not in the proliferating epidermal cells. Histological analysis of Rim3 mutant showed hyperplasia of the epidermal cells in the upper hair follicles and abnormal anagen phase at the first hair cycle. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed hyperproliferation and misdifferentiation of the upper follicular epidermis in Rim3 mutant. These results suggest that Gsdma3 is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells

  18. Effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal treatments on evaluation of tubal patency in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Mishler, Emily; Lim, Jeong Y; Slayden, Ov D

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated whether menstrual cycle phase influences the assessment of tubal patency by hysterosalpingography (HSG) in baboons. Retrospective analysis of baseline tubal patency studies and serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P4) values obtained from female baboons used as models for development of non-surgical permanent contraception in women. The main outcome measure was bilateral tubal patency (BTP) in relationship with estradiol level. Female baboons (n = 110) underwent a single (n = 81), two (n = 26), or three (n = 3) HSG examinations. In 33/142 (23%) HSG examinations, one or both tubes showed functional occlusion (FO). The median E 2 in studies with BTP (49 pg/mL) was significantly higher than in those studies with FO (32 pg/mL, P = .005). Among 18 animals with repeat examinations where serum E 2 changed from <60 to ≥ 60 pg/mL, 13 results changed from FO to BTP (P = .0001). No sets showed a change from BTP to FO with an increase in estradiol. In baboons, functional occlusion of the fallopian tube is associated with low estradiol levels, supporting a role for estrogen-mediated relaxation of the utero-tubal junction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Executive Summary of Ares V: Lunar Capabilities Concept Review Through Phase A-Cycle 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, J. B.; Baggett, K. E.; Feldman, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) was generated as an overall Ares V summary from the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) through Phase A-Cycle 3 (PA-C3) with the intent that it may be coupled with separately published appendices for a more detailed, integrated narrative. The Ares V has evolved from the initial point of departure (POD) 51.00.48 LCCR configuration to the current candidate POD, PA-C3D, and the family of vehicles concept that contains vehicles PA-C3A through H. The logical progression from concept to POD vehicles is summarized in this TM and captures the trade space and performance of each. The family-of-vehicles concept was assessed during PA-C3 and offered flexibility in the path forward with the ability to add options deemed appropriate. A description of each trade space is given in addition to a summary of each Ares V element. The Ares V contributions to a Mars campaign are also highlighted with the goal of introducing Ares V capabilities within the trade space. The assessment of the Ares V vehicle as it pertains to Mars missions remained locked to the architecture presented in Mars Design Reference Authorization 5.0 using the PA-C3D vehicle configuration to assess Mars transfer vehicle options, in-space EDS capabilities, docking adaptor and propellant transfer assessments, and lunar and Mars synergistic potential.

  20. Thermal analysis of a Phase Change Material for a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, M.; Braimakis, K.; Andreozzi, A.; Karellas, S.

    2017-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for low temperature power generation, for example for the utilization of medium temperature solar energy. Since heat generated from solar source is variable throughout the day, the implementation of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems to guarantee the continuous operation of solar ORCs is a critical task, and Phase Change Materials (PCM) rely on latent heat to store large amounts of energy. In the present study, a thermal analysis of a PCM for a solar ORC is carried out. Three different types of PCMs are analyzed. The energy equation for the PCM is modeled by using the heat capacity method, and it is solved by employing a 1Dexplicit finite difference scheme. The solar source is modeled with a time-variable temperature boundary condition, with experimental data taken from the literature for two different solar collectors. Results are presented in terms of temperature profiles and stored energy. It has been shown that the stored energy depends on the heat source temperature, on the employed PCM and on the boundary conditions. It has been demonstrated that the use of a metal foam can drastically enhance the stored energy due to the higher overall thermal conductivity.

  1. Cell cycle phase of nondividing cells in aging human cell cultures determined by DNA content and chromosomal constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanishevsky, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Human diploid cell cultures, strain WI-38, have a finite proliferative capacity and have been proposed as a model of biological aging. To identify the cell cycle phase of the nondividing cells, cultures of various ages were exposed to 3 Hdt for 48 hours to label dividing cells, then the cycle phase was identified for individual cells by one of two methods, and finally, the proliferative status of the same cells was scored by autoradiographic evidence of 3 HdT uptake. The methods to identify the cycle phase were: determination of DNA strain content by Feulgen scanning cytophotometry, and determination of chromosome constitution by the technique of premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Preliminary experiments showed the effect of continuous exposure to various levels of 3 HdT on cell growth. High levels of 3 HdT inhibited cell cycle traverse: the cell number and labeling index curves reached a plateau; the cell volume increased; the cells accumulated with 4C DNA contents and it appeared that they blocked in G 2 phase. This pattern is consistent with a radiation effect. (U.S.)

  2. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle terahertz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the terahertz pulse, leading to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency...

  3. Cell cycle phase dependent role of DNA polymerase beta in DNA repair and survival after ionizing radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.; Verwijs-Janssen, M.; Begg, A.C.; Vens, C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of DNA polymerase beta in repair and response after ionizing radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Synchronized cells deficient and proficient in DNA polymerase beta were irradiated in different

  4. Technological study report on synthetic evaluation for FBR cycle. The report of the feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Ohtaki, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide; Ono, Kiyoshi; Hirao, Kazunori

    2001-03-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the characteristic evaluation work on various FR cycle system concepts, following the design work, in the 1st phase of the JNC's 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System (the F/S)' (from 1999 to March 2001). The purpose of this characteristic evaluation is to reveal the performance of candidate FR cycle systems. For this synthetic estimation, six viewpoints, such as Economics, Effective utilization of uranium resource, Reduction of environmental impact, Safety, Proliferation resistance, and Technological feasibility, are selected. In addition, aiming at the practical use in phase 2, we examined an application to FBR research and development of cost benefit analysis method used for the policy evaluation. Furthermore, long-term nuclear material mass flow was analyzed and the scenario of 'FBR application for the hydrogen production' is proposed, considering how FBR would be utilized for the 21st century. And, a database including the various documents and data used for evaluation was constructed. (author)

  5. Graphical and statistical techniques for cardiac cycle time (phase) dependent changes in interbeat interval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, J.R.; van der Molen, M.W.; Somsen, R.J.M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac cycle time effects refer to the relative lengthening or shortening of a single cardiac cycle as a function of when in the cycle brief sensorimotor events occur. These effects may provide short-latency measures of cardiac sensitivity to Psychological events. Conventional representations have,

  6. Phase-changes in cell cycle of wound tissue irradiated with 5.21 Gy soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianzhong; Zhou Yuanguo; Cheng Tianmin; Zhou Ping; Liu Xia; Li Ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the phase-changes in cell cycle of wound tissue which was locally irradiated with 5.21 Gy soft X-rays. Methods: Flow cytometry and PI staining were used to analyze cell cycle. Cell proliferation was determined with BrdU labeling. Results: During 3-9 days after irradiation, the percentage of the G 0 /G 1 phase cells in wound of the control side decreased while the percentage of S phase cells increased and reached the highest value on day 9. The percentage of G 2 /M phase cells also increased, and reached its peak on day 15. The percentage of G 0 /G 1 phase cell increased in wound of the irradiation side and was higher than that of the control wound, meanwhile the percentages of S and G 2 /M cells were significantly lower than those of the control wound. In the period of 12-22 days after wounding, the percentage of S phase cells increased and reached its peak value on the 22 th day. When most of cells were in S phase and arrested dramatically. Through the whole healing process, the percentage of G 2 /M in wound of the irradiation side was lower than that of the non-irradiated wound. The BrdU-positive cells were fibroblasts, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that G 1 block, S phase arrest, and switch of G 2 /M with suppression of mitotic activity of these cells are induced by local 5.21 Gy soft X-ray irradiation. Therefore, wound healing delay is induced partly by cell cycle arrest

  7. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    rate to first insemination. However, conception rate to second insemination, 100-d pregnancy rate (from the commencement of breeding), and overall pregnancy rate tended to be higher in this group. The high-starch/high-fat treatment tended to decrease the proportion of delayed ovulations and increase the proportion of animals cycling by d 50 postcalving. Animals that failed to conceive to first insemination had a significantly longer luteal phase in the first cycle postpartum and a longer inter-ovulatory interval in the second cycle postpartum. With regards to estrous behavior, results indicate that as the size of the sexually active group increased, the intensity of estrus and the expression of mounting or attempting to mount another cow also increased. Furthermore, cows that became pregnant displayed more intense estrous behavior than cows that failed to become pregnant. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental study on the application of phase change material in the dynamic cycling of battery pack system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jiajia; Li, Ke; Chen, Haodong; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two temperature peaks are observed in the single battery during the dynamic cycling. • The cooling performance of PCM system is superior to the natural convection system. • Increasing the laying-aside time is beneficial to the cooling performance of PCM system. • The optimal phase change temperature of PCM is recommended as 45 °C. - Abstract: The thermal performance of phase change material (PCM) based battery thermal management system in dynamic cycling is investigated, and several factors influencing the PCM system are discussed in detail. It is established that the surface temperature of a single battery has two temperature peaks during one charge/discharge cycle, while it disappears in the PCM system for the temperature buffering of PCM. In addition, the cooling performance of the PCM system is superior to that of natural convection system especially at a high current rate. Moreover, increasing the laying-aside time properly between each cycling step is beneficial to the cooling performance of the PCM system. Additionally, PCM with a phase change temperature of 45 °C is recommended to be used in the real battery pack system.

  9. Transfer of nuclides from the water phase to the sediments during normal and extraordinary hydrological cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Atucha I and Atucha II nuclear power plants are located on the right margin of the Parana de las Palmas river. This river belongs to the Cuenca del Plata, whose 1982-1983 hydrologic cycle registered the greatest freshets of the century. Works and studies previously fixed had to be altered and investigations were adapted to the possibilities and the particular hydric conditions verified. Considerations on the transfer of nuclides between water and sediments are presented. The floods reduce the water-sediments contact time on the bed of the river. In outer areas, the waters labelled by the nuclear power plant effluent discharge favor the infiltration in alluvial soils, as well as the exchange with the sediments. The investigations carried out for the phase near to the discharge of liquid effluents (related to the critical group) made possible to prove the characteristics of the path of the liquid wastes released, the distribution coefficient and the fixation or penetrability of some nuclides in soils of the floody valley. In this manner, a balance of radioactive nuclides incorporated to soils and sediments from the neighbourhood of Atucha and the water-course of Parana de las Palmas river is obtained. The presence of 60 Co and 137 Cs in the floody soils on the right margin of this river was detected and measured during the greatest flood of the century. On the other hand, 144 Ce, 51 Cr, 106 Ru and 90 Sr have not been detected. The detection of artificial radioisotopes turns out to be impossible in normal hydrological years, even in the sorroundings of the nuclear power plant or the critical group (from the point of view of the surface waters, The Fishing Club, 3 km down stream). (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Diurnal Cycle of ITCZ Convection during the MJO Suppressed Phase in DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Schubert, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    During the special observing period of the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) experiment, conducted over the Indian Ocean from 1 October to 30 November 2011, two sounding arrays - one north and one south of the equator, referred to here as the NSA and SSA, respectively - took 4-8 soundings/day. We augment this 3-h dataset with observations of radiation and rainfall to investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during the suppressed phase of the October MJO. During this 14-day period when convection was suppressed over the NSA but prominent over the SSA, the circulation over the sounding arrays could be characterized as a local Hadley cell embedded within a monsoonal flow. Strong rising motion was present within the ITCZ and compensating subsidence over the NSA. A prominent diurnal pulsing of this cell was observed, impacting conditions on both sides of the equator, with the cell running strongest in the early morning hours (05-08 LT) and notably weakening later in the day (17-20LT). The reduction in evening subsidence over the NSA may have assisted the moistening of the low to mid-troposphere there during the pre-onset stage of the MJO. Apparent heating Q1 within the ITCZ exhibits a diurnal evolution from early morning bottom-heavy profiles to weaker daytime top-heavy profiles. Making use of the weak temperature gradient approximation, results suggest that direct radiative effects played a dominant role in controlling diurnal variations of vertical motion and convection within the ITCZ while non-radiative processes were more prominent over the NSA.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  12. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  13. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  14. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cyc...

  16. Application of Remote Condition Monitoring in Different Rolling Stock Life Cycle Phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren Ceng, F.P.J.H.; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria

    2013-01-01

    NedTrain is the Netherlands Railway's subsidiary responsible for rolling stock maintenance. The life cycle is 30-40 years where the asset condition is maintained to meet it's performance requirements and is enhanced to meet the customer expectations through it's life. The life cycle costs are

  17. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Feillet (Céline); C.A. Krusche; F. Tamanini (Filippo); R. Janssens (Roel); R.A. Downey (Roger); P. Martin (Patrick); J.L. Teboul (Jean Louis); S. Saito (Seiji); F.A. Lévi (Francis); T. Bretschneider (Till); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); F. Delaunay (Franck); D.A. Rand (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDaily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle

  18. Should breast MRI be performed with adjustment for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle? Correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle. Material and methods: The background enhancement of bilateral breast MRI and the breast density of mammography in 146 consecutive women without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle were reviewed. The breast density was classified into four categories according to the American College of Radiology the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The background enhancement was classified into four categories: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked. The correlations of mammographic breast density as well as age with background enhancement on breast MRI were examined. Results: There was a significant correlation between mammographic breast density and background enhancement (p = 0.011). All nine cases with almost completely fat mammographic breast density showed minimal (78%) or mild (12%) background enhancement on breast MRI. There was a significant inverse correlation between age and background enhancement (p < 0.0001). Younger patients with dense breasts were more likely to demonstrate moderate/marked background enhancement. Conclusion: When no adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle, a significant correlation was observed between background enhancement and mammographic density. A significant inverse correlation was also observed between age and background enhancement.

  19. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  20. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Johnson, E J; Lanza, E; Graubard, B I; Beecher, G R; Muesing, R

    1998-01-01

    Because premenopausal women experience cyclic fluctuations of plasma carotenoids and their lipoprotein carriers, it is hypothesized that carotenoid concentrations in lipoprotein fractions fluctuate by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women ate a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. In the second cycle, hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions were measured in the early and late follicular and luteal phases. alpha-Carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction were lower in the early than in the late follicular phase (P = 0.03) on the basis of regression analysis. beta-carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction and the HDL2 subfraction were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations in the LDL and HDL fractions were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). In each phase, 80% of alpha-carotene, 82% of beta-carotene, 85% of lycopene, and 64% of lutein/zeaxanthin were distributed in the LDL fraction. Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction. In contrast 34% of lutein/zeaxanthin was distributed in the HDL fraction with more concentrated in the HDL3 than in the HDL2 subfraction. Less than 4% of any carotenoid was found in the VLDL + IDL (intermediate-density-lipoprotein) fractions. Thus, the hydrocarbon carotenoids were highly concentrated in the LDL fraction and xanthophyll was more evenly distributed in the LDL and HDL fractions. The cyclic fluctuations of these carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions add another dimension to the understanding of their transport and physiologic function.

  1. Responses of the mouse to microwave radiation during estrous cycle and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugh, R.; Ginns, E.I.; Ho, H.S.; Leach, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    A new facility for microwave irradiation of mice that will provide reproducible dosimetry is described. The waveguide used provided the integral dose rate to experimental animals under stable and controlled environmental conditions of relative humidity and temperature, variables which have been found to be critical in microwave studies. In terms of average absorbed lethal dose, the female mouse was found to be more sensitive to microwave irradiation during estrus than during diestrus. Teratogenesis (e.g., exencephalies) after sublethal irradiation of pregnant mice at 8 gestation days resulted from absorbed doses within the range of 3 to 5 calories per gram of body weight, and was never an all-or-none response. The incidence and variety of effects produced (hemorrhage, resorption, stunting, and fetal death) indicate that the cause and effect relationships are neither linear nor well enough established and understood to permit prediction of the biological effects either in the mouse of other species. As the absorbed dose of radiant energy is increased to the 8-day pregnant mouse, the probability of it producing at least one exencephaly is likewise increased. Nevertheless, the determination of the absorbed dose of microwave energy in each mouse is one step closer to determining the precise absorbed-dose-effect relationship for microwave exposures. A total of 1096 mice were exposed to microwave radiation and separately monitored to gather the related data. (U.S.)

  2. Hormone-Dependence of Sarin Lethality in Rats: Sex Differences and Stage of the Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    that causes numerous physiological events including miosis, salivation , respiratory failure, tremors, seizures, and death. Treatment regimens that...into 96-well plates. The reactions were initiated by the addition of 290 μL of 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer ( pH 8.0) containing one of the following...buffer containing 50mMHEPES pH 7.4 in a total volume of 280 μL. Treat- ed samples were loaded into a 96-microtiter plate well, and the reaction was

  3. Fluctuating Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Brainstem Norepinephrine Neurons through the Rat Estrous Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haywood, S.A.; Simonian, S.X.; Beek, van der E.M.; Bicknell, R.J.; Herbison, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) neurons within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS; A2 neurons) and ventrolateral medulla (A1 neurons) represent gonadal steroid-dependent components of several neural networks regulating reproduction. Previous studies have shown that both A1 and A2 neurons express estrogen

  4. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.

  5. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  6. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  7. ALG-2 knockdown in HeLa cells results in G2/M cell cycle phase accumulation and cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Berit Rahbek; la Cour, Peter Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens

    2009-01-01

    downregulation induces accumulation of HeLa cells in the G2/M cell cycle phase and increases the amount of early apoptotic and dead cells. Caspase inhibition by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk attenuated the increase in the amount of dead cells following ALG-2 downregulation. Thus, our results indicate...... that ALG-2 has an anti-apoptotic function in HeLa cells by facilitating the passage through checkpoints in the G2/M cell cycle phase.......ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene-2 encoded protein) has been shown to be upregulated in a variety of human tumors questioning its previously assumed pro-apoptotic function. The aim of the present study was to obtain insights into the role of ALG-2 in human cancer cells. We show that ALG-2...

  8. Experimental Studies of Phase Change and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in a Cold Storage/Transportation System with Solar Driven Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the different properties of phase change material (PCM and Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM employed to cold storage/transportation system with a solar-driven cooling cycle. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC tests have been performed to analyze the materials enthalpy, melting temperature range, and temperature range of solidification. KD2 Pro is used to test the thermal conductivities of phase change materials slurry and the results were used to compare the materials heat transfer performance. The slurry flow characteristics of MEPCM slurry also have been tested. Furthermore, in order to analyze the improvement effect on stability, the stability of MEPCM slurry with different surfactants have been tested. The researches of the PCM and MEPCM thermal properties revealed a more prospective application for phase change materials in energy storage/transportation systems. The study aims to find the most suitable chilling medium to further optimize the design of the cold storage/transportation systems with solar driven cooling cycles.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.D.

    1991-04-01

    The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activity was of approximately 2.91 x 10 14 Bq. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with temperature at 25 ± 2 0 C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. (M.A.C.)

  10. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Advanced expander cycle engine optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The performance optimization of expander cycle engines at vacuum thrust levels of 10K, 15K, and 20K lb is discussed. The optimization is conducted for a maximum engine length with an extendible nozzle in the retracted position of 60 inches and an engine mixture ratio of 6.0:1. The thrust chamber geometry and cycle analyses are documented. In addition, the sensitivity of a recommended baseline expander cycle to component performance variations is determined and chilldown/start propellant consumptions are estimated.

  11. Effects of breed and ram exposure on Spring estrous behavior and Summer fertility in domestic ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Russell A., III

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to check the effects of acute ram introduction into a flock of anestrus ewes in Virginia. Ewes were bled via jugular venipuncture twice weekly and serum samples were radioimmunoassayed for progesterone (P4) content as an indicator of estrous activity. All rams were fitted with crayon equipped marking harnesses for use as an indicator of mating behavior in ewes. The first study tested the effects of introduction of vasectomized rams in...

  12. Women's preferences for sexual dimorphism in height depend on menstrual cycle phase and expected duration of relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2005-09-01

    Human mate preferences are related to many morphological traits, such as female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), male height or facial symmetry. People also vary in preferences for sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS = male height/female height) between themselves and a potential partner. Here, we demonstrate that women adjust their preference for SDS not only in relation to their own height but also in relation to (1) the phase of menstrual cycle during which their preferences were studied and (2) the sexual strategy (short- versus long-term) they were asked to choose. Taller males (larger SDS) were preferred more often when women were in the follicular (i.e. fertile) phase of their menstrual cycle and when the partners were chosen for short-term relationships. These effects were independent of woman's height. The results show that women in a potentially fertile phase of their menstrual cycle and when choosing a partner who might be less likely to invest in children select genes of taller males.

  13. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on ratings of implicitly erotic art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey M; Bernstein, Lauren R; Mitchell, Joy E

    2011-08-01

    Women's perceptions of and responses to explicitly erotic stimuli have been shown to vary across the menstrual cycle. The present study examined responses to implicit eroticism. A total of 83 women provided reactions to paintings by Georgia O'Keeffe in 6 day intervals over the course of 1 month. Among freely cycling women (n = 37), 31% of their descriptions included sexual themes during the first half of their cycle, dropping to 9% of descriptions in the second half. In women using oral contraceptives (n = 46), there was no significant difference in descriptions across the cycle (13% in the first half vs. 17% in the second half). Results were discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology and social-cognitive perspectives on the relationships between hormonal fluctuations and sexuality.

  14. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  15. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; van Hulzen, Martijn; Singh, Deepak P; Brownrigg, Alex; Wright, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Niels H; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2015-09-23

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is hindering fundamental understanding and progress. Here we use synchrotron microbeam diffraction to disclose the cycling rate-dependent phase transition mechanism within individual particles of LiFePO4, a key Li-ion electrode material. At low (dis)charge rates well-defined nanometer thin plate-shaped domains co-exist and transform much slower and concurrent as compared with the commonly assumed mosaic transformation mechanism. As the (dis)charge rate increases phase boundaries become diffuse speeding up the transformation rates of individual grains. Direct observation of the transformation of individual grains reveals that local current densities significantly differ from what has previously been assumed, giving new insights in the working of Li-ion battery electrodes and their potential improvements.

  16. Feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle systems interim report of phase II. Technical study report for nuclear fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koji; Amamoto, Ippei; Inoue, Akira

    2004-06-01

    As a part of the feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle systems, the plant concept concerning the fuel cycle systems (combination of the reprocessing and the fuel fabrication) has been constructed to reduce their total cost by the introduction of various innovative techniques and to apply their utmost superior efficiency from such standpoints of a decrease in the environmental burden, better resource utilization and proliferation resistance improvement by the low decontamination transuranium element (TRU) recycle. This interim report of Phase II describes the results of an on-going study which will cover a five-year period. For oxide fuels, the system which combines the use of the advanced aqueous reprocessing using three main methods such as the crystallization method, the simplified solvent extraction method, and the extraction chromatography method for minor actinide (MA) recovery, as well as the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication which rationalized a powder mixing process etc., has abundant current results and a high technical feasibility for the basic process. Though this system faces difficulties in the technical development of control technology of the extraction chromatography and the fabrication technology of low decontamination TRU fuel etc., its expected practical use is possible at an early stage. As for the super-critical direct extraction reprocessing, it is necessary to fulfill more basic data although further economical improvement of an advanced aqueous reprocessing is expected. The system which combines the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the gelation sphere packing fuel fabrication has the advantage of lesser dispersion of the fine powder due to the use of solution and granule in the fuel fabrication process. However, this system will shoulder additional cost for the reagent recovery process and the waste liquid treatment process due to need to dispose of a large bulk of process waste liquid. The system which

  17. Fast in situ X-ray diffraction phase and stress analysis during complete heat treatment cycles of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. da S.; Hirsch, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained with a method for time and temperature resolved analysis of changes in phase composition and stresses/residual stresses during complete heat treatment cycles of steel, including quenching. Sample temperatures of up to 930 deg. C could be reached with a specially designed furnace, where fast cooling of the samples was realized by gas quenching. Measurements for phase and stress analysis could be performed with an acquisition rate of at least one value every 3 s. Results concerning residual stress relaxation during heating, and stress/residual stress development during quenching are presented and discussed for AISI E52100 ball bearing steel. The observed stress development during quenching followed the expected transformation behavior with some deviations that could be explained through the effects of surface decarburization. The system developed proved to be a suitable tool for characterizing phase and stress changes that occur during heat treatment of steels, as a function of time and temperature

  18. Experimental and numerical study of two-phase flows at the inlet of evaporators in vapour compression cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2007-09-01

    Maldistribution of liquid-vapour two phase flows causes a significant decrease of the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporators in thermodynamic vapour compression cycles. A first experimental installation was used to visualize the two phase flow evolution between the expansion valve and the evaporator inlet. A second experimental set-up simulating a compact heat exchanger has been designed to identify the functional and geometrical parameters creating the best distribution of the two phases in the different channels. An analysis and a comprehension of the relation between the geometrical and functional parameters with the flow pattern inside the header and the two phase distribution, has been established. A numerical simulations of a stratified flow and a stratified jet flow have been carried out using two CFD codes: FLUENT and NEPTUNE. In the case of a fragmented jet configuration, a global definition of the interfacial area concentration for a separated phases and dispersed phases flow has been established and a model calculating the fragmented mass fraction has been developed. (author)

  19. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  20. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  1. Data for chromosome contacts and matched transcription profiles at three cell cycle phases in the fission yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. Grand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertains to Grand et al. (2014, “Chromosome conformation maps in fission yeast reveal cell cycle dependent sub nuclear structure” [1]. Temperature sensitive Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle (cdc mutants, which are induced by a shift in temperature to 36 °C, were chosen for the analysis of genome structure in the G1 phase, G2 phase and mitotic anaphase of the cell cycle. Chromatin and total RNA were isolated from the same cell culture following synchronization. Two biological replicates were analyzed for each condition. The global, three-dimensional organization of the chromosomes was captured at high resolution using Genome Conformation Capture (GCC. GCC libraries and RNA samples were sequenced using an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform (Beijing Genomics Institute (China. DNA sequences were processed using the Topography suite v1.19 [2] to obtain chromosome contact frequency matrices. RNA sequences were processed using the Cufflinks pipeline [3] to measure gene transcript levels and how these varied between the conditions. All sequence data, processed GCC and transcriptome files are available under the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO accession number GSE52287 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE52287.

  2. Circadian Clock Synchronization of the Cell Cycle in Zebrafish Occurs through a Gating Mechanism Rather Than a Period-phase Locking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T Katherine; Letton, William; Hamilton, Noémie; Whitmore, David

    2018-04-01

    Studies from a number of model systems have shown that the circadian clock controls expression of key cell cycle checkpoints, thus providing permissive or inhibitory windows in which specific cell cycle events can occur. However, a major question remains: Is the clock actually regulating the cell cycle through such a gating mechanism or, alternatively, is there a coupling process that controls the speed of cell cycle progression? Using our light-responsive zebrafish cell lines, we address this issue directly by synchronizing the cell cycle in culture simply by changing the entraining light-dark (LD) cycle in the incubator without the need for pharmacological intervention. Our results show that the cell cycle rapidly reentrains to a shifted LD cycle within 36 h, with changes in p21 expression and subsequent S phase timing occurring within the first few hours of resetting. Reentrainment of mitosis appears to lag S phase resetting by 1 circadian cycle. The range of entrainment of the zebrafish clock to differing LD cycles is large, from 16 to 32 hour periods. We exploited this feature to explore cell cycle entrainment at both the population and single cell levels. At the population level, cell cycle length is shortened or lengthened under corresponding T-cycles, suggesting that a 1:1 coupling mechanism is capable of either speeding up or slowing down the cell cycle. However, analysis at the single cell level reveals that this, in fact, is not true and that a gating mechanism is the fundamental method of timed cell cycle regulation in zebrafish. Cell cycle length at the single cell level is virtually unaltered with varying T-cycles.

  3. Properties and geoeffectiveness of magnetic clouds in the rising, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic structure and geomagnetic response of 73 magnetic clouds (MC observed by the WIND and ACE satellites in solar cycle 23 are examined. The results have been compared with the surveys from the previous solar cycles. The preselected candidate MC events were investigated using the minimum variance analysis to determine if they have a flux-rope structure and to obtain the estimation for the axial orientation (θC, φC. Depending on the calculated inclination relative to the ecliptic we divided MCs into "bipolar" (θC<45° and "unipolar" (θC>45°. The number of observed MCs was largest in the early rising phase, although the halo CME rate was still low. It is likely that near solar maximum we did not identify all MCs at 1AU, as they were crossed far from the axis or they had interacted strongly with the ambient solar wind or with other CMEs. The occurrence rate of MCs at 1AU is also modified by the migration of the filament sites on the Sun towards the poles near solar maximum and by the deflection of CMEs towards the equator due to the fast solar wind flow from large polar coronal holes near solar minimum. In the rising phase nearly all bipolar MCs were associated with the rotation of the magnetic field from the south at the leading edge to the north at the trailing edge. The results for solar cycles 21-22 showed that the direction of the magnetic field in the leading portion of the MC starts to reverse at solar maximum. At solar maximum and in the declining phase (2000-2003 we observed several MCs with the rotation from the north to the south. We observed unipolar (i.e. highly inclined MCs frequently during the whole investigated period. For solar cycles 21-22 the majority of MCs identified in the rising phase were bipolar while in the declining phase most MCs were unipolar. The geomagnetic response of a given MC depends greatly on its magnetic structure and the orientation of the sheath fields. For each event we distinguished the

  4. Orbital signals in carbon isotopes: phase distortion as a signature of the carbon cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurin, Jiří; Růžek, Bohuslav; Giorgioni, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2017), s. 1236-1255 ISSN 0883-8305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-10982S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Eocene thermal maximum * global warming events * Milankovitch cycles Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.254, year: 2016

  5. Changes in the Amplitude and Phase of the Annual Cycle: quantifying from surface wind series in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is not only reflected in the changes in annual means of climate variables but also in the changes in their annual cycles (seasonality), especially in the regions outside the tropics. Changes in the timing of seasons, especially the wind season, have gained much attention worldwide in recent decade or so. We introduce long-range correlated surrogate data to Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method, which represent the statistic characteristics of data better than white noise. The new method we named Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Long-range Correlated noise (EEMD-LRC) and applied to 600 station wind speed records. This new method is applied to investigate the trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of China's daily mean surface wind speed for the period 1971-2005. The amplitude of seasonal variation decrease significantly in the past half century over China, which can be well explained by Annual Cycle component from EEMD-LRC. Furthermore, the phase change of annual cycle lead to strongly shorten of wind season in spring, and corresponding with strong windy day frequency change over Northern China.

  6. Loss of heterozygosity in yeast can occur by ultraviolet irradiation during the S phase of the cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigaku, Yasukazu [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mashiko, Satsuki [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mishiba, Keiichiro [Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, Kitakami, Iwate 024-0003 (Japan); Yamamura, Saburo [Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, Kitakami, Iwate 024-0003 (Japan); Ui, Ayako [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Enomoto, Takemi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuo [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamamot@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-08-30

    A CAN1/can1{delta} heterozygous allele that determines loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was used to study recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light at different points in the cell cycle. With this allele, recombination events can be detected as canavanine-resistant mutations after exposure of cells to UV radiation, since a significant fraction of LOH events appear to arise from recombination between homologous chromosomes. The radiation caused a higher level of LOH in cells that were in the S phase of the cell cycle relative to either cells at other points in the cell cycle or unsynchronized cells. In contrast, the inactivation of nucleotide excision repair abolished the cell cycle-specific induction by UV of LOH. We hypothesize that DNA lesions, if not repaired, were converted into double-strand breaks during stalled replication and these breaks could be repaired through recombination using a non-sister chromatid and probably also the sister chromatid. We argue that LOH may be an outcome used by yeast cells to recover from stalled replication at a lesion.

  7. Loss of heterozygosity in yeast can occur by ultraviolet irradiation during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigaku, Yasukazu; Mashiko, Satsuki; Mishiba, Keiichiro; Yamamura, Saburo; Ui, Ayako; Enomoto, Takemi; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-08-30

    A CAN1/can1Delta heterozygous allele that determines loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was used to study recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light at different points in the cell cycle. With this allele, recombination events can be detected as canavanine-resistant mutations after exposure of cells to UV radiation, since a significant fraction of LOH events appear to arise from recombination between homologous chromosomes. The radiation caused a higher level of LOH in cells that were in the S phase of the cell cycle relative to either cells at other points in the cell cycle or unsynchronized cells. In contrast, the inactivation of nucleotide excision repair abolished the cell cycle-specific induction by UV of LOH. We hypothesize that DNA lesions, if not repaired, were converted into double-strand breaks during stalled replication and these breaks could be repaired through recombination using a non-sister chromatid and probably also the sister chromatid. We argue that LOH may be an outcome used by yeast cells to recover from stalled replication at a lesion.

  8. Dynamics of longitudinal-latitudinal asymmetry of solar activity at various solar cycle phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D.G.; Vernova, E.S.; Grigoryan, M.S.; Tyasto, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Solar activity longitudinal asymmetry in 1943-1984 was studied by means of the polar diagram technique. Longitudinal changes of the activity distribution for northern and southern hemispheres were considered separately. Heliolongitudinal asymmetry was compared with the first harmonic of the 27-days cosmic ray intensity variation and with phases of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. There is certain correspondence between the dominance of the asymmetry in one of the solar hemispheres and the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Correlation exists between the amplitude of the 27-days galactic cosmic ray variation and the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Effect of exercise on the pulmonary system in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal levels influence dynamic lung function parameters. Significant increase in both progesterone (37% and estradiol (13.5%; where as, no change in plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH was observed in exercising women in previous studies. Therefore, this study was intended to see the limitations of the pulmonary system in adaptability to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in perimenopausal women. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted as a part of cardiopulmonary efficiency studies on two groups of nonathletes (n = 10 and athletes (n = 10 comparable in age and sex. Menstrual history was ascertained to confirm proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Dynamic lung functions were measured in both groups before exercise and immediately after exercise. Results: It was observed that exercise per se does not cause a statistically significant change in dynamic lung function parameters maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and MEF 25-75% in either of the groups. Conclusion: This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen even under the predominant influence of estrogen in proliferative phase, which is further accentuated by exercise.

  10. General problems of metrology and indirect measuring in cardiology: error estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantine K. Mamberger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims This paper treats general problems of metrology and indirect measurement methods in cardiology. It is aimed at an identification of error estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase durations. Materials and methods A comparative analysis of an ECG of the ascending aorta recorded with the use of the Hemodynamic Analyzer Cardiocode (HDA lead versus conventional V3, V4, V5, V6 lead system ECGs is presented herein. Criteria for heart cycle phase boundaries are identified with graphic mathematical differentiation. Stroke volumes of blood SV calculated on the basis of the HDA phase duration measurements vs. echocardiography data are compared herein. Results The comparative data obtained in the study show an averaged difference at the level of 1%. An innovative noninvasive measuring technology originally developed by a Russian R & D team offers measuring stroke volume of blood SV with a high accuracy. Conclusion In practice, it is necessary to take into account some possible errors in measurements caused by hardware. Special attention should be paid to systematic errors.

  11. Comparative study of measured heart cycle phase durations: standard lead ECG versus original ascending aorta lead ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kolmakov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims The present paper aims at evaluating the existing difference in duration measurements of the same heart cycle phases in the standard V3, V4, V5, V6 leads ECG versus original HDA lead ECG of the ascending aorta. Materials and methods The method of changing the filter pass band is used. Its essence is in artificial changing of the conditions of the signal recording carrying the informative indications of the initial information used in hemodynamic equations. The method also enables calculating the percentage deviation from the initial values. The principle of balance of the blood volume entering the heart and the blood volume leaving the heart is used to trace the minimal deviations and their respective recording conditions. Results In each of the V3, V4, V5, V6 ECG leads durations of the same phases have different values. The values measured on the ECG of the ascending aorta and those measured using the standard V4 ECG lead differ slightly. Conclusion For heart cycle phase analysis it is possible to use only the ECG of the ascending aorta and V4 standard lead ECG. Using conventional standard ECG leads causes an error up to 25%.

  12. Polymer-Reinforced, Nonbrittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation for Reduced Life-Cycle Costs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR project focuses to continue developing cryogenic insulation foams that are flexible, deforming under compression. InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated...

  13. Parametric images evaluation of selected phases of the heart cycle with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, U.; Will, E.; Beuthien Baumann, B.; Bredow, J.

    2002-01-01

    The standard evaluation of dynamic heart acquisitions with PET uses image data not corrected for heart wall movement. The evaluation of parametric data sets (Patlak Plot) was investigated for gated studies of selected heart phases (diastolic, systolic) and compared to the standard evaluation. Parametric images of selected heart phases have improved resolution. The values for metabolic rate are different for a ''normal'' and gated evaluation, up to 50% more for the systole compared to the normal one. (orig.)

  14. Post-irradiation examination of Oconee 1 fuel: end-of-cycle 2 nondestructive test phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Standard B and W Mark B (15 x 15) pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies were nondestructively examined at the end of the second cycle of Oconee 1 reactor operation. Burnups of the 16 fuel assemblies examined ranged from 13,100 to 20,000 MWd/mtU. The examinations were conducted in the Oconee 1 and 2 spent fuel storage pool using the installed underwater test equipment. Data obtained included fuel rod and fuel assembly dimensions, water channel spacings, holddown spring forces, fuel rod crud characteristics, and fuel column axial gap and stack lengths. Visual examinations revealed no evidence of significant rod bowing, cladding deformation, cocked grids, or rod defects. The results, summarized in this report, indicate that the assemblies performed well through two cycles of reactor operation

  15. Hypersonic ramjet experiment project. Phase 1: Computer program description, ramjet and scramjet cycle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. J.; Wang, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed to describe the performance of ramjet and scramjet cycles. The program performs one dimensional calculations of the equilibrium, real-gas internal flow properties of the engine. The program can be used for the following: (1) preliminary design calculation and (2) design analysis of internal flow properties corresponding to stipulated flow areas. Only the combustion of hydrogen in air is considered in this case.

  16. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  17. Role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Saiki, Ryotaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Tome, Mayuko; Higashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Mizuho; Terui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Kunio; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-06-01

    The role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was studied using synchronized HeLa cells treated with thymidine or with thymidine and aphidicolin. Synchronized cells were cultured in the absence or presence of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, plus ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. When polyamine content was reduced by treatment with DFMO and EGBG, the transition from G1 to S phase was delayed. In parallel, the level of p27(Kip1) was greatly increased, so its mechanism was studied in detail. Synthesis of p27(Kip1) was stimulated at the level of translation by a decrease in polyamine levels, because of the existence of long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) in p27(Kip1) mRNA. Similarly, the transition from the G2/M to the G1 phase was delayed by a reduction in polyamine levels. In parallel, the number of multinucleate cells increased by 3-fold. This was parallel with the inhibition of cytokinesis due to an unusual distribution of actin and α-tubulin at the M phase. Since an association of polyamines with chromosomes was not observed by immunofluorescence microscopy at the M phase, polyamines may have only a minor role in structural changes of chromosomes at the M phase. In general, the involvement of polyamines at the G2/M phase was smaller than that at the G1/S boundary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Seismic Cycles of Great Megathrust Earthquakes Across the Scales With Focus at Postseismic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan V.; Muldashev, Iskander A.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction is substantially multiscale process where the stresses are built by long-term tectonic motions, modified by sudden jerky deformations during earthquakes, and then restored by following multiple relaxation processes. Here we develop a cross-scale thermomechanical model aimed to simulate the subduction process from 1 min to million years' time scale. The model employs elasticity, nonlinear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences and by using an adaptive time step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally during the seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. The model predicts that viscosity in the mantle wedge drops by more than three orders of magnitude during the great earthquake with a magnitude above 9. As a result, the surface velocities just an hour or day after the earthquake are controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the several hundred km of mantle landward of the trench and not by the afterslip localized at the fault as is currently believed. Our model replicates centuries-long seismic cycles exhibited by the greatest earthquakes and is consistent with the postseismic surface displacements recorded after the Great Tohoku Earthquake. We demonstrate that there is no contradiction between extremely low mechanical coupling at the subduction megathrust in South Chile inferred from long-term geodynamic models and appearance of the largest earthquakes, like the Great Chile 1960 Earthquake.

  19. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  20. An accurate quantification of the flow structure along the acoustic signal cycle in a forced two-phase jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Bernad Esteban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an experimental study of an acoustically forced two-phase air jet generated by a convergent nozzle. The used particles are transparent glass spheres with diameters between 2 and 50 μm (which gives Stokes number of order 1 and the selected forcing frequency (f=400 Hz induces a powerful nearly periodic flow pattern. Measurements were done by a two-colour Phase-Doppler Anemometer. The experimental setup is computer-controlled to provide an accurate control with a high long-term stability. Measurements cover the whole forcing signal cycle. Raw measurements were carefully post-processed to avoid bias induced by the forcing and the instrument setup, as well as obtain right mean values of the dispersed flow. The effect of the forcing and the particle load allows authors to establish the effect of the acoustic forcing and the particle load on the jet.

  1. The morphology and phase mixing studies on poly(ester urethane) during a low temperature shape memory cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Three series of low molecular weight shape memory poly(ester-urethane) with varying hard-segment content were synthesized. The materials were designed to display a three-phase structure consisting of a disperse phase formed by crystallites and hard domains embedded in an amorphous matrix. The structure and thermal properties were investigated using techniques such as: modulated differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and small angle X-ray scattering. The results were associated with the morphological changes observed during a low temperature shape-memory cycle. The recover was observed to be triggered by the melting of the crystallites and by the strong interactions among hard domains. Temporary shape was stored by the metastable structure formed during deformation. (author)

  2. Diffraction study of duty-cycle error in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching gratings with Gaussian beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Kumar, Challa Sesha Sai Pavan; Choi, Hee Joo; Cha, Myoungsik

    2016-02-01

    Random duty-cycle error (RDE) is inherent in the fabrication of ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings. Although a small RDE may not affect the nonlinearity of QPM devices, it enhances non-phase-matched parasitic harmonic generations, limiting the device performance in some applications. Recently, we demonstrated a simple method for measuring the RDE in QPM gratings by analyzing the far-field diffraction pattern obtained by uniform illumination (Dwivedi et al. in Opt Express 21:30221-30226, 2013). In the present study, we used a Gaussian beam illumination for the diffraction experiment to measure noise spectra that are less affected by the pedestals of the strong diffraction orders. Our results were compared with our calculations based on a random grating model, demonstrating improved resolution in the RDE estimation.

  3. Evolution of cell resistance, threshold voltage and crystallization temperature during cycling of line-cell phase-change random access memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Attenborough, K.; Hurkx, G. A. M.; Jedema, F. J.; Gravesteijn, D. J.; Kooi, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Doped SbTe phase change (PRAM) line cells produced by e-beam lithography were cycled 100 million times. During cell cycling the evolution of many cell properties were monitored, in particular the crystalline and amorphous resistance, amorphous resistance drift exponent, time-dependent threshold

  4. Methodologies for verification and validation of expert systems as a function of component, criticality and life-cycle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    1992-01-01

    The review of verification and validation (V and V) methods presented here is based on results of the initial two tasks of a contract with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute to Develop and Document Guidelines for Verifying and Validating Expert Systems. The first task was to review the applicability of conventional software techniques to expert systems; the second was to directly survey V and V practices associated with development of expert systems. Subsequent tasks will focus on selecting, synthesizing or developing V and V methods appropriate for the overall system, for specific expert systems components, and for different phases of the life-cycle. In addition, final guidelines will most likely be developed for each of three levels of expert systems: safety-related (systems whose functions directly relate to system safety, so-called safety-critical systems), important-to-safety (systems which support the critical safety functions), and non-safety (systems which are unrelated to safety functions). For the present purposes of categorizing and discussing various types of V and V methods, the authors simplify the life-cycle and consider only two aspects - systems validation phase. The authors identified a number of techniques for the first, combined, phase and two general classes of V and V techniques for the latter phase: static testing techniques, which do not involve execution of the system code, and dynamic testing techniques, which do. In the next two sections the author reviews first the applicability to expert systems of conventional V and V techniques and, second, the techniques expert system developers actually use. In the last section the authors make some general observations

  5. Effects of GnRH administration on ovulation and fertility in ewes subjected to estrous synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of GnRH on ovulation and pregnancy of ewes subjected to a short-term synchronization of estrus. Santa Inês and crossbred Santa Inês/Dorper ewes received 60 mg MAP sponges during 6 days plus 300 IU eCG and 30 µg d-cloprostenol 24 h prior to sponge withdrawal (SW. Ewes were assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution (Tcontrol; n = 32 or 25 µg GnRH (licerelin, T GnRH; n = 34 24 hours after SW. Each group was assigned to intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy (n = 25 or to natural mating (n = 41. Artificial insemination was performed with a single dose of fresh semen. For controlled mating, females were exposed to males 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after SW. Ten females per treatment were subjected to transrectal ultrasound examination at 12-hour intervals (SW to 60 hours after. Estrous response (100.0% vs 95.2%, interval from SW to estrus (32.9±7.4 vs 29.8±6.9 hours, estrous length (37.4±9.0 vs 31.5±10.4 hours, pregnancy rates (57.0% vs 41.0%, ovulation rate (100.0% vs 90.0%, number of ovulations/ewe (1.1±0.3 vs 1.2±0.4, maximum follicular diameter (6.4±0.7 vs 6.1±0.6 mm, interval from SW to ovulation (59.1±3.5 vs 58.4±3.5 hours did not differ between Tcontrol and T GnRH, respectively. Administration of GnRH 24 hours after SW does not improve ovulation or pregnancy rate in estrous synchronization in ewes.

  6. Ideas of Kindergarten Students on the Day-Night Cycles, the Seasons and the Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Bostan, Ayberk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine ideas of the kindergarten students on day-night, seasons, and the phases of the Moon. Although there are lots of studies on kindergarten students about science education, few of them are present on astronomy. Fifty-two students (age 6) from four different kindergartens were chosen as a sample of the study. The…

  7. Unraveling multiple phases of sulfur cycling during the alteration of ancient ultramafic oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Johnston, David T.

    2018-02-01

    Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems - characterized by ongoing serpentinization reactions - exert an important influence on the global sulfur cycle. Extensive water-rock interaction causes elemental exchange between seawater and the oceanic lithosphere, effectively removing sulfate from seawater through both abiogenic and biogenic processes. Here, we use bulk rock multiple sulfur isotope signatures (32S, 33S, 34S) and in situ sulfide analyses together with petrographic observations to track the sulfur cycling processes and the hydrothermal evolution of ancient peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems. We investigate serpentinized peridotites from the Northern Apennine ophiolite in Italy and the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica and compare those with the Iberian Margin (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 149 and 173) and the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ODP Leg 209). In situ measurements of sulfides in the Northern Apennine serpentinites preserve a large range in δ34Ssulfide of -33.8 to +13.3‰ with significant heterogeneities within single sulfide grains and depending on mineralogy. Detailed mineralogical investigation and comparison with bulk rock Δ33Ssulfide and in situ δ34Ssulfide data implies a thermal evolution of the system from high temperatures (∼350 °C) that allowed thermochemical sulfate reduction and input of hydrothermal sulfide to lower temperatures (rock associated with detachment faulting along a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. The Santa Elena peridotites preserve distinct signatures for fluid circulation at high temperatures with both closed system thermochemical sulfate reduction and input of mafic-derived sulfur. In addition, the peridotites provide strong evidence that low Ca2+ concentrations in peridotite-hosted systems can limit sulfate removal during anhydrite precipitation at temperatures above 150 °C. This may play a central role for the availability of sulfate to microbial communities within these

  8. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • TEAD4 contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • TEAD4 knockdown results in cell-cycle arrest at the G1phase in OSCC cells. • In TEAD4 knockdown cells, the amount of YAP in the nucleus decreases. • Activation of the TEAD4-YAP complex is an important factor in OSCC tumor growth. • TEAD4 might be a critical biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  9. Alignment of the Kübler-Ross grief cycle phases with the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Moncho Vasallo, Joaquín; Guasch Andreu, Oscar; Torras Rabasa, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    To understand the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and analyze its alignment with the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross. We performed an ethnographic study through in-depth interviews with 20 patients, 10 relatives and 12 health professionals (6 physicians and 6 nurses). For the analysis, the Miles and Huberman qualitative data analysis model was used. Patients diagnosed with DM1 and their families face a loss of lifestyle and of the objects, real or imaginary, of their previous life. Patients and relatives experience emotional reactions that in some cases can be similar to the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross for terminal diseases (denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance). However, there are some differences depending on personal and psycho-social factors. Health professionals tend to relate low adherence to denial of the disease, but some patients feel threatened by the demands of treatment and control and their effects on their quality of life, and consciously choose not to follow recommendations. It is more realistic to talk about disease adaptation than acceptance, since the loss processes are ongoing and patients must reconstruct their identity according to their situation. The grief cycle also affects the family and may differ from that of the patient in its duration, intensity and assessment of problems. Adaptation is a complex process in which many variables intervene. There are observable differences among the mechanisms used by each specific individual. Healthcare professionals, and specifically nurses, should consider the multiple psycho-social dimensions of chronic disease. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Chemical phase partitioning and cycling across a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; McKee, B.A.; Booth, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The size distribution of U was examined in surface waters of the Amazon shelf. Water samples were collected during a low discharge river stage across a broad salinity gradient (0.3-35.4%) and fractionated by planar filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration into (1) solution (U s , c , 10,000 MW-0.4 μm), (3) dissolved (U d p >0.4 μm) phases. Concentrations of colloidal U comprise up to 92% of the dissolved U fraction at the river mouth and attain highest values (∼0.45 μg/L) in the productive, biogenic region of the Amazon shelf (salinities above ∼20%). U d and U c distributions are highly nonconservative relative to ideal dilution of river water and seawater, indicating extensive removal at salinities below ∼10%. The distribution of U s also shows some nonconservative behavior, yet removal, if any, is minimal. Saltwater-induced precipitation and aggregation of riverine colloidal material is most likely the dominant mechanism of U removal in the low salinity, terrigenous region of the Amazon shelf. There is evident of a substantial colloidal U input (∼245% of the riverine U c flux) into surface waters above 5%. Such U c enrichment most likely is the result of colloidal U-rich porewater diffusion/advection from the seabed and fluid muds or shelf-wide particle-colloid disaggregation. Removal of solution and dissolved phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation in terms of coagulation phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation was examined in terms of coagulation theory. The high reactive nature of all U phases on the Amazon shelf suggests that remobilization and fractionation of U may also occur in other river-influenced coastal environments

  11. Classification theorem for principal fibre bundles, Berry's phase, and exact cycle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Boya, L.J.; Mostafazadeh, A.; Rudolph, G.

    1993-03-01

    The relation between the two mathematical interpretations of the geometric (Berry) phase is discussed, using either the fibre bundle over parameter space or over projective Hilbert space. It turns out that these two geometric constructions are linked by the classification theorem for vector bundles. The classification theorem provides the means to classify the parameter space bundles for adiabatic evolution and for non-adiabatic cyclic evolution of the statevectors

  12. Dimensioning BCH codes for coherent DQPSK systems with laser phase noise and cycle slips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Forward error correction (FEC) plays a vital role in coherent optical systems employing multi-level modulation. However, much of coding theory assumes that additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is dominant, whereas coherent optical systems have significant phase noise (PN) in addition to AWGN...... approach for a target post-FEC BER of 10-5. Codes dimensioned with our bivariate binomial model meet the target within 0.2-dB signal-to-noise ratio....

  13. Influences of the ENSO, oscillation Madden-Julian, waves of the east, hurricanes and moon phases on the diurnal cycle of precipitation at the tropical Andes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Toro, Vladimir; Vieira, Sara

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of large-scale ocean-atmospheric, astronomic phenomena on the diurnal cycle of precipitation at the tropical Andes of Colombia. Such phenomena include both phases of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), namely El Nino and La Nina, the intra seasonal Madden-Julian oscillation, tropical easterly waves (4-8 days), moon phases and hurricanes over the Atlantic and eastern pacific oceans. We found a clear-cut effect of both ENSO phases: El Nino is associated with a diminished rainfall diurnal cycle, and La Nina intensifies it. Thus, ENSO modulates precipitation in Colombia at timescales ranging from hours to decades. We identified a close association with different phases of the Madden-Julian oscillation, as the diurnal cycle is intensified (larger amplitude) during its westerly phase, but it gets decreased during its easterly phase. For both ENSO and the Madden-Julian oscillation we identified a clear-cut influence on the amplitude of the diurnal cycle, yet the phase is conserved for the most part. Tropical easterly waves appear to affect the diurnal cycle, but no clear overall signal is pervasive throughout the region. We al so found a significant statistical association with hurricanes occurring over the northeastern pacific ocean with the diurnal cycle of precipitation at rain gages located over the eastern slope of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Rainfall at all the remaining slopes of the Andes is statistically associated with hurricanes occurring at the tropical north Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Moon phases are not statistically associated with the diurnal cycle and daily total rainfall

  14. Novel XRD technique and equipment for in-situ monitoring of phase transformations in lithium batteries during cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, J.; Howlett, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Safe, rechargeable batteries utilising a lithium metal electrode have not been realised due to phenomena, which occur on the lithium surface during the cycling of a battery. Lithium ion conduction inhomogeneities through the surface film give rise to uneven deposition of lithium, which can result in short circuits. The large potential increase in energy density that the use of the lithium electrode represents makes the nature of the surface film of interest to battery researchers. The lithium surface is highly reactive, particularly in the case of electrodes with a rough surface deposit. This presents difficulties to researchers hoping to obtain representative measurements of the lithium surface and requires the use of environmental sample chambers and in-situ techniques. X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to probe changes in cathode materials (typically transition metal oxides) for lithium batteries, but to our knowledge has not been successfully used to study changes taking place on the lithium surface during cycling. We present early results from work we have undertaken to develop a technique for characterising the surface film on lithium battery electrodes. The instrumentation was set-up as follows. An XRD was fitted with an INEL CPS 120 position sensitive detector (PSD), multilayer mirror and environmental chamber. The latter was specially developed in our laboratory for the purpose of these experiments. The lithium cells were sealed in laminated foil. Cycled and uncycled cells were investigated. Different radiation sources were used (Cu, Co and Cr). The in-situ measurements aiming at monitoring the phase transitions of cycled/uncycled cells at different angles (including grazing angles) in time were carried out in both transmission and reflection mode. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. Post-irradiation examination of Oconee 1 fuel - cycle 1 destructive test phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Standard B and W Mark-B (15 x 15) pressurized water reactor fuel rods were destructively examined after one cycle of irradiation in the Oconee 1 reactor. Fuel rod average burnup ranged from 10,603 to 11,270 MWd/mtU for the rods examined. Data obtained included fuel rod extraction loads, rod dimensional changes, cladding tensile properties, fuel pellet gap length, fission product distribution, fission gas and crud composition, fuel densification, chemical burnup analysis, and fuel and cladding microstructure. As expected, parametric changes were well within the design envelope. Superficial corrosion and wear were found at spacer grid contact points. However, the 19 rods examined were structurally sound and exhibited no indications of cladding defects associated with pelletcladding interactions

  16. Theoretical modeling of a gas clearance phase regulation mechanism for a pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cun-quan; Zhong, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    The concept of a new type of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor is proposed. In this implementation, the gap between the phase-adjusting part and the cylinder of the spring chamber is used, instead of dry friction acting on the pneumatically-driven rod to control motion damping of the displacer and to adjust the phase difference between the compression piston and displacer. It has the advantages of easy damping adjustment, low cost, and simplified manufacturing and assembly. A theoretical model has been established to simulate its dynamic performance. The linear compressor is modeled under adiabatic conditions, and the displacement of the compression piston is experimentally rectified. The working characteristics of the compressor motor and the principal losses of cooling, including regenerator inefficiency loss, solid conduction loss, shuttle loss, pump loss and radiation loss, are taken into account. The displacer motion was modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) forced system. A set of governing equations can be solved numerically to simulate the cooler's performance. The simulation is useful for understanding the physical processes occurring in the cooler and for predicting the cooler's performance.

  17. Effects of nicotine on cellular proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, and macromolecular synthesis in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, S.; Wu, J.M.; Chiao, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of nicotine causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth in the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells, with 4 mM nicotine resulting in a 50% inhibition of cellular proliferation after 48-50h. Accompanying the anticellular effect of nicotine is a significant change in the cell cycle distribution of HL-60 cells. For example, treatment with 4 mM nicotine for 20h causes an increase in the proportion of G1-phase cells (from 49% to 57%) and a significant decrease in the proportion of S-phase cells (from 41% to 32%). These results suggest that nicotine causes partial cell arrest in the G-1 phase which may in part account for its effects on cell growth. To determine whether nicotine changes the cellular uptake/transport to macromolecular precursors, HL-60 cells were treated with 216 mM nicotine for 30h, at the end of which time cells were labelled with ( 3 H)thymidine, ( 3 H)uridine, ( 14 C)lysine and( 35 S)methionine, the trichloroacetic acid soluble and insoluble radioactivities from each of the labelling conditions were determined. These studies show that nicotine mainly affects the ''de novo synthesis'' of proteins. (author)

  18. Geomagnetic storms and their sources on the sun:the rising phase of the sunspot cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Saito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar phenomena, including solar flares and coronal holes, are considered in the context of a NEWS coordinate system, obtained by application of the heliographic and heliomagnetic coordinate systems to the solar latitude and longitude, respectively. By expressing the occurrence of solar phenomena in terms of NEWS coordinates, we discovered that solar flares tend to converge in the NE and SW quadrants of the solar disk, where they act as sources of sporadic storms. Meanwhile, coronal holes converge to solar longitudes of 0° and 180°, where they are sources of recurrent storms. Because of their concentration in the NE- and SW-quadrants, this correlation is referred to as the 'NEWS law'. The neutral line of the source surface shows a beautiful single wave in its declining phase, while it tends to show a double wave in the rising phase. Solar rotation numbers 2118 to 2119, where the neutral line exhibited two complicated asymmetric waves in both the N-S and S-W directions, were chosen for detailed analysis. Notwithstanding such an extremely complicated case, the NEWS law is satisfied when the double wave is separated into its two single-wave parts.

  19. The influence of cycling temperature and cycling rate on the phase specific degradation of a positive electrode in lithium ion batteries: A post mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Lang, Michael; Kleiner, Karin; Mereacre, Liuda; Liebau, Verena; Fauth, Francois; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The influence of cycling temperatures and cycling rates on the cycling stability of the positive electrode (cathode) of commercial batteries are investigated. The cathode is a mixture of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). It is found that increasing the cycling temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C is detrimental to the long term cycling stability of the cathode. Contrastingly, the improved cycling stability is observed for the cathodes cycled at higher charge/discharge rate (2C/3C instead of 1C/2C). The microstructure analysis by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a significant capacity fading and an increased overvoltage is observed for NCM and NCA in all the fatigued cathodes. After high number of cycling (above 1500 cycles), NCM becomes partially inactive. In contrast to NCM and NCA, LMO shows a good cycling stability at 25 °C. A pronounced degradation of LMO is only observed for the fatigued cathodes cycled at 40 °C. The huge capacity losses of NCM and NCA are most likely because the blended cathodes were cycled up to 4.12 V vs. the graphite anode during the cycle-life test (corresponds to 4.16 V vs. Li+/Li); which is beyond the stability limit of the layered oxides below 4.05 V vs. Li+/Li.

  20. Elimination of active tad elements during the sexual phase of the Neurospora crassa life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Tang, Q; Kinsey, J A

    2001-06-01

    Tad is an active LINE-like retrotransposon isolated from the Adiopodoumé strain of Neurospora crassa. Extensive analysis of other Neurospora strains has revealed no other strain with active Tad, but all strains tested have multiple copies of defective Tad elements. We have examined the ability of Tad to survive during the sexual cycle of Neurospora and find that active Tad is rapidly eliminated. The characteristics of this elimination suggest that the repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) mechanism was responsible. By the use of transformation to switch the mating type of the Adiopodoumé strain we concluded that this strain is not defective in the RIP process. Analysis of defective Tad elements isolated from a variety of strains indicates that the major difference between these elements and active Tad is due to the presence of a large number of G-C to A-T transition mutations. This would be expected if the changes were due primarily to the RIP process. Mapping of a selection of defective Tad elements reveals that they are present on all of the chromosomes; however, many of the elements are not widely shared among strains. This suggests that repeated introduction and elimination of Tad elements has occurred. Mechanisms that might be responsible for this repeated introduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Report of Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 invited all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the IAEA in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology. Resolutions of the UN General Assembly in 2001 and 2002 provided additional endorsement for INPRO, by emphasizing the unique role that the IAEA can play in developing user requirements and in addressing safeguards, safety, and environmental questions for innovative reactors and their fuel cycles and stressing the need for international collaboration in the development of innovative nuclear technology. As of April 2003, INPRO had 15 members: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Germany, India, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Turkey and the European Commission. The main objectives of INPRO are to: Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and to Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. The 21st century promises the most competitive, globalized markets in human history, the most rapid pace of technological change ever, and the greatest expansion of energy use, particularly in developing countries. For a technology to make a truly substantial contribution to energy supplies, innovation is essential. It will be the defining feature of a successful nuclear industry and a critical feature of international co-operation in support of that industry, co-operation that ranges from joint scientific and technological initiatives, to safety standards and guidelines, and to security and safeguards activities. Innovation is also essential to attract a growing, high-quality pool of talented scientists, engineers and

  2. The Effects of One and Double Heat Treatment Cycles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Ferritic-Bainitic Dual Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Reza; Ghasemi, Behrooz; Yousefpour, Mardali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, samples with ferritic-bainitic dual phase structures consisting of 62 pct bainite were obtained from the AISI 4140 steel by applying one and double heat treatment cycles. Microstructural investigations by electron and optical microscopy indicated that the sample heat treated through double cycle benefited from finer ferrite and bainite grains. Additionally, results obtained from mechanical tests implied that the double-cycle heat-treated sample not only has a higher tensile strength as well as ultimate strength but also benefits from a higher ductility along with a higher impact energy than the one-cycle heat-treated sample. Moreover, fractography results showed that the type of fracture in both samples is a combination of the brittle and the ductile fracture. Besides, the ratio of the ductile fracture is higher for the double-cycle heat-treated sample than for the one-cycle sample, due to the lower aggregation of sulfur at grain boundaries.

  3. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  4. Identification, measurement, and assessment of water cycle of unhusked rice agricultural phases: Case study at Tangerang paddy field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, N.; Laurence; Johannes, H. P.

    2017-11-01

    According to one of UN reports, water scarcity has happened all around the world, including Indonesia. Irrigation sector takes up 70% of world water consumption and potentially increases 20% due to the population explosion. Rice is accounted for 69% of agricultural products contributions in Indonesia’s water footprint. Therefore, evaluation of water cycle was essential to raise awareness among practitioners. Data collections were conducted in the functional unit of one-hectare rice field located in Tangerang. This study used CropWat 8.0 and SimaPro software. Identification involved data such as climate, crop, and soil. Nursery became the highest water consumed phase, requiring 419 mm in height. Measurement through water footprint resulted in consumption of green water footprint for 8,183,618.5 liters (62.9%), followed by grey for 4,805,733.2 liters (36.9%) and blue for 23,902.36 liters (0.2%). The grey consumption was exceeding the average, which indicated high doses of pesticides. Life Cycle Assessment showed negative impacts of fertilizers that caused damages like fossil depletion, respiratory health, and eutrophication.

  5. The cytolethal distending toxin from the chancroid bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi induces cell-cycle arrest in the G2 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Bratti, X; Chaves-Olarte, E; Lagergård, T; Thelestam, M

    1999-01-01

    The potent cytolethal distending toxin produced by Haemophilus ducreyi is a putative virulence factor in the pathogenesis of chancroid. We studied its action on eukaryotic cells, with the long-term goal of understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Intoxication of cultured human epithelial-like cells, human keratinocytes, and hamster fibroblasts was irreversible, and appeared as a gradual distention of three- to fivefold the size of control cells. Organized actin assemblies appeared concomitantly with cell enlargement, promoted by a mechanism that probably does not involve small GTPases of the Rho protein family. Intoxicated cells did not proliferate. Similar to cells treated with other cytolethal distending toxins, these cells accumulated in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, demonstrating an increased level of the tyrosine phosphorylated (inactive) form of the cyclin-dependent kinase p34(cdc2). DNA synthesis was not affected until several hours after this increase, suggesting that the toxin acts directly on some kinase/phosphatase in the signaling network controlling the p34(cdc2) activity. We propose that this toxin has an important role both in the generation of chancroid ulcers and in their slow healing. The toxin may also be an interesting new tool for molecular studies of the eukaryotic cell- cycle machinery.

  6. Glucose intolerance develops prior to increased adiposity and accelerated cessation of estrous cyclicity in female growth-restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapad, Suttira; Dasinger, John Henry; Brown, Andrew D.; Fahling, Joel M.; Esters, Joyee; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of metabolic disease increases in early menopause. Low birth weight influences the age at menopause. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs early reproductive aging and impaired glucose homeostasis in female rats. Methods Estrous cyclicity, body composition, and glucose homeostasis were determined in female control and growth-restricted rats at 6 and 12 months of age; sex steroids at 12 months. Results Glucose intolerance was present at 6 months of age prior to cessation of estrous cyclicity and increased adiposity in female growth-restricted rats. However, female growth-restricted rats exhibited persistent estrus and a significant increase in adiposity, fasting glucose and testosterone at 12 months of age (Pgrowth-restricted rats (Pgrowth programmed glucose intolerance that developed prior to early estrous acyclicity; yet, fasting glucose levels were elevated in conjunction with increased adiposity, accelerated cessation of estrous cyclicity and a shift towards testosterone excess at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:26854801

  7. Comparison of the N+2 photochemistry at different phases of the solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, M.R.; Torr, D.G.; Ong, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Over the increasing phase of solar activity from 1974 to 1978 the F/sub 10.7/ index increased from approx.70 to approx.180. Earlier studies of the N + 2 ion based on the Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements used data gathereed in 1974. A study of N + 2 using 1978 measurements made during significantly higher solar EUV fluxes reveals a change in the relative importance of the major chemical processes. Photoionization of N 2 is found to be the major source of N + 2 in the F 2 layer, by contrast with the charge exchange reaction of O + ( 2 D) with N 2 , which was dominant for the lower solar activity. The increased electron concentrations enhance the importance of reactions involving electrons, thus permitting good determinations of the relevant reaction rate coefficients, which could not be done in the earlier studies. As such, the 1978 data provide a useful opportunity to confirm the photochemical scheme established earlier and to improve the accuracy of the determination of the rate coefficients for certain processes. Specifically, we determine the rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of N + 2 with electrons, confirming laboratory measurements; we refine an earlier determination of the charge exchange rate coefficient for O + ( 2 D) with N 2 to (7 +- 3) x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ; and we determine the rate coefficient for quenching of O + ( 2 D) by electrons, confirming a theoretical calculation

  8. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal phase and that of the

  9. The Relation between Coronal Holes and Coronal Mass Ejections during the Rise, Maximum, and Declining Phases of Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Jung, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all the coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance =15deg) and resulting in magnetic clouds (MCs) and non-MCs in the solar wind. The CHIP is found to be the smallest during the rise phase for MCs and non-MCs. The maximum phase has the largest CHIP value (2.9 G) for non-MCs. The CHIP is the largest (5.8 G) for driverless (DL) shocks, which are shocks at 1 AU with no discernible MC or non-MC. These results suggest that the behavior of non-MCs is similar to that of the DL shocks and different from that of MCs. In other words, the CHs may deflect the CMEs away from the Sun-Earth line and force them to behave like limb CMEs with DL shocks. This finding supports the idea that all CMEs may be flux ropes if viewed from an appropriate vantage point.

  10. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P ewes housed with treated rams, 13 of

  11. Nonlinear propagation analysis of few-optical-cycle pulses for subfemtosecond compression and carrier envelope phase effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Yo; Nagasawa, Minoru; Ohtani, Morimasa; Yamashita, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    A numerical approach called Fourier direct method (FDM) is applied to nonlinear propagation of optical pulses with the central wavelength 800 nm, the width 2.67-12.00 fs, and the peak power 25-6870 kW in a fused-silica fiber. Bidirectional propagation, delayed Raman response, nonlinear dispersion (self-steepening, core dispersion), as well as correct linear dispersion are incorporated into 'bidirectional propagation equations' which are derived directly from Maxwell's equations. These equations are solved for forward and backward waves, instead of the electric-field envelope as in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE). They are integrated as multidimensional simultaneous evolution equations evolved in space. We investigate, both theoretically and numerically, the validity and the limitation of assumptions and approximations used for deriving the NLSE. Also, the accuracy and the efficiency of the FDM are compared quantitatively with those of the finite-difference time-domain numerical approach. The time-domain size 500 fs and the number of grid points in time 2048 are chosen to investigate numerically intensity spectra, spectral phases, and temporal electric-field profiles up to the propagation distance 1.0 mm. On the intensity spectrum of a few-optical-cycle pulses, the self-steepening, core dispersion, and the delayed Raman response appear as dominant, middle, and slight effects, respectively. The delayed Raman response and the core dispersion reduce the effective nonlinearity. Correct linear dispersion is important since it affects the intensity spectrum sensitively. For the compression of femtosecond optical pulses by the complete phase compensation, the shortness and the pulse quality of compressed pulses are remarkably improved by the intense initial peak power rather than by the short initial pulse width or by the propagation distance longer than 0.1 mm. They will be compressed as short as 0.3 fs below the damage threshold of fused-silica fiber 6 MW. It

  12. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  13. Characterization of Al-Ti phases in cycled TiF{sub 3}-enhanced Na{sub 2}LiAlH{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)]. E-mail: yumikon@ife.no; Fossdal, A. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Brinks, H.W. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Hauback, B.C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2006-06-08

    TiF{sub 3}-enhanced Na{sub 2}LiAlH{sub 6} was investigated after dehydrogenation-hydrogenation cycles by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. There was no sign of Ti after ball-milling with TiF{sub 3}, but two types of Al-Ti phases were observed in the cycled samples. In a sample after measuring five pressure-composition isotherms in the temperature range from 170 to 250 deg. C, a fcc phase with a = 3.987 A was observed. This phase is considered to be Al{sub 3}Ti with the L1{sub 2} structure. Samples after one or four cycles at selected temperatures between 170 and 250 deg. C showed diffraction from another fcc phase with a {approx} 4.03 A. This indicates formation of an Al{sub 1-y}Ti {sub y} solid-solution phase with y {approx} 0.15 similar to previously reported for cycled NaAlH{sub 4} with Ti additives.

  14. Pyrogallol, ROS generator inhibits As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells via cell cycle arrest of G2 phase and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hyun; Han, Yong Hwan; Kim, Suhn Hee; Kim, Sung Zoo

    2007-01-01

    Pyrogallol as a catechin compound has been employed as an O 2 · - generator and often used to investigate the role of ROS in the biological system. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of pyrogallol on cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells. Dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth was observed with IC 50 of about 60 μM for 48 h using MTT assay. Pyrogallol (100 μM) did not alter intracellular H 2 O 2 level and catalase activity, but increased the intracellular O 2 · - level and decreased SOD activity in As4.1 cells. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 50 and 100 μM pyrogallol significantly increased G2 phase cells as compared with those of pyrogallol-untreated cells. Also, pyrogallol induced apoptosis as evidenced by flow cytometric detection of sub-G1 DNA content, annexin V binding assay and DAPI staining. This apoptosis process was accompanied with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m ), Bcl-2 decrease, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) could significantly rescue As4.1 cells from pyrogallol-induced cell death. But, the inhibitors of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 did not prevent apoptotic events in pyrogallol-treated As4.1 cells. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an ROS inducer, pyrogallol inhibits the growth of As4.1 JG cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and suggest that the compound exhibits an anti-proliferative efficacy on these cells

  15. Cooperation between Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion Proteins Spreads Protection from CD8+ T Cell Recognition across All Three Phases of the Lytic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Laura L.; Zuo, Jianmin; Abbott, Rachel J. M.; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Tierney, Rosemary J.; Hislop, Andrew D.; Rowe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle expressed antigens display a hierarchy of immunodominance, in which responses to epitopes of immediate-early (IE) and some early (E) antigens are more frequently observed than responses to epitopes of late (L) expressed antigens. It has been proposed that this hierarchy, which correlates with the phase-specific efficiency of antigen presentation, may be due to the influence of viral immune-evasion genes. At least three EBV-encoded genes, BNLF2a, BGLF5 and BILF1, have the potential to inhibit processing and presentation of CD8+ T cell epitopes. Here we examined the relative contribution of these genes to modulation of CD8+ T cell recognition of EBV lytic antigens expressed at different phases of the replication cycle in EBV-transformed B-cells (LCLs) which spontaneously reactivate lytic cycle. Selective shRNA-mediated knockdown of BNLF2a expression led to more efficient recognition of immediate-early (IE)- and early (E)-derived epitopes by CD8+ T cells, while knock down of BILF1 increased recognition of epitopes from E and late (L)-expressed antigens. Contrary to what might have been predicted from previous ectopic expression studies in EBV-negative model cell lines, the shRNA-mediated inhibition of BGLF5 expression in LCLs showed only modest, if any, increase in recognition of epitopes expressed in any phase of lytic cycle. These data indicate that whilst BNLF2a interferes with antigen presentation with diminishing efficiency as lytic cycle progresses (IE>E>>L), interference by BILF1 increases with progression through lytic cycle (IEevasion functions are actually relevant in the context of lytic virus replication, and secondly identify lytic-cycle phase-specific effects that provide mechanistic insight into the immunodominance pattern seen for CD8+ T cell responses to EBV lytic antigens. PMID:25144360

  16. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P. Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral sei...

  17. Analysis of the functional state of students in the process of healthy training exercises in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Petrenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to substantiate the application of a rational program of health-training sessions in the educational process of physical education of students in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Material: in study participated students (n=127, who did not have deviations in health (the main medical group. According to the results of the tests were determined: heart rate; blood pressure; vital capacity of the lungs. To determine physical performance was used Harvard step-test. Physical exercises from the main means of health fitness were used differentially and dosed. Results: It was established that the consideration in the phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle of indicators of the functional state, changes in well-being and working capacity give an opportunity: planning loads in the training process; adjustment of volume and intensity of loads. We recommend to schedule the load of our program as follows: in the menstrual phase - the development of flexibility (moderate load; in the postmenstrual phase - development of coordination, overall endurance; in ovulatory - speed development; in postovulatory - development of special endurance; in premenstrual - the development of strength, flexibility. In the postmenstrual and postovulatory phase, a high level of physical working capacity, functional state of the cardiopulmonary system has been registered. It also has a positive effect on body weight correction in the women students. Conclusions: When developing programs of health training sessions with women students it is necessary to take into account the phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle.

  18. Soccer-related performance in eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players: effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.

  19. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  20. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  1. Rapid cell cycle analysis by measurement of the radioactivity per cell in a narrow window in S phase (RCSsub(i))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Carver, J.H.; George, Y.S.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new rapid method for the cell cycle analysis of asynchronously growing cells is presented. The new method is an alternative to the more time consuming and subjective fraction of labeled mitoses (FLM) method. Like the FLM method, all cells in the S phase of the cell cycle are marked by pulse labeling with a radioactive DNA precursor. The subsequent progress of the cohort of cells thus labeled is monitored through a narrow window in the cell cycle. The window is defined by a narrow range of DNA contents corresponding to cells in mid-S phase and is designated Ssub(i). The cellular DNA content is measured by flow cytometry and the cells in the window Ssub(i) are selected by electronic cell sorting. The radioactivity per cell in Ssub(i) (RCSsub(i)) is determined by liquid scintillation counting. The duration of S phase and of the total cycle and the dispersions therein are determined from the oscillation of the RCSsub(i) values with time. The complete cell cycle analysis can be accomplished in as little as 1 day following the collection of samples. Exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were analyzed according to the RCSsub(i) method and the FLM method. It is demonstrated that the two techniques give essentially the same results. (author)

  2. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  3. ON THE CONSTANCY OF THE DIAMETER OF THE SUN DURING THE RISING PHASE OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A. [Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris VI—Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France); Corbard, T.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA), Boulevard de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice (France); Riguet, F.; Pradal, F., E-mail: Mustapha.Meftah@latmos.ipsl.fr, E-mail: Thierry.Corbard@oca.eu [Safran REOSC, Avenue de la Tour Maury, 91280 Saint-Pierre-du-Perray (France)

    2015-07-20

    The potential relationship between solar activity and changes in solar diameter remains the subject of debate and requires both models and measurements with sufficient precision over long periods of time. Using the PICARD instruments, we carried out precise measurements of variations in solar diameter during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. From new correction methods we found changes in PICARD space telescope solar radius amplitudes that were less than ±20 mas (i.e. ±14.5 km) for the years 2010–2011. Moreover, PICARD ground-based telescope solar radius amplitudes are smaller than ±50 mas from 2011 to 2014. Our observations could not find any direct link between solar activity and significant fluctuations in solar radius, considering that the variations, if they exist, are included within this range of values. Further, the contribution of solar radius fluctuations is low with regard to variations in total solar irradiance. Indeed, we find a small variation of the solar radius from space measurements with a typical periodicity of 129.5 days, with ±6.5 mas variation.

  4. Post-irradiation DNA synthesis inhibition and G2 phase delay in radiosensitive body cells from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: An indication of cell cycle defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, Mohammed A.; Kunhi, Mohammed; Einspenner, Michael; Khan, Bashir A.; Al-Sedairy, Sultan

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, both post-irradiation DNA synthesis and G 2 phase accumulation were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and fibroblast cell strains derived from (Saudi) patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), ataxia telangiectasia (AT), AT heterozygotes and normal subjects. A comparison of the percent DNA synthesis inhibition (assayed by 3 H-thymidine uptake 30 min after irradiation), and a 24 h post-irradiation G 2 phase accumulation determined by flow cytometry placed the AT heterozygotes and the NHL patients in an intermediate position between the normal subjects (with maximum DNA synthesis inhibition and minimum G 2 phase accumulation) and the AT homozygotes (with minimum DNA synthesis inhibition and maximum G 2 accumulation). The similarity between AT heterozygotes and the NHL patients with respect to the two parameters studied after irradiation was statistically significant. The data indicating a moderate abnormality in the control of cell cycle progression after irradiation in the LCLs and fibroblasts from NHL patients may explain the enhanced cellular and chromosomal radiosensitivity in these patients reported by us earlier. In addition to demonstrating a link between cell cycle abnormality and radiosensitivity as a possible basis for cancer susceptibility, particularly in the NHL patients, the present studies emphasized the usefulness of the assay for 24 h post-irradiation G 2 phase accumulation developed elsewhere in characterizing AT heterozygote-like cell cycle anomaly in cancer patients irrespective of whether they carried the AT gene or any other affecting the cell cycle

  5. Comparing the environmental footprints of home-care and personal-hygiene products: the relevance of different life-cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Wildbolz, Caroline

    2009-11-15

    An in-depth life-cycle assessment of nine home-care and personal-hygiene products was conducted to determine the ecological relevance of different life-cycle phases and compare the environmental profiles of products serving equal applications. Using detailed data from industry and consumer-behavior studies a broad range of environmental impacts were analyzed to identify the main drivers in each life-cycle stage and potentials for improving the environmental footprints. Although chemical production significantly adds to environmental burdens, substantial impacts are caused in the consumer-use phase. As such, this research provides recommendations for product development, supply chain management, product policies, and consumer use. To reduce environmental burdens products should, for instance, be produced in concentrated form, while consumers should apply correct product dosages and low water temperatures during product application.

  6. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  7. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  8. Influence of accelerated thermal charging and discharging cycles on thermo-physical properties of organic phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raam Dheep, G.; Sreekumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of organic phase change materials namely benzamide and sebacic acid. • Thermal reliability studies on identified phase change materials. • Measurement of phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion. • Analysis of relative percentage difference (RPD%) in heat of fusion and melting temperature of benzamide and sebacic acid. - Abstract: Integration of appropriate thermal energy storage system plays a predominant role in upgrading the efficiency of solar thermal energy devices by reducing the incongruity between energy supply and demand. Latent heat thermal energy storage based on phase change materials (PCM) is found to be the most efficient and prospective method for storage of solar thermal energy. Ensuring the thermal reliability of PCM through large number of charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) cycles is a primary prerequisite to determine the suitability of PCM for a specific thermal energy storage applications. The present study explains the experimental analysis carried out on two PCM’s namely benzamide and sebacic acid to check the compatibility of the material in solar thermal energy storage applications. The selected materials were subjected to one thousand accelerated melting and solidification cycles in order to investigate the percentage of variation at different stages on latent heat of fusion, phase transition temperature, onset and peak melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the phase transition temperature and heat of fusion upon completion of every 100 thermal cycles and continued up to 1000 cycles. Relative Percentage Difference (RPD%) is calculated to find out the absolute deviation of melting temperature and latent heat of fusion with respect to zeroth cycle. The experimental study recorded a melting temperatures of benzamide and sebacic acid as 125.09 °C and 135.92 °C with latent heat of fusion of 285.1 (J/g) and 374.4 (J/g). The

  9. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical study report on reprocessing systems. The report of the feasibility study on commercialized FR cycle systems (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Fumio; Kakehi, Isao

    2001-04-01

    As a part of the feasibility study (FS) on commercialized fast reactor (FR) cycle systems started on July 1999, the design studies and the technical assessments for various advanced reprocessing systems have been carried out. In this study, plant design for the advanced aqueous system and the three non-aqueous systems (oxide electrowinning method, metal electrorefining method, and fluoride volatility method) has been carried out, and each system has been evaluated mainly from the viewpoint of economics. The future R and D issues on the processes and systems have been also clarified. This report describes the results of the study for two years as final report of FS phase I. (1) The advanced aqueous system, based on the simplified PUREX process, has been shown to be much more economical than the conventional PUREX. The 200 tHM/y plant achieves the target of economics, but the 50 tHM/y plant can not achieve the target. (2) The promising alternative systems replaced for advanced aqueous are the supercritical fluid direct extraction method and amine extraction method from the economical viewpoint. The ion exchange method is promising as the process for minor actinide recovery. (3) For reprocessing MOX fuel, all non-aqueous plants with a capacity of 200 tHM/y achieve the economical target. For such a small capacity as 50 tHM/y, further rationalization of the process is required for the oxide electrowinning method and metal electrorefining method to attain the target, though they are more economical than the advanced aqueous system. (4) For metallic and nitride fuel reprocessing, a metal electrorefining system has been shown to be advantageous. (author)

  11. Estrous synchronization strategies to optimize beef heifer reproductive performance after reproductive tract scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Whittier, William D; Hall, John B; Kastelic, John P

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments comparing four estrous synchronization protocols were conducted to determine estrous expression rate and artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) in heifers with a range (1-5) of reproductive tract scores (RTSs). At enrollment (Day 0), 1783 Angus cross beef heifers from six locations were given body condition score and RTS. The four protocols were: (1) HRTS-DPGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received prostaglandin F2α (PGF; Dinoprost 25 mg; im) on Days 0 and 14; (2) HRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received a CIDR (1.3-g progesterone) insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; (3) LRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 4 or less received a CIDR insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; and (4) HRTS-Select-Synch group-heifers with RTS 5 received 100 μg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (gonadotropin releasing homone; im) on Day 7 and PGF on Day 14. In all groups, heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated (within 120 hours after PGF) using the AM-PM rule. In Experiment 1, estrus expression rates were 82.2% (282/343) and 88.5% (184/208) for HRTS-DPGF and LRTS-CIDR-PGF, respectively (P  0.1) and AI-PR were 52.1 (110/211), 60.3 (129/214), and 58.4% (122/209; P > 0.05). In Experiment 3, estrus expression rates were 77.5 (131/169), 85.5 (142/166), and 83.3% (219/263) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch and LRTS-CIDR-PGF (P > 0.05) and AI-PR were 53.3 (90/169), 60.2 (100/166), and 58.6% (154/263; P > 0.1). Overall, estrus expression rates for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch, LRTS-CIDR-PGF, and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups were 80.4 (581/723), 85.5 (142/166), 85.1 (579/680), and 86.9% (186/214), respectively; higher for heifers in LRTS-CIDR-PGF and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups compared to heifers in HRTS-DPGF group (P reproductive performance was reduced compared with other protocols used in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra during the cell cycle of phosphorus limited phased culture of Candida utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.S.S.; MacDonald, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cell extracts, serially obtained from Candida utilis grown in continuous (synchrony) culture under phosphate limitation during an 8-h cycle and examined by NMR spectroscopy, revealed changes in polyphosphate content during the cycle period: other phosphorus containing components showed relatively little change. Initially zero, the polyphosphate content increased rapidly to a maximum after 30 min that coincided with exhaustion of phosphate from the culture, and then decreased slowly back to zero at the end of the cycle. The results suggest that polyphosphate, usually considered to function as a reserve material, actively participates during the cell cycle. 12 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table

  13. The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sikora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.

  14. Analysis of fuel cycles with natural uranium, Phase I; Analiza gorivnih ciklusa sa prirodnim uranom, I faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinovic, A; Zivkovic, Z; Raisic, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku i dinamiku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    This paper contains analyses of fuel cycles with natural uranium for the following cases: plutonium recycling is not done; recycling of plutonium and irradiated uranium with the condition of equal multiplication factor at the beginning of each cycle; and recycling of plutonium only.

  15. The role of macro-prudential policies in the boom and adjustment phase of the credit cycle in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sutt, Andres; Korju, Helen; Siibak, Kadri

    2011-01-01

    The Estonian economy experienced an unusually long business and credit cycle during the first decade of the 21st century. The magnitude of the cycle tested what can be achieved by traditional policy tools and the limits of macro-prudential policies. The country's financial sector, almost fully consisting of foreign banks, displayed the complexities of cross-border regulation and supervisio...

  16. A fase estrogênica altera a resposta do osso e do metabolismo mineral de ratas com hipertireoidismo? Does the estrogenic phase modify the bone and mineral metabolism response in rats under hyperthyroidism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ocarino

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the estrogenic phase in the bone and in the mineral metabolism was studied in Wistar adult female rats kept under euthyroidism or hyperthyroidism for 60 days. The rats were divided, according to the stage of the estrous cycle, into four groups: 1 euthyroid (proestrus-estrus, 2 euthyroid (metaestrus-diestrus, 3 hyperthyroid (proestrus-estrus, and 4 hyperthyroid (metaestrus-diestrus. After 60 days the blood plasma was collected and the concentrations of free T4, estradiol, progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, and of alkaline phosphatase were determined. The bones (femur and tibia were analysed microscopically. Despite of the functional state of the thyroid, the levels of estrogen were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus. The estrogenic phase increased the plasmatic concentration of calcium significantly in the euthyroid rats but it did not alter the levels of phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. In the hyperthyroid state no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase throughout the cycle were found. The phases of the cycle did not also influence the bone morphology in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid states. It was concluded that the estrogenic phase increases the plasmatic concentration of calcium, even without altering the bone morphology of the euthyroid rats. In addition the estrogenic phase does not increase the plasmatic calcium and it does not modify the response of the bone as well as of the mineral metabolism under effect of the hyperthyroidism.

  17. Martensitic transformation, fcc and hcp relative phase stability, and thermal cycling effects in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-X Alloys (X = Si, Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruj, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    In this Thesis we present a study of the fcc and hcp relative phase stability in the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Co systems. In particular, we have investigated the effect of two main factors affecting the relative phase stability: changes in the chemical composition of the alloys and changes in the density of crystalline defects in the microstructure.In order to analyse the effect of chemical composition, we have performed an experimental study of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Fe-Mn-Co alloys in the composition range lying between 15% and 34% Mn, and between 1% and 16% Co.We have measured the martensitic transformation temperatures by means of dilatometry and electrical resistivity.We have combined this information with measurements of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Co-rich alloys to perform a modelling of the Gibbs energy function for the hcp phase in the Fe-Mn-Co and Fe-Co systems.We found that, for alloys in the Mn range between 17% and 25%, Co additions tend to stabilise slightly the fcc phase.In the alloys with Mn contents below that range, increasing the amount of Co stabilise the bcc phase. In alloys with Mn contents above 25% the Neel temperature is depressed by the addition of Co, which stabilise the hcp phase.In order to investigate the effect of changes in the density of crystalline defects, we have performed thermal cycling experiments through the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Co and Fe-Mn-Si alloys.We have applied the thermodynamic description obtained before in order to analyse these experiments.We found in the thermal cycling experiments a first stage where the martensitic transformation is promoted.This stage occurs in all the studied alloys during the first cycle or the two first cycles.Increasing the number of thermal cycles, the promotion stage is replaced by an inhibition of the transformation stage.We propose a possible microstructural interpretation of these phenomena where the plastic

  18. Experimental and numerical study of two-phase flows at the inlet of evaporators in vapour compression cycles; Etude experimentale et numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques a l'entree des evaporateurs de cycles thermodynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M

    2007-09-15

    Maldistribution of liquid-vapour two phase flows causes a significant decrease of the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporators in thermodynamic vapour compression cycles. A first experimental installation was used to visualize the two phase flow evolution between the expansion valve and the evaporator inlet. A second experimental set-up simulating a compact heat exchanger has been designed to identify the functional and geometrical parameters creating the best distribution of the two phases in the different channels. An analysis and a comprehension of the relation between the geometrical and functional parameters with the flow pattern inside the header and the two phase distribution, has been established. A numerical simulations of a stratified flow and a stratified jet flow have been carried out using two CFD codes: FLUENT and NEPTUNE. In the case of a fragmented jet configuration, a global definition of the interfacial area concentration for a separated phases and dispersed phases flow has been established and a model calculating the fragmented mass fraction has been developed. (author)

  19. GASCON and MHDGAS: FORTRAN IV computer codes for calculating gas and condensed-phase compositions in the coal-fired open-cycle MHD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, P E

    1977-12-01

    Fortran IV computer codes have been written to calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of the gaseous phase and the quantity and composition of the condensed phases in the open-cycle MHD system. The codes are based on temperature-dependent equilibrium constants, mass conservation, the mass action law, and assumed ideal solution of compounds in each of two condensed phases. It is assumed that the phases are an oxide-silicate phase and a sulfate-carbonate-hydroxide phase. Calculations are iterated for gas and condensate concentrations while increasing or decreasing the total moles of elements, but keeping mole ratios constant, to achieve the desired total pressure. During iteration the oxygen partial pressure is incrementally changed. The decision to increase or decrease the oxygen pressure in this process depends on comparison of the oxygen content calculated in the gas and condensate phases with the initial amount of oxygen in the ash, coal, seed, and air. This process, together with a normalization step, allows the elements to converge to their initial quantities. Two versions of the computer code have been written. GASCON calculates the equilibrium gas partial pressures and the quantity and composition of the condensed phases in steps of thirteen temperature and pressure combinations in which the condensate is removed after each step, simulating continuous slag removal from the MHD system. MHDGAS retains the condensate for each step, simulating flow of condensate (and gas) through the MHD system.

  20. Influence of bodybuilding training on changes in the anthropometric indicators of skilled female athletes in different phases of a specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Dzhym

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out research on the influence of the activities of female athletes engaged in bodybuilding on changes in anthropometric indicators in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle (OMC. Material & Methods: studies were conducted in the fitness clubs of Kharkiv "Pheromone", "City", "King" with qualified athletes who are engaged in bodybuilding for 3 months of the preparatory period in the amount of 22 people. As research methods used: analysis of literature sources and testing of the level of motor qualities in individual phases of the OMC. Result: presented analysis of the condition of the female athletes taking into account the features of the OMC phases and the testing of body weight and anthropometric indicators in different phases of a specific biological cycle in qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate that the anthropometric indicators of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding are not the same in the phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It was revealed that during the OMC period the body is able to retain water, which leads to fluctuations in the body weight of female athletes from 0,5 to 2,5 kg, while on the 3rd-6th day and on the 25–26th there is an increase in body weight, and on the 7th and 16th - its decrease. According to the results of the study, in the first phase, the decrease in anthropometry and body weight, this is due to the rejection of the mucous membrane of the uterus and menstrual bleeding.

  1. Cooperation between Epstein-Barr virus immune evasion proteins spreads protection from CD8+ T cell recognition across all three phases of the lytic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Quinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV lytic cycle expressed antigens display a hierarchy of immunodominance, in which responses to epitopes of immediate-early (IE and some early (E antigens are more frequently observed than responses to epitopes of late (L expressed antigens. It has been proposed that this hierarchy, which correlates with the phase-specific efficiency of antigen presentation, may be due to the influence of viral immune-evasion genes. At least three EBV-encoded genes, BNLF2a, BGLF5 and BILF1, have the potential to inhibit processing and presentation of CD8+ T cell epitopes. Here we examined the relative contribution of these genes to modulation of CD8+ T cell recognition of EBV lytic antigens expressed at different phases of the replication cycle in EBV-transformed B-cells (LCLs which spontaneously reactivate lytic cycle. Selective shRNA-mediated knockdown of BNLF2a expression led to more efficient recognition of immediate-early (IE- and early (E-derived epitopes by CD8+ T cells, while knock down of BILF1 increased recognition of epitopes from E and late (L-expressed antigens. Contrary to what might have been predicted from previous ectopic expression studies in EBV-negative model cell lines, the shRNA-mediated inhibition of BGLF5 expression in LCLs showed only modest, if any, increase in recognition of epitopes expressed in any phase of lytic cycle. These data indicate that whilst BNLF2a interferes with antigen presentation with diminishing efficiency as lytic cycle progresses (IE>E>>L, interference by BILF1 increases with progression through lytic cycle (IEcycle phase-specific effects that provide mechanistic

  2. Generating mid-IR octave-spanning supercontinua and few-cycle pulses with solitons in phase-mismatched quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a novel method for generating octave-spanning supercontinua and few-cycle pulses in the important mid-IR wavelength range. The technique relies on strongly phase-mismatched cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) in mid-IR nonlinear frequency conversion crystals. Importantly we here...... of the promising crystals: in one case soliton pulse compression from 50 fs to 15 fs (1.5 cycles) at 3.0 μm is achieved, and at the same time a 3-cycle dispersive wave at 5.0 μm is formed that can be isolated using a long-pass filter. In another example we show that extremely broadband supercontinua can form...

  3. Castration and testosterone induced changes in the pinealocytes of roseringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, during different phases of the annual testicular cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M

    1994-08-01

    The pinealocytes in male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were studied following bilateral castration and/or therapeutic administration of testosterone during the preparatory (June-July), progressive (Nov.-Dec.), pre-breeding (Jan.-Feb.) and breeding (March-April) phases of the annual testicular cycle. The responses of the pineal to either treatment were found to be almost identical throughout the investigation. In each reproductive phase, the pineal appeared to be hypertrophied following castration and the effect was reversed by therapeutic administration of testosterone, while hormonal treatment to the intact parakeets induced regressive changes in the pinealocytes. Collectively, the results of the current study support the hypothesis that the testis through its hormone testosterone exerts inhibitory influences on the activity of pineal, and may thus be considered as being involved in the determination of an inverse relationship between the pineal and the testis during the annual cycle of free-living parakeets.

  4. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H.; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T.; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  5. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Fisicas

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  6. Phase 2 Comparison of A Novel Ammonia Scavenging Agent With Sodium Phenylbutyrate In Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders: Safety, Pharmacokinetics And Ammonia Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Brendan; Rhead, William; Diaz, George A.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mian, Asad; Shchelochkov, Oleg; Marier, JF; Beliveau, Martin; Mauney, Joseph; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Gargosky, Sharron; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Berry, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (glyceryl tri (4-phenylbutyrate)) (GPB) is being studied as an alternative to sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) for the treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This phase 2 study explored the hypothesis that GPB offers similar safety and ammonia control as NaPBA, which is currently approved as adjunctive therapy in the chronic management of UCDs, and examined correlates of 24-hour blood ammonia.

  7. A study about the contribution of the α-β phase transition of quartz to thermal cycle damage of a refractory used in fluidized catalytic cracking units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A. Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of refractories used in fluidized catalytic cracking units (FCC-units is responsible for high costs of maintenance for the petrochemical industry. This is commonly associated with coke deposition during the production of light hydrocarbons. However, other mechanisms responsible for causing damage may also occur, such as the generation of cracks by expansive phase transition. The aim of the work herein was to study the contribution of the a-b phase transition of quartz particles to the deterioration of a commercial aluminosilicate refractory used in a riser by the means of slow thermal cycles. Such damage may occur if the working temperature of the equipment fluctuates around the a-b transition temperature (573 °C. The current study considered the material with and without coke impregnation to evaluate the combined effect of coke presence and phase transition. To evaluate the damage, it was used the Young's modulus as a function of temperature by applying the Impulse Excitation Technique under controlled atmosphere. An equipment recently developed by the authors research group was applied. Specimens were prepared and submitted to slow thermal cycles of temperatures up to 500 °C and up to 700 °C, with a heating rate of 2 °C/min. Part of the specimens was previously impregnated with coke by a reactor using propen. To complete the evaluation, characterization by X-ray diffraction, as well as by dilatometry and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The findings of this study showed that the presence of quartz particles determine the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the material, as well as the thermocycling damage resistance. In spite of the fact that the a-b phase transition stiffens the material during the heating stage, it increases the damage by slow thermal cycling. The coke impregnation increases the resistance to slow thermal cycles, however it decreases the resistance to the damage evolution.

  8. Women at Altitude: Effect of Menstrual-Cycle Phase on Acute Mountain Sickness During Deployment to High Altitude Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rock, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The physiologic responses to the cyclic fluctuations in ovarian steroid hormones associated with the menstrual cycle in women are well known to affect certain disease states and could alter responses...

  9. Effects of caffeine on X-irradiated synchronous, asynchronous and plateau phase mouse ascites cells: the importance of progression through the cell cycle for caffeine enhancement of killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-01-01

    Caffeine potentiated the killing effect of X-rays on exponentially growing cells giving rise to exponential curves (D 0 =(0.8+-0.05)Gy) at 4mM and 14 hours treatment. Irradiated plateau phase cells were less sensitive. Exponentially growing cells also became less sensitive to the effects of caffeine when they were incubated in the conditioned medium of plateau phase cells(C-medium) in which cell growth was considerably inhibited. Low caffeine concentrations(2mM) enhanced X-ray induced killing of cells irradiated in G 1 -,G 1 /S- or S-phase, but more effectively G 2 -phase cells. High caffeine concentrations (6mM) enhanced killing of cells in all phases of the cell cycle. Incubation of synchronized populations in C-medium during treatment with caffeine (2mM and 6mM) resulted in less potentiation than in cells treated in fresh medium. The expression of X-ray induced potentially lethal damage caused by 6mM caffeine in cells irradiated in various phases resulted in an exponential survival curve with a mean lethal dose of (0.8+-0.05)Gy, but the time of caffeine treatment necessary to reach this curve was different for cells irradiated in different phases. PLD repair, measured as loss of sensitivity to 6mM caffeine (4 hours treatment) was of 1-2 hours duration. (author)

  10. The Adder Phenomenon Emerges from Independent Control of Pre- and Post-Start Phases of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Brown, Devon; Schmoller, Kurt M; Winetraub, Yonatan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-09-25

    Although it has long been clear that cells actively regulate their size, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have remained poorly understood. In budding yeast, cell size primarily modulates the duration of the cell-division cycle by controlling the G1/S transition known as Start. We have recently shown that the rate of progression through Start increases with cell size, because cell growth dilutes the cell-cycle inhibitor Whi5 in G1. Recent phenomenological studies in yeast and bacteria have shown that these cells add an approximately constant volume during each complete cell cycle, independent of their size at birth. These results seem to be in conflict, as the phenomenological studies suggest that cells measure the amount they grow, rather than their size, and that size control acts over the whole cell cycle, rather than specifically in G1. Here, we propose an integrated model that unifies the adder phenomenology with the molecular mechanism of G1/S cell-size control. We use single-cell microscopy to parameterize a full cell-cycle model based on independent control of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods. We find that our model predicts the size-independent amount of cell growth during the full cell cycle. This suggests that the adder phenomenon is an emergent property of the independent regulation of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods rather than the consequence of an underlying molecular mechanism measuring a fixed amount of growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  12. Increased Oocyte Degeneration and Follicular Atresia during the Estrous Cycle in Anti-Müllerian Hormone Null Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jenny A.; Durlinger, Alexandra L.L.; Peters, Isolde J.J.; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den; Rose, Ursula M.; Kramer, Piet; Jong, Frank H. de; Themmen, Axel P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays an important role in folliculogenesis. AMH null mice display an increased recruitment of primordial follicles. Nevertheless, these mice do not have proportionally more preovulatory follicles. Therefore, AMH null mice provide an interesting genetic model to study

  13. Changes in RFamide-Related Peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-Immunoreactivity During Postnatal Development and the Estrous Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sara R; Andersen, Mille D; Overgaard, Agnete

    2014-01-01

    and inhibit GnRH neurons. The RFRP precursor is processed into 2 mature peptides, RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. These are characterized by a conserved C-terminal motif RF-NH2 but display highly different N termini. Even though the 2 peptides are equally potent in vitro, little is known about their relative distribution...... and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-ir during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-ir during....... The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peripuberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference...

  14. Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cellular Immunity in Estrous Cycle Modulation of Post-Resection Breast Cancer Spread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hrushesky, William

    2002-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the short term objectives of doing this proposal are to better understand which sex steroids and which cellular immune functions control post resection metastatic cancer spread...

  15. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the human brain with phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineh, Michael M; Parekh, Mansi B; Zaharchuk, Greg; Su, Jason H; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Fischbein, Nancy J; Rutt, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to acquire ultra-high resolution images of the brain using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 7 T and to identify the potential utility of this sequence. Eight volunteers participated in this study after providing informed consent. Each volunteer was scanned with 8 phase cycles of bSSFP at 0.4-mm isotropic resolution using 0.5 number of excitations and 2-dimensional parallel acceleration of 1.75 × 1.75. Each phase cycle required 5 minutes of scanning, with pauses between the phase cycles allowing short periods of rest. The individual phase cycles were aligned and then averaged. The same volunteers underwent scanning using 3-dimensional (3D) multiecho gradient recalled echo at 0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 3D Cube T2 at 0.7-mm isotropic resolution, and thin-section coronal oblique T2-weighted fast spin echo at 0.22 × 0.22 × 2.0-mm resolution for comparison. Two neuroradiologists assessed image quality and potential research and clinical utility. The volunteers generally tolerated the scan sessions well, and composite high-resolution bSSFP images were produced for each volunteer. Rater analysis demonstrated that bSSFP had a superior 3D visualization of the microarchitecture of the hippocampus, very good contrast to delineate the borders of the subthalamic nucleus, and relatively good B1 homogeneity throughout. In addition to an excellent visualization of the cerebellum, subtle details of the brain and skull base anatomy were also easier to identify on the bSSFP images, including the line of Gennari, membrane of Liliequist, and cranial nerves. Balanced steady-state free precession had a strong iron contrast similar to or better than the comparison sequences. However, cortical gray-white contrast was significantly better with Cube T2 and T2-weighted fast spin echo. Balanced steady-state free precession can facilitate ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the brain. Although total imaging times are long, the individually short

  16. Echography of the Cervix and Uterus during the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes. PMID:24411775

  17. Induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases and cAMP-dependent differentiation in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Samuel S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation therapy has been shown effective in treatment of several types of cancer cells and may prove to be effective in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Although extensively used as a reagent to inhibit protein synthesis in mammalian cells, whether cycloheximide treatment leads to glioma cell differentiation has not been reported. Methods C6 glioma cell was treated with or without cycloheximide at low concentrations (0.5-1 μg/ml for 1, 2 and 3 days. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by direct cell counting and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and FACS analysis. Changes in several cell cycle regulators such as Cyclins D1 and E, PCNA and Ki67, and several apoptosis-related regulators such as p53, p-JNK, p-AKT, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. C6 glioma differentiation was determined by morphological characterization, immunostaining and Western blot analysis on upregulation of GFAP and o p-STAT3 expression, and upregulation of intracellular cAMP. Results Treatment of C6 cell with low concentration of cycloheximide inhibited cell proliferation and depleted cells at both G2 and M phases, suggesting blockade at G1 and S phases. While no cell death was observed, cells underwent profound morphological transformation that indicated cell differentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining analyses further indicated that changes in expression of several cell cycle regulators and the differentiation marker GFAP were accompanied with cycloheximide-induced cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation. Increase in intracellular cAMP, a known promoter for C6 cell differentiation, was found to be elevated and required for cycloheximide-promoted C6 cell differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that partial inhibition of protein synthesis in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide induces cell cycle

  18. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); Phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G.A.; Merritt, J.L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Jomphe, C.; Marier, J.F.; Beliveau, M.; Mauney, J.; Dickinson, K.; Martinez, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.; Rhead, W.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Study Design Protocol HPN-100-005 involved open label fixed-sequence switch-over from the prescribed NaPBA dose to a PBA-equimolar GPB dose with controlled diet. After 7 days on NaPBA or GPB, subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling for ammonia and drug metabolite levels as well as measurement of 24-hour urinary phenyacetylglutamine (PAGN). Adverse events (AEs), safety labs and triplicate ECGs were monitored. Results Eleven subjects (9 OTC, 1 ASS, 1 ASL) enrolled and completed the switch-over from NaPBA (mean dose=12.4 g/d or 322 mg/kg/d; range=198–476 mg/kg/d) to GPB (mean dose=10.8 mL or 0.284 mL/kg/d or 313 mg/kg/d; range = 192–449 mg/kg/d). Possibly-related AEs were reported in 2 subjects on NaPBA and 4 subjects on GPB. All were mild, except for one moderate AE of vomiting on GPB related to an intercurrent illness. No clinically significant laboratory or ECG changes were observed. Ammonia was lowest after overnight fast, peaked postprandially in the afternoon to early evening and varied widely over 24 h with occasional values >100 μmol/L without symptoms. Ammonia values were ~25% lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (p ≥ 0.1 for ITT and p<0.05 for per protocol population). The upper 95% confidence interval for the difference between ammonia on GPB vs. NaPBA in the ITT population (95% CI 0.575, 1.061; p = 0.102) was less than the predefined non-inferiority margin of 1.25 and less than 1.0 in the pre-defined per-protocol population (95% CI 0.516, 0.958; p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in plasma phenylacetic acid and PAGN exposure during dosing with GPB vs. NaPBA, and the percentage of orally administered PBA excreted as PAGN (66% for GPB vs. 69% for NaPBA) was very similar. GPB and Na

  19. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G A; Merritt, J L; Feigenbaum, A; Jomphe, C; Marier, J F; Beliveau, M; Mauney, J; Dickinson, K; Martinez, A; Mokhtarani, M; Scharschmidt, B; Rhead, W

    2011-08-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Protocol HPN-100-005 involved open label fixed-sequence switch-over from the prescribed NaPBA dose to a PBA-equimolar GPB dose with controlled diet. After 7 days on NaPBA or GPB, subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling for ammonia and drug metabolite levels as well as measurement of 24-hour urinary phenyacetylglutamine (PAGN). Adverse events (AEs), safety labs and triplicate ECGs were monitored. Eleven subjects (9 OTC, 1 ASS, 1 ASL) enrolled and completed the switch-over from NaPBA (mean dose=12.4 g/d or 322 mg/kg/d; range=198-476 mg/kg/d) to GPB (mean dose=10.8 mL or 0.284 mL/kg/d or 313 mg/kg/d; range=192-449 mg/kg/d). Possibly-related AEs were reported in 2 subjects on NaPBA and 4 subjects on GPB. All were mild, except for one moderate AE of vomiting on GPB related to an intercurrent illness. No clinically significant laboratory or ECG changes were observed. Ammonia was lowest after overnight fast, peaked postprandially in the afternoon to early evening and varied widely over 24h with occasional values >100 μmol/L without symptoms. Ammonia values were ~25% lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (p≥0.1 for ITT and p<0.05 for per protocol population). The upper 95% confidence interval for the difference between ammonia on GPB vs. NaPBA in the ITT population (95% CI 0.575, 1.061; p=0.102) was less than the predefined non-inferiority margin of 1.25 and less than 1.0 in the pre-defined per-protocol population (95% CI 0.516, 0.958; p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in plasma phenylacetic acid and PAGN exposure during dosing with GPB vs. NaPBA, and the percentage of orally administered PBA excreted as PAGN (66% for GPB vs. 69% for NaPBA) was very similar. GPB and NaPBA dose correlated best with

  20. The hamster clock phase-response curve from summerlike light:dark cycles and its role in daily and seasonal timekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, John J; Alleva, Frederic R

    2002-11-01

    We address the subject of entrainment of the hamster clock by the day:night cycle in summer when the sun sets after 6 PM and rises before 6 AM (nights cycles were simulated by 6 light:dark (LD) cycles with D estrus and wheel running in hamsters. The onset of estrus was observed every 4 d in the same hamsters as a phase marker of their 24 h clock. On the day before an experimental estrus, preceded and followed by control onsets, a dark period was imposed to cover a putative 6 PM-6 AM light-sensitive period (LSP). This was scanned with a light pulse (and periodic 5 sec bell alarms) lasting 5-240 min. Shifts in onset of estrus on the next day were plotted vs. the end of the light pulse for PM times ("dusk") and its onset for AM times ("dawn"). The resulting phase shifts from the six SLDs were similar, permitting their combination into a single phase-response curve (PRC) of 1605 shifts. This SLD composite PRC rose at 10:15 PM, peaked at 2 AM (81 min advanced shift), fell linearly to 5:55 AM, and then abruptly to normal at 6 AM (no shift). Peak shift was unaffected by light pulse duration or intensity, or hamster age. The SLD composite PRC lacked the 6 PM-9 PM curve of delayed shifts present in reported PRCs from LD 12 h:12 h and DD. However, a two-pulse experiment showed that all light from 6 PM to L-off was needed to block (balance) the advancing action of a 5 min morning light pulse, thereby maintaining entrainment. A working hypothesis to explain daily entrainment and seasonal fertility in the golden hamster is illustrated. A nomenclature for labeling the phases of the hamster clock (circadian time) is proposed.

  1. Conceptus development and transcriptome at preimplantation stages in lactating dairy cows of distinct genetic groups and estrous cyclic statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, E S; Monteiro, A P A; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Ealy, A D; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to compare development and transcriptome of preimplantation conceptuses 15 d after synchronized ovulation and artificial insemination (AI) according to the genetic background of the cow and estrous cyclicity at the initiation of the synchronization program. On d 39±3 postpartum, Holstein cows that were anovular (HA; n=10), Holstein cows that were estrous cyclic (HC; n=25), and Jersey/Holstein crossbred cows that were estrous cyclic (CC; n=25) were randomly selected in a grazing herd and subjected to the Ovsynch protocol. All cows were inseminated on d 49±3 postpartum, which was considered study d 0. Blood was sampled and analyzed for concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on study d -10, -3, -1, 7, and 15 relative to AI. On study d 15, uteri were flushed and recovered fluid had IFN-τ concentrations measured and subjected to metabolomic analysis. Morphology of the recovered conceptuses was evaluated, and mRNA was extracted and subjected to transcriptome microarray analysis. Compared with HC, CC presented greater concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma, with corpora lutea and preovulatory follicles of similar size. Conceptuses from CC were larger, tended to secrete greater amounts of IFN-τ, and had greater transcript expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), an important transcription factor that coordinates lipid metabolism and elongation at preimplantation development. In addition, pregnant CC had greater concentrations of anandamide in the uterine flush, which might be important for elongation of the conceptus and early implantation. Conceptuses from HA were also longer and secreted greater amounts of IFN-τ than conceptuses from HC, likely because of the distinct progesterone profiles before and after AI. Nonetheless, anovular cows had reduced concentrations of IGF-1 in plasma, and their conceptuses presented remarkable transcriptomic

  2. Phytol isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sprouts induces cell death in human T-lymphoid cell line Jurkat cells via S-phase cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Ono, Akito; Kawaguchi, Kaori; Teraoka, Sayaka; Harada, Mayo; Sumi, Keitaro; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Koketsu, Mamoru; Hashizume, Toshiharu

    2018-05-01

    The phytol isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sprouts inhibited the growth of a human T-cell leukemia line Jurkat cell and suppressed tumor progression in a xenograft model of human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 in nude mice. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the phytol-induced cell death in the present study, we examined the changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and performed flow cytometric analysis to evaluate cell cycle stage. There were no significant changes in apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis marker in cells treated with the phytol. But, we found, for the first time, that phytol remarkably induced S-phase cell cycle arrest accompanied with intracellular ROS production. Western blot analyses showed that phytolinduced S-phase cell cycle arrest was mediated through the decreased expression of cyclins A and D and the downregulations of MAPK and PI3K/Akt. The tumor volume levels in mice treated with phytol were lower than those of non-treatment groups, and it showed very similar suppression compared with those of mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Based on the data of in vitro and in vivo studies and previous studies, we suggest phytol as a potential therapeutic compound for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Lorna

    1998-01-01

    .... Results indicated that the effects of the menstrual cycle were modest. In year 2, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering an a-adrenergic blocker and made selected observations during a brief exposure to an altitude of 4300 m...

  4. Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. (1) Current status of the phase-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagayama, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study on commercialized fast reactors including related nuclear fuel cycle systems has been started from Japanese fiscal year 1999 by a Japanese joint project team of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute and the Japan Atomic Power Company. This project aims at elucidating prominent fast reactor cycle systems that will respond to various needs of society in the future, together with economic competitiveness as future electricity supply systems. Challenging technology goals for the fast reactor cycle systems were defined in five targets: safety, economic competitiveness, reduction of environmental burden, efficient utilization of nuclear fuel resources and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. As the results of the feasibility study up to now, it is confirmed as the interim results that the combination of sodium-cooled fast reactors with oxide fuels, advanced aqueous reprocessing and simplified pellet fuel fabrication is highly suited to the development targets. The cost would be highly reduced by the adoption of innovative technologies, which feasibility is relatively clear and some R and D issues are now under progress. (author)

  5. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on load transfer between the biomineral and collagen phases in bovine dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deymier-Black, A.C., E-mail: AlixDeymier2010@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Almer, J.D., E-mail: almer@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Haeffner, D.R., E-mail: haeffner@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dunand, D.C., E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2011-10-10

    Stabilization of biological materials by freezing is widespread in the fields of medicine and biomaterials research and yet, in the case of hard biomaterials such as dentin, there is not a good understanding of how such treatments might affect the mechanical properties. The freezing and thawing may have a number of different effects on dentin including formation of cracks in the microstructure and denaturation of the collagen. Using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, the apparent moduli of bovine dentin samples were measured before and after various numbers of freeze-thaw cycles. It was determined that repeated freezing and thawing has no measurable effect on the hydroxyapatite or fibrillar apparent moduli up to 10 cycles. This confirms that the use of low temperature storage for stabilization of dentin is reasonable in cases where stiffness is a property of importance. Highlights: {yields} Studied the effect of freezing on the load transfer of HAP and fibrils in dentin. {yields} X-ray scattering measured HAP and fibril apparent moduli vs. freezing cycles. {yields} Apparent moduli did not vary significantly between 0 and 10 freeze thaw cycles. {yields} Residual strains imply no widespread cracking due to volumetric expansion of water. {yields} Dentin can be freeze-thawed with no significant effects on elastic properties.

  6. Characteristic studies on solar x-ray flares and solar radio bursts during descending phases of solar cycles 22 and 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, J.; De, B.K.; Guha, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study between the solar X-ray flares and solar radio bursts in terms of their duration and energy has been done. This has been done by analyzing the data in a statistical way covering the descending phase of the 22nd and 23rd solar cycles. It has been observed that the most probable value of duration of both solar X-ray flares and solar radio bursts remain same for a particular cycle. There is a slight variation in the most probable value of duration in going from 22nd cycle to 23rd cycle in the case of both kinds of events. This small variation may be due to the variation of polar field. A low correlation has been observed between energy fluxes in solar X-ray flares and in solar radio bursts. This has been attributed to the non symmetric contribution of energy to the solar radio and X-ray band controlled by solar magnetic field

  7. Parvovirus B19 NS1 protein induces cell cycle arrest at G2-phase by activating the ATR-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (B19V infection of primary human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs arrests infected cells at both late S-phase and G2-phase, which contain 4N DNA. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response (DDR that facilitates viral DNA replication but is dispensable for cell cycle arrest at G2-phase; however, a putative C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD2 within NS1 is responsible for G2-phase arrest. To fully understand the mechanism underlying B19V NS1-induced G2-phase arrest, we established two doxycycline-inducible B19V-permissive UT7/Epo-S1 cell lines that express NS1 or NS1mTAD2, and examined the function of the TAD2 domain during G2-phase arrest. The results confirm that the NS1 TAD2 domain plays a pivotal role in NS1-induced G2-phase arrest. Mechanistically, NS1 transactivated cellular gene expression through the TAD2 domain, which was itself responsible for ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related activation. Activated ATR phosphorylated CDC25C at serine 216, which in turn inactivated the cyclin B/CDK1 complex without affecting nuclear import of the complex. Importantly, we found that the ATR-CHK1-CDC25C-CDK1 pathway was activated during B19V infection of EPCs, and that ATR activation played an important role in B19V infection-induced G2-phase arrest.

  8. A Phase II Trial of Docetaxel with Rapid Androgen Cycling as a Treatment for Patients with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana; Carducci, Michael A.; Morris, Michael J.; Slovin, Susan F.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Kelsen, Moshe; Curley, Tracy; Priet, Regina; Collins, Connie; Fleisher, Martin; Heller, Glenn; Baker, Sharyn D.; Scher, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated rapid androgen cycling in combination with docetaxel for men with progressive non-castrate prostate cancers. Methods Non-castrate patients with ≤ 6 months of hormones were eligible. Cohort 1 (63 patients ) received 6 28-day cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m2), leuprolide and 7 days of topical testosterone. Cohort 2 (39 patients) received 9 21-day cycles of docetaxel (70 mg/m2), leuprolide and 3 days of testosterone. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at 18 months who achieved non -castrate testosterone levels (>150 ng/dl) and an undetectable PSA (≤ 0.05, ≤0.5, or ≤2.0 ng/ml with prior prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or no definitive therapy, respectively). Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and docetaxel pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Results A higher proportion of patients achieved the undetectable PSA outcome at 18 months in cohort 2 relative to cohort 1 (13% vs. 0%). The 16% incidence of febrile neutropenia was higher than observed in patients was castration-resistant disease, which may have been related to a 50% reduction in overall docetaxel clearance in the non-castrate group. There was no alteration in CYP3A4 activity (P=0.87) or docetaxel clearance (P=0.88) between cycles. Conclusions The undetectable PSA endpoint allows for a rapid screening of interventions for further study. Increasing the number of docetaxel cycles following a shorter period of testosterone repletion, and a longer duration of testosterone depletion, increased the proportion of men who achieved an undetectable PSA. The higher-than-expected incidence of febrile neutropenia may have been related to the reduced overall docetaxel clearance in patients with non-castrate vs castrate testosterone levels. PMID:18565882

  9. Software safety analysis on the model specified by NuSCR and SMV input language at requirements phase of software development life cycle using SMV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Safety-critical software process is composed of development process, verification and validation (V and V) process and safety analysis process. Safety analysis process has been often treated as an additional process and not found in a conventional software process. But software safety analysis (SSA) is required if software is applied to a safety system, and the SSA shall be performed independently for the safety software through software development life cycle (SDLC). Of all the phases in software development, requirements engineering is generally considered to play the most critical role in determining the overall software quality. NASA data demonstrate that nearly 75% of failures found in operational software were caused by errors in the requirements. The verification process in requirements phase checks the correctness of software requirements specification, and the safety analysis process analyzes the safety-related properties in detail. In this paper, the method for safety analysis at requirements phase of software development life cycle using symbolic model verifier (SMV) is proposed. Hazard is discovered by hazard analysis and in other to use SMV for the safety analysis, the safety-related properties are expressed by computation tree logic (CTL)

  10. Sterilizing effects and lethal effects of gamma radiation on different phases of life cycle of the sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) in rice and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research to verify the effects of the gamma radiation on different phases of the life cycle of the gamma radiation on different phases of the life cycle of the moth grain Angoumois, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819). For all the treatment with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gammabeam-650 was used and the activity was approximately 3.1 x 10 sup(14) Bq., with dose rate of 3.01 kGy per hour. The LD sub(100) of gamma radiation for eggs of insects reared in rice and maize were respectively 100 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 100 Gy and 200 Gy in rice and 150 Gy and 250 Gy in maize, respectively. The sterilizing doses for females and males in maize were respectively 350 Gy and 500 Gy. The LD sub(100) for adult females were 4500 Gy and 4750 Gy for males, both in rice. The LD sub(100), for adult reared on maize was 4750 Gy for both sexes. (author)

  11. Fast isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging using 3D dynamically phase-cycled radial bSSFP (3D DYPR-SSFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkert, Thomas; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehses, Philipp [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroimaging; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany). High-Field MR Center; Jakob, Peter M. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Dynamically phase-cycled radial balanced steady-state free precession (DYPR-SSFP) is a method for efficient banding artifact removal in bSSFP imaging. Based on a varying radiofrequency (RF) phase-increment in combination with a radial trajectory, DYPR-SSFP allows obtaining a banding-free image out of a single acquired k-space. The purpose of this work is to present an extension of this technique, enabling fast three-dimensional isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging. Methods: While banding artifact removal with DYPR-SSFP relies on the applied dynamic phase-cycle, this aspect can lead to artifacts, at least when the number of acquired projections lies below a certain limit. However, by using a 3D radial trajectory with quasi-random view ordering for image acquisition, this problem is intrinsically solved, enabling 3D DYPR-SSFP imaging at or even below the Nyquist criterion. The approach is validated for brain and knee imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: Volumetric, banding-free images were obtained in clinically acceptable scan times with an isotropic resolution up to 0.56 mm. Conclusion: The combination of DYPR-SSFP with a 3D radial trajectory allows banding-free isotropic volumetric bSSFP imaging with no expense of scan time. Therefore, this is a promising candidate for clinical applications such as imaging of cranial nerves or articular cartilage.

  12. RPA accumulation during class switch recombination represents 5'-3' DNA-end resection during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Arito; Robbiani, Davide F; Resch, Wolfgang; Bothmer, Anne; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Oliveira, Thiago; Rommel, Philipp C; Brown, Eric J; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

    2013-01-31

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in the G1 phase. RPA is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair (HR), such as Rad51. Notably, RPA deposition also marks sites of AID-mediated damage, but its role in Ig gene recombination remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RPA associates asymmetrically with resected ssDNA in response to lesions created by AID, recombination-activating genes (RAG), or other nucleases. Small amounts of RPA are deposited at AID targets in G1 in an ATM-dependent manner. In contrast, recruitment in the S-G2/M phase is extensive, ATM independent, and associated with Rad51 accumulation. In the S-G2/M phase, RPA increases in nonhomologous-end-joining-deficient lymphocytes, where there is more extensive DNA-end resection. Thus, most RPA recruitment during class switch recombination represents salvage of unrepaired breaks by homology-based pathways during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enrichment of G2/M cell cycle phase in human pluripotent stem cells enhances HDR-mediated gene repair with customizable endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diane; Scavuzzo, Marissa A; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Sharp, Robert; Bajic, Aleksandar; Borowiak, Malgorzata

    2016-02-18

    Efficient gene editing is essential to fully utilize human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in regenerative medicine. Custom endonuclease-based gene targeting involves two mechanisms of DNA repair: homology directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HDR is the preferred mechanism for common applications such knock-in, knock-out or precise mutagenesis, but remains inefficient in hPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that synchronizing synchronizing hPSCs in G2/M with ABT phase increases on-target gene editing, defined as correct targeting cassette integration, 3 to 6 fold. We observed improved efficiency using ZFNs, TALENs, two CRISPR/Cas9, and CRISPR/Cas9 nickase to target five genes in three hPSC lines: three human embryonic stem cell lines, neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. Reversible synchronization has no effect on pluripotency or differentiation. The increase in on-target gene editing is locus-independent and specific to the cell cycle phase as G2/M phase enriched cells show a 6-fold increase in targeting efficiency compared to cells in G1 phase. Concurrently inhibiting NHEJ with SCR7 does not increase HDR or improve gene targeting efficiency further, indicating that HR is the major DNA repair mechanism after G2/M phase arrest. The approach outlined here makes gene editing in hPSCs a more viable tool for disease modeling, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies.

  14. Proteasome-mediated degradation of cell division cycle 25C and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced G2-M-phase cell cycle arrest in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2004-05-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables, offers significant protection against cancer in animals induced by a variety of carcinogens. The present study demonstrates that PEITC suppresses proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner by causing G(2)-M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), which is a structural analogue of PEITC but lacks the -CH(2) spacers that link the aromatic ring to the -N=C=S group, neither inhibited PC-3 cell viability nor caused cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. These results indicated that even a subtle change in isothiocyanate (ITC) structure could have a significant impact on its biological activity. The PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a >80% reduction in the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C; 24 h after treatment with 10 micro M PEITC), which led to an accumulation of Tyr(15) phosphorylated (inactive) Cdk1. On the other hand, PITC treatment neither reduced protein levels of Cdk1 or Cdc25C nor affected Cdk1 phosphorylation. The PEITC-induced decline in Cdk1 and Cdc25C protein levels and cell cycle arrest were significantly blocked on pretreatment of PC-3 cells with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 cells to 10 micro M PEITC, but not PITC, resulted in about 56% and 44% decrease in the levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), respectively. However, ectopic expression of Bcl-2 failed to alter sensitivity of PC-3 cells to growth inhibition or apoptosis induction by PEITC. Treatment of cells with PEITC, but not PITC, also resulted in cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9, and procaspase-8. Moreover, the PEITC-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in the presence of general caspase inhibitor and specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest in PC-3 cells is likely due

  15. The effect of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and monophasic oral contraceptive pill use on local and central arterial stiffness in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Stacey E; Shenouda, Ninette; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2018-04-20

    Arterial stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Previous sex-based investigations of local and central stiffness report inconsistent findings and have not controlled for menstrual cycle phase in women. There is also evidence that sex hormones influence the vasculature, but their impact on arterial stiffness across a natural menstrual (NAT) or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) cycle has been understudied. This study sought to 1) examine potential sex differences in local and central stiffness, 2) compare stiffness profiles between NAT and OCP cycles, and 3) investigate the relationship between duration of OCP use and arterial stiffness. Fifty-three healthy adults (22{plus minus}3 years; 20 men, 15 NAT, 18 OCP) underwent assessments of sex hormone concentrations, β-stiffness index (local stiffness), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, central stiffness). All participants were tested three times (men: same day and time one week apart; NAT: menstrual, mid-follicular, luteal; OCP: placebo, early and late active pill). Men had higher β-stiffness than NAT and OCP (p0.05 for all) and were not associated with duration of OCP use (β-stiffness: r=0.003, p=0.99; cfPWV: r =-0.26, p=0.30). The apparent sex-differences in local, but not central stiffness highlight the importance of assessing both indices when comparing men and women. Furthermore, fluctuating sex hormones do not appear to influence β-stiffness or cfPWV. Therefore, these stiffness indices may only need to be assessed during one cycle phase in women in future investigations.

  16. Overexpression of catalase delays G0/G1- to S-phase transition during cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumah, Ogbeyalu E; Jules, George E; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2009-06-15

    Although it is understood that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) promotes cellular proliferation, little is known about its role in endothelial cell cycle progression. To assess the regulatory role of endogenously produced H(2)O(2) in cell cycle progression, we studied the cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) obtained from mice overexpressing a human catalase transgene (hCatTg), which destroys H(2)O(2). The hCatTg MAECs displayed a prolonged doubling time compared to wild-type controls (44.0 +/- 4.7 h versus 28.6 +/- 0.8 h, pcatalase inhibitor, prevented the observed diminished growth rate in hCatTg MAECs. Inhibition of catalase activity with aminotriazole abrogated catalase overexpression-induced antiproliferative action. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the prolonged doubling time was principally due to an extended G(0)/G(1) phase in hCatTg MAECs compared to the wild-type cells (25.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 15.9 +/- 1.4 h, pinhibitors, p21 and p27, which inhibit the Cdk activity required for the G(0)/G(1)- to S-phase transition. Knockdown of p21 and/or p27 attenuated the antiproliferative effect of catalase overexpression in MAECs. These results, together with the fact that catalase is an H(2)O(2) scavenger, suggest that endogenously produced H(2)O(2) mediates MAEC proliferation by fostering the transition from G(0)/G(1) to S phase.

  17. Platinum(IV) complex LA-12 induces cell cycle phase specific apoptosis in colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondálová Blanářová, Olga; Jelínková, Iva; Jendželovský, R.; Souček, Karel; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Sova, P.; Kozubík, Alois

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2009), s. 256-257 ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : platinum drugs * cell cycle apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. How Small Businesses Market Their Products during the Different Phases of the Product Life Cycle: The Case of Swedish Ice Cream Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Annika Hallberg; Susana Friberg; Paulina Myhrman

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish ice cream market of today is dominated by a few major market leaders, which makes it a challenge for small firms to make themselves visible and survive on a long-term basis. The aim of this article is to investigate and understand how small firms in the ice cream business market their products, based on the marketing mix and the portfolio matrix, during the different phases of the product life cycle. The combination of the two models for strategic planning enables t...

  19. Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-μm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guibao; Wandel, Scott F.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We describe the production of 2.2-mJ, ∼6 optical-cycle-long mid-infrared laser pulses with a carrier wavelength of 2.05 μm in a two-stage β-BaB 2 O 4 nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier design with a mixed phase matching scheme, which is pumped by a standard Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification system. It is demonstrated that relatively high pulse energies, short pulse durations, high stability, and excellent beam profiles can be obtained using this simple approach, even without the use of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

  20. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C W; Korsen, T; van Kessel, H; van Dop, P A; Caron, F J; Schoemaker, J

    1985-12-01

    To characterize the oscillations of plasma LH in normally cycling and amenorrheic women, three groups of women were studied: I, normal women during the follicular phase of the cycle (n = 9); II, women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD; n = 11); and III, women with non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained at 10-min intervals for 6 h on 2 separate days. A pulse was defined as an increase in LH at least 20% over the preceding lowest value (nadir). Since LHRH release immediately follows the nadir of the LH levels, the nadir interval (NI) was used for analysis. For analysis, the results from 1 day were selected at random from each subject, and from each day, the same number of NIs also were randomly selected. When two NIs from each patient were selected, the median NI was 75 min in group I, 45 min in group II, and 45 min in group III. When three or four NIs were chosen, the median NI was 60 min in group I, 50 min in group II, and 40 min in group III. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. When three NIs were selected, the mean of the corresponding LH amplitudes was 2.8 U/liter in group I, 6.0 U/liter in group II, and 1.5 U/liter in group III. The differences between these groups were statistically significant. Thus, the NI in PCOD patients was shorter than that during the follicular phase of the cycle, but this short NI is not unique for PCOD, since the NI in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea patients was even smaller. The LH amplitude was higher in PCOD and lower in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea compared to that during the follicular phase of the cycle. The decrease in NI in PCOD and/or non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea vs. the NI of the follicular phase could be explained by either a higher frequency of LHRH pulses from the hypothalamus or an increased sensitivity of the pituitary leading to a greater response of the pituitary to LHRH pulses.

  1. Methodology Proposal for Increasing Swift Trust within Virtual Teams in the Inception Phase of a Project Life-Cycle: Project Manager’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Bojan Morić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes team building methodology for project managers in virtual teams as means to develop swift trust between new team members in the inception phase of the project life cycle. Proposed methodology encompasses activities within the first three days after the team formation and proposes the measuring tools for monitoring and managing trust development within the project team. Aim of this paper is to provide new insights to various decision makers potentially interested in increasing the performance of project teams operating in virtual environment, such as: investors, business owners and project managers working in virtual environment.

  2. Folate deprivation induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in hippocampal neuron cells through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xi; Sun, Qinwei; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Cai, Demin; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-10-01

    Folate deficiency contributes to impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells as model to investigate the effect of folate deprivation (FD) on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. FD caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increased the rate of apoptosis, which was associated with disrupted expression of folate transport and methyl transfer genes. FOLR1 and SLC46A1 were (Pmethyl transfer pathway and hypermethylation of IGF-1 gene promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applications of liquid phase chromatographies for the analysis of streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2000-06-01

    India has opted for a closed fuel cycle comprising of reprocessing and recycling technology. The back end of such nuclear fuel cycle involves the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for recovery of plutonium and depleted uranium by Purex technology. Wastes arising from the reprocessing plant are classified as high, intermediate and low level wastes (HLW, ILW, LLW). HLW is mixture of over 50 elements present in different chemical forms. The accurate analyses of dissolver solution and HLW are the most challenging but essential tasks for reprocessing plant operations and also for further development of treatment methods. Inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques are suitable for analysis of metallic anions. Ion chromatography has proven capability to analyse number of cations or anions at ppm or even ppb level in single run. The report reviews the literature regarding the title subject. To assess the technical feasibility of ion chromatography for waste analysis, a simulated PHWR-HLW analogue was prepared. The PHWR-HLW analogue and ground water samples were analysed on DIONEX-DX 500 and Metrohm IC. Results obtained clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ion chromatography as vital analytical tool. HLW and other process or waste streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle can be analysed for alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metal cations and important anions. Use of fraction collector along with ion chromatography can enhance it's sensitivity to few Bq/ml for radioactive samples. (author)

  4. Modifications in cell cycle kinetics and in expression of G1 phase-regulating proteins in human amniotic cells after exposure to electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, S; Viergutz, T; Simkó, M

    2004-10-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic fields are suspected of being involved in carcinogenesis, particularly in processes that could be related to cancer promotion. Because development of cancer is associated with deregulated cell growth and we previously observed a magnetic field-induced decrease in DNA synthesis [Lange et al. (2002) Alterations in the cell cycle and in the protein level of cyclin D1p, 21CIP1, and p16INK4a after exposure to 50 HZ. MF in human cells. Radiat. Environ. Biophys.41, 131], this study aims to document the influence of 50 Hz, 1 mT magnetic fields (MF), with or without initial gamma-ionizing radiation (IR), on the following cell proliferation-relevant parameters in human amniotic fluid cells (AFC): cell cycle distribution, expression of the G1 phase-regulating proteins Cdk4, cyclin D1, p21CIP1 and p16INK4a, and Cdk4 activity. While IR induced a G1 delay and a dose-dependent G2 arrest, no discernible changes in cell cycle kinetics were observed due to MF exposure. However, a significant decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and an increase in p21CIP1- and p16INK4a-expression could be detected after exposure to MF alone. IR-exposure caused an augmentation of p21CIP1- and p16INK4a- levels as well, but did not alter cyclin D1 expression. A slight diminution of Cdk4 activity was noticed after MF exposure only, indicating that Cdk4 appears not to act as a mediator of MF- or IR-induced changes in the cell cycle of AFC cells. Co-exposure to MF/IR affected neither cell cycle distribution nor protein expression or kinase activity additionally or synergistically, and therefore MF seems not to modify the mutagenic potency of IR.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of celery seed extract induced apoptosis via s phase cell cycle arrest in the BGC-823 human stomach cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Lei; Yao, Shu-Tong; Jiao, Peng; Qin, Shu-Cun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ya-Bin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. Loss of cell cycle control, leading to uncontrolled proliferation, is common in cancer. Therefore, the identification of potent and selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors is a priority for anti-cancer drug discovery. There are at least two major apoptotic pathways, initiated by caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively, which can activate caspase cascades. Apoptosis triggered by activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway represents the main programmed cell death mechanism. This is activated by various intracellular stresses that induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Anti-tumor effects of celery seed extract (CSE) and related mechanisms regarding apoptosis were here investigated in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. CSE was produced by supercritical fluid extraction. Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry using Annexin/PI staining and DAPI staining and a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Cell cycling was evaluated using PI staining with flow cytometry and expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins cyclin A, CDK2, bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. CSE had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment, the apoptotic rate significantly increased, with morphological changes typical of apoptosis observed with LSCM by DAPI staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2 and bcl-2 were all down-regulated, whereas bax was up-regulated. The molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of CSE may be associated with cycle arrest in the S phase.

  6. Changes in distribution of cell cycle phases and DNA content in HeLa S3 cell after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunbao

    1992-01-01

    The effects of irradiation and hyperthermia on the distribution in various phases and DNA content of HeLa S 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and an image analysis instrument. A marked increase in DNA content from 6.718 to 9.614(AU) in HeLa S 3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was seen to correspond with the changes in the distribution of various phases in G 2 + M, from 22% to 52%. Meanwhile, the surviving fraction of HeLa S 3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was less than 1%. However, after heating at 44 deg C for 10 min, the amount of cells in G 2 + M increased from 22.5% to 52.5% and the surviving fraction after hyperthermia was less than 2.65%. The changes in distribution of various phases after Ir-192 irradiation were similar to those seen after X-ray irradiation. The delay of G 2 + M phase after treatment with 8 Gy plus heating at 44 deg C for 7 min in HeLa S 3 cells was similar to that seen in the case of treatment with 8 Gy alone. As the surviving fraction accompanying the G 2 + M delay after irradiation plus heat treatment was very low, we suggest that the changes of distribution in various phases of HeLa S 3 cells after treatment might be used as a rapid indicator of serious injury

  7. Alopecia of IFN-gamma knockout mouse as a model for disturbance of the hair cycle: a unique arrest of the hair cycle at the anagen phase accompanied by mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Ryuichiro; Tajima, Sadao; Yoneda, Yukio; Tamayama, Takumi; Watanabe, Masahito; Ueda, Kouichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2002-09-01

    Interferon-gamma(-/-) (IFN-gamma(-/-)) and IFN-gamma(+/+) C57BL/6 mice (3 weeks of age) completed the production of morphogenesis-derived hair. Around 6 weeks of age, however, most of the IFN-gamma(-/-) but none of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice began to lose hairs in the dorsal and occipital areas in the absence of inflammatory reactions, and the alopecia was sustained for at least several 10-week periods of observation. A single subcutaneous injection of IFN-gamma to IFN-gamma(-/-) mice at 3, but not 4, 5, or 8 weeks of age could protect all the mice from alopecia, revealing that the lack of IFN-gamma around 3 weeks of age is directly responsible for the alopecia. Histologic features showed that the hair follicles of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice passed through the anagen (4-5 weeks of age) and catagen/telogen ( approximately 6 weeks of age) phases, whereas those of IFN-gamma(-/-) mice (5 weeks of age or older) stayed in the anagen phase. TUNEL and bromodeoxyuridine experiments suggested that an arrest with unlimited DNA synthesis of the hair cycle in the anagen phase by the lack of IFN-gamma-dependent apoptosis in the midfollicle region and diffuse shedding of previously formed hair induced alopecia in IFN-gamma(-/-) mice.

  8. Methodology for the assessment of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Report of Phase 1B (first part) of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in the year 2000, based on resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). This followed an initiative of the Russian Federation supported by a group of IAEA Member States to join forces in a broad international effort to develop innovative nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology, recognizing that: A sustainable energy supply for humanity in the 21st century will require the large-scale deployment of nuclear power as well as other energy sources; Nuclear power is an energy technology that offers practically unlimited energy resources whose deployment can reduce environmental pollution and the volumes of waste needing management, including greenhouse gas emissions. As of December 2004, INPRO has 22 members: Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the European Commission. The main objectives of INPRO are to: Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles; and to Create a forum to involve all relevant stakeholders that will have an impact on, draw from, and complement the activities of existing institutions, as well as ongoing initiatives at the national and international level. To realize its objectives, INPRO has adopted a stepwise approach. In the first step, called Phase 1A, task groups established a hierarchy of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, in the areas of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure, that must be fulfilled by

  9. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  10. Immuno-histochemical localization of LH-RH during different phases of estrus cycle of rat, with reference to the preoptic and arcuate neurons, and the ependymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D V

    1976-10-06

    Immunohistochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), during different phases of the estrus cycle, in the preoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei, and in the OVLT of rats, with special emphasis on the ependymal cells, was studied by light, fluorescent and electron microscopy, by using rabbit anti serum to synthetic LH-RH. The LH-RH neurons in the above mentioned areas, were very active during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Specialized ependymal cells bordering the 3rd ventricle also showed varied LH-RH positive reaction during different phases of the estrus cycle. Immunofluorescent studies showed cyclic variations in the LH-RH material in the CSF of the preoptic and infundibular recesses, as well as in the 3rd ventricle near OVLT, in that, it was maximum during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Immediately after this, the LH-RH late proestrus was reached. We have also observed that during the proestrus phase, as the LH-RH material started declining in the CSF, it had started building up in the specialized ependyma. Estrus, metaestrus and early diestrus phases showed very weak immunofluorescent LH-RH material in the lumen of the infundibular recess and in the specialized ependyma. Our immuno-electron microscopic observations showed pleomorphic LH-RH granules in the specialized ependyma during late kiestrus and proestrus phases. All these observations lead us to believe that LH-RH is not synthesized in the ependymal cells,but is phagocytosed from the CSF of the 3rd ventricle by the specialized ependyma, which transports it to the ME portal system. In males, the fluorescent LH-RH material did not show any noticeable changes. With the present and previous work,it is concluded that the neurons in differentnuclei synthesize LH-RH and transport it to the ME portal system,primarily through the nerve fibers and secondarily by the ventricular route. It is also suggested that the ependymal transport of LH-RH to the ME

  11. Molecular Signatures of Immune Activation and Epithelial Barrier Remodeling Are Enhanced during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

    Science.