WorldWideScience

Sample records for estonian police law

  1. Two Decades of Estonian Police and the (Irrelevance of Police Models for the Development of Safety Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Suve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Police models are designed to improve safety in society. Although Estonia has not deliberately used any (combination of police models for developing its policies of safety and its police reforms since the country regained independence, its safety has improved considerably during the last couple of decades. The scholarly discussions about police models are overwhelmingly about the possible effects of different models on safety management and about their application to particular countries. However, countries like Estonia with no consistent conceptions of police have received little attention in academic literature. We aim to fill this gap by analysing the developments of the Estonian police in its philosophical, strategic, tactical and organisational dimensions over the period between 1991 and 2013. The analysed materials include the official police development plans, legislation, statutes, training programs and statistics about the police. Our analysis shows that although safety in Estonia has improved considerably, developments of the Estonian police are characterised by internal discrepancies and inconsistencies. In view of this, we put forth some hypotheses for further studies regarding policy development in a situation where policy is not explicitly stated or where organisational reforms are seen not as “simple” or “complex” problems, but as “wicked” problems.

  2. Police Response to Mandatory Arrest Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Sylvia I.; Holmes, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how police officers in 24 departments have responded to mandatory arrest statutes in 861 cases of domestic violence. Arrests of offenders, especially those violating restraining orders, increased. Arrest was affected by victim injury, use of a weapon, use of alcohol, and presence of a witness. Police training was crucial to implementation…

  3. Policing and Law Enforcement in COIN -- The Thick Blue Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    organizations can lead to vigilantism and the people’s ulti- mate loss of confidence in one of the symbols of government. Special Police Units. The...Conflict and Law Enforcement Vol. 9, No. 2 (Summer 2000). London: Frank Cass. Tabor, Robert. War of the Flea : The Classic Study of Guerrilla Warfare

  4. 'May issue' gun carrying laws and police discretion: Some evidence from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G

    2015-08-01

    In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.

  5. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Integration of Environmental Education and Environmental Law Enforcement for Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovornkijprasert, Sravoot; Rawang, Wee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish an integrated model of environmental education (EE) and environmental law enforcement (ELE) to improve the efficiency of functional competency for police officers in Bangkok Metropolitan Police Division 9 (MBP Div. 9). The research design was mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches…

  7. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardine Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included

  8. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Melissa; Crofts, Nick; Monaghan, Geoff; Morrow, Martha

    2012-07-09

    The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention.Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise

  9. Did Chile's traffic law reform push police enforcement? Understanding Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Munoz, José Ignacio; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; van den Berg, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine to what extent the reduction of Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries during 2000-2012 was related to the police traffic enforcement increment registered after the introduction of its 2005 traffic law reform. A unique dataset with assembled information from public institutions and analyses based on ordinary least square and robust random effects models was carried out. Dependent variables were traffic fatality and severe injury rates per population and vehicle fleet. Independent variables were: (1) presence of new national traffic law; (2) police officers per population; (3) number of traffic tickets per police officer; and (4) interaction effect of number of traffic tickets per police officer with traffic law reform. Oil prices, alcohol consumption, proportion of male population 15-24 years old, unemployment, road infrastructure investment, years' effects and regions' effects represented control variables. Empirical estimates from instrumental variables suggest that the enactment of the traffic law reform in interaction with number of traffic tickets per police officer is significantly associated with a decrease of 8% in traffic fatalities and 7% in severe injuries. Piecewise regression model results for the 2007-2012 period suggest that police traffic enforcement reduced traffic fatalities by 59% and severe injuries by 37%. Findings suggest that traffic law reforms in order to have an effect on both traffic fatality and injury rates reduction require changes in police enforcement practices. Last, this case also illustrates how the diffusion of successful road safety practices globally promoted by WHO and World Bank can be an important influence for enhancing national road safety practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Municipal law enforcers: towards a new system of local policing in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steden, van R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, Dutch city councils have sought to professionalise City Wardens (Stadswachten), transforming them into Municipal Law Enforcement Officers (MLEOs). MLEOs, who hold limited police powers, are now regarded as ‘Special Investigative Officers’ (Buitengewoon Opsporingsamtbenaren –

  11. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent emergence of fusion centers and centralized intelligence units, and the move to develop intelligence capacity within local law enforcement agencies in the United States, intelligence-led policing (ILP...

  12. The Impact of Psychological Science on Policing in the United States: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Effective Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tom R; Goff, Phillip Atiba; MacCoun, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The May 2015 release of the report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing highlighted a fundamental change in the issues dominating discussions about policing in America. That change has moved discussions away from a focus on what is legal or effective in crime control and toward a concern for how the actions of the police influence public trust and confidence in the police. This shift in discourse has been motivated by two factors-first, the recognition by public officials that increases in the professionalism of the police and dramatic declines in the rate of crime have not led to increases in police legitimacy, and second, greater awareness of the limits of the dominant coercive model of policing and of the benefits of an alternative and more consensual model based on public trust and confidence in the police and legal system. Psychological research has played an important role in legitimating this change in the way policymakers think about policing by demonstrating that perceived legitimacy shapes a set of law-related behaviors as well as or better than concerns about the risk of punishment. Those behaviors include compliance with the law and cooperation with legal authorities. These findings demonstrate that legal authorities gain by a focus on legitimacy. Psychological research has further contributed by articulating and demonstrating empirical support for a central role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy, providing legal authorities with a clear road map of strategies for creating and maintaining public trust. Given evidence of the benefits of legitimacy and a set of guidelines concerning its antecedents, policymakers have increasingly focused on the question of public trust when considering issues in policing. The acceptance of a legitimacy-based consensual model of police authority building on theories and research studies originating within psychology illustrates how psychology can contribute to the development of evidence

  13. Demilitarization of the Police, Criminal Policy and Human Rights in the Democratic Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Frederico Fontes de Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection on the incompatibility between the militarization of the police and the democratic rule of law. Seeing the violent mechanisms such as routine, relates to public safety model with Agamben's teachings on the state of exception as the rule. The culture of fear is seen as legitimizing the social longing for more militarized apparatus. Reconnecting Bauman, Zaffaroni and Foucault , the work points out that criminal policy is based on the annihilation of the other and that the penal system is extremely selective, using the PM's for vertical integration and standardization of acceptable profiles.

  14. The law criminalizing attempted suicide in Ghana: the views of clinical psychologists, emergency ward nurses, and police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe L

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is still considered a crime in Ghana. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward this law held by health workers and police officers in Ghana so as to provide culture-sensitive arguments to aid in abolishing the law. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight clinical psychologists, eight emergency ward nurses, and eight police officers. The majority of informants did not agree with the law criminalizing attempted suicide in Ghana, although five of the emergency ward nurses and two police officers did. Arguments for agreeing with the law were that people have no right to take life and that the law has a deterrent effect and thus it will help reduce the suicide rate. The main argument for not agreeing with the law was that suicidal behavior is a mental health issue. Those who argued in favor of the law did not seem to reflect much on the reasons for suicidal behavior. Education on how to understand suicidal behavior and suicidal people may aid the work toward decriminalizing attempted suicide in Ghana.

  15. 'Around here I am the law!' Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkman, Q.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this

  16. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  17. Police Encounters Among Needle Exchange Clients in Baltimore: Drug Law Enforcement as a Structural Determinant of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Cochrane, Jess; Sawyer, Anne L; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Han, Jennifer; Robinowitz, Natanya; Sherman, Susan G

    2015-09-01

    We piloted a monitoring mechanism to document police encounters around programs targeting people who inject drugs (PWID), and assessed their demographic predictors at 2 Baltimore, Maryland, needle exchange program (NEP) sites. In a brief survey, 308 clients quantified, characterized, and sited recent police encounters. Multivariate linear regression determined encounter predictors, and we used geocoordinate maps to illustrate clusters. Within the past 6 months, clients reported a median of 3 stops near NEP sites (interquartile range [IQR] = 0-7.5) and a median of 1 arrest in any location (IQR = 0-2). Three respondents reported police referral to the NEP. Being younger (P = .009), being male (P = .033), and making frequent NEP visits (P = .02) were associated with reported police stops. Among clients reporting arrest or citation for syringe possession, Whites were significantly less likely than non-Whites to report being en route to or from an NEP (P < .001). Reported encounters were clustered around NEPs. Systematic surveillance of structural determinants of health for PWID proved feasible when integrated into service activities. Improved monitoring is critical to informing interventions to align policing with public health, especially among groups subject to disproportionate levels of drug law enforcement.

  18. Creating a Learning Organization in Law Enforcement: Maturity Levels for Police Oversight Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a stage model for maturity levels for police oversight agencies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review covering police oversight organizations and stages of growth models. Findings: As a conceptual paper, the main findings are related to the appropriateness of…

  19. Online Estonian Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  20. Selenium levels of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamaa, P; Kantola, M; Viitak, A; Kaasik, T; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to sum up the dietary selenium intake of the Estonian people according to the serum selenium concentrations. This research compiles the information published in the literature about the levels of selenium in the serum of the Estonian people. We compare these results with the findings obtained from the analyses of serum samples gathered by us in the 1990s in Estonia. The selenium concentration in sera of 404 Estonians ranged from 26 to 116 microg/l; the mean was 75 microg/l. The selenium contents of Estonians were at a similar level as reported for Finns before the selenium supplementation of fertilizers carried out in Finland in 1984. In view of the selenium concentration in the sera, we suggest that the dietary selenium intake among the Estonian people might be scarce, and Estonian authorities should consider in their nutrition policies the possible low intake of selenium of Estonians.

  1. Police Deprivation of Third Parties’ Liberty – A Field of Tension between National Police Law and the European Convention on Human Rights, as illustrated by Austin & Others v the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Fredriksen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Austin & Others v the United Kingdom The European Court of Human Rights came to the conclusion that the use of a police cordon, also known as “kettling”, where approximately 2000 people were forced to remain inside the cordon for up to eight hours, did not amount to deprivation of liberty under Article 5 (1 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This conclusion was reached by way of restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. Previous case law establishes a set of criteria to be used when deciding if an infringement on the physical liberty to move from place to place constitutes a deprivation of this liberty, or merely a restriction upon it. These criteria were upheld in Austin, but were found to give room for taking into account the context and circumstances in which the police cordon was used. The previous view of the Court that the grounds justifying deprivations of liberty listed in Article 5 (1 (a-f are exhaustive, was also upheld. In this article the starting point is the close relationship between national police law regarding the maintenance of security and public order on one hand, and the principle of necessity on the other. It is emphasised that “necessity”-based norms in national police law can make police measures directed against innocent third parties legal, deprivations of liberty included, but that this possibility would have been absent in Article 5 (1 of the Convention without the aforementioned restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. An attempt is made to show that this interpretation is in fact based on central elements of the principle of necessity. Furthermore, it is attempted to show that the restrictive interpretation can be seen as a reflection of the need acknowledged in national police law, as well as in other articles of the Convention, to direct police measures against innocent third parties.

  2. Police officers' and paramedics' experiences with overdose and their knowledge and opinions of Washington State's drug overdose-naloxone-Good Samaritan law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Green, Caleb J; Beletsky, Leo; Schoeppe, Jennifer A; Coffin, Phillip O; Kuszler, Patricia C

    2013-12-01

    Opioid overdoses are an important public health concern. Concerns about police involvement at overdose events may decrease calls to 911 for emergency medical care thereby increasing the chances than an overdose becomes fatal. To address this concern, Washington State passed a law that provides immunity from drug possession charges and facilitates the availability of take-home-naloxone (the opioid overdose antidote) to bystanders in 2010. To examine the knowledge and opinions regarding opioid overdoses and this new law, police (n = 251) and paramedics (n = 28) in Seattle, WA were surveyed. The majority of police (64 %) and paramedics (89 %) had been at an opioid overdose in the prior year. Few officers (16 %) or paramedics (7 %) were aware of the new law. While arrests at overdose scenes were rare, drugs or paraphernalia were confiscated at 25 % of the most recent overdoses police responded to. Three quarters of officers felt it was important they were at the scene of an overdose to protect medical personnel, and a minority, 34 %, indicated it was important they were present for the purpose of enforcing laws. Police opinions about the immunity and naloxone provisions of the law were split, and we present a summary of the reasons for their opinions. The results of this survey were utilized in public health efforts by the police department which developed a roll call training video shown to all patrol officers. Knowledge of the law was low, and opinions of it were mixed; however, police were concerned about the issue of opioid overdose and willing to implement agency-wide training.

  3. Combat Policing: The Application of Selected Law Enforcement Techniques to Enhance Infantry Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    working with U.S. military customs agents to obtain the commercial equipment. He recommended the captain go arrest the man because, while posing as... loyalties , making the job of police easier. 12 These effective methods for identifying the enemy were resisted within the Marine Corps, furthering...31 Ralph Morten, in person interview with the author, 26 Oct 2011 32 http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/December/11- crm -1658.html. 33 MARCENT

  4. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  5. INTRODUCTION TO ESTONIAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAUN, ALO; SAARESTE, ANDRUS

    THIS TEXT COMPRISES A SURVEY OF THE ESTONIAN LANGUAGE, WHICH IS GROUPED HERE WITH LIVONIAN, VOTIC, AND A PART OF WESTERN FINNISH, TO FORM THE SOUTHWESTERN BRANCH OF THE FINNIC (OR BALTO-FINNIC) LANGUAGES. THE AUTHORS' CLASSIFICATIONS AND A HISTORY OF THE STUDIES WHICH HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN ESTONIAN ARE PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A PRESENTATION OF…

  6. Heads of the Estonian Security Police

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade Kaitsepolitsei juhtide Helmut Traugott Veemi, Eduard-Hans-Kristian Alveri, Eduard Lensini, Johan Soomani, August Tuulse (Tõns, Tenson), Konstantin Kirsimägi (Kirschberg), Tanel Võhma (Daniel Võhman) elust ja tegevusest

  7. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  8. Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Robert D; Taniguchi, Travis; Aagaard, Brian; Ortiz, Alexa M; Hegarty-Craver, Meghan; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Ridenour, Ty A

    2017-03-17

    Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts. The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency. We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017. We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training.

  9. ESTONIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM FEATURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Francisco Rodríguez Bravo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to identify structural elements of the Estonian education system which has obtained in the last PISA 2012 international report, some results well above the average set by the OECD (494...

  10. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  11. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive...... of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N = 3683) were aged 18–84 years and randomly selected...... when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ...

  12. Medical, social, and law characteristics of intoxicant's users medically examined in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Renaud; Gerardin, Marie; Vigneau Victorri, Caroline; Guigand, Gabriel; Wainstein, Laura; Jolliet, Pascale

    2013-11-01

    There are no studies on medically examined persons in custody which specifically focus on identifying dependence profiles among users of intoxicants. Nonetheless, the characterisation of dependence profiles for intoxicants such as alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines and their by-products is a medical necessity in this setting. A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted by structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who admitted to having taken an intoxicant/s (tobacco, alcohol, drugs or illegal substances). Social, legal and medical data were collected. The aim of the study was to explore characteristics of these persons in police custody. 817 questionnaires were examined. More than one-third have a dependence on at least one substance. 37.7% were dependant of tobacco, 86.5% of drinkers, 24.7% of cannabis users. Of these, 90.1% were from men with a mean age of 29.4 years, 40% from individuals living alone, 25.7% from persons with no financial means and 19.6% from homeless persons. 10% were believed to be suffering from mental illness, 7.2% were thought to be asthmatic, 3% to have a chronic infection, and 2.9% to have epilepsy. 36.2% reportedly received treatment, 37.5% of which included benzodiazepine and 20.3% opiate substitution therapy. Incidence of psychological and psychiatric disorders is close to 10% of intoxicant detainees. In this study, some of the stated pathologies occur in ratios similar to those in other published results. But, there is a high, and probably underestimated, prevalence of psychological and psychiatric disorders in this population of detainees reporting exposure to intoxicant or illegal substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Killing Barney Fife: Law Enforcements Socially Constructed Perception of Violence and its Influence on Police Militarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    nation/2014/12/21/ambush-cop- killings /20731013/. 175 “Active Shooter and Mass Casualty Incidents,” accessed March 22, 2015, http://www. fbi.gov/about...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited KILLING BARNEY...REPORT DATE September 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE KILLING BARNEY FIFE: LAW ENFORCEMENT’S SOCIALLY

  14. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, L M; Møller, M; Prato, C G; Haustein, S

    2017-02-01

    Although most motorised countries have experienced massive improvements in road safety over the last decades, human behaviour and differences in accident risk across sub-groups of drivers remains a key issue in the area of road safety. The identification of risk groups requires the identification of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N=3683) were aged 18-84 years and randomly selected from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group "Violating unsafe drivers" was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ and DSI as suitable instruments for predicting traffic offences while also confirming previous results on accumulation of problematic behaviours across life contexts. The finding that driver sub-groups did not differ in registered accidents supports the recent research activities in finding and modelling surrogate safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Police and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  16. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  17. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  18. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  19. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  20. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  1. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  2. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  3. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria | Oyemwinmina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This duty is distilled into standard policing to enforce law and order in the wake of a secured/safe environment. The standard of ... The paper recommended some important strategies for effective policing which includes re-orientation of the police, proper training, provision of firearms, motivation and public responsibility.

  4. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    .... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...

  5. Protesting police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William

    2018-01-01

    We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of

  6. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  7. Motivational Underpinnings of Estonian Folk Dance Practices among the Estonian Diaspora over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Eha Rüütel; Iivi Zajedova; Angela Arraste

    2013-01-01

    This article is a part of a wider research on Estonian folk dance, aiming to map the emergence of folk dance groups and to study the practices and role of folk dance among the Estonian diaspora. The article sets out to explore incentives contributing to intergenerational transmission of Estonian folk dance tradition. 54 interviews (21 men and 33 women aged 38 to 87) were carried out with Estonians living in Australia, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The analysis ...

  8. Cohort Profile : Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tonu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C.; Maegi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged >= 18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000-represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General

  9. Policing guns and youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence.

  10. Police officers' and paramedics' experiences with overdose and their knowledge and opinions of Washington State's drug overdose-naloxone-Good Samaritan law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banta-Green, Caleb J; Beletsky, Leo; Schoeppe, Jennifer A; Coffin, Phillip O; Kuszler, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Opioid overdoses are an important public health concern. Concerns about police involvement at overdose events may decrease calls to 911 for emergency medical care thereby increasing the chances than an overdose becomes fatal...

  11. Police Officers’ and Paramedics’ Experiences with Overdose and Their Knowledge and Opinions of Washington State’s Drug Overdose–Naloxone–Good Samaritan Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banta-Green, Caleb J; Beletsky, Leo; Schoeppe, Jennifer A; Coffin, Phillip O; Kuszler, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Opioid overdoses are an important public health concern. Concerns about police involvement at overdose events may decrease calls to 911 for emergency medical care thereby increasing the chances than an overdose becomes fatal...

  12. Schults suurendas kaalu Estonian Airis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees, AS-i Cresco üks omanikke Olev Schults ostis ärimees Tõnu Laagilt tema osaluse Crescos ja selle tütarfirmades, saades täieliku kontrolli Cresco ja ühtlasi Estonian Airi 17-protsendilise osaluse üle

  13. Estonian Air andis muutustest teada / Mart Relve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Mart, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Autor peab kahetsusväärseks, et Äripäev süüdistab Estonian Air'i avalikkuse eest info varjamises ning kasutab oma väidete tõestuseks avalikkuses jutuks olnud fakte. Vt. samas: Estonian Air saanud meedias kriitikat

  14. The Police Executive and Governance: Adapting Police Leadership to an Increase in Oversight and Accountability in Police Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ellis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.

  15. Policing in Contemporary Nigeria: Issues and Challenges | Johnson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foundation of policing in Nigeria today can be traced to colonial legacy. Colonial policies subjugated the existing traditional informal law enforcement order and forcefully imposed western idea of policing. Thus, policing within the context of oppression and gross misuse of power has been linked to western orientation.

  16. Policía, conducta y control : el caso de la policía de Guadalajara, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Alvarado, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and

  17. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  18. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  19. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  20. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  1. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  2. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  3. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  4. Military Police Operational Harmonisation: The “Golden Hour” of Stability Deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Jones

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the threat level of foreign stability operations increases, military police units can make an effective contribution, especially when conducted with the Australian Federal Police. It is argued that, if Australian military police can apply police harmonisation techniques and improve their ability to conduct civilian-like policing duties, then their role in future rule-of-law operations are likely to be more effective.

  5. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  6. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  7. Governance and law in transition states : [doktoritöö] / Taavi Annus ; juhendaja: Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Taavi, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Comparative constitutional reasoning : the law and strategy of selecting the right arguments ; Die Verfassungsentwicklung in Estland von 1992 bis 2001 ; Judicial behavior in transition : the effects of judge and defendant characteristics ; The right to health protection in the Estonian Constitution ; German authors on Estonian minority rights

  8. Estonian Literature in the Schools of the Estonian-Russian Population (Changes in Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Loone

    1997-01-01

    Describes how Estonian language and literature have been taught at Russian-language schools in Estonia. Notes a lack of interesting reading materials, and describes how this instruction could be improved. (SR)

  9. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  10. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  11. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  12. Animal behaviour: pigtailed police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R

    2005-06-07

    A recent study of pigtailed macaques shows that most effective policing interventions in conflict situations are by socially powerful group-members, who sustain relatively low costs by intervening. Questions arise about the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of policing individuals.

  13. The Quality of Police Education: An AACJC Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James R.; Rasmussen, Howard M.

    These two symposium presentations are endorsed by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges in response to the book, "The Quality of Police Education," which was prepared by the Police Foundation with support from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Specifically, the papers refute allegations made in the book…

  14. Screening the L.A.P.D.: cinematic representations of policing and discourses of law enforcement in Los Angeles, 1948-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines cinematic representations of the L.A.P.D. within the context of discourses of law enforcement in Los Angeles and contends that these feature films constitute a significant strand within such discourse. This contention, which is based upon the various identifiable ways in which the films engage with contemporary issues, acknowledges that the nature of such engagement is constrained by the need to produce a commercially viable fictional entertainment. In four main chronolog...

  15. Stalking: una ricerca sull’”ammonimento del Questore” nella provincia di Bologna in riferimento alla Legge 38/2009 / Le stalking : analyse du « rappel à la loi » par le préfet de Police du département de Bologne (Loi n°38 du 2009 / Stalking: analysis of restraining order issued by the Chief of Police in the province of Bologna (law n° 38/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsi Giancarlo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The restraining order issued by the Chief of Police is a legal instrument that is used to protect the victim of stalking with the aim of dissuading the stalker from doing more persecutory acts. Neither executive decrees nor circulars are issued yet to define an equal national application procedure. For this reason, the author presents the procedure used by the Police headquarters of Bologna and the data concerning acts of stalking committed in Bologna and its province three years after the approval of the law n° 38/2009. La protection de la victime de harcèlement moral trouve dans le « rappel à la loi » de l’Autorité de Sécurité Publique un instrument juridique qui peut être utilisé afin de dissuader l’auteur de perpétrer d’autres actions criminelles. Compte tenu du de l’absence de décrets d’exécution et/ou de circulaires visant à une application uniforme de cet instrument au niveau national, nous présentons la procédure adoptée par le préfet de Police de Bologne, ainsi que les données relatives à ce phénomène concernent la ville et le département de Bologne, trois ans après la promulgation de la loi.

  16. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  17. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS) proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004). Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) military hierarchy (N=2570). The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples....

  18. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  19. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  20. Police Leadership and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Book Review -- Police Leadership and Management by Margaret Mitchell and John Casey (editors, Federation Press, Sydney, 2007, 290 pages, ISBN 9781862876491, Reviewed by Alan Beckley

  1. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Progress in Community Policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the development of community-based policing in the United States and the Netherlands. These two countries were selected because the United States has been the forerunner of research into the police and one of the first countries to attempt to introduce on a wide-scale, and

  3. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    be seen from a public opinion survey conducted in the early 1980s by a German marketing group seeking to gauge the general desire for a completely...kidnapped by BR. 1982 Dozier freed during operation by Nucleo Operativo Cetrale di Sicurezza (NOCS), police antiterrorism task force. 1982 Law

  4. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  5. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  6. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of switching between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Hein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The central research question of the present paper is ‘What variables influence switching (code-switching and code-blending between Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian among bimodal bilinguals in a school environment?’ The data from guided discussions involving deaf and hearing students indicated that bimodal bilinguals predominantly code-blend, i.e. simultaneously produce speech and signs. The main function of switching among the students was to emphasise a constituent in a clause, but they also switched to express themselves in an original way. In some utterances, it proved difficult to apply a single function to a switch, thus a sequential turn-by-turn analysis was employed. A deaf student’s level of switching was influenced most by the hearing status of the interlocutor, and the amount of switching by the interlocutor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.03

  8. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  9. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  10. Police Community Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.

  11. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    , the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public...... and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...

  12. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  13. Microwave emissions from police radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode

  14. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... of governing, ‘police’ was both a way both to govern free burghers and preserve traditional order....

  15. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, L.; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188?200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-ass...

  16. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  17. Linking Educational Institutions with Police Officer Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Nancy; Sereni-Massinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO)...

  18. BASIC VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF POLICE EMPLOYEES ON PHYSICAL TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Dadov

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the police is to protect public order and combating crime. Perform this task in the process of performance management; police officers have to carry out suppression of crimes and administrative offenses and detention of persons who committed them. Of particular importance in this case become the system of training and tactics use by law-enforcement bodies to combat fighting techniques in the performance of their duties. Terms and conditions of professional activity by employe...

  19. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  20. Policing the homeland : choosing the intelligent option

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Shortly after September 11, 2001, our nation's law enforcement community found itself ill prepared to handle the range of responsibilities required in a nation under the threat of terrorism. Police organizations hastily assigned resources to help mitigate areas hit hard by the attack while dispersing investigative capital to prevent future strikes. A stark realization would follow, exposing the demands of coping with counter-terrorism while balancing finite resources aimed...

  1. External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Eamets; Urmas Varblane; Kaja Sostra

    2003-01-01

    In this empirical paper we examine how the Russian financial crisis affected Estonian unemployment and foreign trade. In our interpretation the Russian crisis caused depression in the Estonian economy, but at the same time it also caused a relatively fast reallocation of trade. Eastward export flows (largely foodstuffs) declined drastically while exports to Finland and Sweden largely increased. Several manufacturing firms went into bankruptcy and foreign investors benefited from relatively lo...

  2. Avoidable mortality in Estonia: exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, A; Lai, T; Leinsalu, M

    2011-11-01

    A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia. Descriptive study. Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable). The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death. Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  4. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reili Argus; Victoria Kazakovskaya

    2013-01-01

    ... – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development...

  5. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  6. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  7. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  8. Adapting the Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommik, Carita; Luik, Piret

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian secondary school students in order to develop a valid instrument to measure students' attitudes within the Estonian educational context. The SATS-36 was administered to Estonian-speaking secondary school students before their compulsory…

  9. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  10. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  11. Drug policing in four Danish police districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Results from a study of zero-tolerance drug policy in Denmark are presented. Database research shows that an increasing number of Danes are criminalized for possession of illicit drugs and that particular characteristics of offenders increase the chance of being criminalized. Qualitative case...... studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...

  12. Public perceptions of police operations and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.

    1997-01-01

    New 'less than lethal' technologies being introduced into the law enforcement community will inevitably be challenged in the courts. From local jurisdictions to the highest courts in the land, law suits are filed at an alarming rate. Many are ultimately declared frivolous, but until they are resolved, all require human resources, money, and time to defend. Addressing liability issues head on could help to minimize potential law suits and the drain of our resources. Police administrators utilize education and training as tools to limit potential liability in their day to day operations. One such tool is the 'use of force continuum,' a simplistic progressive formula which identifies levels of action and reaction available to an officer when encountering any situation. Teaching an officer to understand this concept is relatively simple; the ability for that officer to correctly make a decision is more difficult. Determining where a specific action should be placed on the 'grid,' which ranges from 'officer's presence' to 'lethal encounter,' requires an officer to consider possible 'after effects' into the equation. With new attitudes emerging toward police operations, their available weapons, and applied techniques, repeated training will be necessary for this concept to remain effective. Scientists, engineers, manufacturers, and police administrators are responsible for the appropriate placement of new technology on the 'use of force continuum.' Adequate training and education should include detailed tactical, medical, and legal documentation to the police practitioner and to the public. Public education on the weapons and training used by those who 'serve and protect' them is critical to the process of achieving community acceptance and cooperation, ultimately reducing potential liability.

  13. Belize: Reflections on Police Training and Professionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barrachina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.

  14. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  15. Mental Illness Stigma Expressed by Police to Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes mental health related stigma expressed by police to police using a newly developed 11-item Police Officer Stigma Scale and reports on the preliminary psychometric properties (factor structure and internal reliability) of this scale. The scale used an indirect measurement approach adapted from the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale. Five themes appropriate to police culture were adapted and six additional items were added. Responses were rated on a 5-point agreement scale with an additional don't know option. Data were collected from officers attending a mandatory workshop (90.5% response). Exploratory factor analysis showed the scale to be unidimensional and internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha was 0.82). The most endorsed items pertained to avoiding disclosure to a supervisor/manager or to a colleague (85% agreement), that most officers would expect discrimination at work (62%), and that most officers would not want a supervisor or manager who had a mental illness (62%). Findings highlight that (a) Police-to-police mental illness stigma may be a particularly strong feature of police cultures; (b) police should be a focus for targeted anti-stigma interventions; and (c) though further psychometric testing is needed, the Police Office Stigma Scale may provide important insights into the nature and functioning of police-to-police stigma in police cultures in future research.

  16. Identity crisis? Negotiating blackness in the British police service: a regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, B; John-Baptiste, C

    2008-01-01

    Our paper will address preliminary findings from a pilot study in which we will interview a sample of black police personnel from Nottingham, UK. Our goal in this project is to uncover the mechanisms by which police officers as well as other police staff negotiate their black identities in the context of their roles within law enforcement an entity that clearly been historically characterized by systemic racism.

  17. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  18. The ways of police cadets’ social competence evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kiikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article analysis of general theoretic approaches towards competent and motivated behavior definitions, the model of police officer social competence was proposed along with the ways of its study. Based on development theory conception the initial validation of social competence logical system as a mean of cadets’ social competence evaluation was considered in the article. Additionally, the determination of personality development level as possibility for definition and evaluation of cadets’ social competence based on social behavior theory perspectives was considered. As well the social features of social competence of law­enforcement officers were discussed and the theoretical construction for schematized representation of police cadets’ social competence structure is presented. The model includes: social norms related to police activity; motivation to socially­oriented activity; social intelligence, as integrative characteristic of cognitive and operational processes; emotional steadiness and communication skills. It was stated that the main characteristic of police cadets’ social competence is efficiency of interaction between police and community. The other important factor influencing social competence is professional activity and in our case it is law­enforcement. The social environment of departmental educational institution was explored as a main factor contributing to development of police cadets’ social competence components.

  19. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  20. Football and gender 'policing'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in football. The policing of gender 'boundaries' through the kinds of exclusionary violence and bullying in the playground is also linked to the (re)production of heteronormativity. Heteronormativity is a ..... parents over children, of psychiatry over the mentally ill, of medicine over the population, of administration over the ways ...

  1. Police Attitudes and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Joseph; Price, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized Richard H. Hall's attitudinal attributes of a professional using a Likert scale. The survey was administered to officers in two similar mid-sized police departments. The first agency had 650 officers, while the second had 350 officers. Agency One requires all applicants to possess a bachelor's degree, while Agency…

  2. 76 FR 29137 - Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8676 of May 13, 2011 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2011 By the..., we will provide support to the families of law enforcement officers. As we commemorate Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, we honor the discipline and distinction our peace officers have shown in...

  3. Residues of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were analysed in selected Estonian soils. The sample collection included agricultural-rural (Ahja, Eerika, industrial-urban (Kohtla-Järve, Muuga, Kunda, and reference sites (Lahemaa and Vilsandi. The PCB concentrations were greater in Ahja-1982 and Kohtla-Järve station 1, while Eerika, other Kohtla-Järve, Muuga Port, Kunda, Lahemaa, and Vilsandi Island concentrations were low. Organochlorine pesticides were slightly higher at Kohtla-Järve stations and PBDEs at Kunda stations. Overall, the predominant contaminants were PCBs (0.43–89 ng/g dw, followed by OCPs (0.21–16 ng/g dw and PBDEs (< 0.01–3.2 ng/g dw. The occurrence of 4,4'-DDT in some samples indicated recent contamination by DDT of Estonian soils. The PBDEs in Estonian soils were reported for the first time.

  4. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  5. Leadership methods in contemporary police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.

  6. Extra-bodily DNA sampling by the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Forensic investigators have statutory powers to take DNA samples directly from suspects' bodies in certain circumstances but sometimes the powers fall short, legally or practically Police may then look for samples that have become separated from their suspects for one reason or another. No jurisdiction currently bars or even regulates this practice, which is instead loosely governed by laws on property, consent and evidence. This article argues that this lack of regulation undermines the entire system of forensic procedure laws.

  7. Pathogenic Policy: Immigrant Policing, Fear, and Parallel Medical Systems in the US South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Nolan

    2017-01-01

    Medical anthropology has a vital role in identifying health-related impacts of policy. In the United States, increasingly harsh immigration policies have formed a multilayered immigrant policing regime comprising state and federal laws and local police practices, the effects of which demand ethnographic attention. In this article, I draw from ethnographic fieldwork in Atlanta, Georgia, to examine the biopolitics of immigrant policing. I underscore how immigrant policing directly impacts undocumented immigrants' health by producing a type of fear based governance that alters immigrants' health behaviors and sites for seeking health services. Ethnographic data further point to how immigrant policing sustains a need for an unequal, parallel medical system, reflecting broader social inequalities impacting vulnerable populations. Moreover, by focusing on immigrant policing, I demonstrate the analytical utility in examining the biopolitics of fear, which can reveal individual experiences and structural influents of health-related vulnerability.

  8. Keepers of law and order x outlaws: Police brutality, torture and execution in Elite Squad “Bandido bom é bandido morto”: violência policial, tortura e execuções em Tropa de Elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate how Brazilian movies use representations of violence and symbolic oppression to evidence the police abuse of force in actions performed to fight crime in Brazilian slums. A recent Brazilian movie, Elite Squad (2007 shows that police methods of torture are used to obtain confessions, sometimes leading to cold blood executions without previous judgment. Police brutality against slum citizens implicitly induces the assumption – commonly tolerated in Brazil - that “a good criminal is a dead criminal”. The movie analysis depicted here focus on representations that clearly points out to violation of human rights and the mistreatment given by police to poor and marginalized citizens. We argue that those citizens are not perceived as worth human beings but as enemies to be eliminated. Therefore citizenship is not only a restricted matter of human rights but also one of misrecognition. Our analysis is based on a “diagnostic criticism of culture” (Kellner, 2001 which emphasizes: a the social horizon of the movie and b its discursive field (analysis of the message and visual resources. O propósito deste artigo é investigar como os filmes brasileiros usam representações da violência e da opressão simbólica para mostrar o abuso da força policial em ações de combate contra o crime nas favelas brasileiras. Analisaremos um filme recente, Tropa de Elite (2007, no qual métodos de tortura são usados para obtenção de confissões e execuções a sangue frio são feitas sem nenhum julgamento, corroborando a máxima segundo a qual “bandido bom é bandido morto”. A violação dos direitos humanos será discutida enfocando-se a questão de como os policiais lidam com os cidadãos pobres e marginalizados trazendo à tona o fato de que cidadania no Brasil é um tema que deve ser tratado como uma questão de direitos humanos, mas também, como de reconhecimento social. Metodologicamente, nossa análise est

  9. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  10. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  11. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...

  12. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  13. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  14. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  15. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  16. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  17. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  18. Parasiitluse viljad: Estonian Air ja Eesti riik / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul oli Estonian Airi erastamise puhul tegemist ratsionaalse, kuid parasiitliku lähenemisega kasu teenimise eesmärgil, samuti oli riigipoolne viga läbimõtlematu suhtumine riigile kuuluvasse Tallinna lennujaama, samas on aga lennuühendus Eesti kui Euroopa nurgas asuva väikeriigi jaoks strateegiliselt oluline

  19. Kas Bombardier lennutab Estonian Airi üles? / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Air on saanud oma käsutusse kaks kolmest ostetud lennukist Bombardier CRJ900, millega saavutatakse Boeing 737-ga võrreldes oluline kütuse kokkuhoid. 20 aastaga on müüdud CRJ-seeria lennukeid juba üle 1700

  20. The Impact of Police Unions: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, Hervey A.; Feuille, Peter

    To assess the impact of police unionism on the operation and administration of police departments, in-depth field surveys of active police unions were conducted in the summer and fall of 1971 in 22 cities where police unions were active. In the summary report the development of police unions is discussed, and the sources and dimensions of union…

  1. Traffic law enforcement by non-police bodies. The "Escape" Project, Deliverable 4. Project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme of the 4th Framework Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, J. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Mäkinen, T. Jayet, M.-C. & Evers, C.

    2000-01-01

    To ensure some minimal standard for traffic system operation and safety, a system of traffic laws and regulations is necessary. Enforcement of these traffic laws is believed to influence driving behaviour through a mechanism of deterrence: the threat of legal punishment should convince road users to

  2. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  3. Factors predicting suicide among Russians in Estonia in comparison with Estonians: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-12-01

    To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity (Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption.

  4. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  5. CLUPEA HARENGUS MEMBRAS: ABOUT THE ETYMOLOGY OF A CERTAIN FISH NAME IN ESTONIAN, LATVIAN AND LIVONIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Uibo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the names of Clupea harengus membras will be considered in Estonian, (Salaca Livonian and Latvian (respectively räim, reńǵ and reņģe ‘Baltic herring’. It will be shown that the source of all of these words is the Estonian-Swedish strämg (sträηg, or its preceding word shape *sträimg. The Latvian reņģe is borrowed from Estonian-Swedish through Salaca Livonian. Paul Ariste proposed an adequate etymology for the Estonian räim as early as 1933.

  6. We need a complicit police!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 13 April 2011 Andries Tatane, a teacher and local activist, was killed by officers of the South African. Police Service (SAPS) during a protest in Ficksburg, a small town in the Free State, South Africa. Although the killing was captured live on video, all seven police officers involved in the incident were acquitted of the killing ...

  7. Interface: Schools and Police Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Peter D.

    The climate between police and schools has changed from an adversarial one in the 1960s and 1970s to one in which both sides recognize the many advantages to be gained through cooperation. The criminal justice system is made up of three elements: police, courts, and corrections. Tempering the criminal justice system are the community norms which…

  8. Anticipatory routing of police helicopters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Urk, Rick; van Urk, Rick; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Hans, Elias W.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a decision support application for the Dutch Aviation Police and Air Support unit for routing their helicopters in anticipation of unknown future incidents. These incidents are not known in advance, yet do require a swift response. A response might include the dispatch of a police

  9. Real Police on Television Supercops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; Fejes, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Experienced policemen and police trainees were interviewed about their attitudes toward television police programs. Experienced policemen were more critical of these programs, believing that the glamour, excitement, and heroics they portray are detrimental to their work and their relations with the public. (Author/GC)

  10. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  11. INJECTING DRUG USERS’ EXPERIENCES OF POLICING PRACTICES IN TWO MEXICAN-U.S. BORDER CITIES: PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cari L.; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviors and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. Methods In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Results Among the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36 hours for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested 5 key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: 1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, 2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), 3) police violence, 4) police corruption, and 5) perceived changes in policing practices. Conclusion Findings suggest that some behavior of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections among IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention program among IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers. PMID:17997089

  12. Injecting drug users' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican-U.S. border cities: public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cari L; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviours and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico, who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analysed to identify emergent themes. Amongst the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36h for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested five key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: (1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, (2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), (3) police violence, (4) police corruption and (5) perceived changes in policing practices. Findings suggest that some behaviour of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections amongst IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention programme amongst IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers.

  13. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  14. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  15. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  16. Experiences with policing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanna Hayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug

  17. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  18. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  19. Health screening in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don

    2010-05-01

    There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  1. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  2. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  3. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  4. Interpersonal Stance in Conflict Conversation: Police Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the

  5. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an effort...

  6. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of this volume, Police reform from the bottom up, is bound to create expectations amongst those concerned with the challenges confronting institutional change in public police agencies. It is an interest shared by police scholars and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police agencies today can ...

  7. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  8. Estonian Air jäi kolmest Fokkerist ilma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Airil ei õnnestunud saada kolme väiksemat reaktiivlennukit, lennuparki püütakse mitmekesistada järgmistel aastatel. Sel aastal loodetakse saada juurde ühe Boeing 737-300. Lisa: Boeing: Estonian Air on tasemel

  9. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  10. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  11. Functioning of police in Volgograd oblast in the estimations of the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Alekseyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the reliability and objectivity of information to the population on the functioning of police in Volgograd oblast. Methods sociological absentee polling in the form of a questionnaire statistical logical documentary graphic method of systemic analysis. Results the opinions of the population on police are extremely controversial. It is connected mostly with the sources of information which mostly are not reliable and objective. The article shows that despite the growth of victimization the level of anxiety of the population about the criminal attacks is gradually reduced and the sense of security in citizens is strengthened though often due to their personal efforts to protect their life health and property. Only every fifth citizen relies on the participation of law enforcers in ensuring security and public order. The survey revealed that about half of the citizens who are potentially interested in the reaction of law enforcement officers to the crime actually agree to leave the offender unpunished due to the mistrust of the police. A third of claimants were unsatisfied with the police action on their application which does not correlate with the declared numbers. The opinion of Volgograd citizens on the frequency of bribery among police officers remains unchanged whereas other malfeasances received a significant increase. And despite this the attitude of the respondents towards the police in general has improved. Mostly it was the result of media activities that inform the public about successful police work using TV shows documentaries and feature films. The successful work of the police is also confirmed by statistic that shows the rapid decline in recorded crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of a combination of various methods the reliability and objectivity of information to the population is investigated on the police of Volgograd oblast. Practical significance the main provisions and

  12. Obstacles and possibilities in police research

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnhild Sollund

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on a Norwegian research project investigating the possible existence of police racism, this article explores challenges related to conducting research in such sensitive sites as the police with reference to methodological and institutional obstacles. The project featured participant observation, in-depth interviews with ethnic minority men, and in-depth interviews with police officers and lays the basis for a discussion of the diverging perspectives on police racism held by the police...

  13. Police governance in Canada : a parallax perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tensions between public expectations for police governance and ethical governance mirror recent spectacular governance failures. Several recent Canadian commissions of inquiry and court cases critical of the police have suggested police governance need to be more direct and assertive. The small numbers of academic studies that focused on the unique field of policing have largely ignored the behaviour of police boards responsible for their governance. More importantly is the apparent lack of a...

  14. [Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępka, Ewa; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability) Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey) Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  16. Performance contracts for police forces

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Vollaard

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, the government will enter into performance contracts with each of the 25 regional police forces. The performance contracts establish a direct link between meeting a number of quantitative performance targets and financial incentives. A major improvement in police performance is necessary to meet the objective of 20 to 25 percent less criminal and disorderly behavior by 2006. A closer look at the performance contracts learns that they may not be the most appropriate policy instrument ...

  17. The Implementation of Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Analysing UN and EU Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Padurariu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the main international actors involved in the implementation of police reform in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, notably that of the UN and the EU. Despite considerable efforts and resources deployed over 17 years, the implementation of police reform remains an ‘unfinished business’ that demonstrates the slow pace of implementing rule of law reforms in Bosnia’s post-conflict setting, yet, in the long-term, remains vital for Bosnia’s stability and post-conflict reconstruction process. Starting with a presentation of the status of the police before and after the conflict, UN reforms (1995–2002 are first discussed in order to set the stage for an analysis of the role of the EU in the implementation of police reform. Here, particular emphasis is placed on the institution-building actions of the EU police mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina deployed on the ground for almost a decade (2003-June 2012. The article concludes with an overall assessment of UN and EU efforts in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the remaining challenges encountered by the EU on the ground, as the current leader to police reform implementation efforts. More generally, the article highlights that for police reform to succeed in the long-term, from 2012-onwards, the EU should pay particular attention to the political level, where most of the stumbling blocks for the implementation of police reform lie.

  18. Väliseestlased ja nende keel. Pidepunkte uurimisloost / A study of the Estonian language in diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Viikberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of the Estonian language outside Estonia, differing from standard Estonian spoken in Estonia, are regional and generally oral language variants, influenced by local factors and variable intergenerational use. Containing loans from the dominant language, the oral language of the older generation still retains features either redundant or marginal in the current Estonian language geographic area. The first written documents on expatriate Estonians date back to the 19th century, but it was only after the Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 that a wider interest was taken in compatriots living abroad. In 1928, the Expatriate Estonian Society (Välis-Eesti Ühing was founded and the Expatriate Estonian Congress (Välis-Eesti kongress started to be held every five years. After Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, the word väliseestlane ’expatriate Estonian’ was used only in connection with Estonians living outside the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s, linguists became specifically interested in the Estonian settlements of Caucasus, Siberia and Ussuriland. Scholars, hoping to find in Siberia or Caucasus the archaic language of former settlers still alive, discovered that vernacular Estonian was not influenced so much by archaisms (caused by separation from the homeland as influences from long-term contact with other languages.Since the late 1990s, the study of the varieties of Estonian used outside Estonia has taken a new direction. This can be recognised by the increased interest in the varieties of Estonian in various new countries of residence (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany. The focus of interest moving to western countries did not mean a loss of interest in the areas of the former Soviet empire. In 1996, the Centre for Migration and Diaspora Studies was set up in the Tartu University Institute of Geography. Presently, one of the prestigious research projects (2010−2013 of Finno-Ugric languages, the EU

  19. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  20. Building a better mouse trap : increasing law enforcement counter terrorism capabilities through consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicino, Christopher O.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The current American police model is outdated and does not provide local law enforcement the proper framework to effectively prevent, mitigate, and respond to terrorism. With nearly 18,000 separate police departments in the United States, the current system of policing is individualized, fragmented and disconnected. With the proliferation of so many police organizations, contiguous agencies have overlapping jurisdictional responsibilities and job functions, leading to t...

  1. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  2. Effective state, local, and tribal police intelligence the New York City Police Department's intelligence enterprise - a smart practice

    OpenAIRE

    Comiskey, John Grattan

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited State, local, and tribal law enforcement (SLTLE) agencies play a significant role in homeland security. Their intelligence function supports their hometown and the nation's homeland security. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) recognized that the same intelligence that secures the homeland is required to secure New York City. NYPD restructured its organizational structure and external business practices to acquire the requ...

  3. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  4. The Media Representations of Police Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne W. L. Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Police Force has undergone one of its biggest challenges in the Occupy Movement that emerged in the last year. Despite the sheer complexity of the police roles, we know little about its representations in the media coverage, and even less about the extent to which the imagery impacts of police acting as peacekeepers would have been made upon the images of police acting as crime fighters. Against this background, this empirical research aims to investigate the police image and its relation to the police’s specifically categorized duties in Hong Kong. The content analysis of local newspaper accounts is used as the research method. It is found that there would be generally negative media representations of police in the order-maintenance work whereas the police images in the crime-fighting duties could still remain positive. The reasons for these findings and their implications for the conceptions of the police role are discussed.

  5. Policing the private Social barriers to the effective policing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...

  6. Blue Lies and Police Placebos: The Moralities of Police Lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Carl B.

    1984-01-01

    The concession that the lie is preferred over force as a means of social control forms the basis for the morality of policy lying, i.e., in any situation in which police have a legitimate right to use force they acquire a moral right to achieve the same ends by lying. (RM)

  7. Mentoring First Year Police Constables: Police Mentors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Mark A.; McKenzie, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mentoring as a tool for the support and development of novices in many organisations has been considered a putative success. Nevertheless, the literature reveals a paucity of reporting of the mentoring strategies used within the policing profession within Australia. This paper aims to focus on what mentoring is and how it is deployed from…

  8. Professional Anomalies: Diversity policies policing ethnic minority police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankaya, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how diversity policies within organizations contribute to paradoxical outcomes in face-to-face interactions. The findings are the result of a long-term ethnographic study on the processes of in- and exclusion of ethnic minority police officers in the Netherlands between 2007-

  9. At the Heart of Policing: Emotional labor among police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I

  10. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  11. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  12. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  13. Lower Ordovician Leetse Formation in the North Estonian Klint area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemliher, Jüri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of the Leetse Formation were studied in order to find out the conodont biozonation, grain-size distribution, and glauconite mineral properties and their variations along the North Estonian Klint. On the basis of the conodont zonation of the Saka section, combined with earlier data, it was found that the Leetse Formation belongs to the Paroistodus proteus, Prioniodus elegans, and Oepikodus evae zones of various thickness and completeness along the North Estonian Klint. The Pr. elegans Zone of the Saka section was found to be remarkably complete and correlate well with equivalent intervals of sections in the St. Petersburg Region. Poorly lithified glauconitic sandstones of the Leetse Formation vary lithologically vertically as well as laterally. The Leetse Formation in the west has been repeatedly redeposited and is depleted in suspended fraction, while in the east it is more homogeneous and represents continuous shallow-water conditions. Glauconite is represented by a potassium-rich variety (about 9% K2O and most likely forms at least two discrete modifications. Laterally, glauconite of the Leetse Formation in the western part of the klint contains less K than that of the eastern part, indicating faster sedimentation. The d(001 value of glauconite diminishes upwards in the sequence, indicating acceleration of the sedimentation rate.

  14. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  15. Linking Educational Institutions with Police Officer Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Wood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO is an innovative form of education that focuses on problem based learning for post academy graduates. The PTO Program emphasizes adult education, problem solving, emotional intelligence, and conflict resolution. This education is necessary to assist officers in de-escalation strategies within their communities and can lend to the reduction of civil disturbances. However, currently, relatively few agencies are offering this education to their post academy graduates and none are offering it to their academy recruits due, in part, to a lack of qualified instructors. PTO instructors must be proficient and fully trained in problem based learning techniques. Through Community Oriented Policing, law enforcement agencies can address this instructor shortage by partnering with university educational institutions to secure instructors who are competent in andragogy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning.

  16. Street-level policing in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada, during the 2010 Winter Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Police presence within street-based drug scenes has the potential to disrupt injection drug users' (IDUs) access to health services and prompt increased injection-related risk behaviour. We examined street-level policing in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) of Vancouver during the Olympic Winter games, to assess the potential impact on access to harm reduction services and injection-related risk behaviour. We analysed data from observational activities documenting police and drug user behaviour, unstructured interviews with drug users in street settings (n=15), expert interviews with legal and health professionals (n=6), as well as utilisation statistics from a local supervised injection facility (SIF). Although police presence was elevated within the DTES during the Olympics, there was little evidence to suggest that police activities influenced IDUs' access to health services or injection-related risk behaviour. SIF attendance during the Olympics was consistent with regular monthly patterns. Police presence during the Olympics did not reduce access to health services amongst local IDUs or prompt increased injection-related risk behaviour. Increased cooperation between local law enforcement and public health bodies likely offset the potential for negative health consequences resulting from police activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  18. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  19. IS THE ESTONIAN MODEL APPLICABLE TO ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN ADOPTING THE EURO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Radu; M-L Ciupac-Ulici; A Petcu

    2013-01-01

    .... Since the Euro adoption process is a controversial one, in this paper the authors aim to express their concerns regarding the major changes driven from other member states of the Euro Area, i.e. the Estonian model...

  20. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  1. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision...

  2. Estonian Air andis Berliini liinil loobumisvõidu / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2006-01-01

    Estonian Air sulgeb 2007. aasta jaanuarist Tallinn-Berliin liini, mille võtab üle odavlennufirma easyJet. Diagramm: Lennureisijate arv Tallinn-Berliin. Vt. samas: easyJet kehv alternatiiv. Kommenteerivad Rein Loik ja Mati Feldmann

  3. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  4. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  5. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS) test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revea...

  6. Russian-Estonian economic and investment cooperation during the crisis: dynamics and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, a...

  7. Media representation of feminism in estonian journalism : A qualitative analysis over the newsarticles of Eesti Peavaleht

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Estonian society, as a short history of gender studies, and the introduction of the termsfeminism or feminist, only started to appear in media during the second half of the 1990s.Nevertheless, the public opinion and attitudes about feminism among Estonian society arenot clear, while sexual discrimination is still a frequent occurrence (Estonia, 2013). Thearchive of the biggest Estonian daily newspaper Eesti Paevaleht includes articles aboutfeminism written in the last 15 years that will be an...

  8. Police-induced confessions: risk factors and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Drizin, Steven A; Grisso, Thomas; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Leo, Richard A; Redlich, Allison D

    2010-02-01

    Recent DNA exonerations have shed light on the problem that people sometimes confess to crimes they did not commit. Drawing on police practices, laws concerning the admissibility of confession evidence, core principles of psychology, and forensic studies involving multiple methodologies, this White Paper summarizes what is known about police-induced confessions. In this review, we identify suspect characteristics (e.g., adolescence; intellectual disability; mental illness; and certain personality traits), interrogation tactics (e.g., excessive interrogation time; presentations of false evidence; and minimization), and the phenomenology of innocence (e.g., the tendency to waive Miranda rights) that influence confessions as well as their effects on judges and juries. This article concludes with a strong recommendation for the mandatory electronic recording of interrogations and considers other possibilities for the reform of interrogation practices and the protection of vulnerable suspect populations.

  9. Evaluating legitimacy and marginalization: Campus policing in the State of Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity and legitimacy of campus police officers is often difficult to define, largely due to their obvious connection to the educational environment. With the lack of research on campus police in general, and their legitimacy as a law enforcement entity in specific, how these officers perceive themselves and, just as importantly, how they believe others perceive them, becomes questionable and may have a distinct impact on their performance of duties and their interactions with the campus community and other law enforcement personnel. This study considers self-perceived levels of legitimacy of campus police officers employed at four statutorily defined campus police departments in the State of Rhode Island from a review of various issues of perceptual self-worth, their effects on officer morale, and their impact on levels of service to the campus community. Findings indicate that while they are, indeed, granted legislative police authority that is comparable to their more public counterparts, campus law enforcement officers perceive a lack of legitimization and support from their community; have high levels of self-perceived feelings of marginalization; and face an ever uphill battle in their efforts to obtain the same levels of legitimacy as their traditional counterparts.

  10. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  11. Occupational stress among police personnel in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ragesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.

  12. When police act as pimps: glimpses into child prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debabrata, R

    1998-01-01

    A random sample of 28 out of 86 brothels along the G. B. Road in India revealed that almost 60% of the prostitutes were children. The law does not punish prostitutes who are older than 18 and do not solicit business publicly, but it does punish running a brothel, living on the earnings of prostitutes, procuring or inducing people to become prostitutes, and soliciting in public places. The law, which is mostly used to harass prostitutes, invokes penalties of imprisonment for procuring or trafficking and for forcible detention for the purpose of prostitution while creating a special police force to stop trafficking, special courts to deal with cases, and protective homes for "rescued" girls. The law fails to punish clients or make provisions for the rehabilitation of rescued women. Offenses rarely end in convictions. In fact, police officers extort money from traffickers, prostitutes, and madams and abet the system of prostitution through a scheme of false registration of the girls that creates the fiction that they are not minors and creates a debt paid by the madams that places the girls in virtual bondage. There is a set rate for police bribes, depending upon the size of the brothel. Police also are clients themselves and/or extort money from clients. When arrests are made (to make police records look good), police deliberately target adult prostitutes instead of the minors because it is harder to get the minors released back into prostitution. The police are reluctant to release records about prostitution and are complicit when madams present false affirmations that they are relatives of minor girls to get them released from juvenile remand homes. The girls are recruited from impoverished families in the countryside who are paid for giving their daughters in false marriages.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INDONESIAN NATIONAL POLICE FUNCTION ON BANGGAI REGENCY POLICE INVESTIGATION (Investigation Case Study Year 2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamri Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice processes are frequently unwell-implemented due to various investigators’ shortcomings in performing their function. This research aims to determine and analyze the effectiveness of the police investigation into the handling of Criminal Offenses in Banggai. This research employed socio-juridical methods approach particularly descriptive analytical research. The data analysis was conducted by descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results showed that: there is an imbalance between investigators and number of crimes; 70% of suspects were arrested by investigators without warrant; discrimination among suspects in investigation process occurs; investigators would prefer interrogating suspect without being assisted by lawyer; limited information given by the investigators to suspect’s family; suspects were detained without according to the applicable law and regulations. Keywords: effectiveness, police, investigation process

  14. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  15. The role of visual markers in police victimization among structurally vulnerable persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas; FitzGerald, David; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-05-01

    Law enforcement can shape HIV risk behaviours and undermine strategies aimed at curbing HIV infection. Little is known about factors that increase vulnerability to police victimization in Mexico. This study identifies correlates of police or army victimization (i.e., harassment or assault) in the past 6 months among patients seeking care at a free clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. From January to May 2013, 601 patients attending a binational student-run free clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible participants were: (1) ≥18 years old; (2) seeking care at the clinic; and (3) spoke Spanish or English. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with police/army victimization in the past 6 months. More than one-third (38%) of participants reported victimization by police/army officials in the past 6 months in Tijuana. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, males (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.68; 95% CI: 2.19-6.19), tattooed persons (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.33) and those who injected drugs in the past 6 months (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29-3.43) were significantly more likely to report past 6-month police/army victimization. Recent feelings of rejection (AOR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.47-5.85) and being denied employment (AOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50-3.32) were also independently associated with police/army victimization. Structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma against vulnerable populations and increasing social incorporation may aid in reducing victimization events by police/army in Tijuana. Police education and training to reduce abusive policing practices may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  17. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  18. Early vocabulary in full term and preterm Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Haan, Elis

    2013-09-01

    Preterm birth is considered to be a high risk factor for child development and early vocabulary can be used as an indicator for later development. The aim of the present study is to compare the size of early vocabulary, proportional use of different word categories, and mean length of utterance (henceforth MLU) of preterm and full term children. The sample consisted of 40 preterm (corrected ages 16-25 months) and two matched groups of full term children. First full term group consisted of 120 children who were matched by age and gender. Second full term group consisted of 109 children who were matched by age, gender and size of productive vocabulary. The data for this study were gathered using the Estonian adaptation of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. Full term children who were matched by age and gender had larger vocabulary as compared to the preterm children's vocabulary (U = 1758.5, p = 0.01). Poisson regression yielded that age, gender, and preterm birth explained significantly the variance in the vocabulary size. Poisson regressions showed that all three variables explained significantly variance in proportional use of social terms and predicates. Age had significant effect for proportional use of common nouns. Age and preterm birth had a significant effect on the proportional use of function words. MLU was shorter in preterm than in full term children (U = 1125.0, p = 0.002). Estonian preterm children's vocabulary is slightly smaller than full term children's vocabulary. There is a difference in the proportions of word categories used, as preterm children use more social terms, and less predicates, and function words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Doctor's attendance in police custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.

  20. Synergy of the local vigilante group and the police in Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is based on the fact that crime is a threat to public safety, growth and development of a nation. Crime rates vary in different jurisdictions, and the mechanisms put in place to check the trend and incidence also vary. In Nigeria, the police have been saddled with the responsibility to combat crime, along with other law ...

  1. 75 FR 26877 - Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 8518 of May 7, 2010 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2010 By the President of the United... neighborhoods safe, enforce our laws, and respond in times of crisis. These men and women sustain peace and... safer streets and stronger communities. Every day, peace officers face the threat of violence and danger...

  2. The Psychological Competence of Police Officers in Confidential Cooperation with Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.; Ermolovich, Vladimir F.

    2016-01-01

    This research studied the psychological aspects of citizens' assistance to law enforcement agencies on a confidential basis. The comprehensive observance of the psychological norms of cooperation is determined by the professional ethics of police officers, the necessity of nondisclosure of investigation secrets by citizens, and the security of the…

  3. Revisiting the Cause of Death in a Student-Police Violent Face-Off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student activism is a common feature of higher education systems worldwide. However, in Nigeria, as in many other countries, student activism is commonly met with stiff resistance from the police and other law enforcement agencies and fatalities are not uncommon. The problem is that responsibility for the consequences ...

  4. Analysis of C3 Counterinsurgency-Inspired Policing and the Flip Side of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Policing Methods in the North End of Springfield Massachusetts,” unpublished paper, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 2012. 11 Karl Vick , “Iraq’s...A Guide to Understanding Street Gangs. 3rd ed. San Clemente, CA: Law Tech Pub. Co., 2000. Vick , Karl. “Iraq’s Lessons, on the Home Front; Volunteer

  5. Social Movements Against Racist Police Brutality and Department of Justice Intervention in Prince George's County, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Jonathan W; Green, Rodney D

    2016-04-01

    Racist police brutality has been systemic in Prince George's County, Maryland. The victims include African Americans, the mentally challenged, and immigrant populations, creating a complex and uneven public health impact. Three threads characterize the social movements and intervention since 1970. First, a significant demographic shift occurred as African Americans became the majority population in the late 1980s when the first Black county executive was elected in 1994. Despite the change in political leadership, police brutality remained rampant. Lower-income households located close to the District of Columbia and "inside the beltway" experienced the most police brutality. In 2001, The Washington Post revealed that between 1990 and 2000, Prince George's police shot and killed more citizens per officer than any of the 50 largest city and county law enforcement agencies in the country, 84 % of whom were black. Of the 147 persons shot during the 1990s, 12 were mentally and/or emotionally disturbed; 6 of these shootings were fatal. Second, resistance to police brutality emerged in a variety of political formations throughout the period, especially in the late 1990s. Sustained community pressure prompted the Department of Justice (DOJ) to open a civil rights investigation of the police department in November 2000. To avoid a potential federal lawsuit, the county leadership negotiated a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the DOJ to enact policy reforms, part of which called for supplementing the departmental mobile crisis team, comprised of mental health care professionals, to respond to all cases involving mentally challenged citizens. Third, the incomplete process of change subsequent to the ending of DOJ oversight suggests a continued challenge to social movements opposing police brutality. This study focuses on the effectiveness of the MOA along with the activism of the People's Coalition for Police Accountability (PCPA) in reforming a culture of police brutality

  6. A New Paradigm for the Iraq Police: Applying Community-Oriented Policing to Iraqi Police Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    analysis, the establishment of criminal databases , and the use of polygraph tests. He believed in training all police officers in criminal...level of mutual confidence. There was a lack of formal crime prevention studies in the country. There was a lack of a criminal database arranging...Iraq, 1953, 23. 56 John F. Devlin. "Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis." JSTOR . December 1991. http://www.jstor.org/stabel/2165277 (accessed January

  7. Analysis of the method quality function deployment "qfd" in preventive services police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Soares de Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the significant contribution of QFD for the construction of the theoretical framework for managing the development of new products and services, there is an embryonic implementation in the public sector. The purpose of this article is to analyze the application of the method in the context of public safety, and the study was delimited to the School Patrol in the Military Police of Minas Gerais. Action research was the research strategy chosen and qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect and analyze data. The QFD method proved to be effective for: systematize a large set of internal and external corporate information, facilitating the subsequent planning of policing; promote a dynamic oriented and structured in encounters between police and the community; identify the needs of public school and prioritize activities policing which better fulfill these desires; and to understand the ability of service of a School Patrol Unit. Moreover, the police service has a unique set of characteristics that partially hindered planning service by QFD. This service does not have a specific market niche, being a service of law and not by purchase. Also relies on legal aspects and regulates behaviors, generating rejection. Although this particular nature, two factors favored the application of the method: the institutionalization of the philosophy of community policing in the organization and to familiarizing officers with management concepts and quality. The final conclusion is that the QFD method was presented as a promising tool for improving the quality of Brazilian public services.

  8. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  9. Do Computers Help Police Fight Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Garicano; Paul Heaton

    2008-01-01

    Increased computerisation results in more effective crime-fighting - but only if police work is reorganised to take advantage of the presence of computers. That is the central conclusion of a study of the impact of information technology on the organisation and productivity of US police departments by Paul Heaton and Luis Garicano. The research finds that in cities like New York, computers plus an integrated information and management system for policing increased crime clearance rates.

  10. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  11. The Effect of the 2008 War on Estonian Public Confidence in International Organisations: A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen; Melchior, Inge; Gugushvili, Alexi

    2014-01-01

    When the so-called 5 Day War between Russia and Georgia occurred in the summer of 2008, the Estonian public reaction was especially passionate. Two major explanations stem from the strong identification of Estonians with the situation of Georgia (post-Soviet state, small country, Russian

  12. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  13. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  14. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...... as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food...

  15. Moral Issues in Intelligence-led Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods...

  16. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the early phases of acquisition of noun compounds in two typologically different languages – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development of different compound types, productivity, frequency, simplicity and transparency of compounds, and also to the impact of morphological wealth in the input on the output. Although the frequency of compounds is somewhat different in the two languages being observed, the first compounds emerge in the speech of Estonian and Russian children almost at the same age and quite early, at the end of the second year of life. In both Estonian and Russian, children first acquire productive pat- terns in both languages, Estonian and Russian, respectively. Factors such as simplicity and frequency are intertwined in the acquisition process. Simple structures occur at the same time as frequent ones but it cannot just be assumed that simplicity is a stronger factor influencing the choice of first noun compounds than frequency. Frequency effects are not straightforward: there are differences in the individual usage of compounds by the caregivers, and the frequency of compounds in child-directed speech does not always seem to be reflected in the speech of the children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.02

  17. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  18. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  19. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  20. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  1. Beyond Police Barracks: A Research Synthesis of a Counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a view to proffering some basic behaviour counseling education (BCE). The paper protocol includes: - genesis of police - ideological basis of police organization - the author's synthesized findings, - evolving behavioural theory of policing, - emerging implications, and - Suggested behavioural counseling education.

  2. The metaphor police: A case study of the role of metaphor in explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Crow, Latoya; Flusberg, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    While many scholars have pointed to the role of metaphor in explanation, relatively little experimental research has examined whether and how metaphors are used and understood in everyday explanatory discourse. Across 3 experiments, we investigated the nature and function of metaphor in explanation by drawing on a real-world example where the terms guardian and warrior were used to metaphorically explain the role of police officers. We found, first, that the associations participants brought to mind for these concepts differed depending on whether they had previously answered questions about law enforcement (e.g., associations for warrior emphasized aggression and violence rather than strength and bravery when participants had previously answered questions about policing). Second, people were almost evenly split in their judgment of which metaphor was more appropriate to explain the role of law enforcement; this preference was highly predictive of beliefs related to policing and the criminal justice system. Third, and most important, using these metaphors to explain the job of policing causally influenced attitudes toward law enforcement in a metaphor-congruent manner (i.e., exposure to the guardian metaphor led to more positive attitudes), a finding that could not be accounted for by basic lexical priming. These studies complement existing work that has identified metaphor as a mechanism for representing abstract concepts, but also highlight the communicative and explanatory, rather than representational, functions of metaphor by showing that metaphors can encapsulate and convey an array of structured attitudes and beliefs.

  3. Developments of the Estonian intellectual property system to meet the challenges of the knowledge-based economy : [doktoritöö] / Aleksei Kelli ; Tartu Ülikool ; juhendaja: Heiki Pisuke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelli, Aleksei, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Intellectual property in an innovation-based economy // Review of Central and East European Law (2008) nr. 2, lk. 223-238 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke) ; Some issues of the Estonian innovation and intellectual property policy // Juridica International. XV. Tartu, 2008, lk. 104-114 ; Improvement of the intellectual property system as a measure to enhance innovation // Juridica International. XVI. Tartu, 2009, lk. 114-125 ; Some issues regarding entrepreneurial universities and intellectual property // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 161-172 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke). - Tutvustus // Tartu Ülikooli doktorite promoveerimine 2010. Tartu, 2010, lk. 5-6

  4. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55

  5. Shifting repertoires : Understanding cultural plurality in policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn

    The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following

  6. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G; Meijer, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article

  7. La policía administrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Alejandro Olano García

    2010-01-01

    El autor recoge los aspectos más relevantes de la doctrina relacionadas con la policía administrativa y desarrolla el concepto de orden público, sus elementos, los bienes protegidos por la policía administrativa, los medios coercitivos y la distinción entre poder, función y actividad policiales.

  8. Occupational Stress among Nigerian Police Officers: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    For example, a flight attendant might normally encounter stress associated with travels at great heights on airplanes for many hours, and a police officer ... In spite of the enormous risk the Nigerian police officers bear to do their jobs, an average policeman is not appreciated in the Nigerian society; he is often criticized and ...

  9. Police custody: An area of concern?!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities, interaction and differential treatment are substandard in Dutch police stations, but dependent of the organisational size, degree of

  10. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  11. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  12. Police performing and training under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Nieuwenhuys, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will present our work with police officers. First, Oudejans (2008) found that reality based practice under pressure helps in preventing degradation of handgun shooting performance under pressure for police officers. The experimental group practiced handgun shooting under

  13. Occupational Stress among Nigerian Police Officers: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping with stress and the outcomes. A total number of 300 police officers randomly selected participated in the survey. The participants responded to. Work Stress Inventory (WSI). They also responded to self- ...

  14. Implementing a Community-Oriented Policing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)

  15. Blurring the Line between Law Enforcement and Intelligence: Sharpening the Gaze of Surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Završnik

    2013-01-01

    To an ever-increasing extent, law enforcement agencies work with and rely on information obtained and passed to them by intelligence services. However, in comparison to the police, intelligent services face much less regulation or supervision. Contrasting levels of regulation and supervision pose a problem where the institutional and functional borders between intelligence and police agencies are increasingly blurred. For example: new ‘hybrid’ police-intelligence institutions have sprung up; ...

  16. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  17. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  18. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  19. Law and Popular Culture : International Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.J.; Asimow, Michael; Papke, David Ray

    Commentators have noted the extraordinary impact of popular culture on legal practice, courtroom proceedings, police departments, and government as a whole, and it is no exaggeration to say that most people derive their basic understanding of law from cultural products. Movies, television programs,

  20. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  1. Eesti pagulaskirjanduse keskus ja perifeeria / The centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how and why the centre and periphery of Estonian exile literature were formed. The centre developed in Sweden with the founding of the Estonian Writers’ Union Abroad in 1945 in Stockholm, and the Estonian Writers’ Cooperative in 1951 in Lund. Exile literature with the most enduring artistic merit was published in this Lund-Stockholm axis. The Writers’ Cooperative was a well-managed publishing house that took into account readers’ requests. Almost all significant writers in exile issued their works through the Cooperative. Writers whose works were rejected by the Cooperative formed the pheriphery of exile literature. The boundary between the two was not rigid, with movement from one grouping to the other, although the centre remained united. In 1957, writers of the younger generation on the periphery founded the literary magazine Mana, which devoted a great deal of space to literature published in the homeland, unlike the centre. This relationship with homeland literature differentiated the centre from the periphery. The writers of the centre did not visit the occupied homeland or publicly recognize the works of writers from Soviet Estonia. For them, it was vital to maintain control over the purity and viability of exile literature. Exile publishing flourished in the 1940s and 1950s, as homesickness and limited fluency in local languages increased interest in books written in Estonian. Later, this interest inevitably and steadily decreased. The younger generation of exiles often read in the language of the country where they had settled. It was possible to send only a very few books to the homeland. Leading writers-in-exile Bernard Kangro, Karl Ristikivi, Valev Uibopuu, Kalju Lepik, Ilmar Talve and others did their utmost to publish and distribute their works because they regarded literature as the foundation of national identity. It was necessary to protect this identity, and any competition with homeland

  2. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  3. Estonian and Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations: a comparative study of in vitro dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, O; Matto, V; Meos, A

    2008-06-01

    The in vitro dissolution properties were compared for four different formulations from the Estonian drug market and four from the Russian Federation drug market. Seven of the eight formulations tested released at least 75% or 80% amoxicillin during 30- or 90-min dissolution tests (37 degrees C, purified water, 75 rpm), respectively. One marketed Russian Federation formulation released 74% amoxicillin over a 90-min period. The present study shows that, in general, the in vitro dissolution properties of the Russian Federation amoxicillin formulations are, with some minor exceptions, comparable to those of the Estonian formulations. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  4. Obedience and Trust in the Brazilian Police from a Youth’s Perspective: The Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Stamatakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, the majority of research has focused on legitimacy, while much less attention has been given to the sources of trust in the police. The current study constitutes one of the first empirical analyses that highlight the importance of examining the relationship between police authority and legitimacy in Brazil while aiming to understand the dynamics among those notions in relation to trust and obedience. The empirical part of the present study is conducted in the district of Jardim Ângela (São Paulo; once considered as the most violent urban region in the world. The final contribution lies in its focus on early adolescence as the particular age forms a crucial period in people’s legal socialization (Dirikx & Van den Bulck, 2014. Finally, the statistical analysis shows significant relationships between the frequency of obedience in laws and trust in the police.

  5. Amendments to procurement contracts : Estonian law in the light of the pressetext ruling / Mari Ann Simovart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simovart, Mari Ann, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu lahendist kohtuasjas Pressetext (C-454/06). Hankelepingu teise poole isiku muutusest ning hinna ja tähtaja muudatustest. Eesti riigihangete seaduses sätestatud lepingu muutmise regulatsioonist

  6. Assessment of impoundment and forfeiture laws for drivers convicted of DUI. Phase 2 report : evaluation of Oregon and Washington vehicle plate zebra sticker laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The practice of driving while suspended by Driving Under the Influence (DUI) offenders is a serious safety problem. The States of Oregon and Washington have enacted laws empowering police to: (1) seize the vehicle registration of motorists found to b...

  7. The role of the Chinese police in methadone maintenance therapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jinmei; Burris, Scott

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of police is an important factor in drug users' access to preventive and therapeutic health services. In China, opiate users must be registered and approved by police before accessing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We conducted a literature review to identify studies reporting original data about the influence of Chinese drug policing activities on MMT access and outcomes. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Law Journal Library of HeinOnline, the Social Science Citation Index and China Academic Journals of CNKI for empirical studies conducted in China and published in academic journals between 2005 and April 2012. The initial literature search retrieved 276 records, of which 85 were included in the review and 191 were excluded. The majority of the included papers were single-clinic observational studies. These studies reported that: (1) fear of incarceration deterred users from initiating and continuing MMT; (2) the rates of MMT referral by police were considerably lower than those by drug user peers and by community and the media; (3) police sending users to compulsory detoxification (DETOX) and reeducation through labor (RTL) centers contributed to higher rates of MMT patient dropout; (4) arrests in and around MMT clinics were not uncommon; (5) cooperation between local police and public health agencies was difficult to achieve; and (6) a limited number of trial programs were conducted to refer detainees in DETOX to MMT clinics after release, but the outcomes were not promising. Reviewed studies report drug policing practices that appear to be impeding MMT access and reducing successful treatment outcomes. Research focusing on the nature, prevalence and severity of these effects is urgently needed. Health and public security officials in China should review and reform policies and practices of registering, monitoring, and incarcerating drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Police must join the fast track to end AIDS by 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Crofts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available World leaders have committed to ending AIDS by 2030, but stigma and discrimination remain significant obstacles. In particular, police are critical, front-line determinants of risk for many people living with HIV (PLHIV and members of other key affected populations (KAPs. The negative impact of adverse police behaviours and practices on HIV risk is well documented, and these risks undermine global efforts to end AIDS. Far less well documented, and less common, are attempts to ameliorate this impact by working to change police behaviours. This Special Issue seeks to help redress this imbalance by presenting a selection of original, provocative and important interventions from academics, police officers and other stakeholders concerned with documenting the potential for constructive, progressive and evidence-based approaches to the reduction of HIV risk. We recommend urgent boosting of efforts and funding to engage police in the HIV response. Among other strategies, this needs sustainable funding of programmes and their evaluation, and increased and continuing advocacy and education at all levels to match policy and law reform.

  9. Performing the Peace: Using Playback Theatre in the Strengthening of Police-Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A; Murphy, Virginia; Brown, DeAndre; Brown, Vinessa; Berryhill, Anthony; Knowlton, Joy

    Police-community relations have catapulted onto the national stage after several high-profile instances of alleged police brutality. Blame and hostility can be barriers to positive police-community relations. Playback is a form of audience-inspired, improvisational theater designed to promote connectivity and empathy through storytelling. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of an arts-based intervention, bringing together police officers and formerly incarcerated individuals from the same community in Memphis, Tennessee. We collected pre/post quantitative data from five police officers and five ex-offenders who took part in the intervention, as well as qualitative data to provide contextual information. The project was feasible and acceptable to participants. Participants showed gains in their ability to make meaning of stressful life experiences. The officers and ex-offenders showed parallel gains in their increased positive attitudes toward the other group. This study demonstrates that creating contexts of safety and understanding necessary to address relational problems is both feasible and acceptable to law enforcement and ex-offenders.

  10. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): Pathophysiology in Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldi, Marlit; Ani, Raivo; Vaher, Heisl; Eller, Triin; Hion, Tuuliki; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the roles of age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pathoanatomy and -physiology in Estonian's OSAS. For this 164 randomly chosen such patients were selected in different regions of Estonia. They underwent naso-oropharyngeal examination, physical examination of craniofacial abnormalities, and polysomnography. They also completed a self-reported questionnaire about smoking, alcohol use, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, concentration disorders, and recurrent upper-airway diseases. The patients (129 men; 35 women) aged between 19 and 75 years (mean 47+/-12), BMI between 21 and 49 (mean 30.5+/-5.15), AHI between 5 and 105 (33+/-22). The results showed that there was a high percentage of naso-oropharyngeal disorders, such as: recurrent upper-airway diseases (54.2%), nasal breathing disorders (63.5%), and hypertrophy of tonsils (57%). There was also a high percentage of general characteristics, such as alcohol use (64%), excessive daytime sleepiness (85.5%), overweight (63%), and hypertension (51.2%). The regression summary for the dependent variable AHI if p-level=0.0042 (R=0.63347013) included age, BMI, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, nasal obstruction, hypertrophy of pharyngeal muscles, tongue level, submental fat and slow-wave sleep (S3+S4%). In conclusion recurrent upper-airway diseases, nasal obstruction, and hypertrophy of tonsils in combination with smoking and alcohol caused the changes in the pharyngeal and lingual muscles. The latter gives rise to such sleep apnea-related problems as heart complaints, hypertension, headache and shortage of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling intelligence-led policing to identify its potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to

  13. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives bundling occupational safety information with relevant legal content demonstrate clear promise. Our findings underscore additional efforts needed to raise technical knowledge of the law among personnel tasked with its enforcement. Police professionalization, including minimum educational standards, appear critical for aligning policing with harm reduction goals.

  14. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  15. Unemployment hysteresis in the “Nordic Kitten”: Evidence from five Estonian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuoka Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment hysteresis is a much discussed and researched topic in macroeconomics. The present paper examined unemployment hysteresis in five Estonian regions. It used two panel data methods, namely, the Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS test and the Fourier Im-Pesaran-Shin (FIPS test. The originality and value of this paper is that this is the first study that uses the panel unit root tests to examine unemployment dynamics in the Estonian regions. The findings revealed that the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions could be best described as a stationary process. This result is in line with the natural rate hypothesis. A research implication is that this study has illustrated that nonlinear tests could be an appropriate approach to examine unemployment hysteresis because other methods may fail to reject the null hypothesis. A practical implication of this study is that it sheds light on the nature of unemployment dynamics in Estonia at the regional level. As the findings revealed, the unemployment rates in the Estonian regions had the meanreversion property. Therefore, the higher-than-normal unemployment rates are likely to return to the natural level even in the absence of intervention policies initiated by the government or policy makers.

  16. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  17. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  19. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  20. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  1. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  2. Trends in tobacco use among Estonian and Russian youth in Tallinn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, E; Mittelmark, M B; Suurorg, L; Tur, I; Luiga, E

    1999-12-01

    Smoking behaviour and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were examined in three cross-sectional surveys from 1991/92, 1993/94, and 1995/96. The study population comprised 3,185 Estonian and Russian adolescents from 17 schools in Tallinn, Estonia. Prevalence of ever-smoking girls increased by 13 percentage points versus 2% among boys during the study period. Mean ages of the first experimentation with tobacco and exposure to ETS did not change significantly. Regular smoking increased significantly from 1991/92 to 1995/96. Detailed analyses for the 1995/96 survey showed that among ethnic Estonians, compared with ethnic Russians, the prevalence of ever-smokers and regular smoking were higher, mean age for the first experimentation was younger, and on average, Estonians smoked more cigarettes per week. The smoking trend among adolescents in Estonia is worsening; especially among Estonian youth. This study identifies a compelling need for national and community-wide efforts to deter adolescents from smoking and to reduce the exposure to ETS.

  3. Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Esteem toward Others among Estonian and Russian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Aune

    2000-01-01

    Investigated ethnic identity in relation to self-esteem and esteem toward others and attitudes toward one's own and other ethnic groups among Estonian and Russian adolescents. Found significant differences between majority and minority groups in ethnic pride and ethnic differentiation and with their correlation to self-esteem and esteem toward…

  4. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  5. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  6. Estonian Air võitis reisijaid juurde. Samas turuosa vähenes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi turuosa vähenes Tallinna lennujaamas regulaarliinidel 2010. aastal võrreldes 2009. aastaga 3,9% võrra, lende toimus 1,8% rohkem kui 2009. a. Lendude toimumise protsent oli 98,1, väljumise täpsus oli 86,7%. Andmeid ka 2010. aasta detsembrikuu kohta

  7. Estonian Air lendab üle võimete / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel on Estonian Airil kasvanud nii lendude kui ka reisijate hulk, kuid lennukite arv on jäänud samaks. Tabel. Kaart: Lendude arv sihtkohtadesse nädalas. Kommenteerib Kristina Traks. Küsimustele vastab Mart Relve. Vt. samas: Lennukipuudus sunnib liine sulgema

  8. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  9. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  10. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  11. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  12. A novel training program for Police Officers that improves interactions with mentally ill individuals and is cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Police and law enforcement providers frequently come into contact with individuals who have psychiatric disorders, sometimes with tragic results. Repeated studies suggest that greater understanding of psychiatric conditions by police officers would be beneficial. Here we present a novel approach to training police officers to improve their interactions with those who might have a mental illness. This approach involved developing a carefully scripted role-play training, which involved police officers (n=663 interacting with highly trained actors during six realistic scenarios. The primary goal of the training was to improve empathy, communication skills, and the ability of officers to de-escalate potentially difficult situations. Uniquely, feedback was given to officers after each scenario by several individuals including experienced police officers, a mental health professional, and by the actors involved (with insights such as this is how you made me feel. Results showed that there were no changes in attitudes of the police towards the mentally ill comparing data at baseline and at 6 months after the training in those who completed both ratings (n=170. In contrast, there were significant improvements in directly measured behaviours (n=142 as well as in indirect measurements of behaviour throughout the police force. Thus, compared to previous years, there was a significant increase in the recognition of mental health issues as a reason for a call (40%, improved efficiency in dealing with mental health issues, and a decrease in weapon or physical interactions with mentally ill individuals. The training cost was $120 per officer but led to significant cost savings (more than $80,000 in the following 6 months. In conclusion, this novel one-day training course significantly changed behaviour of police officers in meaningful ways and also led to cost savings. We propose that this training model could be adopted by other police agencies.

  13. Do police reduce crime? Estimates using the allocation of police forces after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    Schargrodsky, Ernesto; Di Tella, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    An important challenge in the crime literature is to isolate causal effects of police on crime. Following a terrorist attack on the main Jewish center in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 1994, all Jewish institutions (including schools, synagogues, and clubs) were given 24-hour police protection. Thus, this hideous event induced a geographical allocation of police forces that can be presumed to be exogenous in a crime regression. Using data on the location of car thefts before ...

  14. Ideal Police Oversight and Review: The Next Piece of the Community Policing Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    communities with inclusion and investigative transparency when filing complaints of police misconduct and abuse of police powers. In his article “Race...to police misconduct towards ethnic minorities. Criminology professors Brad Smith and Malcolm Holmes discuss concerns about misconduct and...Brutality: An Examination of Civil Rights Criminal Complaints,” Criminology 41, no. 4 (2003): 1037– 1038. 13 Hryniewicz, “Civilian Oversight as a Public

  15. A study of stress affecting police officers in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskas, Gediminas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Burba, Benjaminas; Grigaliuniene, Viktorija; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This research study aims to identify the key stresses encountered by police officers in Lithuania in 2003. A questionnaire was distributed to officers working in police departments throughout Lithuania. The 2003 results were a compared with a similar study carried out among male and female police officers in Lithuania 1999. The stressors determined to have the greatest negative effects were administrative problems, family problems, and an ineffective criminal justice system. Identified consequences of police stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. Dealing with stressful situations led to more frequent physical illness in female police officers and higher alcohol consumption in male police officers. This paper confirms the findings of previous studies. It adds to the knowledge of the unique stresses affecting police officers. It briefly explores the consequences of stress in police work. Since the study represents a small sample of the 15,000 police officers in Lithuania, caution is urged in the application of the findings to other police departments.

  16. Impaired Driving Enforcement: A Program Guide for Law Enforcement and Highway Safety Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Law enforcement and highway safety administrators are an integral part of the solution to reduce injury and death on our roadways caused by impaired drivers. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National Highway Traffic Sa...

  17. POLICE BODY CAMERAS: SEEING MAY BE BELIEVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Otu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of body-mounted cameras (BMC worn by police officers is a controversial issue, it is not new. Since in the early-2000s, police departments across the United States, England, Brazil, and Australia have been implementing wearable cameras. Like all devices used in policing, body-mounted cameras can create a sense of increased power, but also additional responsibilities for both the agencies and individual officers. This paper examines the public debate regarding body-mounted cameras. The conclusions drawn show that while these devices can provide information about incidents relating to police–citizen encounters, and can deter citizen and police misbehavior, these devices can also violate a citizen’s privacy rights. This paper outlines several ramifications for practice as well as implications for policy.

  18. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  19. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  20. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  2. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  3. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  4. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  5. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  6. The State, the Museum and the Ethnographer in Constructing National Heritage: Defining Estonian National Costumes in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nõmmela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I attempt to analyse the way in which the Estonian national costume, as heritage, was defined through the cooperation of the state, the museum and ethnographers in the 1930s. The nationalist state wished to strengthen the national identity of Estonia. The Estonian National Museum (ENM as a repository of memory and knowledge availed its resources to support cultural propaganda. The ethnographer Helmi Kurrik, a woman of strong will and keen interest in folk textiles, managed to fulfil her obligation at the expense of her own health. The primary result of her labours was a handbook entitled Eesti rahvarõivad (Estonian Folk Costumes (1938 which has influenced general knowledge of folk costumes in Estonia up to the present day – the ‘right’ national costumes are believed to derive from authentic ethnographical folk costumes held in the Estonian National Museum.

  7. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  8. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  9. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  10. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  11. The deterrent effects of Australian street-level drug law enforcement on illicit drug offending at outdoor music festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne; Ritter, Alison; Weatherburn, Don; MacCoun, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence). The survey was administered in late 2015 to 2115 people who regularly attend festivals. Participants were block-randomised to receive two vignettes and asked under each whether they would use, possess, purchase, give or sell illicit drugs. Compared to 'no police presence', any police presence led to a 4.6% point reduction in engagement in overall illicit drug offending: reducing in particular willingness to possess or carry drugs into a festival. However, it had minimal or counterproductive impacts on purchasing and supply. For example, given police presence, purchasing of drugs increased significantly within festival grounds. Offending impacts varied between the four policing strategies: Drug Detection Dogs most reduced drug possession but High Visibility Policing most reduced overall drug offending including supply. Multivariate logistic regression showed police presence was not the most significant predictor of offending decisions at festivals. The findings suggest that street-level policing may deter some forms of drug offending at music festivals, but that most impacts will be small. Moreover, it may encourage some perverse impacts such as drug consumers opting to buy drugs within festival grounds rather than carry in their own. We use our findings to highlight trade-offs between the

  12. A Different Shade Of Blue: An Evaluation Of The Civilian Detective Concept And Its Impact On Police Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    legitimacy of sworn law enforcement professionals, whose roles are better known. One of the barriers to this policy’s wider adoption is the...2015/12/05/the_biggest_us_terror_attack_since_911_371360.html. 63 Joel Rubin et al. “‘All Hell Broke Loose’ as Police Chased the San Bernardino

  13. Implementation of Policies to Bridge the Gap Between Police Officer Line of Duty Deaths and Agency Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of-duty death • Research in brief, Line-of-Duty Deaths: Survivor and Departmental Responses • Better Not Bitter , 113-page paperback telling the...Sarasota County Sheriff’s Office, and Orange County Sheriff’s Office. Of the five law enforcement agencies analyzed, the Virginia State Police

  14. Collateral visibility : A socio-legal study of police body camera adoption, privacy, and public disclosure in Washington State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce

    Law enforcement use of body-worn cameras has recently become a subject of significant public and scholarly debate. This article presents findings from a socio-legal examination of the legal and social implications of body-worn camera adoption by two police departments in Washington State. In

  15. Daddy's Girl: Kurt Kondrich Gave Up His Career as a Police Officer to Fight for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A take-charge "people person," Kurt Kondrich began his career in law enforcement in 1985, when he graduated with a criminology degree and landed a job with the Atlanta Police Department. Six years later, he became deputy sheriff in Fort Meyers, Florida, but missed his family in Pittsburgh. So in 1993, when he heard that his hometown police…

  16. Discrimination and Harassment by Law Enforcement Officers in the LGBT Community

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination and harassment by law enforcement based on sexual orientation and gender identity is an ongoing and pervasive problem in LGBT communities. Such discrimination impedes effective policing in these communities by breaking down trust, inhibiting communication and preventing officers from effectively protecting and serving the communities they police. While a patchwork of state, local and federal laws provides some protection against certain forms of discrimination, there is no nati...

  17. UNDERSTANDING KIDS/TEENS' CONSTRUCTION OF POLICE AND CRIME CONCEPTS AS A COMMUNITY POLICING APPROACH: SOCIAL GROUNDED THEORY APPLIED

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, MURAT

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest among academicians, researchers and policy-makers in promoting community policing as a modern way to deal with crimes and community problems. Community policing is a philosophy of policing based on the concept that police officers and citizens working together in creative ways to control crimes. The purpose of this research is to get the perspectives of kids/teens regarding crime and police since this segment of society is most vulnerable to crimes. This will...

  18. Policing Challenged and People's Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Thakur Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is": Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of…

  19. Students Wearing Police Uniforms Exhibit Biased Attention toward Individuals Wearing Hoodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civile, Ciro; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2017-01-01

    Police provide an essential public service and they often operate in difficult circumstances, requiring high-speed cognition. Recent incidents involving apparent profiling and aggressive behavior have led to accusations that the police are sometimes biased. Given that previous research has shown a link between clothing and cognition, we investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. To address this question, and using a Canadian university student sample, we assessed whether wearing a police uniform biases attention toward black faces compared to white faces, and low-status individuals compared to high-status individuals. In Experiment 1 ( n = 28), participants wore either a police-style uniform or mechanic overalls, and performed a shape categorization task in the presence of a distractor that could be either: a black face, a white face, a person wearing a hoodie (whom we propose will be associated with low SES), or a person wearing a suit (whom we propose will be associated with high SES). Participants wearing the police-style uniform exhibited biased attention, indexed by slower reaction times (RTs), in the presence of low-SES images. In Experiment 2 ( n = 28), we confirmed this bias using a modified Dot-Probe task - an alternate measure of attentional bias in which we observed faster RTs to a dot probe that was spatially aligned with a low SES image. Experiment 3 ( n = 56) demonstrated that attentional bias toward low-SES targets appears only when participants wear the police-style uniform, and not when they are simply exposed to it - by having it placed on the desk in front of them. Our results demonstrate that wearing a police-style uniform biases attention toward low-SES targets. Thus, wearing a police-style uniform may induce a kind of "status-profiling" in which individuals from low-status groups become salient and capture attention. We note that our results are limited to university students and

  20. Doing Gender within the Police Doing Gender Within the Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Nienhaus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the

  1. FEATURES OF ADMINISTRATIVEJURISDICTIONAL ACTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES OF POLICE IN ENSURING PUBLIC SAFETY ON WATER TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    L. B. Panfilova; E. A. Sychev

    2016-01-01

    The article attempts to reveal the concept of administrative and jurisdictional activity of the police to ensure public safety on water transport, the features of the stages of proceedings on administrative offenses. Under the administrative process is commonly understood outside the law enforcement activities of the executive authorities, local government agencies and other entities authorized by the state to resolve the limits of their competence in specific legal cases arising on the basis...

  2. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  3. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  4. Legal Advice in Police Custody: From Europe to a Local Police Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ogorodova (Anna); T. Spronken (Taru)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is

  5. Policing for Conflict Zones: What Have Local Policing Groups Taught Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.

  6. Policing for Democracy? The Case of the Public Order Police Unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there is currently much academic interest in the police, particularly in Western democratic countries, one cannot 'read ofi” from the literature or legislation how this subculture operates, nor its implications. While most police organisations share some key subcultural features such as machismo, conservatism, cynicism, ...

  7. Occupational culture in policing reviewed : A comparison of values in the public and private police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible "value-shift" for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking.

  8. Role of female police officer and her challenges within the police organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of involvement of members of this gender in every sphere of social life. The study of this issue that has to do with engagement, namely employment of women in the police, will be shown in this paper as follows: Background of women employed in the police; Emancipated and non-emancipated women in the police; Attitude towards female police officers.

  9. Organization of city police on the Charter of the Deanery (1782.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Konovalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340The subject. The subject of analysis in the article is the organization of the city police of the Russian Empire under the Charter of the Deanery 1782. Special attention is given to the structure and legal issues of the activities of local government and its interaction with the local administrative authorities.The purpose. The growing interest in the history of local government connects not only with the aspiration of historians to look more deeply into the past but also with practical needs. Researching of the forgotten traditions of public administration allows to take greater account of historical experience that has been accumulated over the centuries as well as use it in legislation and law enforcement. We also need to take a look at already known facts and events in the light of today's realities.Methodology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research are such principles of historical knowledge as objectivity, historicism, determinism, alternativeness and social ap-proach which are assuming an unbiased approach to the analysis of the researched problems, as well as a critical attitude to sources.Results, scope of application. The article describes the process of codification in the administrative legislation of the Russian Empire and also organization of local governance in the Russian Empire according with Charter of the Deanery. The basic aspects police activities are also characterized. This approach may overcome the old myths and misconceptions in the sphere of police organization and also prevent the birth of new ones.Conclusions. This act created the system of local police management which was centralized by establishing of the police bodies with number of state employees, specified in the law. Such institutes became both representatives of the sovereign power in the provinces and guides of its policies until reforms of the 60s and 70s of the 19 century.

  10. Competition law: private law, public law, regulatory or economic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Lleras, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Let’s imagine that we want to establish a new law school in Colombia. How would we classify competition law within its curricular structure? By attempting to answer this apparently harmless question, this article shows the inherent difficulties in trying to classify competition law as private law, public law, regulation or “economic law”. This is due not only because such categories are very imprecise, but also because they depart significantly form our daily experiences with this field of la...

  11. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations' attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Key populations' median age was 25 years (IQR: 22-30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; penvironment and ensure police are allies in the Cambodian HIV response, interventions should tackle underlying negative attitudes among police towards key populations and vice versa.

  12. Nightlife partnership policing: (Dis)trust building between bouncers and the police in the war on gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the research on trust in policing by examining how private security actors (bouncers) experience the police as a partner in informal policing networks emerging as part of the ‘war on bikers and gangs’ in Danish nightlife. While much international research about...... partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... of bouncers. However, collaborative relationships are challenged when the police use coercive tactics in their dealings with bouncers and, also, when there is uncertainty about the partition of roles and responsibilities between bouncers and police....

  13. Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Burkhalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In theory, everyone – except for criminals involved in their exploitation - agrees that children must not be in the sex industry and further, that those who prey on them must be prosecuted and punished. Virtually every country in the world has adopted national laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children. International law is clear on this point, as well. Yet, when governments – and NGOs working with them – take action to extract children from commercial sex venues, common ground on protecting children from abuse can quickly erode with concerns about the efficacy of police intervention, the possibility of collateral harm to consenting adult sex workers or a decrease in access to HIV-prevention and related health services. The author argues that healing this divide must come through the reform of local police – and that, without the participation of law enforcement, there can be no long-term protection for children vulnerable to trafficking and related exploitation. In this article, human rights practitioner Holly Burkhalter argues that healing this divide must be accomplished through the reform of local police – and that human rights advocates, local governments and others seeking to combat trafficking cannot achieve long-term, sustainable protection for children without the involvement of law enforcement.

  14. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  15. Arresting HIV: Fostering Partnerships between Sex Workers and Police to Reduce HIV Risk and Promote Professionalization within Policing Institutions: A Realist Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Tenni

    Full Text Available In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV

  16. Arresting HIV: Fostering Partnerships between Sex Workers and Police to Reduce HIV Risk and Promote Professionalization within Policing Institutions: A Realist Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenni, Brigitte; Carpenter, Jenae; Thomson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV prevention, individual and

  17. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  18. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: the Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  19. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  20. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  1. Predictors of patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigation in selected United States police departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Bossler, Adam M

    2012-09-01

    Cybercrime has created substantial challenges for law enforcement, particularly at the local level. Most scholars and police administrators believe that patrol officers need to become more effective first responders to cybercrime calls. The evidence illustrates, however, that many patrol officers are neither adequately prepared nor strongly interested in taking an active role in addressing cybercrime at the local level. This study, therefore, examined the factors that predicted patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigations in two southeastern U.S. cities. The study specifically examined the relationship between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer proficiency, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and views on policing cybercrime with officer interest in cybercrime investigation training and conducting cybercrime investigations in the future. Officer views on policing cybercrime, particularly whether they valued cybercrime investigations and believed that cybercrime would dramatically change policing, along with their computer skills, were the strongest predictors of interest in cybercrime efforts. Officers who had received previous computer training were less interested in additional training and conducting investigations. These findings support the argument that more command and departmental meetings focusing on the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held in order to increase officer interest.

  2. A Comparison of Local Search Methods for the Multicriteria Police Districting Problem on Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liberatore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic climate, law enforcement agencies are facing resource shortages. The effective and efficient use of scarce resources is therefore of the utmost importance to provide a high standard public safety service. Optimization models specifically tailored to the necessity of police agencies can help to ameliorate their use. The Multicriteria Police Districting Problem (MC-PDP on a graph concerns the definition of sound patrolling sectors in a police district. The objective of this problem is to partition a graph into convex and continuous subsets, while ensuring efficiency and workload balance among the subsets. The model was originally formulated in collaboration with the Spanish National Police Corps. We propose for its solution three local search algorithms: a Simple Hill Climbing, a Steepest Descent Hill Climbing, and a Tabu Search. To improve their diversification capabilities, all the algorithms implement a multistart procedure, initialized by randomized greedy solutions. The algorithms are empirically tested on a case study on the Central District of Madrid. Our experiments show that the solutions identified by the novel Tabu Search outperform the other algorithms. Finally, research guidelines for future developments on the MC-PDP are given.

  3. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children...... spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0...

  4. Job satisfaction and organizational trust as antecedents of organizational commitment in Finnish and Estonian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kemell, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examines three well-known leadership themes – organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational trust – from the perspective of Finnish and Estonian small and medium –sized enterprises (SMEs). The object of the study is to increase knowledge about organizational commitment and job attitudes affecting the formation of commitment. The study is cross-sectional, using previously gathered SME survey data. Organizational commitment is understood as a multidime...

  5. No association between vitamin D and β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish and Estonian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, L; Honkanen, J; Härkönen, T; Ilonen, J; Simell, O; Peet, A; Tillmann, V; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Virtanen, S M; Knip, M; Vaarala, O

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties, such as regulation of FOXP3 expression and regulatory T-cell activity. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations associate with the development of β-cell autoimmunity and the transcriptional activity of FOXP3 or vitamin D3 convertase gene (CYP27B1) in CD4+ memory T cells. We studied 83 Finnish and 32 Estonian children participating in the DIABIMMUNE and DIPP studies. Twenty-nine Finnish and six Estonian children tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody. The plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)₂D were analysed with an enzyme immunoassay. Gene expression of FOXP3 and CYP27B1 in the isolated CD4+ memory T cells was studied with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Vitamin D status did not differ between subjects positive and negative for β-cell autoantibodies. Finnish children had higher vitamin D status than Estonian children (p Estonian CD4+ memory T-cell samples than in Finnish samples (p < 0.01) even when including in both groups only children with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 50-80 nmol/L (p < 0.001). These findings do not support a crucial role of circulating 25(OH)D as a regulator of β-cell autoimmunity or FOXP3 expression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  7. Recommandations from the Geneva Police Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  8. Is ‘real’ Police Work masculinely Gendered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    This paper contributes to the debates of continuity and change of gender segregation in the labour market by analyzing perceptions of gender and competences in relation to different police tasks among police students in six European countries. The police is a male-dominated occupation associated......) – emphasizing empathy, communication and as central competences in policing. This paper explores perceptions of gender in relation to different types of police competences among new police students in six European countries. This is done via the following research questions: To what extent do police recruits...... in different European countries perceive men and women as equally suited for different types of police work? How do these perceptions vary dependent on the students’ gender and other background characteristics? And finally, are there differences between countries even when we take the recruits’ background...

  9. Community Policing in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markus-Michael Müller

    2010-01-01

    Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships...

  10. Police response to domestic violence: Theoretical framework and foreign experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to recognizing police work and intervention in the cases of domestic violence. Keeping in mind the relationship between the offender and the victim in the cases of domestic violence, seriousness of the consequences, as well as the fact that, during the intervention, police is the first state agency which “disturbs” the sphere of family privacy, it is very important to study the way police is reacting, establish the degree of its efficiency and explore the factors that determine the efficiency of police intervention. The paper points out the policy of police response to domestic violence in some foreign systems (Great Britain, USA, Australia. Particular attention is paid to consideration of activities police is dealing with while collecting the data on the violence, victim and the offender, the way police is reacting in order to prevent new violence, as well as the responsibility and aims police has during the intervention.

  11. Crime Reporting Behavior: Do Attitudes Toward the Police Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Francis D

    2016-02-24

    Police researchers have long argued that favorable evaluations of the police eventually lead to citizens' willingness to cooperate with the police. However, this assumption has barely been studied empirically. The current study examines the association between attitudes toward the police and crime reporting behavior of victims. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of victims' characteristics on their decisions to report crime to the police. Using field data originally collected in Ghana, the study found that victims' levels of confidence in the police and satisfaction with police work positively predict their decisions to report sexual assault and robbery to the police. Moreover, findings revealed that age, marital status, and employment status are important predictors of victims' reporting behavior. Several practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Applying Resilience Promotion Training Among Special Forces Police Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Judith P; Papazoglou, Konstantinos; Koskelainen, Mari; Nyman, Markku; Gustafsberg, Harri; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2015-01-01

    Police Special Forces (a.k.a. special weapons and tactics [SWAT]) officers are tasked with responding to the most critical situations, including incidents that require specialized skills and equipment beyond typical policing activities...

  13. Twilight policing: private security practices in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have emphasized the pluralization of policing and the interactions between security providers. However, such studies generally employ a top-down and structural approach, emphasizing the organizational ties between policing bodies. This article employs an ethnographic approach to

  14. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  15. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  16. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  17. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  18. Some remarks on reported evidentiality in French and in Estonian: A contrastive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Treikelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the multiple meanings of the French conditional, the marking of mediated information is generally pointed out in the studies treating this mood in French. In Estonian there is a specialized grammatical(ized form for marking reported evidentiality – the quotative mood. Our paper aims to study the contrast between the use of evidentiality strategies in French and Estonian. The analysis will be based on a translated parallel corpus and on different types of texts and studies of monolingual corpora of both languages.In typological studies the French conditional and the Estonian grammatical evidentials are considered as belonging to the same type of evidentiality, that of reported information (Aikhenvald 2006. However, it appears that they tend to be used in different types of discourse. This observation has served as a starting point for our study: the aim of our contrastive analysis is to find out whether these divergences are confirmed by translated texts, whether they also reveal semantic differences between these evidentiality markers, and which strategies are used in the translations in both directions.

  19. Macrostructure in the narratives of Estonian children with typical development and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without language impairment (LI). A clinical group of 18 children with LI (ages 6-8) and a control group of 216 TD children (ages 6-7), divided into 3 language competence subgroups, participated in the study. Narratives were analyzed for the presence of SG components and quantity of story information units. Estonian children's narratives reflected age-expected SG structures similar to those of children in English-speaking countries. The analyses revealed significant group influences for the setting category, demonstrating the superior skills of TD children with high language competence in starting stories, compared with their peers. The quantity of story information units differed significantly between the high and low language competence TD subgroups, likewise between the control and the clinical groups. The contrasts between stories of TD children and between TD and LI children are discussed. The findings support the suitability of the SG model in terms of quantity of story information units for language assessment.

  20. Disaster Analysis: Police and Fire Departments. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    W6 9RS ENGLAND Proteccion Civil c/Evaristo 5 Miguel 8 28008 Madrid, SPAIN Hubert Williams Police Foundation 1001 22nd Street NW Suite 200 Washington...operations during natural and technological disasters; the remaining 24 studies examined police or fire response to riots or civil disturbances. Of the 26...but instead focus upon either general police activity (Wilson, 1968) or police operations during civil disturbances (Westley, 1957; Masotti and Bowen

  1. The Student Police Unity League and Intergroup Contact Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...

  2. Sports Related Riots: Understanding Group Behavior To Improve Police Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Football League NYPD New York Police Department PERF Police Executive Research Forum RRT Rapid Response Team SWAT special weapons and tactics...itself. By creating the norm, police and university administrators reduce the chance that the norm becomes established though other communities...Association, 2005). 2 Steve Frosdick, and Peter Marsh, Football Hooliganism (London: Routledge, 2013). 3 Eric Dunning, Patrick Murphy, and John Williams

  3. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense...

  4. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  5. Police and Community-partnered Delivery System to Address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Community Policing Resource Centres (CPRCs), as they are called, have a support base that draws upon five departments - Health, Women and Child, Education, Scheduled Castes and Other Back Classes, and Land Rural Development. The Punjab Police have a small budget for training in community policing, but no ...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

  7. Community policing in the Netherlands: A continuously changing constant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Sluis (Arie); A. Cachet (Lex); P. van Os; R.S. Prins (Ruth); P.K. Marks (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ 1977 was an important year for the Dutch police as it was then that a seminal strategy document called ‘A Changing Police was published that would set the course for the next three decades. The writers of the report felt that for the police to bridge the growing gap

  8. 25 IMAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE AS PORTRAYED IN GEORGIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    Abstract. This article presents a literary analysis of Georgie Iotema's play,. Night Duty, which portrays a negative image of the Nigeria Police. The constitutional duty of the Nigerian police is to maintain public safety and public order. In practice, many members of the Nigeria. Police are lawbreakers. There are many instances ...

  9. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  10. Eesti antiigitõlke traditsioonid / Traditions of Estonian Translation from Ancient Greek and Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Päll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of translating ancient Greek and Roman authors into Estonian is short, beginning with first attempts at the end of the 18 th century and the close adaptations of two Anacreontic poems (21 and 24 by the first Estonian poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson (in 1818, which remained in manuscript for a long time. The continuous history of printed translations began in 1878 with the translations from Homer by Jaan Bergmann. At present, a new, extensive and regularly updated bibliography with a database of earlier translations is being created (EAB 2012, which also includes the translations in the journals and more extensive citations in articles, as printing separate books with ancient literature started very late (1908 and was very rare in the beginning.  The periods in Estonian translation reflect the history of the country. Almost every period has its own specific trends, beginning with the focus on Greek and the role of periodicals in the first, resembling the patchwork-model of translation that has been described by Karl Eimermacher. Alongside the wish to entertain and educate, we see a strong tendency to use these translations for the development of Estonian national identity by comparing the Estonian epic “Kalevipoeg” to Homer’s epics and translating pieces from Tacitus’ “Germania” as early references to Estonia and thereby extending Estonia’s written history.  The 1920s and 1930s bring first attempts to create a canon, with a stress on Latin and the translations made for school, as well as the development of verse translation. However, all this was disrupted by the almost total abandonment of the classical tradition during the war and the Stalinist period. The comeback in the 1960s brought the translation of central authors from the classical canon (Homer, Vergil, Sophocles, supported by other activities of canon-building (anticipated partly in the 1920s and 1930s: the composition of anthologies and histories of literature

  11. The Everyday Life of the Mounted Police Guard Force in the Territory of the Black Sea Governorate (1901–1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the everyday life of the mounted police guard force in the territory of the Black Sea Governorate – more specifically, the territory of Sochi Okrug. On the eve of and during the 1905-1907 revolutionary events, it was this area where an extremely volatile situation had persisted due to interethnic conflicts. It was in hopes of enhancing authority in the region that the mounted police guard force was set up, which consisted of Cossacks, the Ingush, and Ossetians. In conclusion, the author points up that, on the whole, the mounted police guard force did a good job performing its law enforcement duties in the region’s territory during the pre-revolutionary and revolutionary periods.

  12. Policing in Europe: An Ethnographic Approach to Understanding the Nature of Cooperation and the Gap between Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guille

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there have been significant developments concerning transnational police and judicial cooperation, with the creation of relatively new tools of cooperation such as the European Judicial Network, the Centres for Police and Customs Cooperation, Europol and Eurojust. However, cooperation at the level of negotiations means nothing if these structures, agencies and networks are not appropriately translated into practice in the field. Therefore, this article aims to explore the gap between policies agreed at a macro-level and the work undertaken in practice within the context of police and judicial cooperation in Europe. In particular, it will examine a variety of factors arising from the empirical research undertaken in four European countries and relevant institutions, which comprise of, amongst others, the political priorities and influence and the need to adapt the law to practice.

  13. Interracial public-police contact: relationships with police officers' racial and work-related attitudes and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dhont, Kristof; Cornelis, Ilse; Van Hiel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of Flemish police officers (N = 172), we examined whether interracial public-police contact is associated with police officers’ racial and workrelated attitudes and self-reported behavior. Complementing previous studies, it was revealed that interracial contact (both positive and negative) is related to prejudiced behavior toward immigrants via the mediating role of racial attitudes. Moreover, intergroup contact was also shown to be related to police officers’ organizational citiz...

  14. Barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment: implications for police roles, collaborations and performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Du, Chunhua; Cai, Thomas; Han, Qingfeng; Yuan, Huanhuan; Luo, Tingyan; Ren, Guoliang; Mburu, Gitau; Wang, Bangyuan; Golichenko, Olga; Zhang, Chaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, people who use drugs (PWUD) are among the populations at highest risk for HIV infection. In China, PWUD are primarily sentenced to compulsory detainment centres, in which access to healthcare, including HIV treatment and prevention services, is limited or non-existent. In 2008, China's 2008 Anti-Drug Law encouraged the development and use of community-based drug dependence rehabilitation, yet there is limited evidence evaluating the efficacy and challenges of this model in China. In this study, we explore these challenges and describe how cooperation between law enforcement and health departments can meet the needs of PWUD. In 2015, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with all four staff members and 16 clients of the Ping An Centre No. 1 for community-based drug treatment, three local police officers and three officials from the local Centre for Disease Control. Interviews explored obstacles in implementing community-based drug dependence treatment and efforts to resolve these difficulties. Transcripts were coded and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA 11). We identified three challenges to community-based drug treatment at the Ping An Centre No. 1: (1) suboptimal coordination among parties involved, (2) a divergence in attitudes towards PWUD and harm reduction between law enforcement and health officials and (3) conflicting performance targets for police and health officials that undermine the shared goal of treatment. We also identified the take-home methadone maintenance treatment model at the Ping An Centre No. 1 as an example of an early successful collaboration between the police, the health department and PWUD. To overcome barriers to effective community-based drug treatment, we recommend aligning the goals of law enforcement and public health agencies towards health-based performance indicators. Furthermore, tensions between PWUD and police need to be addressed and trust between them fostered, using community

  15. Analysis towards Effective Policing in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The Nigerian Police Force maintains a three-tier administration structure of ... Administration. Finance and. Administration. General Administration. 2. Department of. Operation. Operations. Crime prevention , public order, public safety. 3. .... Customs Services and for performing Military duties, within or outside Nigeria as.

  16. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  17. Policing Taverns and Shebeens: Observation, experience and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article sketches the views and experiences of police officials responsible for enforcing liquor legislation in the Nyanga precinct of Cape Town. It is intended as a complementary response to Herrick & Charman's article, Shebeens and crime: The multiple criminalities of South African liquor and its regulation (SACQ 45) ...

  18. A Development Model for Foreign Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Organizational Development ........................................................................................ 62...must be balanced with organizational development to ensure that the receiving nation can sustain the additional equipment and skill sets. Next, the...the UN did not initially focus on organizational development of the Kosovo Police Service (KPS), it did begin a program to build

  19. A paradigm shift in policing: Crime reduction through problem oriented policing

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity theories of crime regards opportunity as a root cause and focus attention on the crime rather than the criminal. In the practical crime prevention efforts, this theoretical framework paved the way for innovative policing strategies like problem oriented policing and situational crime prevention. Policy makers and practitioners accept the motivated offender as given and gather the efforts to prevent offenders accessing sufficient means and opportunities for a crime to occur. Th...

  20. Female Participation in Formed Police Units: A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    UN police units. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police ( RCMP ) has been highly proactive in trying to implement the goals of resolution 1325, so the...integrating women into police forces. The RCMP study on women in peacekeeping also found 46 that these family care obligations were cited as signifi- cant

  1. Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. Findings This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5–64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09–3.09). Conclusions Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment. PMID:25014321

  2. Police education as a component of national HIV response: lessons from Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Thomas, Rachel; Shumskaya, Natalya; Artamonova, Irina; Smelyanskaya, Marina

    2013-11-01

    Recognition of the police's role in shaping HIV spread and prevention among people who inject drugs, sex workers, and other at-risk groups has generated interest in educational interventions targeting law enforcement. With input from civil society, trainings covering HIV prevention science, policy, and occupational safety were developed and delivered to cadets and active-duty police across Kyrgyzstan. We administered a multi-site cross-sectional survey of Kyrgyz police to assess whether having undergone HIV trainings was associated with improved legal and public health knowledge, positive attitudes toward public health programs and policies, occupational safety awareness, and intended practices . In a 313-officer sample, 38% reported undergoing the training. In a multivariate analysis, training was associated with the officer being significantly more likely to support referring individuals to public health organizations (aOR 2.21; 95%CI 1.33-3.68), expressing no intent to extrajudicially confiscate syringes (aOR 1.92; 95%CI 1.09-3.39), and better understanding sex worker detention procedure (aOR 2.23; 95%CI 1.19-4.46), although trainee knowledge of policy on routine identification checks for sex workers was significantly lower (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.78-5.05). Training was also associated with improved occupational safety knowledge (aOR 3.85; 95%CI 1.66-8.95). Kyrgyzstan's experience suggest that police trainings have the potential to improve the integration of policing and public health efforts targeting at-risk groups. Regardless of the legal environment, such structural approaches should be considered elsewhere in Central Asia and beyond. As these initiatives gain acceptance, further research is needed to inform their design and tailoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira L Schneiders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD including people who inject drugs (PWID, 199 men who have sex with men (MSM, 200 transgender women (TGW and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results: Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30; 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%, with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47, and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%, condoms (23% and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%, selling or distributing drugs (36% or being violent (13%. Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05, being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001 and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001 was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94% of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88% and carrying needles and syringes (55% as valid reasons

  4. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  5. Improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions: comprehensive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichek E.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian police reform is another important step to modernize the country and public administration system. The main purpose of ongoing reforms is to create the modern and efficient law enforcement system, to form a new image of police officer in the XXI century and to change the social role of law enforcement agencies in society. Unfortunately, the results expected by society aren’t achieved. It’s stated that the reform is only at its beginning, many decisions are still to be made and implemented. The main focus is on comprehensive measures aimed at improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions. Some features and problems of interaction between police and civil society institutions are considered. Statistics is provided. A number of constructive conclusions concerning further progressive development of interaction of police with civil society institutions are made. Despite the significant number of papers devoted to these issues, it’s necessary to note the insufficient elaboration of problems in this area. The reason is the ongoing reforms in Russia in general and police reform in particular, the instability of the current legislation regulating these issues. A lack of a clear concept of the reform, arising from a clear understanding of the police role and functions, is evident. These and other circumstances determine the topicality and practical importance of the research, the necessity of studying the peculiarities of police activities to improve its efficiency. They also indicate the need for scientific and practical recommendations.

  6. Uncommon Law: Understanding and Quantifying the Sovereign Citizen Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    sustainable —is debatable. The gap between perceived threats and current legal definitions underlies the conflicting terminology that many law enforcement...and the other in the throat.336 After heaving the police officers’ bodies from the restaurant booth where they had been seated, the Millers draped

  7. Alcohol Highway-Traffic Safety Workshop for Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William; And Others

    The manual, designed for one- and-one-half-day workshops with 20 to 40 law enforcement professionals who handle driving while intoxicated (DWI) cases, is directed toward recognizing the special role of the police officer as decision-maker in cases involving drunk or impaired driving. It is one of five workshop manuals developed to assist State and…

  8. Working together: public law enforcement and private security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harold T

    2010-01-01

    Private security forces, including hospital security professionals, provide a vast largely untapped resource for public law enforcement in a number of critical areas affecting society, the author points out. At the same time, police agencies in some communities have programs which can be used to provide additional training for private security officers.

  9. The Ethics of Ethnographic Attraction: Reflections on the Production of the Finno-Ugric Exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We intend to explore the production of the Finno-Ugric exhibitions at the Estonian National Museum. Our particular aim is to reveal methodological changes of ethnographic reproduction and to contextualise the museum’s current efforts in ideologically positioning of the permanent exhibition. Through historical–hermeneutical analysis we plan to establish particular museological trends at the Estonian National Museum that have led curators to the current ideological position. The history of the Finno-Ugric displays at the Estonian National Museum and comparative analysis of international museological practices enable us to reveal and interpret different approaches to ethnographic reconstructions. When exhibiting indigenous cultures, one needs to balance ethnographic charisma with the ethics of display. In order to employ the approach of ethical attraction, curators must comprehend indigenous cultural logic while building up ethnographic representations.

  10. Interactions of Transgender Latina Women with Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Frank H.; Bazargan, Mohzen

    2012-01-01

    A new report, funded by the Williams Institute, reveals high levels of reported harassment and assault of Latina transgender women by law enforcement agencies and highlights steps that police departments should take to improve relations with the transgender community.    The report, “Interactions of Latina Transgender Women with Law Enforcement” is based on interviews with 220 Latina transgender women from the Los Angeles area. BIENESTAR, a non-profit social service organization comm...

  11. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  12. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the diss...

  13. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  14. Noor-Eesti rollist eesti kirjandus- ja kultuuriloos. The Role of Young Estonia in Estonian Literary and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Olesk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 20th century on, the activities of the Young Estonia literary movement have had a significant influence on the development of Estonian culture. The group published five Young Estonia albums (1905–1915, the magazine Young Estonia, devoted to science, literature, and the arts (1910– 1911, and the newspaper Vaba Sõna (1914–1916, Free Word. The core of the group was composed of five or six active writers who maintained lively interactions with art and theatre circles. The publications of the Young Estonia Press brought about a revolutionary turn in the design and printing styles of the Estonian-language book. The questions of Young Estonia’s role and meaning have intrigued the Estonian cultural public at different times and in different ways. Young Estonia brought to cultural consciousness liberal views on the interpretation of art as well as an elitist aesthetics. At different times their openness to Europe irritated both the nationalist-minded and internationalists; thus the reception of the Young Estonia movement has been polemical throughout Estonian cultural history. Elapsed time has both opened the way for broader generalizations and, conversely, created a need to reconstruct the cultural context of the beginning of the 20th century. Polemic around Young Estonia was certainly caused by the group as a whole; however, in this article the role of individual members is also highlighted. It is emphasized that the political and aesthetic ideas of the Young Estonians changed synchronously with social conditions, from the 1905 Russian revolution to the world war that ravaged Europe. If the early part of this period saw a more social and nationalist bent to their thinking, then in the years of reaction, positions were taken that were more in keeping with l’art pour l’art. Young Estonia was not a hierarchical organization; rather, its small core group was composed of a narrow circle of friends with various

  15. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  16. Police College Students’ Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Kovčo Vukadin, Irma

    2016-01-01

    According to the results of numerous studies, personal attitudes of professionals who are dealing with homosexual persons affect their eagerness and the quality of their work. Negative attitudes toward homosexual persons may affect the police officers’ decisions, which would constitute a violation of the anti-discriminative norms they are obliged to protect. There are two goals of this research project: first, to determine the existence of differences in attitudes towards homosexuals betwe...

  17. Assessing fitness to detain in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Matthew

    2015-11-11

    This article outlines the role of the custody nurse in assessing an individual's fitness to be detained. It addresses all aspects of the assessment, including consent, responsibilities and the structure of the clinical examination. It explores ways to ensure that the detainee's rights and welfare are maintained and their healthcare needs are met. It offers guidance on preparing a care plan for detained individuals that the police can implement.

  18. Behavioral Indicators During a Police Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    park during a music festival, 2 males were observed acting suspiciously. The festival contains one large stage with open seating in front surrounded by...and appear to be focusing on the crowd, not on the music stage or venders. Whenever the subjects observe a police officer walking through the crowd...group) will puff out their chest and begin to strut. Also involves clenching of the fist(s), popping out of the vein on the forehead. Could also be

  19. Building capability throughout a change effort: leading the transformation of a police agency to community policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J Kevin

    2007-06-01

    This case describes a change effort to move a police agency to become a community policing organization. The community policing effort was seen as a means to make a transformational change to become a learning organization with the goal of improving the delivery of police services. The case describes the steps taken to meet the new vision of community policing as well as the steps taken to deal with the challenges or realities of trying to make change happen. The lens for this case is the leadership role across the stages of change (exploration, planning, implementation, monitoring and institutionalization) in building capacity within the organization to sustain the change effort. The capacity building focused on incorporating systems thinking into the mindset of the members of the organization, breaking down the command and control mindset by building a new norm around high involvement of committed teams, and developing skill sets to support continuous learning and improvement in order to align organizational systems. A key lesson learned is that effective leaders do not just prepare an organization prior to a change effort. They must have the patience to constantly build the capacity for change among organizational members throughout the various stages of the change effort.

  20. Alcohol and drug intoxication during police interrogation and the reasons why suspects confess to the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, J F; Gudjonsson, G H

    1994-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol, drug intoxication and withdrawal symptoms on the mental state of criminal suspects and the nature of their confession. A total of 359 sentenced prisoners were approached on admission and 96% agreed to participate in the study. They completed a specially designed Confession Questionnaire, which asked them questions about their reasons for confessing to the police, their attitude towards their confession, their mental state at the time of the confession and the extent to which they had been under the influence of alcohol and drug intoxication at the time of crime and police interview. The confession rate for the sample was very high (92%), with serious traffic violators having the highest confession rate (95%) and sex offenders the lowest (83%). The findings illustrate that the "perception of proof", "internal need to confess" and "external pressure" are the main reasons why suspects confess. However, subjects were identified who had experienced a typical "prisoner's dilemma" phenomenon during the police interview because of a co-defendant. Alcohol and drug intoxication was very commonly reported both at the time of the offence and the police interview, but these were related to the nature of their offence. Although intoxication and withdrawal symptoms did not appear to seriously impair their coping during the police interview it was consistently reported as having made them confused.

  1. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  2. Linking crime guns: the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Pierce, Glenn L

    2004-07-01

    Ballistics imaging technology has received national attention as a potent tool for moving the law enforcement response to violent gun criminals forward by linking multiple crime scenes to one firearm. This study examines the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Using negative binomial regression models to analyze times series data on ballistics matches, we find that ballistics imaging technology was associated with a more than sixfold increase in the monthly number of ballistics matches made by the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Cost-effectiveness estimates and qualitative evidence also suggest that ballistics imaging technology allows law enforcement agencies to make hits that would not have been possible using traditional ballistics methods.

  3. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.

  4. Death during police interrogation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasijević Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle, they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc., our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .

  5. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  6. Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuperjanov

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the different names for the Milky Way and the accompanying beliefs and myths, based on the material in the Estonian Folklore Archives. Astronomically speaking, the Milky Way is a big stellar system – a galaxy. All stellar systems of similar type are called galaxies. Our sun is a fairly common star, lying at the outskirts of the Galaxy. The core of the Galaxy is located in the Sagittarius Constellation where the Milky Way is widest and brightest, but i...

  7. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian) art history

    OpenAIRE

    Krista Kodres

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presen...

  8. Should the Posse Comitatus Act be Changed to Effectively Support Local Law Enforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    civilian Commander-in-Chief 13 and Congress being “solely 7 Jennifer Elsea, The Posse Comitatus Act...the Armed Force’s support to law enforcement including the Los Angeles riots; The 29 Jennifer Elsea...Fort Rucker Military Police (MP) assisted the Samson police department for five hours after Michael McLendon killed 10 people in a murder spree. 62

  9. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  10. Sexual Assault Victim Participation in Police Investigations and Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna

    This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.

  11. Remembrance of Things Past: Somali Roads to Police Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Hills

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.

  12. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  13. Drug-Trafficking and Police Corruption: A Comparison of Colombia and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    related police corruption, plaza system, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, Federal Preventative Police (PFP), Agencia Federal de Investigaciones ...AND ACRONYMS AFI Agencia Federal de Investigaciones /Federal Investigative Police CENDRO Centro de Planeación para el Control de Drogas/National...there have been social theorists, there have been theories of police corruption.8 The literature on police corruption mainly addresses the cultural

  14. THE URGENCY OF THE CRIMINAL POLICY IN CRIME MITIGATION POLICE PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Tahir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reveal the characteristics of the crimes committed by the police in general, and then continued by asserting the main orientation of the criminal policy in crime prevention. Next, will be discussed more specifically about the urgency of the criminal policy in the prevention of the crimes committed by the police. This paper, presented using data and information from literature sources, then analyzed qualitatively with decomposition descriptive and prescriptive analytics. The focus of the discussion of this article will be directed to the issue of urgency criminal policy in relation to the role of agency compensation and rehabilitation for the abuses of power that are criminogen in the investigation process established through pretrial agencies that the results are only set compensation and rehabilitation as a result of misuse of the police profession. To that end, the weakness of the criminal law policy, need to be updated, ie, by adding the authority to institute pretrial may also recommend its findings to be prosecuted and criminal sanctions

  15. The Role of Leadership in Police Organizational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Stress -- View from the Bottom," The Police Chief 42, no. 11 (1975): 54. 4 Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders -- The Strateaies for Takina Charae...Policing and Management By Objectives," The Police Chief 43, no. 11 (1976): 72 - 73. 34 Hersey, 392. 35 Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders -- The...Issues, James J. Fyfe, ed. (Washington: ICMA, 1989), 140. 5 Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders -- The Strateqies for Taking Charge (New York: Harper

  16. About the Alleged Racism among Swedish Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether Swedish police officers who often are accused of being racist are more prejudiced toward people with non Swedish-origin than other occupational groups. Three groups (n = 108) – police officers, fire fighters and teachers participated in the study that was carried out using questionnaires and IAT-tests. The study showed that the police officers were not the most prejudiced occupational group in the explicit measurements and were t...

  17. Racial profiling or racist policing? bounds tests in aggregate data

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Hernández-Murillo; John Knowles

    2004-01-01

    State-wide reports on police traffic stops and searches summarize very large populations, making them potentially powerful tools for identifying racial bias, particularly when statistics on search outcomes are included. But when the reported statistics conflate searches involving different levels of police discretion, standard tests for racial bias are not applicable. This paper develops a model of police search decisions that allows for non-discretionary searches and derives tests for racial...

  18. A prospective study of predictors of depression symptoms in police

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Tong, Huiqi; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Police work is one of the most stressful occupations. Previous research has indicated that work stress and trauma exposure may place individuals at heightened risk for the development of depression symptomatology. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to examine predictors of depression symptoms in police service.119 healthy police recruits from an ongoing prospective study were examined. Participants completed baseline measures of depression symptoms, childhood trauma exposure, ne...

  19. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  20. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  1. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Rusconi, R [ARPA Lombardia (Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia), via Juvara 22, 20129 Milan (Italy); Bagnato, L [Department of Quantitative Methods for Business and Economic Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell' Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F [ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto), via Dominutti 8, 37135 Verona (Italy); Risica, S, E-mail: m.forte@arpalombardia.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technology and Health Department, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  2. The risk of motor neurone disease and multiple sclerosis is different in Estonians and Russians. Data from South Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Paju, K; Oöpik, M; Lüüs, S; Kalbe, I; Kaasik, A E

    1999-03-01

    Epidemiological studies were performed in South Estonia to establish the prevalence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) and motor neurone disease (MND). The case finding method included information from the hospital records of the central hospital in the region-the University Hospital (for MS from 1942 to 1989), from all neurologists in the region, from the Estonian MS Society and Association of Muscular Disorders, and from nursing homes in the region. The prevalence day was 31 December 1989. MND incidence was established for the period of 1986-1995. The results demonstrated high prevalence rates of MS among native Estonians (55.3 per 100 000), somewhat lower prevalence among native-born representatives of other nationalities (43.6 per 100 000) and the lowest prevalence rate of MS among non-Estonian immigrants (26.6 per 100 000). The differences were not statistically significant. The results for MND demonstrated the opposite pattern. The mean annual incidence rate of MND for 10 years was statistically significantly higher among people of other nationalities (2.5 per 100 000) and Russians (2.6 per 100 000), and lower in native-born Estonians (1.1 per 100 000). No differences in health care or clinical picture were established. The reasons for the demonstrated differences in MND incidence remain unclear. Copyright 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  3. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  4. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  5. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  6. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  7. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  8. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2 and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1 is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014. An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test whether a change in learner setting (i.e. limited exposure to the target language vs. abundant exposure shows any evidence which can be explained by such external factors. Data was elicited from the speech samples of 97 speakers of L1 Estonian and L1 interference effects were analysed sound by sound. The results show that the younger generation displays less L1 Estonian interference than the older generation. Both greater exposure to the target language and earlier age of L2 learning onset correlate with the ability to produce more sounds target-like.

  9. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  10. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  11. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  12. Policing and Islamophobia in Germany: The Role of Workplace Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mescher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.

  13. Behind the Curtains of e-State: Determinants of Online Sexual Harassment among Estonian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kalmus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the risk of receiving online sexual messages and experiencing harm among Estonian children. In particular, the paper examines the association between receiving sexual messages and behavioural, psychological and demographic characteristics, and the social mediation of children’s Internet use. Estonian data from EU Kids Online survey are used, involving 780 children aged 11-16. Results demonstrate that 19% of children who use the Internet have received online sexual messages, and 6% have felt disturbed. The probability of receiving sexual messages online is higher for children with risky online and offline behaviour and psychological difficulties. Perceiving online messages as sexually harassing is higher among children with excessive Internet use, lower levels of parental monitoring and higher levels of peer mediation of Internet use. The risk of exposure to harassing sexual messages also differs by age and, more notably, by the minority status. Mediation by parents and teachers plays an insignificant role in reducing teenagers’ risks of receiving sexual messages.

  14. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Geller

    Full Text Available During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622 of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561 and 0.4% (8/2061, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73 to 2.8% (5/178. Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  15. Cultural Value Differences, Value Stereotypes, and Diverging Identities in Intergroup Conflicts: The Estonian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dobewall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    An examination of the relationship between cultural values, value stereotypes and social identities in Estonia, where intergroup conflicts triggered riots in the capital
    Tallinn in April 2007, using data from the European Social Survey on cultural differences and value trends as the background to a survey exploring perceived
    group values and assessed social identities among ethnic Estonians and members of the Russian-speaking minority. The study, conducted in summer 2008, found
    agreement across both ethnic groups about the values of a typical group member, but no accuracy in their attribution. The Estonian students (n = 152 avoided
    Eastern-European identification, while the Russian-speaking students (n = 54 did not want to give up Estonia’s Soviet past. We found that attributed rather than
    self-rated value differences between groups caused the conflicts, whilst diverging identities were found to make value stereotypes more extreme.

  16. Linking a Population Biobank with National Health Registries—The Estonian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Leitsalu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants’ genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million. Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants’ data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  17. Locally calibrated wave hindcasts in the Estonian coastal sea in 1966–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wave parameters were studied in four differently exposed fetch-limited Estonian coastal sea locations: the Harilaid Peninsula facing W–NW, Letipea N–NE, Matsi SW and Kõiguste SE. Based on high-quality measurements of waves with the bottom-mounted Recording Doppler Current Profiler in 2006–2011, a model for significant wave height was calibrated separately for those locations. Using wind forcing data from Estonian coastal meteorological stations, a set of hindcasts was obtained over the period of 1966–2011. The wave heights showed some quasi-periodic cycles with a high stage in 1980–1995, and probably also from 2007; a prevailing overall decrease in the mean wave height; an increase in high wave events at the windward coasts of West Estonia but a decrease at the northern and southeastern coasts. The spatially contrasting results for differently exposed coasts reflect the corresponding variations in local wind, which are probably caused by changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure patterns above Northern Europe and a poleward shift of cyclones’ trajectories. Although featuring outstanding calibration results, the long-term wave hindcast may be impacted by possible inhomogeneities in the older wind data.

  18. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  20. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  1. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN FIVE FINNOUGRIC LANGUAGES AND ESTONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Hollman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare five Finno-Ugric languages – Estonian,Finnish, Hungarian, Udmurt and Komi-Zyrian – and the Estonian Sign Language (unclassified in different aspects: established basic colour terms, the proportion of basic colour terms and different colour terms in the collected word-corpora, the cognitive salience index values in the list task and the number of dominant colour tiles in the colour naming task. The data was collected, using the field method of Davies and Corbett, from all languages under consideration, providing a distinctive foundation for linguistic comparison. We argue that Finno-Ugric languages seem to possess relatively large colour vocabularies,especially due to their rich variety of word-formation types,e.g. the composition of compound words. All of the languages under consideration have developed to Stage VI or VII, possessing 7 to 11lexicalised basic colour terms. The cognitive salience index helps to distinguish primary and secondary basic colour terms, showing certain comprehensive patterns which are similar to Russian and English.

  3. Distribution of charophyte species in Estonian coastal water (NE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaire Torn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes constitute a group of macrophytes that usually inhabit soft bottoms with shallow water. They occur mostly in fresh-water environments but can also be found in brackish waters. Due to their requirement for clear water they are considered sensitive to eutrophication and therefore often used as an indicator for good water quality. The diverse structure of the Estonian coastline with its numerous sheltered bays and shallow, soft-bottom archipelago areas coupled with low salinity conditions provides an excellent habitat for charophytes. To date, seven species have been described in Estonian coastal waters, NE Baltic Sea. Last systematic investigations on charophyte distribution date back 20-30 years. During the summer of 2001 the locations where charophytes have previously been found were revisited and new sites sampled, to describe the present distribution of quantitative and qualitative parameters of charophyte species. Sampling was performed mainly by SCUBA diving; occurrence, abundance and wet weight biomass were estimated for each location. Six species of charophytes were identified. Compared to previously recorded material, no significant changes in the distribution pattern of charophytes were found. The dependence of charophyte distribution on environmental settings was tested, with depth and substrate quality explaining most of the variability in distribution. Salinity within observed range had minor influence on charophytes.

  4. Freedom from theory? An attempt to analyse Sten Karling’s views on (Estonian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Kodres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a Swedish-born art historian Sten Ingvar Karling who was a professor in the Estonian national University of Tartu from 1933 to 1940. Karling published a great number of texts on local art history that were based on substantial archival inquiry, careful observation and stylistic systematisation of works of art. Karling’s discussions about the nature of art were brief and he hardly stressed the need for theoretical self-reflection. It is, however, obvious that his presentation and evaluation of artistic material was theory based. His ideas of art as an expression of 'will of art' and 'spirit of the time' and his views about change of styles mostly originated from the Vienna school of art history. At the same time he was a promoter of the concept of Baltic-Nordic artedominium, the construction that confronted the concept of German-dominated artistic past of the Baltic countries. Thus Karling’s logic of the 'construction of (Estonian heritage' was coherent with the aim to strengthen one's own national identity through a new positive art historical narrative that took place intensively in the whole of Europe over the 1920-1930s.

  5. Can we continue to effectively police digital crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Graeme

    2017-11-01

    Now approximately 30years old, the field of digital forensics is arguably facing some of its greatest challenges to date. Whilst currently supporting law enforcement in numerous criminal cases annually, questions are beginning to emerge regarding whether it can sustain this contribution, with digital crime remaining prevalent. In his first live interview in September 2015, Head of MI5, Andrew Parker indicated that individuals are now engaging in computing acts which are beyond the control of authorities, confirming earlier remarks made by British Prime Minister David Cameron in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo attacks. Such comments cast doubt on the future effectiveness of the digital forensic discipline and its ability to effectively investigate those who implement the latest forms of technology to carry out illicit acts. This article debates the controversial question, could we be facing an era where digital crime can no longer be effectively policed? Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Police department personnel stress resilience training: an institutional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Gershon; Lamon, Jonathan; Freedy, Elan; Chartrand, Donald

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this case study was to test the impact in law enforcement personnel of an innovative self-regulation and resilience building program delivered via an iPad (Apple Inc, Cupertino, California) app and personal mentoring. The Stress Resilience Training System (SRTS) app includes training on stress and its effects, HRV coherence biofeedback, a series of HeartMath self-regulation techniques (The Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California), and HRV-controlled games. The stressful nature of law enforcement work is well established, and the need for meaningful and effective stress resilience training programs is becoming better understood, as it has been in the military. Law enforcement and military service share many stress-related features including psychological stressors connected with the mission, extended duty cycles, and exposure to horrific scenes of death and injury. San Diego (California) Police Department personnel who participated in the study were 12 sworn officers and 2 dispatchers, 10 men and 4 women. The SRTS intervention comprised an introductory 2-hour training session, 6 weeks of individualized learning and practice with the SRTS app, and four 1-hour telephone mentoring sessions by experienced HeartMath mentors spread over a four week period. Outcome measures were the Personal and Organizational Quality Assessment (POQA) survey, the mentors' reports of their observations, and records of participants' comments from the mentoring sessions. The POQA results were overwhelmingly positive: All four main scales showed improvement; Emotional Vitality improved by 25% (P=.05) and Physical Stress improved by 24% (P=.01). Eight of the nine subscales showed improvement, with the Stress subscale, perhaps the key measure of the study, improving by approximately 40% (P=.06). Participant responses were also uniformly positive and enthusiastic. Individual participants praised the program and related improvements in both on-the-job performance and

  7. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  8. Women in red serge: Female police bodies and the disruption to the image of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Schmidt, Bonnie Ann

    2013-01-01

    The arrival of women in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in the mid-1970s disrupted the masculine image of a police force that was intimately connected to idealized Canadian manhood and the formation of the nation. Yet, women have been noticeably absent from the historical record of the RCMP, allowing the figure of the heroic male Mountie to continue his dominance in official, academic, and popular histories. Central to these discourses has been the male police body which has been pos...

  9. The Illusive Nature of ‘Russian International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Bogush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monograph written by Estonian international law scholar Lauri Mälksoo is impressively well-timed. The record of recent international legal developments involving Russia is striking: the annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in Ukraine, Russia’s ‘sanctions war’ with the United States and the European Union, nonrecognition and non-compliance with the international arbitral award in the Yukos case, and earlier, in 2013, Russia’s boycott of the proceedings at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. Most recently, already subsequent to the publication of Russian Approaches to International Law, in July 2015 the Russian Constitutional Court sent a message of open disregard to Strasbourg by declaring that the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights could not be implemented in Russia if they contradicted the Russian Constitution. In all these instances the Russian government relied on its own reading of international law, which appeared not only to be strikingly different from that of the vast majority of states, but often detrimental to the foundations of the discipline. One might wonder whether these events are just the excesses of authoritarian power-politics, or more fundamentally grounded. Specifically, is there any special Russian international school of legal thought (referred to below as ‘Russian international law’? And if there is, may it serve as a plausible alternative to Western-centric contemporary international law? Lauri Mälksoo’s book is the first genuine response to these questions.

  10. Beyond police crisis intervention: moving "upstream" to manage cases and places of behavioral health vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer D; Beierschmitt, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Law enforcement officers continue to serve on the front lines as mental health interventionists, and as such have been subject to a wave of "first generation" reform designed to enhance their crisis response capabilities. Yet, this focus on crisis intervention has not answered recent calls to move "upstream" and bolster early intervention in the name of long-term recovery. This paper reports on findings from an action research project in Philadelphia aimed at exploring opportunities for enhanced upstream engagement. Study methods include spatial analyses of police mental health transportations from an eight year period (2004-2011) and qualitative data from twenty-three "framing conversations" with partners and other stakeholders, seven focus groups with police and outreach workers, five key informant interviews as well as document reviews of the service delivery system in Philadelphia. Recommendations include the need to move beyond a focus on what police can do to a wider conception of city agencies and business stakeholders who can influence vulnerable people and vulnerable spaces of the city. We argue for the need to develop shared principles and rules of engagement that clarify roles and stipulate how best to enlist city resources in a range of circumstances. Since issues of mental health, substance use and disorder are so tightly coupled, we stress the importance of establishing a data-driven approach to crime and disorder reduction in areas of the city we term "hotspots of vulnerability". In line with a recovery philosophy, such an approach should reduce opportunities for anti-social behavior among the "dually labeled" in ways consistent with "procedural justice". Furthermore, crime and disorder data flowing from police and security to behavioral health analysts could contribute to a more focused case management of "repeat utilizers" across the two systems. Our central argument is that a twin emphasis on "case management" and "place management" may provide

  11. Police Bodies and Police Minds: Professional Learning through Bodily Practices of Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…

  12. Relationship between the police and crime victims: An analysis of the process and the level of satisfaction with police work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klisarić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.

  13. Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Vladimir; Hickman, Matthew; Parkin, William S; Pozo, Veronica F

    2018-01-01

    We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories.

  14. Estimation of the crustal motion and noise properties from the time series of Estonian permanent GNSS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kall, Tarmo; Oja, Tõnis; Kollo, Karin; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's crust is moving continuously due to the processes such as plate tectonics, Earth and ocean tides, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), local deformations, atmospheric and hydrological mass variations. Accordingly, the effect of those processes are expected on the measured coordinates of continuously operating GNSS stations. Simultaneously, the imperfections of GNSS such as clock and orbit errors, antenna phase center variations, atmospheric delay, shortcomings due to the site selection and construction, snow accumulation on the antenna radome, etc., generate spurious signals and noise in the observation data. In Estonia and its surrounding, the GIA process is the main cause of the long-term intra-continental deformations and the motion of the permanent GNSS stations. Therefore, the purpose of this contribution was to estimate the long-term velocities and GIA-related signal relied on the coordinate time series of Estonian GNSS stations. For the accurate estimation of GIA-related velocity, known signals were modelled and the properties of spurious signal and noise were analysed. Raw data from the GNSS stations were processed independently with programs GIPSY 6.4 (precise point positioning with fixing ambiguities) and Bernese 5.2 (double difference processing). Accordingly, for every GNSS station two solutions in IGb08 reference frame for the north, east, and up coordinates were computed to form 10 years long time series (from 2007 to 2016). The ITRF2008 velocity model was used to model and subtract the effect of Eurasian plate tectonic motion from data. For the estimation of long-term velocity, the linear trend model complemented with the sinusoidal and step functions (for annual, semi-annual signals and discontinuities in time series) was fitted separately to the north, east, and up coordinate series. Initially, power spectral density was plotted to assess and visualize the noise properties of the residual time series. Additionally, different stochastic

  15. Police et société

    OpenAIRE

    NAPOLI, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    À l’instar de M. Weber, le paradigme du disciplinement (Sozialdisziplinierung), actuellement influent dans le domaine des études historico-juridiques, décrit le bon ordre de la société comme un processus entre l’institution politique qui dirige et les conduites humaines prises comme cible des dispositifs juridiques. Or la liaison entre police et discipline sociale – soumise ici à une réification étrangère aux prémisses conceptuelles de Weber – apparaît problématique : la difficulté pratique m...

  16. African and Non-African Refugees' Perceptions of Police: A Study of Two American Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joselyne L Chenane; Jawjeong Wu; John Huey-Long Song

    2017-01-01

    ... cities in the northeastern region. We explore whether there are differences in perceived police prejudice, police effectiveness, and respect for the police between African and non-African refugees...

  17. How often are teens arrested for sexting? Data from a national sample of police cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2012-01-01

    To examine characteristics of youth sexting cases handled by police and their outcomes in response to clinical and other concerns about the risks of sexting behavior. Mail surveys were sent to a stratified national sample of 2712 law enforcement agencies followed by detailed telephone interviews with investigators about a nationally representative sample of sexting cases handled by police during 2008 and 2009 (n = 675). The cases involved "youth-produced sexual images" that constituted child pornography under relevant statutes according to respondents. US law enforcement agencies handled an estimated 3477 cases of youth-produced sexual images during 2008 and 2009 (95% confidence interval: 3282-3672). Two-thirds of the cases involved an "aggravating" circumstance beyond the creation and/or dissemination of a sexual image. In these aggravated cases, either an adult was involved (36% of cases) or a minor engaged in malicious, non-consensual, or abusive behavior (31% of cases). An arrest occurred in 62% of cases with an adult involved, in 36% of the aggravated youth-only cases, and in 18% of the "experimental" cases (youth-only and no aggravating elements). Most of the images (63%) were distributed by cell phone only and did not reach the Internet. Sex offender registration applied in only a few unusual cases. Many of the youth sexting cases that come to the attention of police include aggravating circumstances that raise concerns about health and risky sexual behavior, although some cases were relatively benign. Overall, arrest is not typical in cases with no adults involved.

  18. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  19. Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail

  20. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  1. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  2. Newspaper Coverage of Nigeria Police Activities: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...

  3. Teens and police officers learn leadership skills in summer camps

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    This summer, rising 10th graders and police officers from all over the state will learn leadership skills in two separate programs on the Virginia Tech campus sponsored by the Virginia Police Chiefs Foundation and organized by the Pamplin College of Business. Both programs start on Sunday, June 17.

  4. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...

  5. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...

  6. The code of silence: Revisiting South African police integrity | Ivkovic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results provide further evidence of the presence of the code of silence covering various forms of police misconduct. At least one quarter of the respondents would protect a fellow officer who verbally abused citizens, covered up police driving under the influence (DUI) accident, accepted gratuities, or failed to react to graffiti.

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease in Police Forces Households in Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In the Police Forces Hypertension, Diabetes, Renal Insufficiency and Thyroid Derangement (HyDRIT) pilot study we explored the prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment adequacy and complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non-communicable diseases among adult Police Forces ...

  8. The Integration of Counterterrorism into the DNA of American Policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    2008): 2, Dudley Knox Library, EBSCOhost (33126549). 93 Robert R. Friedmann and William J. Cannon, “Homeland Security and Community Policing...Social Change 50, no. 1/2 (June 2008): 1–5. Dudley Knox Library, EBSCOhost (33126549). Hawkes, Andrew. “The History and Importance of Police

  9. From Aarhus to Manila : Policing Practices in a Global Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Peter; Christensen, Maya Mynster; Johansen, Mette-Louise; Kyed, Helene Marie; Mutsaers, Paul; Pauschinger, Dennis; Stepputat, Finn; Colona, Francesco; Matallana-Villarreal, Jairo; Wiuff Moe, Louise; van Stapele, Naomi; Warburg, Anna; Koch Andersen, Morten; Øygard Larsen, Kari; Dragsted Mutengwa, Brigitte; Jensen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Policing in the global South and North are commonly characterized as vastly different by researchers and policy-makers alike. By exploring how the state police makes order in urban settings around the world, this policy brief provides insight into emerging global commonalities, including the

  10. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  11. Mapping Khayelitsha - The complexities of everyday policing in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order for a single South African police station to operate optimally, or indeed at any level of functionality at all, it is required to form cooperative relations with a host of external institutions. This is in addition to ensuring that the internal structural capacity of a police station is maintained. The Commission of Inquiry into ...

  12. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  13. Knowledge and skills police officers need to manage mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A declaration by the Mental Health Care Act (Act 17 of 2002) authorised police officers to assist mental health care users (MHCUs) they come across and needed help. As such, the purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge and skills of police officers regarding mental illness and the handling of MHCUs.

  14. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people's beliefs about a neighbourhood's social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared

  15. IRN `Popular' policing and Social Control in Northern Ireland:

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, John

    2002-01-01

    The expression 'Popural'policing has also been described in the Nothern Irish context as 'informal','community','alternative'or 'black'policing in the literature.Although no general agreement existus on the meaning of these terms thei tend to reflect shades of nuance different scholars have intended to ecphasize.The success of alternative forms ...

  16. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  17. Law in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

    This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

  18. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Methods Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Results Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively and 35–44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends. Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. Conclusions In 1982–2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  19. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris in Estonian ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Geller, Julia; Katargina, Olga; Värv, Kairi; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    So far neglected bacteria like Candidatud Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris-like agents get increased attention in the recent past. Ixodid ticks were demonstrated to harbor both of these pathogens. Estonia is populated by two medically important tick species, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus. In this study the presence of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis in these two tick species was investigated. Tick DNA was analyzed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for the presence of 16S rRNA of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis. Positive samples were further confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the partial groESL-operon. The obtained partial groESL sequences were used for construction of a maximum likelihood tree. In total, 776 ticks from 36 collection sites situated in 7 counties on the mainland of Estonia and 2 sites situated in one county on the island Saaremaa were collected. 548 were I. ricinus and 228 were I. persulcatus. Only in 5 counties (11 sites) samples positive for the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene were found. The percentage of Candidatus N. mikurensis positive ticks varied from 1% to 9.1% at different sites. In Eastern and South-Eastern Estonia, the area where I. ricinus and I. persulcatus are sympatric, no Candidatus N. mikurensis was found. Ticks carrying E. muris were found in three counties, the site-specific percentage of positive ticks varied from 1.2% to 25.6%. This is the first study revealing the presence of Candidatus N. mikurensis and E. muris in Estonian ticks. Candidatus N. mikurensis was found only in the western part of the country exclusively in I. ricinus and the phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness of the Estonian sequences to other European Candidatus N. mikurensis strains. E. muris was detected mostly in I. persulcatus and only in one I. ricinus in the sympatric area of both tick species. This is in correspondence with the observation that this pathogen is more often found in I. persulcatus than in I

  1. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  2. A mental health consultation program to the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, M; Goldstein, G

    1983-01-01

    The growing interface between psychiatric staff and the police as a result of the latter's involvement with disturbed patients released into various communities has intensified the need for appropriate police orientation and desensitization to these patients. This article describes a program that grew out of the need of the police for involvement with psychiatric staff, once their resistance had been overcome. The use of videotapes and role playing diminished the anxiety of the police, allowed their better and more rational judgments to come forth when faced with such patients, and increased their empathy. Another goal of the program was to get the police to see that a more reflective and restrained approach to patients, as distinguished from an aggressive, action-oriented approach, was just as demanding of their professionalism and could be more effective and safer in the management of these patients.

  3. Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Admissibility of the action to set aside - possible violation of basic rights - preclusion - forfeiture of action - substantial modification of an installation - effects on the safety level - involvement of the public - violation of procedural rules - omitted interpretation. Guiding principles: It is a matter of substantial modification subject to authorization as defined by the Atomic Energy Law if and when this modification affects the safety level of the installation, unless it is obvious that these effects are insignificant. It cannot make any difference whether these modifications may have a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The provisions governing sect. 4 para. 1 and sect. 6 para. 1 of the AtVfV confer on a third party affected a right under public law to be involved in the licensing procedure as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, with the result that its violation concedes the party affected a right to claim the annulment of the (partial) licence granted. The issue of licensing capacity under substantive law does not matter. An interpretation omitted by way of action can only be reproved successfully if the substantial modifications may negatively affect the rights of the complaining party, not if the operator takes protective measures which obviously improve the safety level. Arnsberg Administrative Court - 7 K 74/79 - Decision of January 27, 1981.

  4. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

  5. Adoption Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Joan Heifetz

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to achieve uniformity in state adoption laws are confronted by a lack of consensus on six major issues: (1) parental consent and interests; (2) children's interests; (3) the nature of the actual adoption transaction; (4) adoptive relationships as substitutes for biological relationships; (5) confidentiality and anonymity; and (6) the…

  6. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  7. Police.uk and Data.police.uk: Developing Open Crime and Justice Data for the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Smith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the evolution and development of the police.uk and data.police.uk sites, which publish open data about crime and justice in the UK, and make it accessible and comprehensible to the public. Police.uk has received over 64 million visits (754 million hits since launching in January 2011. Open crime and justice data represents a key sector in the UK open data landscape, and citizens are keen to engage with the criminal justice system to become more informed about local levels of crime and other policing information. This paper sets out the policing context in the UK, discusses the journey in providing such open data, the processes involved and challenges encountered, and explores possible future developments.

  8. Sovietisation and the Estonian National Museum during 1940s-1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Konksi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impacts of the policy of the 1940s-1950s Soviet authority on the Estonian National Museum. The first, introductory part observes the general frameworks of the (ethnographical museums in the Soviet Union, thus providing an overview of the goal of Sovietisation policy – what was the system’s perception of the institution that the ENM was supposed to become. The main part of the article focuses on Sovietisation practice in the ENM: what kind of reorganisation took place within the work of the museum in connection with political changes, whether and how the new norms were adapted to and to what extent they were adopted. The source material used for the treatment of the subject matter comprises, in addition to the ENM’s archive materials, the memories of three ethnologists who worked in the ENM during the observed period.

  9. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  10. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factorial structure of SILL revisited: adaptation of SILL for Estonian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Saks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the taxonomy of language learning strategies (Oxford 1990: 14–22 and its measuring instrument, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, through the adaptation process of the Estonian version. The translated version of the SILL was pilot-tested with a sample of 337 tertiary students. Cronbach’s alpha (0.91 reveals an acceptable reliability of the instrument. The t-test that was conducted in addition to descriptive analysis, to check for gender differences, did not reveal any significant differences. The results of the exploratory factor analysis did not support the 2- or 6-factor structures but the 9-factor analysis provides a good comparison to similar studies published in 1995 (Oxford, Burry-Stock 1995. The ethnic and gender differences of the results are discussed from the cultural perspective.

  12. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  13. Mobility of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Cr in some Estonian soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irha, Natalya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sorption capacity of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr to five Estonian soils was evaluated using spiked subsoil samples in laboratory experiments. The experimental sorption data fitted well to the linear Freundlich isotherm. The sorption of metals in subsoil depended on the soil type, e.g., mineral composition. The results indicate that the content of quartz and carbonates is important in affecting the metal sorption capacity of subsoil. On the basis of our data the possibility of penetration in depth and accumulation of mobile metals was evaluated. It was concluded that increase in dissolved Cd and accumulation of other metals in the subsoil of Podzol is expected. The accumulation of Pb could be the main process for soils with a high amount of dolomite.

  14. Grammar School Students’ Opinions on the Art Curriculum: An Estonian, Portuguese and Slovenian Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the attitude of grammar school students towards the art curriculum. It first provides an overview of the characteristics of contemporary art education, with an emphasis on the postmodern art curriculum and on linking course content with students’ interests. The study is based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method, with a sample comprising 387 Slovenian, Estonian and Portuguese students. It was established that the students place the highest value on developing creativity, and are less interested in art history content and learning about the basics of the formal art language. They are attracted to contemporary topics, such as graffiti, multicultural art, the use of new media, and digital technologies. The results of the study provide opportunities for future comparative analyses and starting points for updating art curricula.

  15. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-02-15

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stroke awareness in two Estonian cities: better knowledge in subjects with advanced age and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Liisa; Väli, Merle; Tomson, Kadi; Piirsoo, Erika; Schneider, Siim; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess stroke awareness of the Estonian population. Investigators were asked to fill in an original, closed-ended multiple-choice questionnaire about the definition, risk factors, symptoms and behavior at the onset of stroke by randomly selected subjects in public places of the two biggest cities in Estonia (Tallinn and Tartu). The study included 355 persons. Most of the respondents knew that stroke is an acute disease and that one should call the ambulance at the onset of a stroke. Speech disorder and paresis were the best known symptoms, while hypertension was the best known risk factor. There were no differences between the sexes, but advanced age and higher level of education were related to higher awareness. The overall knowledge was better compared to many other studies. Future awareness campaigns should be addressed to younger subjects with lower education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fractal and multifractal analysis of complex networks: Estonian network of payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2017-12-01

    Complex networks have gained much attention from different areas of knowledge in recent years. Particularly, the structures and dynamics of such systems have attracted considerable interest. Complex networks may have characteristics of multifractality. In this study, we analyze fractal and multifractal properties of a novel network: the large scale economic network of payments of Estonia, where companies are represented by nodes and the payments done between companies are represented by links. We present a fractal scaling analysis and examine the multifractal behavior of this network by using a sandbox algorithm. Our results indicate the existence of multifractality in this network and consequently, the existence of multifractality in the Estonian economy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes multifractality of a complex network of payments.

  18. Challenges associated with drunk driving measurement: combining police and self-reported data to estimate an accurate prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many

  19. Private companies – policy, proliferation, policing

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The Law Commission’s work reviewing the law on private companies and on partnership law creates a unique opportunity to focus on the long term needs of the small business sector. Andrew Hicks argues that small businesses should be given a real choice of corporate form, either the traditional limited company or a new and efficient “business corporation” which does not confer limited liability on its members. Article by Andrew Hicks (Solicitor, Senior lecturer, University of Exeter) published i...

  20. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.