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Sample records for estonian native breed

  1. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  2. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

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    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  3. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  4. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

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    Sangwon Suh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

  5. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  6. Genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop sequences in four native Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L

    2017-10-01

    1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.

  7. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  8. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  9. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  10. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    Goat production is economically and socially important in. Turkey. An estimated 500,000 farm households ..... they could become target alleles for resistance breeding. Indeed, S146 was the most frequent PrP variant .... production in Turkey under new support regimes and market conditions. Small Rumin. Res. 62, 181–191.

  11. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  12. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

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    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  13. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... 1The Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Pig Breeding and Production, ul. Wolynska 33,. 60-637 ... ZS x D had significantly higher share of meat cuts in comparison with purebred fatteners ZS and crossbred fatteners ZS x (ZS x D). ... Proximate composition of diets. Item. Diet. Starter. Grower.

  14. Genetic diversity within and among four South European native horse breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, A; Jugo, B M; Mériaux, J C; Iriondo, M; Mazón, L I; Aguirre, A I; Vicario, A; Estomba, A

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four Basque-Navarrese semiferal native horse breeds. In total, 417 animals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite markers. Mean heterozygosity was higher than in other horse breeds, surely as a consequence of management. Although the population size of some of these breeds has declined appreciably in the past century, no genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the breeds, possibly because it was not narrow enough to be detectable. In the phylogenetic tree, the Jaca Navarra breed was very similar to the Pottoka, but appeared to stand in an intermediate position between this and the meat breeds. Assuming that Pottoka is the breed less affected by admixture, the others gradually distanced themselves from it through varying influences from outside breeds, among other factors. In a comparative study with other breeds, the French breeds Ardanais, Comtois, and Breton were the closest to the four native breeds. Three different approaches for evaluating the distribution of genetic diversity were applied. The high intrabreed variability of Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia (EHMZ) was pointed out in these analyses. In our opinion, cultural, economic, and scientific factors should also be considered in the management of these horse breeds.

  15. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  16. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  17. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

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    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  19. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  20. RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAM FOR NATIVE RESISTANCE TO WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM

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    Ivan Brkić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum allocation of the number of plants sampled per plot and number of locations and years required for screening maize genotypes for reduced root damage caused by western corn rootworm (WCR larvae, major pest of maize in Croatia, Europe and in the USA. Field trials were conducted on two locations Eastern Croatia, a major maize production area with natural WCR occurrence under continuous maize growing conditions. The trials were set as an incomplete lattice block design in two replications in 2007, 2008 and 2009 including 128 genotypes from various maize gene-pools. Our results suggest that the effect of year and respective interactions including year were the most important factors in maize breeding programs for native resistance to WCR. Thus, screening germplasm for WCR resistance should be made in a multi-year experiment, but not necessarily as a multi-location experiment. Resource optimization should be done by reducing number of roots per plot to minimum 4 sampled plants due to small within-plot environmental variance.

  1. Morphohistological and surgical anatomy of the sinus interdigitalis in Egyptian native breeds of sheep

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    A.S. Awaad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to characterize the gross and microscopic structures of the interdigital sinus in Egyptian native breeds of sheep and goats (Baladi sheep and goats to aid in conducting farther studies on such sinus and its surgical importance. The study was carried out on the distal fore and hind limb specimens (below the fetlock joint obtained from healthy mature ten Baladi sheep and ten Baladi goats of both sexes. For sheep, thirty specimens were subjected to gross anatomical investigation and the other ten specimens were used for histological examination. While, the forty goats fore and hind feet specimens were examined grossly. The results obtained revealed the presence of a well-developed interdigital sinus in Baladi sheep, but there was no evidence for the existence of this unique structure in all examined specimens of Baladi goats. Such sinus appeared grossly as a pipe-like, composed of two parts; body (corpus and neck (column which opened in the skin of the interdigital area with an external orifice. The body consisted of three distinct parts in the forefeet and a single part in the hind feet. Histologically, the wall in body and neck regions of the interdigital sinus composed of three distinct layers; epidermis, dermis and a fibrous capsule. Many sebaceous glands, hair follicles and sweat glands in addition to the glandular apocrine gland were distributed within the dermis. The secretory adenomers of the interdigital sinus arranged in different lobules and lined with cuboidal cells with bleb-like projections. It reacted positively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Sudan black and Sudan III stains, on the other hand it negatively reacted with Alcian blue stain (AB.

  2. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

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    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  3. Estonian Tax Structure

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    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  4. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M A; Campana, M G; Whitten, M; Edwards, C J; Jones, H; Barrett, E; Cassidy, R; Nisbet, R E R; Hill, E W; Howe, C J; Binns, M

    2011-04-23

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to 'A Royal Mare'). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized.

  5. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  6. Astudy on accuracy of predicted breeding value for body weight at eighth week of age in Khorasan native chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faeze ghorbani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genetic resources in any country are valuable materials which needed to be conserved for a sustainable agriculture. An animal phenotype is generally affected by genetic and environmental factors. To increase mean performance in a population under consideration not only environmental conditions, but also genetic potential of the animals should be improved. Although, environmental improvement could increase the level of animals’ production in a more rapid way, it is not a permanent and non-cumulative progress. In any breeding schemes prediction breeding value of the candidate animals is needed to be obtained with a high precision and accuracy for making a remarkable genetic gain for the traits over the time. The main objective of the present research was to study accuracy of predicted breeding value for body weight at eighth week of age in indigenous chickens of Khorasan Razavi province. Materials and methods: A set of 47,000 body weight (at the age of eight weeks records belonging to 47,000 head of male and female chicks (progeny of 753 sires and 5,154 dams collected during seven generations (2006-2012 was used. The data were obtained in Khorasan Razavi native chicken breeding center. An animal model was applied for analyzing the records. In the model, contemporary group of generation*hatch*sex (GHS as a fixed effect, weight at birth as a covariable, as well as direct and maternal additive genetic random effects were taken into account. In an initial analysis using SAS software, all fixed and covariate factors included in the model were detected to be significant for the trait. All additive genetic relationships among the animals in the pedigree file (47,880 animals were accounted for. Variance and covariance components of direct and maternal additive genetic effects were estimated through restricted maximum likelihood (REML method. Breeding value of the animals was obtained by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. Selection

  7. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  8. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  9. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, D.; Marelli, S. P.; Randi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    -defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can...

  10. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  11. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  12. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  13. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  14. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

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    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  15. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  16. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which

  17. Estonian white paper on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, Arvi

    1997-01-01

    Energy policy, environmental protection and economy form a triangle of tightly linked sectors, and any solution of some energy problem can be solved only in the light of all the above mentioned factors. There are several energy master plans for Estonia, the first of them dating back to the years of the Soviet Union and ending the list with the plan to cover the years up to 2000. By now the basic principles of the Estonian energy policy have been prepared and Estonian Energy Concept is being worked out. The main goal of Estonian energy policy is ensure an effective and environmentally benign energy supply for the country. It means safety in energy supply, effective production and supply together with sufficient environmental protection. Energy Council in the role of an advisory voluntary organization for inspection of the energy system and finding measures to improve its efficiency is established with parliament members included. The Estonian Energy Research Institute and the Oil--Shale Research Institute serve as a scientific advisory board for the government in energy policy. It's important to emphasise that privatisation is no panacea, solving all the problems, and therefore we are facing hard to move in the right direction, satisfying all the consumers of energy

  18. Logistics in Estonian business companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiisler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes logistics survey in Estonia carried out in 2007 as a part of the LogOnBaltic project. The level of logistics in Estonian manufacturing, trading and logistics companies is explored through logistics costs, performance indicators, outsourcing, ICT use and logistics self-estimation of the companies responded. Responses from 186 Estonian companies were gathered through a web-based survey (38% of manufacturing, 38% of trading and 24% of logistics sector. Logistics costs as the percentage of turnover make in average 13.8% in manufacturing and 13.3% in trading. Transportation and inventory carrying cost form around 70% of overall logistics costs. Considering the logistics indicators surveyed, Estonian companies show up with relatively low perfect order fulfillment rates, short customer order fulfillment cycles and effective management of cash flows. The most widely outsourced logistics function is international transportation followed by domestic transportation, freight forwarding and reverse logistics. By 2010, the outsourcing of IT systems in logistics followed by inventory management, warehousing and product customization is expected to increase more substantially. The awareness of logistics importance is still low among Estonian companies. Only 27–44% of those agree that logistics has a considerable impact on profitability, competitive advantage, top management or customer service level.

  19. Compiling the Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian: From scratch to the database

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    Ene Vainik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the project titled “The Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian” undertaken by the author at the Institute of the Estonian Language. The general aim of the Dictionary is to provide insights into Estonians’ common-sense mind. It is meant to be a tool of self-reflection for Estonian native speakers and a guide for the foreigners who are eager enough to make themselves familiar with the Estonian cultural patterns of thought. The Dictionary will be published online. The number of keywords was initially limited to approximately 800. Specific emphasis is given to the stage of data collection by implementing the principles of citizen science.

  20. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  1. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  2. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  3. Estonian Air / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air reklaamib end Taani linna Aalborgi raadiojaama ilmateates. Lennukompanii pressiesindaja Epp Alatalu sõnul on firma Taanis reklaamimise põhjus see, et liinil Tallinn-Kopenhaagen sõitjate hulgas ei ole peaaegu üldse taanlasi

  4. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  5. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  6. Migratory monarchs wintering in California experience low infection risk compared to monarchs breeding year-round on non-native milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Dara A; Villablanca, Francis X; Maerz, John C; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance migration can lower infection risk for animal populations by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys, spatially separating susceptible age classes, or allowing migrants to periodically escape from contaminated habitats. Many seasonal migrations are changing due to human activities including climate change and habitat alteration. Moreover, for some migratory populations, sedentary behaviors are becoming more common as migrants abandon or shorten their journeys in response to supplemental feeding or warming temperatures. Exploring the consequences of reduced movement for host-parasite interactions is needed to predict future responses of animal pathogens to anthropogenic change. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE) provide a model system for examining how long-distance migration affects infectious disease processes in a rapidly changing world. Annual monarch migration from eastern North America to Mexico is known to reduce protozoan infection prevalence, and more recent work suggests that monarchs that forego migration to breed year-round on non-native milkweeds in the southeastern and south central Unites States face extremely high risk of infection. Here, we examined the prevalence of OE infection from 2013 to 2016 in western North America, and compared monarchs exhibiting migratory behavior (overwintering annually along the California coast) with those that exhibit year-round breeding. Data from field collections and a joint citizen science program of Monarch Health and Monarch Alert showed that infection frequency was over nine times higher for monarchs sampled in gardens with year-round milkweed as compared to migratory monarchs sampled at overwintering sites. Results here underscore the importance of animal migrations for lowering infection risk and motivate future studies of pathogen transmission in migratory species affected by environmental change. © The

  7. Morphological, histochemical and computed tomography on the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson’s organ of Egyptian native breeds of goats (Capra hircus

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    Usama Kamal Moawad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vomeronasal organ (Jacobson’s organ is a chemosensory paired tubular organ located on both sides of the nasal septum at its base. It plays an essential role in reproduction process and social behaviors. Objective: The current study investigated both anatomical and histological structure of the vomeronasal organ (VNO in Egyptian native breeds of goats using cross sectional anatomy, histological techniques and computed tomography (CT. Methodology: A total of thirty heads obtained from adult and apparently healthy goats of both sexes were collected from Beni-Suef slaughterhouse in Beni-Suef province, Egypt then subjected to anatomical, histological and computed topographical studies. Results: Grossly, the VNO appeared as two blind ducts on the either sides of the nasal septum at the floor of nasal cavity extending from the nasal opening of incisive papilla rostrally to the upper 2nd premolar teeth caudally. It connected with mouth by two nasopalatine ducts. The histological examinations revealed two types of lining epithelium; non sensory type lining the cranial portion and the lateral wall of the middle portion of the vomeronasal duct (VND, whereas an olfactory type was the lining epithelium of the medial wall of the middle and the whole caudal portions. The lamina propria submucosa exhibited vascular loose connective tissues, serous glands, nerve bundles and encapsulated by hyaline cartilage. Conclusion: The obtaining olfactory epithelium in VNO may indicate an essential role of this organ in sexual relationships and sociosexual behaviors through perception of pheromones.

  8. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

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    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  9. Digimodernistlik eesti kirjanik / The Digimodernist Estonian Writer

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    Piret Viires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the cultural situation following postmodernism in the first decade of the 21st century. To characterise this situation, the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” is used, as well as “neomodernism”, “altermodern”, “metamodernism”, “hypermodernity”, “performatism”, “critical realism” etc. All these approaches are, in a wider sense, united by their aim of opposing postmodernist cynicism and irony, and bringing back truth, simplicity and clarity. It has also been found that literature has returned or is returning to realism, and various cultural phenomena are emerging, which have been designated by the concept “new sincerity”.In descriptions of the current cultural situation, this trend seeking truth and simplicity is supported by approaches which emphasise the significance of technological developments during the last decade. A prominent figure here is Alan Kirby, who launched the term “digimodernism”, mainly linked with the adaptation and spread of Web 2.0 at the beginning of the 21st century: the blogosphere, Wikipedia, Twitter and Facebook.The article seeks answers to the question of whether we can talk about digimodernism in Estonian literature in the 2000s. In the 1990s Estonian writers were quite reluctant to undertake computer-technological experiments, and there are only a few examples of Estonian digital literature, whereas a change occurred in the 2000s. Many Estonian writers have had and still have their own blogs and surprisingly many have joined Facebook. The term “twitterature” is also familiar to Estonian writers. The article tackles the dominant topics in the blogs of Estonian writers and analyses their possible collective creative work on Facebook. A question is raised as to whether it is possible that the fragmentary narrative structure of blogs and Facebook has influenced mainstream literature.The article concludes that one essential change in Estonian literature in the

  10. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  11. Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

  12. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

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    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  13. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

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    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  14. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  15. Emission from Estonian oil shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunela, L.; Haesaenen, E.; Kinnunen, V.; Larjava, K.; Mehtonen, A.; Salmikangas, T.; Leskelae, J.; Loosaar, J.

    1995-01-01

    Flue gas emissions from pulverized oil shale fired boilers of Estonian and Baltic power plants have been studied. The concentrations of NO x , CO, C x H y , HCI, Hf and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gases have been found to be relatively low and acceptable according to German emission limits, for instance. Desulphurization degree of flue gases by SO 2 absorption with ash has been found to vary defending on boiler type and operation conditions. In spite of significant sulphur capture (average values for different boilers in the range between 68 and 77 % of the initial sulphur content of the fuel), SO 2 concentrations in flue gases remain still very high (up to 2600 mg/m 3 , 10% O 2 ). Very high concentrations of particles, especially at Estonian Power Plant (up o 6250 mg/m 3 , 10 % 0 2 ) have been detected. Heavy metal emissions were too high by the reason of particle control insufficiency as well. Yearly emission estimates of this study support the former Estonian ones within the range of 10-15 %. (author)

  16. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  17. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  18. BONE STRENGTH (ossis tibiae OF NATIVE PIGS ZŁOTNICKA SPOTTED BREED AND CROSSBREDS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE AND PoLISH LANDRACE PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KAPELAŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the bone strength traits in two groups of pigs different in terms of genetic value, fast growth capability and meat deposition in the body. The study covered 33 fatteners of the Złotnicka Spotted breed (ZŁP and 20 crossbreds F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace. Tibial bones were obtained following slaughter and evaluated in terms of properties and geometry, as well as bending and compressive strength. Mineral composition of the bone tissue was also established, i.e.: ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Zn and Mg. The significance of differences between the traits demonstrated by pigs in both groups subject to the study was estimated, with calculated overall correlations between the primary bone properties. The results confirmed significant differences in terms of geometry of the bones in both animal groups. In the ZŁP breed pigs, compared to the F1 crossbred group (PLW x PL, the outside and inside diameters of the tibial shaft were smaller (P ≤ 0.01, yet the average thickness of the wall of the bone was slightly larger. The bending force required to fracture the bone turned out to be lower in Złotnicka Spotted pigs, the opposite of the results obtained with regard to the compressive strength. Furthermore, calcium content, calcium-phosphorus ratio (Ca : P and sodium content were highly statistically or significantly larger in the bone tissue of the Złotnicka Spotted pigs. Consequently, the final results show that the bone strength demonstrated by modern pig breeds subject to intensive selection focused on high growth rate and increased meat deposition is in no way lower than the same trait recognized in the Złotnicka Spotted breed kept in preservative breeding conditions.

  19. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  20. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  1. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in

  2. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  3. Estonian Air lõpetab Pariisi ja Vilniuse lennud / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Talvisele lennuplaanile üleminev Estonian Air lõpetab otselennud Tallinnast Vilniusesse ja Pariisi. Estonian Airi presidendi Borge Thornbechi sõnul kavatseb firma suurendada talvehooajal turismilendude mahtu

  4. Cresco sai lahti võlast SASile ja osalusest Estonian Airis / Rivo Sarapik, Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts ning SAS-i asepresident Benny Zakrisson kirjutasid alla Estonian Airi ostu-müügitehingule. Investeerimispank Cresco, millele kuulus 17% Estonian Airist, jääb välja Estonian Airi omanikeringist ning SAS-i nõue Crescole tühistatakse

  5. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  6. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  7. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  8. The use of native fluorescence analysis of synovial fluid in the diagnosis of medial compartment disease in medium- and large-breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilská, Kamila; Šteffeková, Zuzana; Birková, Anna; Mareková, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Hluchý, Marián; Kisková, Terézia

    2016-05-01

    We assumed that proteins are most likely responsible for synovial fluid fluorescence and that changes detected in fluorescence intensity are most likely the result of changes in the concentration of fluorescent proteins. Synchronous fluorescent matrices from synovial fluid samples were measured in the excitation wavelength range of 200-350 nm using a luminescence spectrophotometer. The synchronous matrix of synovial fluid consists of 2 dominant fluorescent centers (F1 and F2) in the ultraviolet region. The fluorescence intensities of both centers were significantly higher in pathological samples, with p = 0.001 (a 59% increase of the median value) for the F1 center and p = 0.002 (a 52% increase of the median value) for the F2 center. Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that synovial fluid autofluorescence is a significant predictor of medial compartment disease in dogs, with the area under the curve at 0.776 (F1) and 0.778 (F2). We did not detect any differences in the autofluorescence of synovial fluid between male and female, or any breed-based changes. No position changes of fluorescent centers were recorded in the synovial fluid in diseased dogs compared with healthy dogs. The synovial fluid metabolic fingerprint of canine patients with medial compartment disease differed from that of healthy dogs. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of synovial fluid fingerprinting to identify disease-specific profiles of synovial fluid metabolites. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Liberalism - Key to Entrepreneurial and Innovation Success: Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Ignatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence in 1991 Estonia has successfully overpassed the challenges of the transition period being in the present of one the most technologically developed nations of Europe. The present research is intended to evaluate the relationship between Estonian pro-market regulation, entrepreneurship and innovation. In order to reach relevant conclusions in this regard there have been used both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. In such a way, it could be comprehensively reviewed the process of Estonian economic development from a relatively underdeveloped USSR republic to an advanced innovation driven economy. The results show that pro-market governmental regulation has favourably influenced Estonian entrepreneurship, while it fostered country’s innovation capacities. It has been concluded that the economic “miracle” of Estonia has been at a great extent determined by proper government regulation oriented towards economic liberalisation.

  10. Plasma progesterone profiles, ovulation rate, donor embryo yield and recipient embryo survival in native Saloia sheep in the fall and spring breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas e Silva, J; Lopes da Costa, L; Cidadão, R; Robalo Silva, J

    2003-08-01

    The response to superovulatory (SOV) and estrus synchronization (ES) treatments and the fertility of donor (n=68) and recipient (n=118) Saloia ewes was evaluated in the fall and spring breeding seasons. The proportion of acyclic ewes at treatment time was significantly higher in the spring than in the fall (42.6% versus 4.0%, P<0.00001). Donors treated with eCG had a significantly higher mean number of follicles over 5mm in diameter in the ovaries at embryo recovery and a significantly lower mean efficiency of recovery than FSH-treated ewes. These negative effects were more pronounced in the fall than in the spring, which resulted in a significantly lower mean number of total and fertilized ova recovered from eCG-treated ewes, compared to FSH donors in the fall, but not in the spring. Season had no significant effect on the ovulation rate and plasma P4 concentrations of recipients treated with a progestagen plus eCG combination. Although the recipient lambing and embryo survival rates were higher in the fall than in the spring the differences were not significant. No significant differences were observed in the ovulation rate or P4 concentrations of recipients that lambed compared to those that did not lamb. These preliminary results show that, in Portugal, response of Saloia ewes to SOV or ES treatments and donor fertility following the SOV treatment were similar in the spring and the fall, which suggests that in the spring acyclic ewes are in moderate anestrus. The effect of season on fertility following embryo transfer should be confirmed in further studies involving a larger number of animals. The semilaparoscopic transfer method reported here allowed lambing and embryo survival rates higher (although not significantly) than a standard surgical approach.

  11. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  12. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  13. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  14. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  15. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  16. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  17. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  18. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  19. Farm-by-farm analysis of microsatellite, mtDNA and SNP genotype data reveals inbreeding and crossbreeding as threats to the survival of a native Spanish pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Medrano, J M; Megens, H J; Crooijmans, R P; Abellaneda, J M; Ramis, G

    2013-06-01

    The Chato Murciano (CM), a pig breed from the Murcia region in the southeastern region of Spain, is a good model for endangered livestock populations. The remaining populations are bred on approximately 15 small farms, and no herdbook exists. To assess the genetic threats to the integrity and survival of the CM breed, and to aid in designing a conservation program, three genetic marker systems - microsatellites, SNPs and mtDNA - were applied across the majority of the total breeding stock. In addition, mtDNA and SNPs were genotyped in breeds that likely contributed genetically to the current CM gene pool. The analyses revealed the levels of genetic diversity within the range of other European local breeds (H(e) = 0.53). However, when the eight farms that rear at least 10 CM pigs were independently analyzed, high levels of inbreeding were found in some. Despite the evidence for recent crossbreeding with commercial breeds on a few farms, the entire breeding stock remains readily identifiable as CM, facilitating the design of traceability assays. The genetic management of the breed is consistent with farm size, farm owner and presence of other pig breeds on the farm, demonstrating the highly ad hoc nature of current CM breeding. The results of genetic diversity and substructure of the entire breed, as well as admixture and crossbreeding obtained in the present study, provide a benchmark to develop future conservation strategies. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that identifying farm-based practices and farm-based breeding stocks can aid in the design of a sustainable breeding program for minority breeds. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  1. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. I. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Mati

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive epidemiological project ever performed in Estonia - The Estonian Study of Chernobyl Cleanup Workers - was the joint effort of researchers from Estonia, Finland and USA. Until September 1999, the results of this study were published in English only. To familiarize the readership of 'Eesti Arst' with the major study findings, the abridged versions of four original papers from 'Radiation Research' are presented in the current issue of the journal. For the Estonian epidemiologists, the work under this project that consists of eight sub projects was a real challenge. In the course of the study, skills were developed in writing a study protocol, preparing a questionnaire, progress reporting, documenting the structure of databases, record linkage, and problem solving. It was an exciting experience to work with top scientists like William Bigbee, John Boice, Timo Hakulinen, Ronald Jensen and Gayle Littlefield. (author)

  2. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  3. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  4. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  5. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  6. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  7. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  8. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  9. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  10. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  11. Uniting the Divided Continent. The Estonian National Committee of the European Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Heikkilä

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the exiled Estonian politicians in the European Movement in the early Cold War period. The ultimate goal of exiled Estonians was to restore their state’s independence. In order to promote this, Estonian leaders sought connections with Western leaders. The European Movement was the only organisation involving actors from both the East and the West, and this corresponded to the Estonian discourse on Europe as a whole. Therefore, the European Movement was appreciated, although its limited opportunities for decisive actions were also recognised. East and West European interest in the European Movement declined as West European integration rapidly intensified through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC and particularly after the January 1952 Eastern European Conference in London. By 1957, disappointment in the inability of European unification to help regain Estonian independence became evident.

  12. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...

  13. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  14. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  15. With or without articles? A comparison of article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hint

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the use and functions of definite and indefinite article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish. Our main aim is to explore whether the factors that explain the choice of particular determiner forms are similar in Estonian and Finnish. We use a picture-sequence based elicitation experiment to collect spoken narratives from adult native speakers of Estonian and Finnish, and apply non-parametric tree and forest models to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that number of mention and animacy are important predictor variables in both languages, but their exact effect is divergent. We also find that in Finnish, case of the determiner NP proves to be an important factor, while in Estonian, syntactic role of the NP explains some aspects of determiner form choice. Nevertheless, the overall usage frequency of determiners is modest in the Estonian and Finnish data, and the process of grammaticalizing articles is only in initial stages in both languages. *** Artikliga, artiklita? Eesti ja soome keele artiklilaadsete määratlejate võrdlus Siinses uurimuses analüüsime võrdlevalt artiklilaadseid definiitseid ja indefiniitseid määratlejaid eesti ja soome keeles. Eelkõige kõrvutame eesti keele definiitset määratlejat see ja soome keele definiitseid määratlejaid se ja tämä ning eesti ja soome indefiniitset määratlejat üks/yks(i. Samuti vaatleme eesti keele possessiivpronoomeni oma ning soome 3sg possessiivsufiksi (-nsa/-nsä, -Vn referentsiaalseid omadusi. Uurimuse põhieesmärgiks on selgitada, millised on peamised määratlejate kasutust mõjutavad keelelised faktorid eesti ja soome keeles ning kas need faktorid on keeliti sarnased või erinevad. Ühtlasi otsime vastust küsimusele, kas eesti ja soome keeles on põhjust rääkida määratlejate grammatisatsioonist artikliteks. Uuritav keelematerjal pärineb pildiseeria põhjal kogutud suulistest narratiividest. Uurimuses osales 20 eesti ja 20 soome keele

  16. Estonian science breeds world-class researches / ToivoTänavsuu, Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti teadusfirmadest: biotehnoloogia ettevõtted Celecure AS, Protobios OÜ, Icosagen AS, Asper Biotech AS ja Solis BioDyne OÜ, geenitehnoloogia firma Genorama OÜ, keemiatehnoloogia ettevõte AS Cambrex Tallinn

  17. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  18. Acquisition of noun derivation in Estonian and Russian L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of derivation is not a well-studied area in first language research and a comparative approach to the acquisition of derivation in different languages doesn’t exist. There is no information on how a child acquires derivation in a language with a rich and regular system of derivational patterns, or in a language where derivation is productive, but the system of derivational patterns is opaque. According to general ideas of complexity in a language, the child should start to use simplex stems first and, only after that, complex ones, that is, complexity should increase in the course of acquisition. Our paper is intended to address these issues, based on longitudinal child data from typologically different languages, Estonian and Russian. The results revealed significant differences in the acquisition of noun derivation in the two languages under observation. The system of noun derivation is acquired at a faster pace in Russian, while Estonian children have far fewer noun derivatives in their speech and they use different derivation suffixes with less regularity. Even so, the so-called building block model may be applied for both languages only partially.

  19. Estonian horticultural peat marketing: sales promotion and price formation. 2. part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Hele

    1999-01-01

    When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)

  20. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...

  1. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  2. Problems of contemporary ecology. Temporal changes in Estonian nature and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 8-9 May 1997 at Tartu, Estonia. The proceedings of the 7. Estonian Conference in Ecology contain the results of mostly original research in environmental science, conservation and natural philosophy

  3. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  4. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  5. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  6. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  7. The Dominance of Indirect Taxes in Estonian State Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  8. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  9. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  10. The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi Kaasik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants, created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day. Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1 the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2 to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3 the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.

  11. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  12. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  13. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  14. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  15. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, N T.D. [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Melchinger, E; Kuss, A W; Peischl, T; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Cuong, N V [Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2005-07-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  16. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N.T.D.; Melchinger, E.; Kuss, A.W.; Peischl, T.; Bartenschlager, H.; Geldermann, H.; Cuong, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  17. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  18. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  19. The figure of the teacher in Estonian school discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Puumeister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns itself with the figure of the teacher in Estonian society. We do not concentrate on the educational system as a whole, but on one specific and crucial element in this apparatus - the teacher. We begin by offering a brief historical overview of the conditions of pedagogues in the 20th century before moving on to describe the adoption of neo-liberal free market policies since the 1990s and the effects these policies had and still have on education. Our main concern is to understand the teacher as an actor in power relations; to achieve this understanding we have selected as our examples 1 surveillance techniques in school environment that have direct relations to the state and the market; and 2 the 2012 educational workers' strike that made it quite clear that the teachers have been fixed to a position of wage workers. The overall and more abstract aim of the paper is to think about the social role of the teacher in Estonia.

  20. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  1. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  2. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  3. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  4. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  5. Native plant development and deployment [Section VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Wright; Kas Dumroese; Amy Symstad; Theresa Pitts-Singer; Jim Cane; Gary Krupnick; Peggy Olwell; Byron Love; Elizabeth Sellers; John Englert; Troy Wood

    2015-01-01

    Native plant materials are needed to create, enhance, or restore pollinator habitat. They provide critical foraging and breeding areas for wild and managed pollinator species, including transnational migratory species such as hummingbirds and monarch butterflies. Although many pollinators and plants are generalists, some have limited, obligate relationships (i.e., one...

  6. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  7. Novel optimum contribution selection methods accounting for conflicting objectives in breeding programs for livestock breeds with historical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bennewitz, Jörn; Wellmann, Robin

    2017-05-12

    Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is effective for increasing genetic gain, controlling the rate of inbreeding and enables maintenance of genetic diversity. However, this diversity may be caused by high migrant contributions (MC) in the population due to introgression of genetic material from other breeds, which can threaten the conservation of small local populations. Therefore, breeding objectives should not only focus on increasing genetic gains but also on maintaining genetic originality and diversity of native alleles. This study aimed at investigating whether OCS was improved by including MC and modified kinships that account for breed origin of alleles. Three objective functions were considered for minimizing kinship, minimizing MC and maximizing genetic gain in the offspring generation, and we investigated their effects on German Angler and Vorderwald cattle. In most scenarios, the results were similar for Angler and Vorderwald cattle. A significant positive correlation between MC and estimated breeding values of the selection candidates was observed for both breeds, thus traditional OCS would increase MC. Optimization was performed under the condition that the rate of inbreeding did not exceed 1% and at least 30% of the maximum progress was achieved for all other criteria. Although traditional OCS provided the highest breeding values under restriction of classical kinship, the magnitude of MC in the progeny generation was not controlled. When MC were constrained or minimized, the kinship at native alleles increased compared to the reference scenario. Thus, in addition to constraining MC, constraining kinship at native alleles is required to ensure that native genetic diversity is maintained. When kinship at native alleles was constrained, the classical kinship was automatically lowered in most cases and more sires were selected. However, the average breeding value in the next generation was also lower than that obtained with traditional OCS. For local

  8. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  9. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  10. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  11. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  12. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  13. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  14. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  15. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  16. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  17. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  18. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  19. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  20. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  1. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  2. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  3. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  4. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  5. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  6. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  7. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, S.; Fang, Sun; Di, Liu; Petrović, M.M.; Pantelić, V.; Stanišić, N.; Ostojić-Andrić, D.; Petričević, M.; Nikšić, D.; Delić, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  8. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  9. Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N

    1931-01-01

    Estonian oil shale is one of the oldest and richest oil shales in the world. The deposits occur in the Middle-Ordovician strata having a total thickness of 2.2 meters. The ultimate composition of the kerogen varied within the following limits: carbon 76.5 to 76.7 percent, hydrogen 9.1 to 9.2 percent, nitrogen 0.2 to 0.4 percent, sulfur 1.6 to 2.2 percent, chlorine 0.5 to 0.7 percent, and oxygen (by difference) 11.2 to 12.2 percent. The composition of kukersite kerogen corresponds nearly to the empirical formula (C/sub 8/H/sub 11/O)n. One of the most significant differences between kukersite, coal, and lignite is the amount of alkali-soluble substances present. Kukersite has almost no humic acids. Samples of kukersite were brominated and chlorinated. The halogenated shales showed a solubility in absolute alcohol of 26 percent compared to only 0.31 percent for untreated shale. Enriched shale (4.5 percent ash) did not react with chlorine as much as did raw shale. Apparently the mineral matter acted catalytically during chlorination. The amount of soluble extract obtained by solvent treatment of kukersite ranged from 0.22 percent with chloroform to 2.20 percent with tetrachloroethane. Heat was the most effective agent for the depolymerization of kukersite kerogen. The percentage loss of weight due to drying in air was much less than in the presence of carbon dioxide. The results indicated that on drying in air, the powdered shale loses water and a volatile substance, probably the oxides of carbon, up to 80/sup 0/C. Carbon dioxide was also found to be present in the gases eliminated at the temperature of initial decomposition. Pulverized shale, heated for 6 hours at 220/sup 0/C, lost 2.6 percent of its weight; its solubility in carbon disulfide was 2.11 percent. Kukersite kerogen was formed from compounds that were resistent to bacteriological decomposition, such as waxes and resins, plus decomposition products of proteins, cellulose, and putrefaction products of

  10. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  11. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  12. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

    OpenAIRE

    Pomozi, Péter; Földesi, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpu...

  13. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  14. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  15. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  16. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  18. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  19. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  20. Mating strategy and breeding patterns of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii) has declined across much of its native range in California. Improper stream management may lower egg mass survival and reduce the availability of suitable breeding habitats. We collected data during six breeding-seasons (2002-2007) along an unregulated stream in northwestern California. We monitored...

  1. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Belda, Antonio; Cort?s, Carolina; Peir?, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    Background: The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic ...

  2. INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC BREEDS IN EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM OF BURKINA FASO: ASSESSMENT AND PROSPECTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Soudre; Moustapha Grema; Stephane A. R. Tapsoba; Moumouni Sanou; Amadou Traore; Hamidou Hamadou Tamboura.

    2018-01-01

    A study on the situation of exotic cattle breeds introduced in Burkina Faso was conducted in the province of Soum (Djibo) located in the north of the country, a Sahel area of West Africa. The aim of the study was to i) assess the adaptation of exotic breeds with high productive potential in a difficult climatic context and ii) evaluate their productivity in comparison with the native breeds. A participatory survey associated with field visits were conducted to assess the survival and adaptati...

  3. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  4. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  5. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Veebel Viljar; Ploom Illimar

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016) will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks R...

  6. The Challenges Organic Food Processors Meet at Small Emerging Market – Estonian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapuu, Kerttu; Pehme, Sirli; Peetsmann, Elen; Matt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming and demand for organic products is continually a growing trend all over the world (Willer et al., 2013). In Estonia the share of organic land is 15% of all agricultural land and the number of organic farmers is also growing (Vetemaa, Mikk 2013). Estonian organic food market is still in forming stage being affected by local organic farming development, marketing situation, economic situation and consumer attitudes. Organic processing has clearly not kept up with organic farming...

  7. Assessment of the Estonian Research Development Technology and Innovation Funding System

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeva, Maria; Georghiou, Luke

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the assessment of the RDTI funding system in Estonia as specified by the Terms of Reference are as follows: 1) to conduct a review of the current R&D funding system in Estonia; 2) to review the objectives of the Estonian R&D Strategy 2002-2006; 3) to review best practice in R&D funding elsewhere; and 4) to propose an efficient, transparent and accountable R&D funding system.

  8. Is Estonian oil shale beneficial in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale mining production reached its maximum level of 31.35·10 6 tonnes per year in 1980. After the eighties there was a steady decline in mining. The first scientific prognoses of the inescapable decrease in oil shale mining were published in 1988. According to this, the Estonian oil shale industry would vanish in the third decade of the next century. From the beginning of the nineties, the consumption and export of electricity have dropped in Estonia. The minimum level of oil shale mining was 13.5·10 6 tonnes per year. This occurred in 1994/1995. Some increase in consumption of electric power and oil shale began at the end of 1995. Oil shale processing began to increase gradually in 1993. Oil shale is the most important fuel in Estonia today. In 1997, oil shale provided 76% of Estonia's primary energy supply and accounted for 57% of its economic value. Oil shale is the cheapest fuel in Estonia. Nowadays, oil shale provides an essential part of the fuel supply in Estonia because it is considerably cheaper than other fuels. Oil shale costs EEK 12.16 per G J. At the same time, coal costs EEK 23.41 per G J and peat costs EEK 14.80 per G J (year 1997). There are three important customers of oil shale: the electric power company Eesti Energia, the oil processing company Kiviter and the factory Kunda Nordic Cement. In 1995, the power company utilised 81% of the oil shale mass and 77% of its heating value. The state energy policy inhibits increases in the oil shale price even though the mining infrastructure is decaying. Government price policies subside oil shale processing. The energy of oil shale processing is 1.9 times cheaper than the heating value of raw oil shale for power stations. It could be considered as a state subsidisation of oil and cement export at the expense of electricity. The subsidy assigned to oil processing was of EEK 124·10 6 and to the cement industry of EEK 8.4·10 6 in year 1997 (based on heating value). State regulation of prices and

  9. Genetic diversity of two Tunisian sheep breeds using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study genetic diversity and population structure in six sheep populations belonging to two native Tunisian breeds (the Barbarine and the Western thin tail). A total of 96 samples were typed using eight RAPD primers. 62 bands were scored, of which 44 ...

  10. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  11. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  12. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking among Estonian and Finnish physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Barengo, Noël C; Rahu, Mati; Sandström, Patrick H; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To compare smoking behaviour, attitudes and opinions towards smoking and smoking cessation among Estonian and Finnish physicians. A cross-sectional postal survey using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 2,480 Estonian and 2,075 Finnish physicians. Daily smoking prevalence was higher among Estonian physicians than among their Finnish counterparts in both male (18.6% and 6.7%) and female (6.6% and 3.6%). Compared to Estonia, physicians in Finland more often agreed that smoking is very harmful to their health, that trying to convince people to stop smoking is their responsibility and that smoking prevention should be part of the normal and special training of health professionals. In both countries, non-smoking physicians held more unfavourable attitudes towards smoking than those who were smoking. Physicians' own smoking patterns and quitting behaviour are important because physicians serve as models for their patients and play a key role in the reinforcement of smoke-free health facilities. These results remain a challenge to medical educators, especially in Estonia. Estonia needs to improve medical education in terms of motivating physicians to ask about the smoking patterns of their patients and of training medical students and resident physicians to counsel their patients to stop smoking.

  13. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A; Salomaa, S [eds.; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M; Veidebaum, T; Tekkel, M [eds.; Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T [ed.; Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, Jr, J D [ed.; Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  14. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  16. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo

    2007-06-01

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  17. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  18. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  19. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Bowles

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits and PRLR (reproductive performance traits also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the

  20. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  1. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  2. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  3. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  4. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  5. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  6. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  7. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  8. The treatment of lexical collocations in EFL coursebooks in the Estonian secondary school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Vassiljev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates lexical collocations encountered in English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction in Estonian upper secondary schools. This is achieved through a statistical analysis of collocations featuring in three coursebooks where the collocations found are analysed in terms of their type, frequency and usefulness index by studying them through an online language corpus (Collins Wordbanks Online. The coursebooks are systematically compared and contrasted relying upon the data gathered. The results of the study reveal that the frequency and range of lexical collocations in a language corpus have not been regarded as an essential criterion for their selection and practice by any of the coursebook authors under discussion.

  9. Estonian experience in establishing the national radiation protection infrastructure in the newly independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) was established on 4 January 1996 as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources. The report explains the ERPC's structure and its main functions and activities, and provides information on the regulations that have been approved or are planned to be adopted. Reference is made to radiological emergency preparedness and, in particular, to the status of development of the system of regulatory control by authorization and inspection of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  10. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  11. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  12. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  13. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  14. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  15. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  16. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  17. State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, H Dayton; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Colson, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Exotic plants dominate esthetically-managed landscapes, which cover 30–40 million hectares in the United States alone. Recent ecological studies have found that landscaping with exotic plant species can reduce biodiversity on multiple trophic levels. To support biodiversity in urbanized areas, the increased use of native landscaping plants has been advocated by conservation groups and US federal and state agencies. A major challenge to scaling up the use of native species in landscaping is providing ornamental plants that are both ecologically functional and economically viable. Depending on ecological and economic constraints, accelerated breeding approaches could be applied to ornamental trait development in native plants. This review examines the impact of landscaping choices on biodiversity, the current status of breeding and selection of native ornamental plants, and the interdisciplinary research needed to scale up landscaping plants that can support native biodiversity. PMID:26504560

  18. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  20. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  1. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  2. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  3. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  4. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  5. Radon in Estonian buildings. Establishment of a measurement system and obtained results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, L.; Rulkov, A.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1996-12-01

    One purpose of this project was the establishment of a radon monitoring programme inside the state environmental monitoring programme. Another purpose was to investigate regions, expected to have high radon levels indoors. A new method for the long-term measurement of indoor radon was established and the staff for these measurements was trained. The results of the measurement can be used by Estonian decision-makers to work out rules and standards. There is no legislative act in the field of radiation in Estonian at this time. To summarize the results of the measurements we can say that indoor radon concentrations vary by region. The radon investigations must be continued to identify the risk areas and types of housing construction. The results of the state radon monitoring are provided to the municipalities, who advice the owners of planned new houses to select the right construction for the house. A new project will follow with an investigation of radon in randomly selected dwellings, training and equipment for radon measurement in soil, and general advice with regard to radon, as well as assistance in preparing information about radon. 7 refs, 5 figs

  6. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  7. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  8. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  9. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  10. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  11. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  12. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  13. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  14. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  15. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  16. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-06-01

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of Heating Value of Estonian Oil Shale by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aints

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS combined with multivariate regression analysis of measured data were utilised for determination of the heating value and the chemical composition of pellets made from Estonian oil shale samples with different heating values. The study is the first where the oil shale heating value is determined on the basis of LIBS spectra. The method for selecting the optimal number of spectral lines for ordinary multivariate least squares regression model is presented. The correlation coefficient between the heating value predicted by the regression model, and that measured by calorimetric bomb, was R2=0.98. The standard deviation of prediction was 0.24 MJ/kg. Concentrations of oil shale components predicted by the regression model were compared with those measured by ordinary methods.

  18. Taxes, Estonian state budget and economic crises. Maksud, riigi eelarve ja majanduskriis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  19. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  20. Conceptual co-presence of motion and emotion in the Estonian terms of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heili Orav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out whether the conceptual connection of emotion and motion is holding in the domain of personality traits. In a quantitative study 40 Estonian terms of personality traits were investigated and a conclusion was driven that, indeed, the qualities of emotionality and motion are perceived as co-present characteristics. In further data analysis some visualized measures were applied in order to get further insights into the hidden structure of the data. The self-organizing map (SOM analysis revealed an additional dimension of axiological evaluations present in the semantics and the SOM meta-analysis technique revealed groups of near synonymous words as well as gave overview of the more general structure common in the two data sets. The latter was tentatively explained by the person’s habitual level of activation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.21

  1. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  2. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  3. Change in medical plant use in Estonian ethnomedicine: a historical comparison between 1888 and 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2011-05-17

    The aim of this paper is to compare the changes in the utilization of species from various hemeroby categories (indicating the degree of sensitivity of the plant to human impact) using historical data concerning the years 1888-1994. The authors digitised 8808 handwritten reports, reflecting local ethnopharmacological knowledge from 8 selected collections from the Estonian Folklore Archives of the Estonian Literary Museum. They were semi-quantitatively analyzed according to the sensitivity to human impact of 540 taxa that could possibly be related to the plant vernacular names given in the reports. Although in different periods of time the number of ethnopharmacologically used plants has changed, the proportion of plants utilized from each group has remained relatively same, consisting on average of: 23% anthropophytes, 42% apophytes, 32% hemeradiaphores and 3% hemerophobes. Comparison of the application of the most used plants revealed considerable changes of plant utilization, in which the varied use of the most popular anthropophytes increased and the applied scope of the most popular hemeradiaphores and hemerophobes decreased almost by twofold in one century. Case studies on seven taxa are presented, of them, use of Allium sativum L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Mentha xpiperita L. increased, whereas the use of Hordeum L., Orchidaceae, Paris quadrifolia L. and Briza media L. decreased greatly. This research contributes to the better understanding of the cognitive and human ecological concepts underlying the use of medicinal plants in Estonia. Strong increase in the ethnomedical utilization of plants depending on human influence, and a decrease in the use of taxa that do not prefer human activities indicates that, despite some of the population still have access to natural resources and diverse knowledge of the medical use of plants, the majority relies on a very narrow selection and a rather restricted herbal landscape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  4. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  6. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteri...

  7. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  8. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  9. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  10. Genetic structure of three Croatian horse breeds: implications for their conservation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Konjačić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability for a sample of 107 animals from three autochthonous Croatian horse breeds was estimated using 20 microsatellites. The average number of alleles per locus (6.3 and proportion of heterozygosity (0.732 indicated a moderate variability. The expected heterozygosity was similar among all breeds and ranged between 0.724 in the Posavina horse, and 0.737 in the Croatian Coldblood and Murinsulaner horse. The inbreeding coefficient FIS was low and non-significant over the three populations. The genetic differentiation among the three populations was low (FST=0.026, suggesting that only 2.6% of the total genetic variability was due to differences between the breeds, and 97% to individual differences. The results of pairwise genetic differentiation suggest that the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood were the most closely related populations (FST=0.016. These results are confirmed by Nei’s genetic distances with the highest value observed between the Posavina horse and the Murinsulaner (0.082 and the lowest between the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood (0.044. An assignment test correctly assigned 82% of individuals to the correct breed. Strategies for preserving the original native genes in the Croatian native horse breeds should be considered in order to prevent these breeds from becoming extinct and include them in the future breeding programmes.

  11. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Design Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Participants Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Methods Age-stand...

  12. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  13. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  15. How to Improve the Supportive Role of Estonian Innovation System toward Launching New Products by High Technology Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisi Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate how supportive is Estonian national innovation system toward the launching of new innovative products by high technology firms. The article intends to combine two broad areas of research – national innovation system approach and the different models of the new product launching. Based on the literature review and in-depth analysis of three case studies of Estonian high-tech company’s major barriers as well success factors of highly innovative product launches were identified. The barriers of the new product launching were linked with the systemic failures of the national innovation system. The most relevant failures of Estonian national innovation system inhibiting the new product development are capability and networking failures. The sources of innovation of high-technology firms are too narrow, linkages with domestic firms and higher education institutions as well with foreign firms are poorly developed. High-tech firms have also serious capacity problems due to the extremely weak support mechanism by national innovation system on the seed funding stage of product development and prototype building stage as well. Paper argues that resources needed for the innovation should not be looked too narrowly following linear innovation model approach. Instead interactive approach is needed, which combines capability building, network development, interactive learning with direct investments into fundamental research.

  16. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  18. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  19. Estonian exceptionalism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ulatuslikud kärped ja liitumine eurotsooniga toovad Eestist häid majandusuudiseid: töötus langeb, majandus kasvab, eksport tõuseb, eelarve on plussis, reitinguagentuur Fitch krediidireiting tõusis tasemele A+

  20. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  1. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  2. Characterization of Insertional Variation of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Six Different Pig Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Jung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pigs may need to be exploited as xenotransplantation donors due to the shortage of human organs, tissues and cells. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs are a significant obstacle to xenotransplantation because they can infect human cells in vitro and have the potential for transmission of unexpected pathogens to humans. In this research, 101 pigs, including four commercial breeds (23 Berkshire, 13 Duroc, 22 Landrace and 14 Yorkshire pigs, one native breed (19 Korean native pigs and one miniature breed (10 NIH miniature pigs were used to investigate insertional variations for 11 PERV loci (three PERV-A, six PERV-B and two PERV-C. Over 60% of the pigs harbored one PERV-A (907F8 integration and five PERV-B (B3-3G, B3-7G, 742H1, 1155D9 and 465D1 integrations. However, two PERV-A loci (A1-6C and 1347C1 and one PERV-B locus (B3-7F were absent in Duroc pigs. Moreover, two PERV-C loci (C2-6C and C4-2G only existed in Korean native pigs and NIH miniature pigs. The results suggest that PERV insertional variations differ among pig breeds as well as among individuals within a breed. Also, the results presented here can be used for the selection of animals that do not have specific PERV integration for xenotransplantation research.

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  4. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  5. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  6. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  7. Antibody response between pigs of Piau and a commercial breed naturally infected with Porcine circovirus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.S. Bulos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pig population is made up of several naturalized breeds; among them the Piau breed is known for its rusticity and large fat stores. The naturalized breeds, in comparison with commercial ones, may have an increased resistance to diseases circulating in their territory. Thus, this study aimed to verify if there are differences between the serologic profile against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 of Piau pigs and that of a commercial breed from a farm naturally infected by PCV2. The serum viral load was measured by qPCR, and levels of anti-PCV2 antibodies were measured by ELISA. The results showed that the serum viral load was similar across all animals. However, Piau piglets showed higher levels of antibodies compared to commercial piglets (P= 0.05, while sows of the commercial breed showed higher levels than the Piau breed (P< 0.01. There was not a statistical difference between pigs of different production stages in the seroprevalence of PCV2 or the blood viral load. This work demonstrates that, with regard to a natural PCV2 infection, the Piau breed has a different humoral immune response compared to the response developed by the commercial pigs. The results support the importance of conservation of native breeds.

  8. Effects of invasive cordgrass on presence of Marsh Grassbird in an area where it is not native.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Gan, Xiaojing; Choi, Chi-Yeung; Li, Bo

    2014-02-01

    The threatened Marsh Grassbird (Locustella pryeri) first appeared in the salt marsh in east China after the salt marsh was invaded by cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a non-native invasive species. To understand the dependence of non-native Marsh Grassbird on the non-native cordgrass, we quantified habitat use, food source, and reproductive success of the Marsh Grassbird at the Chongming Dongtan (CMDT) salt marsh. In the breeding season, we used point counts and radio-tracking to determine habitat use by Marsh Grassbirds. We analyzed basal food sources of the Marsh Grassbirds by comparing the δ(13) C isotope signatures of feather and fecal samples of birds with those of local plants. We monitored the nests through the breeding season and determined the breeding success of the Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT. Density of Marsh Grassbirds was higher where cordgrass occurred than in areas of native reed (Phragmites australis) monoculture. The breeding territory of the Marsh Grassbird was composed mainly of cordgrass stands, and nests were built exclusively against cordgrass stems. Cordgrass was the major primary producer at the base of the Marsh Grassbird food chain. Breeding success of the Marsh Grassbird at CMDT was similar to breeding success within its native range. Our results suggest non-native cordgrass provides essential habitat and food for breeding Marsh Grassbirds at CMDT and that the increase in Marsh Grassbird abundance may reflect the rapid spread of cordgrass in the coastal regions of east China. Our study provides an example of how a primary invader (i.e., cordgrass) can alter an ecosystem and thus facilitate colonization by a second non-native species. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  10. Leaf litter of invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) negatively affects hatching success of an aquatic breeding anuran, the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.K. Adams; D. Saenz

    2012-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) is an aggressive invasive tree species that can be abundant in parts of its non-native range. This tree species has the capability of producing monocultures, by outcompeting native trees, which can be in or near wetlands that are utilized by breeding amphibians. Existing research suggests that leaf litter from invasive...

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  14. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  3. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  4. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  5. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  6. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  7. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  8. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  9. Estonian energy system: Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Ingermann, K.; Kask, U.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Soviet era Estonia inherited oil-shale-based electricity plants, with a capacity of 3000 MW. Oil shale now provides Estonia with very low electricity prices. However, most of the stations are very old. Half of them were built before 1965, and sooner or later the old oil shale production units will have to be replaced. Estonia will then have to face serious increases in electricity production prices. At the same time Estonia has problems in restoring its district heating systems. The prices are rising and may consumers have converted to other heating sources such as electric heating. The major long-term strategic policy choices to make in Estonia are to decide (1) whether the oil shale power stations should be replaced by new centralized production units such as new oil shale stations or nuclear power, or (2) whether the electricity production should be decentralized. In the centralized solution (oil shale or nuclear power), the domestic heating will be left to boilers or electric heating leading to a very high primary energy supply. In the decentralized solution, Estonia could benefit from the advantage of cogeneration leading to very low fuel consumption. But this latter strategy depends on the restoration of the district heating systems. This article seeks to form a strategy to improve the efficiency of the Estonian energy system by increasing the use of cogeneration. (author)

  10. Vitality of the Estonian forests (results of the inventory and research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoles, K.

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting Estonian forests are: The environmental, specially atmospheric pollution, - the foundation of new forests as monoculture on unsuitable locations, - mechanical damages by unsuitable forest machinery, - unfavourable water conditions, - Heterobasidion or Armillaria rot roots. Local damages in consequence of air pollutants are distributed in environments of Tallinn, Kivioli, Kohtla-Jaerve and the thermal power stations (Narva), where the SO 2 -content in the air is on the average higher than 50 (80) μg/m 3 . Pine forests on dry sand soils (600 ha damaged in 1989) and the older spruce forests show the new type of forest decline. High Al-ion concentration, disturbances of the Ca-Mg-metabolism, an extreme nutrient deficit, (specially N-deficit) and periodical water deficit as well as pathogenic fungi are damaging the trees. Spruces show nonspecific defoliation, needle necrosis, needlefall, occurence of fungal diseases. More damaged are the spruce forests in regions with basic precipitations and high sulphur-deposition. (orig./UWA) [de

  11. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  12. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  13. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  14. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  15. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  16. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of the start and duration of breeding and the effect of these on breeding productivity were analysed for African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini on Robben Island, South Africa, over three breeding seasons from 2001 to 2004. African Black Oystercatchers have a long breeding season, from November ...

  17. ARTIFICIAL BREEDING OF NERETVA SOFTMOUTH TROUT (Salmo obtusirostris Oxyrhincus Heckel, 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Handžar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an artificial breeding of softmouth trout (Salmo obtusirostris oxyrhynchus, which is one of the endemic species of fish Neretva basin and which is on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN as endangered species facing extinction. Production of fry softmouth trout intended for restocking is very complex and complicated process, and in this paper, which is based on long experience in artificial breeding softmouth trout, we want to contribute to the conservation and breeding of native salmonid fish and aquaculture development of BiH. The paper describes the production technology and production phase, diet and food as well as the application of preventive and therapeutic measures in production. Key word - softmouth trout, artificial breeding, preventive and therapeutic measures

  18. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  19. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  20. Implementation of quality assurance and quality control in the Nuclear Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeoep, T.; Jakobson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre is in the process of implementing the system of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) in the framework of the IAEA TC Project RER/2/004/ 'QA/QC of Nuclear Analytical Techniques'. The draft Quality Manual with annexes has been prepared accordingly to the ISO 17025 Guide, documents and other printed material delivered on the seminars of the project. The laboratory supply has been supplemented with necessary equipment for guaranteeing of quality. Proficiency testing included in the project has been performed successfully. (author)

  1. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-01-01

    Bernhard Linde (1886–1954) was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He...

  2. Jüri Okas’ ‘specific objects’: diverging discourses in Estonian Art in the 1970s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Andres.

    2003-01-01

    Previously in the University eprints HAIRST pilot service at http://eprints.st-andrews.ac.uk/archive/00000367/ Article 3 of 6 in issue devoted to the visual culture of the Scandinavian and Baltic region. This article will look at the early works of Estonian architect and artist Jüri Okas and will try to work between diverging languages and interpretations, reading works by Okas against the background of Anglo-american conceptualism and minimalism of the same period. The first part of th...

  3. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  4. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  5. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  6. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  7. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  8. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  9. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  11. Nest-site competition between invasive and native cavity nesting birds and its implication for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charter, Motti; Izhaki, Ido; Ben Mocha, Yitzchak; Kark, Salit

    2016-10-01

    Nesting cavities are often a limited resource that multiple species use. There is an ongoing discussion on whether invasive cavity nesting birds restrict the availability of this key limited resource. While the answer to this question has important conservation implications, little experimental work has been done to examine it. Here, we aimed to experimentally test whether alien cavity nesting birds affect the occupancy of cavities and the resulting breeding success of native cavity breeders in a large urban park located in Tel Aviv, Israel. Over three breeding seasons, we manipulated the entry size of nest boxes and compared the occupancy and breeding success of birds in nest boxes of two treatments. These included nest boxes with large-entrance and small-entrance holes. The large-entrance holes allowed access for both the native and invasive birds (the two main aliens in the park are the common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets). The smaller-entrance boxes, on the other hand, allowed only the smaller sized native cavity breeders (great tits and house sparrows) to enter the boxes but prevented the alien species from entering. We found that the large-entrance nest boxes were occupied by five different bird species, comprising three natives (great tit, house sparrow, Scops owl) and two invasive species (common myna, rose-ringed parakeet) while the small-entrance boxes were only occupied by the two native species. The alien common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets occupied 77.5% of the large-entrance nest boxes whereas native species, mainly great tits, occupied less than 9% of the large-entrance boxes and 36.5% of the small-entrance boxes. When examining the occupancy of those cavities that were not occupied by the aliens, natives occupied both the small and large-entrance nest boxes equally. Three quarters (78%) of the great tits breeding in the large-entrance boxes were usurped by common mynas during the breeding season and as a result breeding success was

  12. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  13. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  14. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  15. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  16. Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory and in Light of Perceptions among Estonian Owners and Managers of Relations with Stakeholders / Mari Kooskora

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Äriühingute valitsemise kontseptsioon ja teoreetiline taust; Eesti omanike ja tippjuhtide ootused suhetes erinevate huvigruppidega ning äriühingute valitsemine huvigruppide teooriast lähtudes. Skeem: The stakeholder model. Tabelid: Contractual and community stakeholders; Overview of how perceptions of the main stakeholder groups among Estonian business leaders between 1995-2004 have changed

  17. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  18. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  19. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  20. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  2. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  3. Omaeluloolisus eesti teatris: Merle Karusoo lavastustest. Life Narratives and Estonian Theatre: The Productions of Merle Karusoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Any consideration of Estonian theatre from the point of view of biographical theatre needs to include the work of playwright and director Merle Karusoo. Productions based on various life narratives (diaries, letters, biographical interviews form the core of her work that can be defined as biographical or memory theatre. Her work has also been viewed within the context of community theatre or political theatre; Karusoo has herself referred to her work as sociological theatre. Life narratives have functioned in Karusoo’s productions as the basis for restoring oppressed or denied collective discourses of memory. Her productions emerged within the framework of the more general process of restoration of historical heritage and the rehabilitation of collective memory at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Life story can be viewed as the essence of Merle Karusoo’s theatre. The personal in the life story in the production activates the emotional memory of the audience; for older generations such theatre facilitates a legitimisation of remembering one’s life story in entirety, and for younger generations it functions as a vehicle of collective, historical and national memory. The current article outlines the main stages of Karusoo’s biographical theatre, highlights major productions of each stage and provides an overview of their reception. Karusoo’s theatre dates back to 1980s. Productions based on life stories of the generations born in 1950s and 1960s, Meie elulood (Our Biographies and Kui ruumid on täis ... (Full Rooms both in 1982, mediated fragments of life stories of 16 drama students, focusing on the processes of self-conception and -reflection of young persons. In the context of the Soviet regime that exerted firm ideological control over the private lives of its citizens, Karusoo’s productions struck an especially powerful and unusual chord. Karusoo’s biographical theatre has gathered momentum and assumed a more

  4. Euroopa-ihalusest taasiseseisvusperioodi autobiograafiates / European Identifications in Post-Soviet Estonian Life Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb Euroopat kui identiteedi ja minaduse sõlmpunkti ja enesevahenduse mõõdet kolmes omaelulookirjutuslikus teoses, mille autoritel on väljapaistev positsioon eesti (kirjanduskultuuris: Jaan Krossi „Kallid kaasteelised“ (2003a, 2008, Jaan Kaplinski „Isale“ (2003 ja Tõnu Õnnepalu „Flandria päevik“ (2007. Artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas küsimused suhestumise trajektooridest Euroopa mäluruumiga haakuvad Krossi, Kaplinski ja Õnnepalu teostes esiletuleva enesemääratlusliku raamiga, neist lähtuvate vastastikuse kõnetuse võimaluste ja oma aegruumi tunnetuse pidepunktidega. Kuigi tegemist on eesti keeles ilmunud ning eesti kultuuriruumi lugejale suunatud teostega, seostuvad neis väljajoonistuvad enesemääratluse teljed viimastel aastakümnetel hoogustunud laiemate aruteludega ühtse Euroopa mäluraami ning identiteedi võimalikkusest ja selle toimimise tingimustest.   In recent years, the question of the possibility of a shared frame of memory and identity in Europe, its desired manifestations and practices for attaining it as well as its obstacles and limitations to it have gained prominence in scholarly debates in a number of disciplines. In terms of the division between the East and West of Europe, these discussions take as their starting point the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989 as well as the European Union enlargement in 2004. Far from uniform, the exceedingly complex and contrasting ranges of arguments have put forward a varied palette of perspectives and suggestions about possible and desirable implications of Europe in different socio-political and cultural configurations. Taking these debates as my starting point, the current article offers an analysis of three life writing works by contemporary Estonian authors and intellectuals, Kallid kaasteelised (Dear Fellow Travellers, 2003, 2008 by Jaan Kross, Isale (To My Father, 2003 by Jaan Kaplinski and Flandria päevik (The Flemish Diary

  5. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  6. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estonian knowledge of history emanates from the fact that constituting an independent nation has for the most part been nothing but a utopia, and was a reality for a relatively short time. When it comes to selfidentification though, the expression ’a singing people’ is often used by the Estonians to describe themselves. Nostalgia for freedom is reflected in the Estonian culture of almost all periods and is carried on by the singing tradition, where patriotic songs emerge independent of different musical tastes within a particular generation and form an important part of a common Estonian repertoire. Patriotic songs occupy a central place in several fields of Estonian culture: besides music culture also in popular culture,and literary history – the works of poetry which have gained the most popularity are those which when put to music have been the most widely spread among the people. The main part of the most popular Estonian patriotic songs are choral songs from the national awakening at the end of the 19th century. Despite the national programmes aiming to wipe out ‘bourgeois nationalism’, they were sung at the song festivals in the Soviet era and were published in song books, expressing the people’s nostalgia for freedom lost. After the end of the Second World War, there was an attempt at launching a kind of patriotic new creation, where patriotism was merged with Soviet pathos; the aim was to show that the people’s utopia was in fact communism, but not a single one of those songs made it into the people’s common repertoire. Only the patriotic songs composed in the 1980s during the so-called new national awakening reached a popularity comparable to that of the old songs. The discourse on ’Estonianness’ and the shaping of a matching repertoire under imperial Russian rule took place under very different circumstances than its preservation and development in the second half of the 20th century under Soviet occupation, but

  7. The dominance of indirect taxes in Estonian state budget. Summary:Kaudsete maksude dominant Eesti riigieelarve tuludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. The purpose of Estonian government’s economic policy during the highest peak of crisis was to keep the budget in balance. Instead of recovering economy the taxes were arisen and costs were reduced. The results of such a policy aren’t still clear. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article

  8. Intraspecific variability of camu-camu fruit in native populations of northern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to most breeding programs of native species, camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunt McVaugh improvement is also restricted, due to the scarcity of research results. In this situation, the prospection, collection and conservation of germplasm in genebanks ensure successful selection and breeding studies of the species. In this sense, the purpose of this study was the intraspecific characterization of the biometric variability in fruits of native camu-camu populations of the State of Roraima, in the northern Amazon region. Of 16 populations, 247 sub-samples were evaluated. Analyses were performed with the multivariate technique of principal components and hierarchical clustering, to determine the variables with highest intraspecific variability for the studied traits. The populations found in the lower Rio Branco region performed best for the studied traits, indicating the great potential of the region as a reservoir of promising subsamples for future breeding programs of the species in the northern Amazon.

  9. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  10. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  11. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  13. Riik võib lüüa SAS-i esmaspäevaks Estonian Airi omanikeringist välja / Erik Müürsepp, Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    SAS osaleb Estonian Airþile lisakapitali eraldamises ainult juhul, kui Eesti riik müüb oma osaluses lennukompaniis SAS-ile. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  14. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  15. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  16. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  17. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  18. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    among dairy cattle breeds in the US was reported to be 161, 61, 65, 39 and 30 for the Ayrshire, Brown ... Knowledge of these parameters could help the industry when formulating breeding programmes. ..... In 'Ratites in a competitive world.

  19. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Samantha J; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers of environmental change may interact to affect demography, but the mechanisms have yet to be explored fully in wild populations. Here, we investigate the mechanisms linking agricultural land use with breeding success using long-term data for the formerly Critically Endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus, a tropical forest specialist that also occupies agricultural habitats. We specifically focused on the relationship between breeding success, agriculture and the timing of breeding because the latter is sensitive to changes in climatic conditions (spring rainfall) and enables us to explore the interactive effects of different (land and climate) drivers of environmental change. Breeding success, measured as egg survival to fledging, declines seasonally in this population, but we found that the rate of this decline became increasingly rapid as the area of agriculture around a nest site increased. If the relationship between breeding success and agriculture was used in isolation to estimate the demographic impact of agriculture, it would significantly under-estimate breeding success in dry (early) springs and over-estimate breeding success in wet (late) springs. Analysis of prey delivered to nests suggests that the relationship between breeding success and agriculture might be due, in part, to spatial variation in the availability of native, arboreal geckos. Synthesis and applications. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline in breeding success in this population. As springs are becoming wetter in our study area and since the kestrels breed later in wetter springs, the impact of agriculture on breeding success will

  20. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  1. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  2. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  3. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  4. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  5. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomozi, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpus planning and prestige planning. Name management is a part of corpus planning, although certain aspects are also connected to legal and prestige planning. Name management strategies are present in all components of the Estonian model of language planning and policy, as linguistically appropriate name use is not only a socio-cultural, but economic question, as informative and easy to understand names contribute to measurable economic advantages. The paper mainly demonstrates the dilemmas and answers of Estonian name management through examples from personal name giving practices, but questions concerning the problems of name use in a multicultural environment and the difficulties of place name and firm name management are also discussed.

  6. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  7. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  8. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  9. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  10. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  11. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  13. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  17. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  18. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  19. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  20. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  1. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  2. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  3. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  4. The Problems of Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy and the Demand-Side Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation

  5. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  6. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  7. Tõlkepärl eesti ilukirjanduse algusaegadest – esimene eestikeelne robinsonaad / A Translation Gem from the Beginnings of Estonian Literature - the First Robinsonade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artiklis uuritakse Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis asuvat mahukat, ligi 800 lk tõlkekäsikirja „Norem Robinson“, mida võib pidada esimeseks eesti kirjanduse täiemahuliseks robinsonaadiks. Selle valmistas Pärnu koolmeister Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn saksa pedagoogi ja koolikirjaniku Joachim Heinrich Campe menukast noorsooromaanist „Robinson der Jüngere“ (1779–1780. Tõlge valmis 1822.–1823. aastal, kuid jõudis trükki alles 1842. aastal tugevasti kärbitud ja mugandatud kujul. Toetudes deskriptiivse tõlkeuurimuse analüüsikategooriatele, vaadeldakse artiklis, millised tegurid tõlkeprotsessi suunasid ja milline oli kultuuriruum, kuhu tõlge omal ajal paigutus. SU M M A R Y This article discusses a voluminous manuscript translation of almost 800 pages entitled Norem Robinson (Engl. Robinson the Younger, from the collections of the Estonian Literary Museum. This manuscript can be considered as the first complete Robinsonade in Estonian literature. Its author is a schoolteacher from Pärnu, Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn (1803–1847, who translated it from the youth novel Robinson der Jüngere(1779–1780, Engl. Robinson the Younger, a bestseller by the educator, writer and a major representative of German Enlightenment, Heinrich Joachim Campe. Lorenzsonn’s translation was completed in 1822–1823, but not printed until 1842 in a strongly adapted version titled Norema Robinsoni ello ja juhtumised ühhe tühja sare peäl (Engl. The Life and Adventures of Robinson the Younger on a deserted island. The print version of the Robinsonade lacks a pedagogical frame story, where the father tells children about the adventures of Robinson and takes the opportunity to discuss and imitate with children all the actions taken by Robinson the Younger. Due to this and other extirpated parts, the possible target audience was enlarged – besides children and youth, the text was now addressed to adults as well. In accordance with the

  8. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oha, Kristel; Animägi, Liina; Pääsuke, Mati; Coggon, David; Merisalu, Eda

    2014-05-28

    Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful.

  9. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  10. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  11. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  12. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  13. The Dialogue with Hamlet: Paul-Eerik Rummo’s “Hamlet’s Songs” as an Example of the Existential Paradigm in Estonian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Mihkelev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates different meanings of the motif of Hamlet in the Estonian culture. Hamlet as a literary figure has been very important and influential, a symbol of will and a fighter in a hopeless situation. Paul-Eerik Rummo’s poem “Hamlet’s Songs” (1964 forms the centre around which revolve not only written texts but also many such cultural texts as theatre performances and music, all connected by allusions to Hamlet. Rummo’s poem is one of the most innovative poems from the 1960s in Estonian literature. The generation of the 1960s was influenced by several important contemporary theories, including existentialism. Many young writers systematically undermined the Soviet regime in their works. The use of the motif of Hamlet reveals a similarity between the existential and romantic rebellions. Rummo’s dialogue with Hamlet in his poem expresses optimism in a hopeless situation in a way different from Shakespeare’s.

  14. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  15. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  16. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  17. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  18. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  19. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  20. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  1. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  2. Where Do Dead Books Go? The Problem of the Soviet Canon Today, on the Example of Johannes Becher's Work in Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Talviste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the conception and editing process of an anthology of Johannes Becher’s poems (Unistades täiusest, 1962 in Estonian, and discusses its status in the Soviet and contemporary literary canon. The work on the Becher anthology was led by an already outstanding literary scholar Nigol Andresen and a young poet and translator Ain Kaalep, who later became one of the most prolific and wellknown poetry translators in Estonia. An important part was also played by another poet-translator, August Sang, who already had achieved such a standing in the Estonian literary field. Several other translators contributed to the anthology, making it a common project for intellectuals otherwise very differently positioned vis-à-vis the Soviet political authorities and cultural agendas. Becher’s work was strongly promoted by these instances, but his poetry was also read with genuine enthusiasm by the main contributors to the anthology (whose own poetry has certain parallels to some aspects of Becher’s, as well as the general public, at that time. After the fall of the Soviet regime it has been forgotten, mostly for the same contextual reasons that once granted its success. The case of his poetry in Estonian explores the question of this new invisibility of now politically irrelevant, but still voluminous and aesthetically intriguing literary works in the post-Soviet canon.

  3. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  4. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (pham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (pham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (pham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (phams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (pcolor and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  5. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  6. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  7. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  8. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  9. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  10. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  12. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano

    2013-05-20

    The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.

  13. Rahvusliku ajaloo tõlgendusi eesti draamas ja teatris 1970.–1980. aastatel. Interpretations of National History in Estonian Drama and Theatre in the 1970s–1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to theatre scholar Freddie Rokem, theatre portraying or performing historical events is seeking to overcome both the separation and the exclusion from the past, as well as ’striving to create a community where the events from this past will matter again’. This article covers the topic of interpretations of national history in Estonian theatre and in original dramaturgy during the Soviet era, with the focus on aspects like national self-reflection and the relationship to the common past. The main focus is on the 1970s, with examples from Rein Saluri’s, Mati Unt’s and Jaan Kaplinski’s drama productions. During the period in question, re-tellings of national history on Estonian theatre stages were clothed in metaphors, allusions and secret codes – Aesopian language. Within the Soviet cultural context, I analyse if and to what extent theatre of the time displayed resistance, political theatre or social allegory. Theatre was also connected with the principle of playing or playfulness, which on one hand indicates national resistance, national endurance, and a certain survival strategy, but on the other hand indicates the Estonian as being an involuntary homo ludens – the Playing Man, who through various enforced roles is trying to adjust to the whirlwinds of history. Saluri’s first play, the intellectual drama Külalised (The Guests, opens with an allusion to a drama classic the world over, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, adding a powerful national-symbolic background to the play. The role-play which permeates and structures the play (The Host–The Guest however, displays allegorical references to changes in the status and self-image of Estonians. In Unt’s play Peaproov (Dress Rehearsal, the principle of playing/acting sheds ironic light on the makers of an historical film and their readiness to create superficially flashy interpretations at any cost: this take acts as an estranging and generalising reflection in a context

  14. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  15. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  16. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  17. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  18. Factors affecting storage of Slovak native rabbit semen in the gene bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulíková, Barbora; Oravcová, Marta; Baláži, Andrej; Supuka, Peter; Chrenek, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this study, fresh and frozen-thawed semen of Nitra and Zobor rabbit breeds were evaluated for potential inter-breed or inter-male differences in sperm quality traits. Individual male semen from four rabbits of each breed were diluted (v:v; 1:1) in a freezing medium composed of a commercial diluent, 16% of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 4% of Ficoll 70 and 2% of sucrose and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Different motility traits, viability and plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were evaluated in vitro using computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry. To evaluate the sperm fertilization ability, artificial insemination of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was performed. Our results showed the effect of breed (P ≤ 0.05) on frozen-thawed sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity. Moreover, individual variability in semen quality among the rabbits was revealed (0.31 to 0.71 among quality traits). Our results thereby confirmed that the cryopreservation procedure could not ensure comparable sperm post-thaw survival for different breeds or males. Nevertheless, correlations between numbers of fresh total motile and progressively moving sperm and several quality parameters measured post thawing were revealed. Therefore, we suggest that the objective assessment of fresh rabbit sperm motility may be an effective indicator of frozen-thawed semen quality. Consequently, regular semen assessment is required in order to preserve good-quality insemination doses from native breeds.

  19. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  20. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  1. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  2. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  3. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Linde (1886–1954 was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He was the group’s first general manager; later on, he was the secretary of the Estonian Writers’ Association Young Estonia, and the chairman of the board of the Young Estonia Publishing House. Linde’s formal education culminated in graduation from Tartu University as a Slavic philologist; he was the only member of the Young Estonia group to demonstrate serious and sustained interest toward Slavic cultures and peoples. Linde was a contradictory figure, evoking a range of responses from his contemporaries: on the one hand, there was the unbelievably broad range of his participation in cultural life, his organizing skills and business instincts in directing publishing houses; on the other hand, a superficiality in his writings, his often rash and subjective style as a critic, and his financial intrigues. If one adds in Linde’s stubbornness, egocentrism, and intense spirit of protest, which often led to lawsuits, the outcome is the portrait of an extremely complicated, fascinating, and passionate man—both in his creative work and his personal life Linde guaranteed a place for himself in literary history through a small catch of texts: a few foundational essays (for example, on August Kitzberg, a translation of Balzac’s Le père Goriot, the essay collection Omad ja võõrad (Own and Foreign and a travel book focusing on the literature and theatre of eastern Europe (Loova Kesk-Euroopa Poole (Toward A Creative Central Europe. The prominent public

  4. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  5. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  6. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  7. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  8. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  9. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  10. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  11. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  12. Filling the toolbox of precision breeding methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant breeding has
    resulted in numerous
    high-quality crop
    varieties being
    cultivated nowadays.
    Breeding based on
    crossing and selection
    remains an important
    and ongoing activity for
    crop improvement, but
    needs innovation to be
    able to address

  13. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  14. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  15. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  16. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  17. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  18. Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids. Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover

  19. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  20. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  1. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  2. Eesti patsient. Haiguse ja haige inimese kujutamise mudel 19. sajandi eesti kultuuris ja kirjasõnas. The Estonian Patient: A Model for the Representation of Illness and the Ill in 19th Century Estonian Culture and Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Kraavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The portrait of the 18th and 19th century „Estonian patient” sketched in this article is a theoretical model of the ill person, based mainly on literary texts, but with reference to a variety of scientific and popular-scientific material. The point of departure is the classic postcolonial theorist, Frantz Fanon, in whose writings medicine, healing, and discourse on such topics are seen as the functioning of a specific colonial practice. The most notable characteristic of the figure of the Estonian patient is non-communicativeness. Communication is avoided and feared primarily because it has to be directed toward those in higher positions of power, or to institutions that embody power (the apothecary, the hospital. While these traits also characterize the separation between peasants and their rulers more generally, in a situation of illness the exclusion is felt with a double intensity. Sickness casts the peasant in a double bind: when in need of help or healing, contact across the divide between social rank, and – more broadly, between two cultures and ways of understanding the world, becomes unavoidable. In such situations, illness signifies an intensification of the gap in social standing. The ill person, who already stands on a lower rung of the social hierarchy, becomes all the more marginalized. In keeping with these observations, the real reason behind indecisiveness and refusal of medical treatment may well be an effort to avoid or postpone humiliation on the basis of lower social standing. Other contributing factors might include unconscious resistance – or even a conscious model of resistance – in the psyche, which manifests as an avoidance of communication. The content and motivating force for the model is not heroism, but rather a sense of shame. Indeed, behind the context of medical culture lurks ethnic and material isolation. The individual’s economic situation, living conditions, education and – most important – his

  3. Induced mutation breeding for the improvement of rice in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Ramli Othman; Farazi Johari; Asnah Hassan

    2002-01-01

    The first application of nuclear technology in mutation breeding for the improvement of rice was undertaken by the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) in December, 1984 for a Coordinated Research Programme under RCA/IAEA/FAO entitled Semi Dwarf Mutants for Rice Improvement in Asia and Pacific. The main objective was to generate semi dwarf mutants in both native and improved cultivars for possible use as new released cultivars or as parents in cross breeding programmes. Within five years, 101 semi dwarf mutants which have the potential to be used as new cultivars or as parents in cross breeding were identified. Twenty nine of the semi dwarf mutants have grain yield between 6000-7300 kg/ha which were classified as potentially good yielding mutants. The parent, Manik yielded about 5700 kg/ha. Forty seven mutants have grain yield between 5000 6000 kg/ha and 25 mutants yielded in the range of 4300-5000 kg/ha. Twelve mutants are resistant to BPH (brown planthopper) but only one, mutant ML15 has grain yield (6300 kg / ha) better than the parent. One of the most striking effects of radiation (gamma ray) was the formation of glutinous rice (Manik 817) with both good yield and head recovery. It is also interesting to note that one of the mutants (MA 03) shows a drastic change in its characteristics and performs better than the parent and other mutant lines. This mutant was late popularly known as mutant Tongkat Ali because of its: outstanding agronomic features such as very erect panicle even after grain filling, very strong culm and resistance to lodging. Even though this mutant was not officially released, due to its unique characteristics and high yield, it has been planted commercially by several farmers especially in the northern parts of Malaysia. More collaborative research programmes using induced mutation breeding have been carried out between MINT, MADA and also MARDI with the aim of producing new potential varieties with high yield, disease

  4. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  5. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of five cattle breeds native to China using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This work was supported by Department of Education of Shan- dong Province of China Foundation (No. J04C11). References. Barendse W., Armitage S. M. and Kossarek L. M. 1994 A gene- tic linkage map of the bovine genome. Nature Genetics 6,. 227–235. Barker J. S. F. 1994 A global protocol for determining genetic.

  7. Comparative study of radio sensibility between local breeds native of Mexico pseudo cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno G, A.

    2014-01-01

    Having in mind the objective of assessing the gamma radiation effect in two species of pseudo cereals, April 2012 to August 2013 in the National Institute of Nuclear Research Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, seeds from different collections of Amaranthus hypochondria cus and Chenopodium berlandieri nuttalliae, were subjected to different doses of irradiation (from 0 to 450 Gy, within an interval of 50 Gy) that were compared with a control of (0 Gy). For amaranth, the collection A1 showed the best feedback among 0 and 300 Gy in the 15 studied variables, the one that stood out was the 200 Gy doses in seed weight per plant (SWP) with 1.33 g. Huauzontle H3 to 50 Gy showed the best results for weight and seed diameter. High doses (from 300 to 450 Gy) showed higher percentage of mortality in spite of the fact that in some cases germination was stimulated. It is advisable for future studies about these pseudo cereals doses among 50 and 250 Gy. (Author)

  8. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  9. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  10. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  11. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karik, H.

    1996-01-01

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  12. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  13. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  14. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  15. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  16. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  17. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  18. Morphological Indices in Mangalitsa Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in several Mangalitsa farm from Hungary and Romania on Red, Blonde and Swallowbelliedvarieties. Body measurements were performed on a total of 175 individuals of Mangalitsa and Mangalitsa xDuroc hybrids. There are differences in physical development among Mangalitsa varieties: blond variety has the bestbody development followed by red and swallow-bellied varieties. The average body weight for Mangalitsa pigs was109.031.4 kg and the thoracic perimeter 115.180.95 cm. Results obtained indicate that body development ofMangalitsa pigs from Hungary area, are close to the breed standard. In average height at withers was 65.872.09 cm,while height at back was 72.591.2 cm. Low coefficient of variation for both measurements (CV%=1.83 for withersheigh and 1.52% for back height indicate that pigs populations in which measurements were made are veryhomogeneous.

  19. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  20. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  1. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  3. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  4. Study on differentiation during embryonic development across selective and ancestral breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengli; Wang, Jianlin

    2017-06-01

    In order to explore the effect of strain on diverging post-hatch muscle properties, muscle regulation during embryo development was investigated in selected and unselected breeds. Four broiler strains were used: JingNing (JN) chicken (a Chinese native chicken), HuangYu (HY) broiler, BaiYu (BY) broiler and Hyline layer (commercial crossbred chickens). Results showed that the four breeds had almost the same characteristic during different incubation periods. BY broilers moved more than JN and Hyline layers from Hamburger & Hamilton stage (HH)24 to HH31 (P layers from HH27 to HH31 (P layers (P > 0.05); broilers presented smaller fiber diameter than JN chickens before HH31 (P > 0.05). From then on, JN chicken exhibited smaller fiber diameter compared to the broilers (P > 0.05). Western blotting indicated all the breeds had continuous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) expression, with the highest expression level in broilers from HH19 to HH24 and highest expression level in JN chicks from HH27 to HH31. The results indicated that the diverging growth among breeds was already shown in embryonic stages; the different expression patterns of IGF-I may be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The use of blood protein polymorphism to estimate genetic distance among populations of Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix and Merino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suparyanto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic distance among populations of Indonesia native sheep (Ciamis, Garut, Sumatera and Garahan, St. Croix and Merino were estimated to investigate the genetic relationship among those breeds. Blood protein polymorphism of transferin (Tf, post-transferin (PTf, albumin (Alb, post-albumin (PAlb were detected from blood plasma, while haemoglobine (Hb was detected from erythrocyte using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE. Results of PAGE showed that Tf was controlled by 6 alleles, while Alb by 4 alleles, PTf by 3 Alleles and PAlb and Hb by 2 alleles. Value of breeding coefficient within individual subpopulations (FIS for Tf (-0,0014, Alb (-0,0046 and Hb (0,0256 were not significantly different by noel. These results show that data of gene frequency are still following Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and inbreeding inside the sub population did not occur. The closest distance among the native breeds is the subpopulations of Ciamis and Garut due to neighboring area and similar traits of Thin Tail Sheep. The genetic distance of both population to Sumatera Thin Tail Sheep and Garahan Fat Tail are quite far. In addition to that results all Indonesian native breed were distinctly different from St. Croix and Merino.

  6. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  7. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  8. genetic polymorphism in eight breeds of Algeria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal Djaout

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... 3Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 .... the implementation of future breeding plans in terms of ..... control policies based on selecting rams of resistant geno-.

  9. EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding Programmes and National/Regional Tree Seed Centres in Africa. ... Discovery and Innovation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  10. Breeding for mechanised sesame production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.F.; Imrie, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction of sesame germplasm from Myanmar and Mexico was not satisfactory for successful development of the Australian sesame industry. Therefore, a national breeding programme was undertaken by CSIRO and the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries (NTDPIF). The main traits considered for selection were latitudinal adaptation, temperature response, growth habit, determinacy, palatability, capsules per leaf axil, seed shattering and seed dormancy. The CSIRO breeding efforts started in 1989 with a hybridization programme using germplasm from Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, Rep. of Korea and Venezuela. This programme resulted in selection in the F 6 generation of branched types released under the names 'Beech's choice' and 'Aussie Gold'. The NTDPIF sesame breeding programme started in 1993 with hybridization of introductions. The Mexican cultivar 'Yori 77' was selected for release, and after several years of intraline selection the uniculm cultivar 'Edith' was released in 1996. Further breeding continues to improve seed retention and resistance to charcoal rot. (author)

  11. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  12. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP, crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire♀×Duroc♂ (LYD, Berkshire (Ber, and Duroc (Du pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05. It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05. Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05. Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  13. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  14. Short rotation willow coppice for renewable energy and improved environment. Proceedings of a joint Swedish - Estonian seminar on energy forestry and vegetation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.; Koppel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall aim of the present seminar was to present and discuss results from the joint Swedish - Estonian energy forestry research activities during the period of 1993-1995 and to publish the papers in a technical report. The results is a publication, presenting interesting methods and results, and is meant partly to serve as the final report of the joint efforts during the period mentioned, partly to be used for future planning of new projects and for application of funding for a continued cooperation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all of the 17 papers in the report

  15. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic...

  17. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  18. Identification of polymorphisms in and genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Sultana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG was significantly associated (p<0.05 with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds.

  19. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  20. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.